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THE materials of the following work were collected during a residence in New Zealand between the years 1831 and 1837.
The cause that has induced me to present to the public a narrative of a few of my adventures in that country, is principally to excite attention towards it by a statement of plain, unvarnished facts. I claim no other credit than what may be due to the strictest fidelity. Having been for many years sequestered from the society of literary men, and from access to works emanating from them, matter, rather than manner, has been the object I have had in view.
Many of the details regarding the sayings and doings of the islanders may be
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accounted as being of too simple a nature for record; but it must be borne in remembrance that the work is descriptive of a primitive people.
To describe the habits and manners of a people just emerging from the deepest barbarism, and the progress of an incipient colony without the aid, or even the acknowledgment of a mother-country, is a task of rare occurrence; but it is hoped that, in addition to curiosity, a laudable desire to see a weaker people (morally speaking), protected from the ill effects of such intercourse, may arise in the bosom of the reader.
I thus place myself in the arena of public opinion, regarding it as the duty of every individual to add, to the best of his abilities, some contribution towards the general treasury of knowledge; and, however ill qualified for the task, he deserves well of his countrymen for the intention, who will furnish information of the existence of countries, whereby they may obtain for a redundant population an honourable footing, unlike the barbarous system
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of colonisation practised in former days, and open a new and unlimited mart for commercial enterprise; adding to the riches of the mother-country; affording an opportunity for the enterprise of her industrious citizens; rescuing from the darkest barbarism and revolting superstition the most interesting race of uncivilised man; initiating them in the habits and comforts of social life, and changing their present decrescent state to a rapid increase of their now stunted population, their future comfort and security.
87 PICCADILLY, LONDON,
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THE FIRST VOLUME.
Progress of Discovery in the South Seas -- De Balboa -- Murder of Almeida -- Magalhaens -- Voyage of Sir Francis Drake -- Discovery of the Country by the Chevalier de Gonville -- First Australian in Europe -- Abbe Paulmier -- Juan Fernandez -- Hertoge -- Le Maire -- Abel Tasman's two Voyages of Discovery -- Discovery of Van Dieman's Land -- Staten Island -- Hostilities of the Aborigines-- Captain Cook's first Visit in the "Endeavour." -- Native Testimony subsequently obtained verifying the Annals of the Voyage -- Te Ratu, supposed King of part of the East Coast -- His Death -- Tupia -- Simplicity of the Natives as to the value of Iron --Voyage of M. de Surville -- His Transactions -- Traverse of Marion du Fresne -- Treachery of the Natives -- His Death, and Part of the Crew of the "Mascarin" and "Marquis de Castries" -- Captain Crozet -- His Proceedings -- Departs for France.... 1
Cook's Second Visit in the Ships "Resolution" and "Adventure" -- Vessels separated by a Storm -- Discovery of the Insularity of Van Dieman's Land -- Death of Tupia -- Cook's Third Visit -- Ten Seamen murdered and devoured by the Natives -- Cook's Fourth Visit -- Disco-
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very of Norfolk Island -- Cook's Fifth Visit in the "Resolution" and "Discovery" -- Vancouver's Voyage -- Discovery of the Chatham Group of Islands -- Voyage of the "Daedalus" -- European Sealers' Discovery of Stewart's Island -- and Banks's Peninsular -- Sealing Gangs captured by the Natives, murdered and devoured -- An Englishman made a Chieftain -- Survey of the Coast by the "Astrolabe," M. D'Urville -- Voyage of the "Coquille," M. Duperrey, "La Favorite," M. La Place -- Notices of the French Expedition of 1837 -- and the American Surveying and Exploring Expedition of 1838 -- Russian Navigators, &c.... 36
Journey to Kaipara -- Proceed down the Hokianga -- Arrive at Moperi -- Wainga, Priest of Araitehuru -- Joined by an aged Chief, who accompanies us -- Defile through a Native Plantation and Village -- Descend to the Sea Shore -- Arrive at Waimemaku -- Method of producing Fire, and the Operation of Cooking -- Monuments -- Alarm of the Natives -- Waipoa, Fortification and Valley -- Manners, Habits, Customs -- Appearance of the Villagers -- Native Dances and Lamentations -- Transactions in the Village -- Difficulties arising at our Departure...... 59
Pursue our Journey in a Storm -- Effect a Purchase on the Road -- Examine a stupendous Headland, that alters the Course of our Journey -- The dead Shark -- A Woodland Concert -- Arrive at Kaihu Village -- Alarm of its Defenders -- Transactions at the Village -- Amusements of the Villagers -- Rumours of Wars -- Preparations formed against an Assault -- The Envoy -- European Sorcery and Native Incantations -- Superstitions of the People -- Our Departure...... 97
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Continuation of our Journey -- Native Cemetery -- Arrival at Tetaita -- Flax Houses -- Sojourn in a deserted Village -- Pursue our Route -- The Scenery -- Arrive at the Banks of the River Kaihu -- Embark in three Canoes -- Meet with adverse Weather -- One of the Provision Canoes upsets -- Sojourn for the Night on a Bank of Mud -- Singular Alarm -- Pursue our Voyage in the dark -- Are taken for Enemies -- Meet with a Sacred Embassy -- Native Superstitions -- Arrive at Maungakahia -- Amusements in the Village -- Curiosity and Manners of the Natives...... 136
Transactions in the Village -- Cannibalism of the People -- A Council of New Zealanders -- Native Oratory -- Ceremonies attending a Native Marriage -- An Embargo on the Canoes -- Superstitions of the Fishermen -- Arrival at the Cemetery of a Divinity -- The deserted Districts -- A Tapued Village -- The Mountain of Tokatoka -- Traditions respecting it, and the adjoining Land -- Sandbanks -- Land on the Sacred Beach of Taohara -- A Land Storm--History of Kaipara, and its former Inhabitants -- Our Arrival at the Harbour; its Entrance and Dangers -- Return, and sail up the River -- Sojourn on the Banks of the Kaipara....... 171
Dismiss the Canoe -- Pursue our Journey to Maunganui -- Arrive there, and erect Huts for the Night -- Meet with a Party of Pleasure -- Ascend the Maunganui Mountain -- Joined by a Party of Fishers and a Clan of Robbers
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-- Continue our Journey to Waipoa -- Grand Feast of Exhumation -- Customs and Habits of a Native Festival -- Sojourn for the Night, and pursue our Route -- Arrive at Waimemaku -- Leave for Hokianga -- Death of Pakanai -- Lamentations for the Deceased -- Our Return to the Settlement...... 212
Harbours, and general Description of the Islands of New Zealand -- North Cape -- Reinga and its Tradition -- Three Kings' Islands -- Cape Maria Van Dieman -- Columbia Reef -- Rangounou River -- Mount Hohora -- Doubtless Bay -- Maunganui -- Oruru -- Wangaroa -- Cavalhoes -- Bay of Islands -- Wangaruru -- Wangamumu -- Tutukaka -- Poor Knights -- Bream Bay -- Barrier Isles--Frith and River Thames -- Mercury Bay and Isles -- Bay of Plenty and Islands -- Rivers and Ports of Warre Kahika -- Wai Appu -- Tokomaru -- Uwoua -- Poverty Bay and Rivers -- Maihia -- Table Cape -- Hawke's Bay and Rivers -- Coast to Cape Kawa Kawa -- Inland Scenery -- Cook's Straits, North Side -- Port Wanganui-atera -- Cape Egmont -- Rivers and Ports of the West Coast of Ainomawi -- Mukou -- Morakupo -- Kawia -- Autia -- Waingaroa -- Waikato -- Manukou -- Kaipara -- Hokianga -- Wangape -- Herekino -- Summary of Observations on the Island -- District of Kai Kohura -- South Side of Cook's Straits -- Coast to Banks's Peninsular -- Chatham Islands -- Port Otago -- Foveaux Straits -- District of Te Wai Poenamu --Coast and Harbours of Stewart's Island -- Southern Port -- Trap Rocks -- Snares' Islands -- Cable Island -- South-western Bays and Sounds -- Summary of Observations on the Southern Portion of New Zealand..... 243
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Climate -- Soil -- Botany, indigenous and European -- Forests, Timber-trees, and other Productions -- Edibles -- Lichens -- Mosses -- Liands -- Ornithology --Tropical and Land Birds -- Sea Fowl -- Quadrupeds -- Amphibious Animals -- Reptiles -- Entomology -- Piscivorous Tribes -- Shell-Fish -- Lithophytes -- Corallines -- Polypes -- Zoophytes -- Madrepores -- Molluscae -- Fuci, &c...... 281
Mineralogy -- Volcanic Origin -- Boiling and Bituminous Springs -- Mayor Island -- Motiti -- Whale Island -- Sulphur Lakes -- Hot Baths -- Lakes Rua, Ma, Iti, Ihu, and Kahi -- Subjection of the Tribes -- Taupo Country -- Rocky Fissures -- Snowy Mountains -- Tounariro -- Ruapahu -- Mounts Edgcumbe, Egmont, Ikorangi, Tokatoka -- Local Traditions -- Geologic Formation of the Country -- Minerals -- Fossils -- Fungitae -- Arborigations -- Ostracites -- Caverns, Marine and Sub-terrane -- Cascades -- Rivers -- Fresh Water Streams, &c....... 327
Origin of the People -- Traditional Origin of the Country -- Traditions respecting the Earlier Settlers -- Their Derivation -- Variety in the Appearance of the New Zealanders, Moral and Physical -- East Cape Natives -- The Female Character; Habits before and after Marriage -- Chastity -- Domestic Manners -- Temperament -- Disposition -- Self-immolation -- Devotion -- Marriages -- Adultery -- Tangi, or Lamentation -- Children affected by Rank -- Parental Affection -- Native Mummies -- Polygamy -- Conduct of Children -- Ceremony of Ma-
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trimony -- Affiancing -- Puberty-- Infanticide -- Native Conversations on the Subject -- Concubinage -- Methods to procure Abortion -- Chiefs, their Character... 353
Tattooing -- On Grades of Native Rank -- Costume of the Sexes -- Provisions, and Methods of preparing it -- Food prepared for Journeys -- Filthy Habits of the New Zealanders, &c........ 384