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time, during occasional visits to the island, they were allowed to bivouac in and about the boat house, where I had once an opportunity of assembling them for morning service, and engaging afterwards in conversation bearing upon their highest interests. I have since had reason to believe that my friends, Mr. and Mrs. Baker of the Church Mission, sought occasion to prepare this old man for the great change inevitably so near to all of us. Whatever the opportunities which he and his tribe might have had in former years of our religious ministrations, they were greatly increased when he finally took up his residence at the North Shore, at which time he was very far advanced in life, and approaching to its close.
"These memories are recalled by the presentation of a photograph, copies of which had been obtained by my friends in the Church Mission, above named."
Loyal and faithful as was Patuone's attachment to the English, through a long series of years, demonstrated in a variety of ways before many respectable witnesses, yet was he nearly entrapped into legal difficulties, or criminal prosecution and perhaps death, in consequence of the extraor-
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dinary wickedness of a European settler named Burns, who was in the late Chief's employ, the payment for whose services from time to time I was called upon to defray. This man's weekly allowance was small, owing to his indolent and drunken habits, and being spurred on by his evil propensities to obtain more money for the gratification of his base wants, he devised the cruel, cowardly, and inhuman plan of sacrificing the lives of some of his fellow colonists. It is averred that Burns and a companion of his in guilt named Margaret Reardon, started from Patuone's place in a boat about midnight, for the purpose of visiting the home of Lieutenant Snow, near the Flagstaff, Takapuna; they having watched the movements of that gentleman during the day, after the receipt of his salary from the Auckland Treasury. On reaching Lieutenant Snow's homestead, Burns and Margaret Reardon were encountered by a large watchdog, and when they had succeeded in strangling this faithful sentinel, they hurried to the house under the pretext of warning the inmates, who were asleep in bed, of a Maori attack upon the North Shore settlers. Lieutenant Snow, hearing the voice of a European, and not sus-
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pecting treachery, opened his door, when he was ruthlessly struck down. Mrs. Snow in her turn was assaulted, but not speedily dispatched. The strong motive for this terrible deed being plunder, it was expected that Mrs. Snow would yield up to the murderers her purse, in the hope of saving her own life and that of her child; but such hope was vain, for after Burns had mercilessly cut off one of Mrs. Snow's legs, her child was beaten to death, and ultimately she had to succumb to the knives and axes of her assassins. After the murder a further mutilation of the bodies took place, Burns having hoped by this savage procedure, to fix the guilt on the Maoris; he accordingly returned to Patuone's place after setting Snow's residence on fire, and leaving a large party of Patuone's Maori friends in the neighbourhood who were encamped there on a fishing excursion. As a matter of course, there was intense excitement when the murders came to be known, and certain Maori authorities, on viewing the mutilated state of the bodies, unhesitatingly declared that it was certainly the work of Maori savagery. But knowing that the natives had no motive to induce them to perpetrate these outrages, I assured the
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authorities that the guilty parties were almost beyond a doubt, of our own race. A popular clamour for the incarceration of all suspected Maoris was kept up, and in order to institute a preliminary investigation, about twenty of Patuone's friends were arrested; they were subjected to the keenest magisterial enquiry, but, no shadow of guilt resting upon them, they were liberated. Nothing transpired for some time after the perpetration of the terrible deed referred to upon which to base even a suspicion as to the guilty parties. In the mean time, Burns went to and fro to Patuone's place, but ultimately shipped on board one of Her Majesty's sloops of war which cruised on the Australian coast. For months the police lost no opportunity of seeking out information which might lead to the apprehension of the culprits in the Snow case, but in vain. Actuated by some extraordinary desire, Burns suddenly returned to Auckland, and during an altercation between himself and Margaret Reardon, in the vicinity of the Black Bull Hotel, he rushed upon her with a large knife, and after inflicting a terrible wound, which it was supposed would prove fatal, he attempted to commit suicide by cutting his own throat. Intelligence
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of the affray between them was conveyed to the police, who finding Burns and Margaret Reardon lying on the ground besmeared with blood, arrested them both. Medical aid was called in, and after a lengthened treatment, these two degraded persons, now suspected of Snow's murder, sufficiently recovered to undergo the ordeal of a legal investigation. While under examination at the police court, they confessed to some knowledge of Snow's murder, but wickedly attributed the guilt to a perfectly innocent man, who had for many years resided at the Flagstaff, much respected by all who knew him. The settler was forthwith arrested, and after undergoing various criminal harassments, instituted by the authorities, he was permitted to return to his family, while Burns and Margaret Reardon were rightly retained in prison by the iron grasp of the law, in the hope that further revelations would be extorted from them. Suffice it to say that the guilt was finally fixed upon Burns, he having confessed not only to the murder of the Snow family, but also to two other murders in Auckland previously. Burns was taken to the North Shore, where he paid the extreme penalty of the law on the spot
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where he had murdered and mutilated his victims; and the woman, Margaret Reardon, was placed in penal servitude for life. Thus by the triumph of truth, a noble-minded veteran Chieftain and a number of his intimate Maori friends were exonerated from the dark stigma of murder.
When numerous Arawa tribes moved from the Lake Country to the shores of the Waitemata, Whangarei, and other places, for the purpose of advancing their interest in commerce by gum digging and other means, they threatened to attack the out-settlers, or to rescue from prison an Englishman named Charles Marsden, that they might lay violent hands on him, owing to his having killed, in a fit of delirium tremens, an Arawa Chieftainess named Kerara. Patuone proffered good counsel to Government, not unthankfully received at this time of emergency. So irritated and boastful were some of the Arawa, parading the Auckland streets with their spears and battleaxes, that Colonel Wynyard considered it necessary to watch their movements, and to place soldiers in the gaol yard during the trial of the unfortunate man, who was charged with murder; and to quell the tumult of the
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great concourse of Maoris near the Court house, I advised that numerous Arawa Chiefs should assist in keeping the peace by being sworn in as special constables, which happily had the desired effect. Charles Marsden was condemned to death, which fully satisfied the more vehement of the Arawas, who seemed bent on blood revenge, and who in their usual style of braggartism, threatened that they would have retaliated if the law had pronounced the accused innocent. It must not be supposed that the war dances and various meetings held by the Arawas, on which I was deputed by Colonel Wynyard fully to report, were countenanced by the Ngatiwhatuas, the Waikatos, or the Thames tribes.
Very widely different from the spirit evinced by the Arawas was that of the tribes of Hauraki, when one of their Chiefs named Taraiwaru, was arrested on suspicion of having thrown overboard one Smalley the master of a coasting cutter, with whom he was associated. The accused native was examined in the Police Court, and, though there was not the slightest evidence brought forward to implicate him in the alleged murder, nevertheless, he was detained in prison, the authorities assuring themselves that, Maori-like, the prisoner
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would divulge the whole affair were he guilty. Taraiwaru's own story was very simple, and probably true; he stated that the master of the cutter left in a dingy to visit some natives with whom ho was trading, whose settlement was a short distance from the place where the vessel was at anchor. The dingy was found, but its late occupant never. There was no deviation in Taraiwaru's account; he invariably held to the same story. His relatives at the Thames ventured to ask, not with uplifted weapons and boastful asseverations, as did the Arawa, but modestly, what grounds there were for continuing the incarceration of the alleged culprit. Their enquiries met with no decisive answers on the part of the Government, while the poor fellow, despairing of ever again obtaining his liberty, although a stout and hale man, speedily sickened and died. The intelligence created profound sorrow in the minds of the Thames people, and although they considered that their relative had been unjustly treated, there was no outward demonstration, no ostentatious display; a fact that pleased Patuone and all those who were faithful to the Government.
Now comes an affair which places a section of
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Patuone's special friends the Ngatipaoa, in a position somewhat akin to that of the Arawa previously described in the case of Kerara, with which, however, himself had no sympathy. The following are the particulars:--A disturbance took place in the streets of Auckland, when the police interfered and arrested a Maori, who was being taken to the lock-up when a well-disposed Ngatipaoa Chief went forward, not to rescue the prisoner but to explain the origin of the riot. The Police, mistaking perhaps Hoera's intention, handled him very roughly, and placed him also in the lock-up. An exaggerated account of the treatment the Chief had met with at the hands of the constables, was quickly promulgated, and the excitement arising therefrom culminated in the assembling of the tribe, amounting to two or three hundred persons, who manned their canoes at Waiheke, Kawakawa, and elsewhere. The whole party landing at Auckland, fully armed, the leading Chiefs proceeded to Government House and demanded explanations. The premature proceedings of these warriors irritated the Governor, who peremptorily ordered the Chiefs and their people to take their departure from the city in two hours, ad-
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ding, that should this order be resisted, the guns of the man-of-war then in harbour would be opened on them at Mechanics Bay, and the troops would fall upon them in the rear. The Ngatipaoas had the good sense to drag their canoes to low water mark, and to re-embark long before the expiration of the time announced by the Government for their departure. Sentinels were placed in various localities near the city, as it was expected that the Ngatipaoas, who were burning with rage on account of their humiliation, would return to the outskirts of the town to massacre settlers, in accordance with Maori usage; but prudence and wisdom triumphed, and the Government got through the difficulty without further annoyance.
Another rise to arms on the part of sundry tribes resident at Papakura, Patumahoe, and the surrounding neighbourhood, took place, based upon the alleged murder of one of their people by a European settler. The body of the Maori was discovered in a field, and carried off with wild lamentations to a temporary encampment. The more turbulent of the party advocated immediate retaliation, declaring that this act of the white man was a declaration of war, for the pur-
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pose of bringing out into open hostility the Waikato tribes; but the more thoughtful recommended an investigation by law, which counsel was adopted by the assembly, and messengers were accordingly sent to Government, requesting them to institute an enquiry, which was acceded to. At the examination some of the Maoris present charged a European resident in the vicinity with the perpetration of the deed; but there being no reliable evidence to fix the guilt upon any particular person or persons, the court dismissed the case. Happily the Maoris bowed submissively to the dictum of the law, and matters at once quieted down. But the accused European, notwithstanding, abandoned his home, to avert the supposed ill intentions of some of the more violent. The bearing of the Government during these critical junctures, and the prudence exercised by them, cannot be too loudly praised.
During the Superintendency of Mr. Whitaker, Patuone was courteously received by him at various times, and the favours solicited were cheerfully acceded to by the Provincial Government. Mr. Whitaker strongly advised Patuone to make his will, a recommendation that was
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carried into practice without delay. Mr. E. Davis, Mr. J. C. Young, and myself were chosen executors to Patuone's estate; a respected friend, the Rev. J. Buller, Wesleyan Minister, interpreting the deed, and signing it as chief witness. The legal settlement of Patuone's North Shore lands during his lifetime was wise and judicious, as it prevented his son, Hohaia, from frittering away a valuable property; and it provided a comfortable homestead for our departed friend's relatives, who are at present residing thereon.
In 1866, at a sitting in Auckland of the General Synod of the New Zealand Anglican Church, Patuone took much interest in the proceedings, and when a day was set apart for special service, and the administration of the Holy Communion, to which the members of the various parishes were invited, Patuone waited on me expressing his desire to partake of the Sacrament. At the Convocation of the Bishops and Clergy, we repaired to St. Paul's Cathedral, where the Lord's Supper was duly administered to us both; the solemnity of the occasion, and the marked reverence of the late venerable Maori Chief were peculiarly interesting, and left on my mind an impression not easily effaced.
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The late Superintendent, John Williamson, 1 selected Patuone and other representative Chiefs, to present an address to the Duke of Edinburgh, on the day of his landing at the Queen Street Wharf, Auckland. The various Maori tribes who were anxious to take part in the demonstration, secured prominent positions along the line of way and arches through which His Royal Highness and suite were to pass; on whose approach the prolonged shout of Maori welcome resounded through the air. The address, which was beautifully written on vellum, and artistically illuminated with floral and Maori devices, was read at the landing, in an audible voice, by Paora Tuhaere of Orakei, and the English translation was presented by an interpreter. I may here state that the venerable Chieftain and many other Maori dignitaries were received by His Royal Highness at Government House; at which interview loyal and most enthusiastic speeches were delivered in honor of Queen Victoria and her Royal Son; and several of the greater Chiefs presented costly kiwi
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mats, and other Maori treasures, the Prince thanking the donors through his interpreters for the gifts bestowed, and answering their loyal speeches in few but suitable words.
A short time previous to the events above narrated, Patuone's feebleness of body convinced me that he was unable to do much manual labour in the fields; and knowing how indifferent are Maoris generally to the wants of declining age, I thought it right to address a letter to the Government on my friend's behalf, begging that a small amount per annum be allowed in order that necessary medical comforts might be procured for him. I waited on the Hon. Dr. Pollen, then General Government Agent, and that gentleman having kindly recommended the granting of my request in favour of Patuone, an allowance of twenty pounds per annum was granted, which greatly cheered the old Chieftain, Waka Nene his brother, and others. Some time after this, the Hon. Sir D. McLean very generously increased the annuity to fifty pounds, which additional act of benevolence Mr. S. C. G. Vickers, of the Native Office, informs me took place on 1st July, 1871.
Shortly before Patuone's last illness, he took
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the opportunity, while able, of visiting his European friends residing in Auckland city and suburbs, to wish them farewell. He made my house his home for several days, and travelled on foot to carry out his cherished desire of bidding good-bye to all he knew. After the accomplishment of this sacred duty, as he deemed it, he went home and issued a proclamation to the tribes to the effect that the usual Maori feastings and lamentations were not to be observed when his decease should be announced. This brought to his side a large body of the Thames people, who in token of deep respect, lamented over him while living, and in their orations, lasting several days, enumerated the excellent deeds called forth by his benevolence of heart. Their speeches were replied to by his relatives, he being too feeble to answer his assembled friends in a style befitting so great an occasion. The following is a translation of a paper enclosed to me, bearing date July 19th, 1872:--
"At this time, I utter a word of affection to my European friends residing in this island and embracing those on the other side, extending to the Queen. I now discover, on July 19th, 1872, my
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extreme feebleness of body, and I wish to greet the English people, and the Governors, the friends of myself and brother [Waka Nene] in days gone by.
"O friends, salutations to you all, and to our Mother the Queen, underneath God's shadow, salutations to you! Great is my love to you all now that I am so weak and my heart frail. God is Director of our times; He determines our lot; He is the Giver of life and the Appointer of death. As to myself, God protected me and preserved me, and I now understand that our God's care extends over a long period, [i.e., extended my life to extreme old age]. Although the sins of the world are great, God loves it still; He does not quickly manifest His anger, but shews His mercy.
"O friends, the God of you, of your fathers [i.e., the God of the English] has preserved me--the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob. The God who gives us breath, and in whom the whole world may rest--the Stone that was laid in Sion--the Chief Corner Stone.--(See 1 Peter ii., 6, 7, 8.) He--that Stone that was rejected--has saved me. Lo, this is my word to you:--Do you protect my grandchildren and my people during the time of
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confusion [i.e., war] lest we call on the Lord's name in vain. (See 1 Peter i., 23.)--For if ye be born again, not of corruptible seed but of incorruptible, by the word of God which liveth and abideth for ever, then your love to them will be as your own love to yourselves; (as in Romans, xiii., 9.) This is a word of remembrance from me to you, let your consideration be in accordance with the rule of Scripture; let you and the ministers of religion look after us [i.e., the Maoris] because evil abounds; and the love of man to God waxes cold, and man's love also to man; be loving to us Maoris who are inclined to go astray into many paths, for the flesh is at enmity with the spirit, and the spirit with the flesh. But how shall these things be realised? We have no strength to do anything rightly, but the power is with God. My prayer and call to God is that He will preserve me from evil now, and that He will preserve my people during the years that come after me. He it was who strengthened my heart in the past and held back from me the hand of evil and death, raising me up when sickness came, and inclining my heart to think of Him; drawing me from death unto life.
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"O friend, greetings to you, now that God's mercy abounds to us. Sufficient.
"From your loving friend,
(Signed) "ERU PATUONE."
The following is addressed to his native friends:--" To the Maoris, O hearken, O! Maori people, to the words of my mouth. Do you love one another. Let the men love the men, and the women one another in Christ. Here is a word to the women: 'Women obey your husbands,' and let the children honour their fathers and mothers that they may be long in the land given them by Jehovah. These words above are contained in the Catechism, and in Peter iii. Let not the Chiefs be unkind to their servants, but be slow to anger, for our Lord is in heaven [looking upon us]. Let your good works be constant one to another, (1 Timothy vi., 18). If you carry out these principles, then God will approvingly look upon the sensitive heart. Do not indulge in obnoxious practices, for evil has increased, and Christian rules of love are decreasing.
"Friend Wiremu Tarapata, [Patuone's nephew] look after those things which have been committed to your care. Turn away from evil speakings and false sayings, (1 Timothy ii.,20),
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because the Spirit of God when in the heart of man speaks only the truth; so all those who resist the power, resist the law of God.--(Romans xiii., 2). Be in opposition to evil, and cleave to that which is good. Love sincerely one another in brotherly affection and uphold one another. Be not slothful, be fervent in spirit, fearing the Lord. Rejoice in hope, be patient in tribulation, be persevering in prayer.--(Romans xii., 10, 11, 12). Remember James says:--'When lust hath conceived it bringeth forth sin, and sin when it is finished bringeth forth death.
"Hold fast the Christian faith. Enough.
"From your loving grandfather,
(Signed) "ERU PATUONE."
Not long after the occurrences narrated above, Patuone became increasingly feeble, and it was generally expected by his friends that a few days would terminate his career on earth. H. T. Kemp, Esq., Civil Commissioner, was requested to visit him. That gentleman at once obeyed the dying Chief's summons, and during the whole of Patuone's last illness, Mr. Kemp, with unremitting attention, provided all that was necessary in the way of medical comforts, frequently anticipating his wants, and indeed far
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exceeding them, which benevolent acts were highly appreciated by Patuone, and called forth repeatedly his grateful acknowledgments.
Mr. Thomas Poynton, of the Lake, North Shore, and other European friends, paid their respects to Patuone while the tide of his life was ebbing out; and it was most pleasing to observe, while lying in his house, the joy that lighted up his countenance on recognising his Pakeha friends. How could a man possessing such benevolent feelings and disinterestedness of heart be otherwise than happy under the circumstances!
On the occasion of my visit, he thanked me in the most affectionate manner, for the trivial kindnesses rendered to him from time to time. As a mark of his gratitude, he presented me with fifteen acres of his valuable land at the North Shore, strongly urging me to accept the gift, stating that no one was better entitled to it than myself; but I, with thanks, declined the proffered boon. 2 These facts are simply recorded as unde-
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niable proofs of the late Chieftain's generosity of heart.
The following, under date August 22nd, 1872, was sent by his relatives:--
"We have all assembled to see our elder one, Eru Patuone. His words of good-will were expressed to us. We greeted at the same time our father, saying, Salutations, O father, the father of the people, the parent of the orphan left in the world. O father of good words and deeds, when you are gone, there will be no one to care for us. Who is like you in this world, so mindful of men? Who will take your place when you are gone? The Rata tree [Patuone] under which orphans find shelter is disappearing, and perhaps now the wind will smite us, that is, the unfeeling words of others. Enough, O father, we will, after your decease, call to remembrance your words of affection, your goodness, and your kind deeds; also your uninterrupted union with the European race."
To his son he said:--
"My son, be considerate and allow the people to live on the land who are now in possession. Let not the people be treated roughly, for kindness
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will endear you to others. Cleave to my rules of action after I am gone, so that the people may not think ill of you. In no wise neglect kindness; it is a power that will help you, and if any wish to come hither, let them live with you. Do not forget good offices. Timoti, be good to the tribe and to the Pakeha. O Mr. Davis, be attentive to the people now living on this land. Enough."
While the lamp of life was being gradually extinguished, frequent messages were sent to me, sometimes oral communications, and at other times on paper. The following is a written message:--
"From my lips.
"Hearken, O European side,--This is a word of farewell from me to you while I am in possession of my faculties, for I may shortly go hence. O my European friends, be good to the Maoris, for you have been my shelter till now, and the shelter of my people, and you have manifested benignity to the Maori race. Let you and the Maoris be united in purpose. I deprecate all wars between the Europeans and Maoris. O that the Maoris may act with due
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caution lest they heedlessly arouse the anger of the English."
The last scene was most impressive; the invalid suffering no pain, but calmly looking for the summons of that higher power to which he had previously yielded his heart; while his relatives and friends surrounded his couch, waiting, as they said, for "his sun to go down," it having shone brightly through many long years. There were no necromancers present as in the days of his fathers--no Maori priest to bolster up the dying with false hopes of happiness arising out of vaunted influences with supernatural beings supposed to rule the destinies of men--no announcement of the Maori oracle's pleasure--but there was a simple, child-like trust on Him who is the Way, the Truth, and the Life, cherishing the sentiment uttered by the poet:--
"Whisper Thy love into my heart.
Warn me of my approaching end,
And then I joyfully depart,
And then I to Thy arms ascend."
Thus quietly did Patuone pass away from time into that eternal state whither we are all hastening, and from whence no traveller returns. The funeral obsequies were undertaken by the
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Government, under the supervision of Mr. Kemp; and the late Chief having expressed a wish to be buried in the cemetery of Trinity Church, Devonport, among his English friends, and near to the grave of the late Captain Wynyard, his wish was scrupulously respected. A hearse was provided, and the remains were conveyed to the Devonport Hall, followed by the chief mourners, the Auckland officials, volunteers, and a number of citizens, together with a large concourse of natives, each wearing on his hat or in his hair, the old Maori mourning--sprigs of evergreens and the white flowers of the native clematis. After holding a religious service in the Hall, conducted by the Rev. R. Burrows, the funeral procession moved on to the graveyard, where the burial service was read, and the remains interred with military honours, the Maoris taking the sprigs and flowers from their heads, consigned them to the grave, which was some time afterwards enclosed by Government with a chaste iron fence, and on the stone slab surmounting the grave, are inscribed the following words in Maori and English:--
Ko te tohu tapu
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Tamati Waka Nene;
Tamariki a Tapua;
He Rangatira nui
He hoa aroha no te Pakeha
He kai hapai i te ture Kuini;
He kai hohou rongo ki tona iwi.
I mate ki Akarana
19 o Hepetema, 1872.
Na te Kawanatanga
O Nui Tireni
Tenei kohatu i whakatakoto,
Hei tohu tuturu mona.
Sacred to the Memory of
elder brother of
Tamati Waka Nene,
Sons of Tapua;
A noted Chieftain of the
A warm friend of Europeans,
Supporter of the Queen's laws,
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And peacemaker with his own countrymen.
Died at Auckland,
19th September, 1872.
This stone is erected
by the Government
of New Zealand.
The memory of Patuone is cherished by a large circle of European friends, and as to the Ngapuhi tribes, they have lost in him a great national pillar not likely to be replaced; for it must be admitted that the modern Maori is far inferior, physically and mentally, to the great patriarchal Chiefs who have almost all disappeared from native circles of commercial and political notoriety. Closely associated as he was with our race, and allied to us in the bonds of brotherhood, he neither adopted our drinking customs nor the use of tobacco, standing forth in bold relief as a protest against the vicious habits of the present Maori generation, who make it their study to copy our vices, but seldom, if ever, our virtues. As it was designed that Patuone, after the decease of his father, Tapua, should take upon himself the duties of priest, he was educated accordingly in all that appertained to the sacerdotal office. Familiarized with the
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ancient mythology of his race, its legendary lore, and all other matters calculated to raise the priesthood to the highest pinnacle of dignity and influence, we can understand how it came to pass that he should have been quoted by the Northern tribes as an authority in political and religious Maori affairs; for it must be remembered that the priest, by the common consent of the people, was the medium between mortals and all invisible beings supposed to take an active part in the history of each individual still in the flesh. As may be expected, his mind was richly stored with Maori notions regarding the duties of mortals towards the imagined supernatural powers. His knowledge too was extensive in relation to the required offerings of the first fruits of the soil to the recognised deities, the intricacies of the legislative enactments of the Tapu, and the other multitudinous rites in connexion with the religious and civil observances of the Maoris in their heathen state, our knowledge of which, as far as our late friend was concerned, has passed away with him; such subjects, often styled superstitions, never having been seriously investigated by the early Christian philanthropists, nor by the colonists generally;
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enquiries into such topics being looked upon with little or no interest.
I cannot close this brief biography of the late great and good Ngapuhi Chief, without recording my regret that so many kindred spirits of his race should have "joined the great unseen majority," leaving no chronicle of their noble sayings and deeds; but let us hope that the more advanced Maori will not suffer the excellent traits of his countrymen to pass unnoticed in the rich annals of our New Zealand worthies.