1874 - Carleton, H. The Life of Henry Williams, [Vol. I. ] - [Pages 101-150]

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  1874 - Carleton, H. The Life of Henry Williams, [Vol. I. ] - [Pages 101-150]
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[Pages 101-150]

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From a Drawing by Henry Williams.]

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to bear up for Whangaruru, being unable to make headway against the heavy swell from the northward, caused by the late gale, and fearing that we might spring or carry away some of our spars. At five, saw Thomas King's boat coming along the coast, from the South. Wind more moderate; entered the heads of Whangaruru at dusk; weather very unsettled.

November 18. After midnight, came to an anchor; despatched Matthew in our small canoe to fetch one sufficiently large to convey us to the landing-place. In about an hour he returned, bringing a canoe with him and four men to take us up the river. Arose immediately, though all greatly fatigued, and were soon prepared for our journey. Landed at break of day, and commenced our march with light hearts, being better able to calculate the probable time of our arrival at home. The morning was exceedingly fine, and the birds were singing on every side; the walk was truly delightful, more particularly so from being relieved from the vessel. Yet, there were many painful feelings as we passed along without meeting with or seeing a single individual, though but a few months since all this neighbourhood was in high state of cultivation; but since Taramiti had been killed, his people had been compelled to fly. About six we halted to breakfast at the last water; partook of some chocolate, but were unable to take anything else. About ten we arrived at Waikari. The natives were very civil, and provided a canoe; the tide being out, it was with difficulty dragged down the river. We availed ourselves of the opportunity of lying down in the canoe to take a nap, though a short one, as we were required to stir up the lads, who wanted to land and walk round, as the wind was blowing a little fresh. We landed at the Haumi with some difficulty, and were met immediately by some of our boys; they danced and ran about as though they had seen some one from the dead, and were about to give notice at the settlement, but were prevented. We were happy to learn that all were well, and were soon relieved by the sight of those whom we held most dear on earth. All much concerned on account of our delay. The "Active" had been got ready to sail in the morning in quest of us.

Mr. Williams, according to his wont, makes the least of every danger in description; but there were others on board from whom more was learned. Blown out to sea, without sea-stock on board, they must have starved, but for a shift of wind. Those on shore who knew the "Karere," a bauble without hold upon the water, built for the purpose of getting up creeks to the plantations, and had felt the gales, had well nigh given them up as lost. This pleasurable work was called "yachting," by those who disliked the Mission.

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The return to home is thus described.

Mrs. Henry Williams to her Mother-in-law.
Paihia, November 21, 1831.

Now that joy and gladness have succeeded anxiety the most distressing, and grief the most poignant I ever endured, I wish, before the vivid scenes of the last fortnight fade, to picture some of them to you. To look back, it seems like a dream or a romance, the incidents have been so many, and the feelings have been wrought up to such extremes. If you have received a letter from me, by the French man-of-war, about a month ago, you will know that Henry was purposing a visit down to the southward. He did sail in the little cutter "Karere," accompanied by Mr. Chapman, and several of our most valuable natives, all husbands, and most of them fathers, on an expedition of twofold interest, the preparatory steps towards establishing a Mission amongst an enquiring and seeking people, and the making peace between them and the people around us, called Ngapuhi. They sailed October 18. Three weeks, Henry said, would be the full time of his absence, and as he came home from Tauranga, the last time he went in the "Herald," at the end of a fortnight, my mind, unhappily for me, was prepared for a fortnight. On the day three weeks, the day that Henry was to have returned, I sat up with Mrs. Fairburn; at one o'clock, to oblige her, I laid down to take a nap, and as I was dozing off she told me she thought she heard the bugle horn, and then a distant gun: effectual medicine this, to cause sleep; but I told her, I was becoming acquainted with the noises, and had been several times out in the garden to listen in vain. Many were the nights that succeeded this; many suppositions; fair winds, that I was told would bring them home in twenty-four or thirty-six hours; foul winds succeeding fair, and foul, and fair again. Friends would find me out, and come to see me, and blame me because I could not look happy. I fatigued myself all day, doing anything and everything, that I might not sit still and think, and at night my baby kept me awake. A month and two days had elapsed on Thursday, November 17. I had been living upon hope, and two days fair wind, after a strong adverse gale; everybody told me to expect my husband this afternoon. The "Active" was to sail in the morning, and as the wind and my hopes died away altogether, I searched some boxes, to provide a supply of linen for Henry and Mr. Chapman, to go in the "Active." Everything reminded me of her unsuccessful search [for the "Hawes"]. Mr. Fairburn called upon me, and told me to hope even against hope; it was indeed, as Mr. Fairburn afterwards remarked, man's extremity, and God's opportunity. After dinner Jane came in with the glass, saying, it was better to look at something, even if it were nothing, and there was a dark speck upon the water. I accompanied her into the front room It was too large for a boat, but had

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no topmast, and was certainly not the "Karere." Scarcely had she left, when a little boy burst in, out of breath, exclaiming: "Mata!! Mata!! Te Wiremu!! Te Wiremu!!"--"Where, where?" I almost screamed, "I dare not believe you; call my sister to hear!" As the boy repeated, "It is indeed, I saw him round the point; Matthew is with him, coming overland from Whangaruru." There was a shout, to confirm the story of this little breathless harbinger. Jane ran down to the beach, where the crew of the man-of-war stood all astonishment staring at her, and listening to the shouts, as people appeared coming round the point. She saw some one coming, and asked him to question some of the boys for her, and ascertain the truth of the report; but he, on her telling him, ran away from her, and back as fast as he could to Mr. Brown's, to carry the news, and left her standing at the gate. I, trembling, strained my eyes and ears at the front-room window till I did see my husband; his children all came flocking in after him. The instantaneously spread intelligence had broken up all schools, and all was wild New Zealand delight, and trembling English gratitude!! And now, my dear mother, for I write all these particulars only to a mother, and one who likes as dearly as I do to hear all the hows and whens,--you must imagine a great deal; how baby sprang out of my arms into her father's; how the little children clung round his knees, and the bigger ones expressed their joy; how afraid I was that I should awake, and find it a dream; how at length we found out it was three o'clock, and Henry had been travelling ever since eleven o'clock the preceding night, and had taken no refreshment during that time, but a cup of chocolate. How happy all were to wait upon him, and to hear the news. We learnt that he had been fifteen days at sea, struggling with strong adverse gales; that on one occasion, the very night I sat up with Mrs. Fairburn, they were out of all sight of land, without chart or quadrant, and very little water on board; or they had, when the wind was fair, so little that, setting every stitch of sail, they could scarcely creep on. They attempted to get round Cape Brett the previous afternoon, and expected to have been with us at sunset; but there was such a tremendous swell, that she dipped her bowsprit in the water, and fearing to carry something away, Henry thought it better to put back into Whangaruru, leave the "Karere" there, and come overland, and get a canoe down the river. Henry looked jaded, as well he might, he had not had his clothes off, except once, for fifteen nights, and had stood at the helm ten hours at a stretch. Mr. Chapman was passed forward as soon as possible, in a boat to Kerikeri, to his distressed wife; he looked wretchedly ill, and had been very ill, quite laid aside on board.

It was a fixed conviction with Mr. Williams that no real impression could be made on the country at large until that state

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of chronic warfare in which the natives were plunged should be brought to an end. Something had been done for those who lived in the immediate vicinity of the Mission stations; but the heart of the country was still untouched. He therefore devoted all his energies to the establishment of peace. In pursuance of this object, he kept himself travelling from place to place, where-ever a feud broke out, throwing himself in as a mediator between the contending parties.

The raids of Hengi's two sons upon Ngatiawa, at Tauranga and the Bay of Plenty, to obtain blood for their father's death at Kororareka, and the final extermination at Motiti of the assailants, have been already mentioned. The laws of Maori honour required satisfaction for this last mishap, and the burden of exacting utu fell again upon Ngapuhi. All this, observe, the result of a quarrel between two ship-girls on Kororareka beach! No persuasion could avail; go they must and would; but the teaching of the Mission was beginning to work its way. The expedition was not immediate; the war party relaxed their purpose so far as to promise not to eat the slain; and finally came round so far as to express a desire that both the Mission vessels should accompany the canoes.

Mrs. Williams to Mrs. Heathcote.
Paihia, December 27, 1831.

I shall endeavour to give you as many particulars as the few days previous to the "Thetis'" sailing for England will allow, just upon the eve of Henry's second, longer and more important, voyage in his own boat, amidst the fleet of warriors who have at length been induced to listen to the voice of peace, to lay aside their murderous intentions, and be even willing, nay request the Missionaries to go with them as mediators, to bring about a peace, instead of carrying death and destruction, and going for the purpose of annihilating a whole people,--the very people from whom Henry and Mr. Chapman had lately received so flattering a reception. If I could entirely lay self aside, and all the trials which this anxious and eventful period have occasioned, I could only rejoice that Henry has not so long wrestled and struggled and preached and persuaded in vain. Never was a more remarkable answer seen to the prayers of our little Church, than the change in this people within one month, from a resolute determination to pursue their own wicked intentions to a willingness to take advice; even requesting that the schooner and

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the little cutter may go down, and that Henry should accompany them in his open boat. The vessel going is an inexpressible comfort to me, for the " Active" will carry supplies, and meet with them wherever she can anchor, while the fleet of canoes are creeping down the coast. The "Karere" will be sent back to bring us news, and convey intelligence from us, thus breaking that total separation which renders absence so painful in this land, so postless and trying. We all hope she will not again be fifteen days accomplishing a voyage of three. We try to hope everything,--that is, Mrs. Fairburn and myself; for it was not till last night we heard Mr. Kemp had offered to go in the "Active," setting Mr. Fairburn at liberty to accompany Henry in the boat. Every hour may bring a summons to move. To-morrow was intended, but our preparations are urged forward or retarded as news arrives from the armament assembled at Kororareka. The features of the whole affair wear an infinitely brighter appearance as it advances, and my dreads and terrors are lessening every day; yet still Henry was away nearly five weeks, was delayed and buffeted about by foul winds, till I for one had feared the worst, and is now about to leave his family for several months on a fatiguing, if not a hazardous expedition.

Mr. Williams, accompanied by Mr. Fairburn, left Paihia beach in his open boat on January 3, 1832. His journal supplies the account of his proceedings.

Henry Williams to the Secretary of the Church Mission Society.

I think it well, in connection with my journal, to send a few lines, whereby you may be enabled to see more clearly the origin of the present war among the natives, and the motives which actuated us in accompanying the expedition to Tauranga. I have there mentioned that it took its rise from the unhappy affair at Kororareka. Hengi, the principal chief who was killed on that occasion, had two sons grown up. Their residence was on the coast, between Rangihoua and Whangaroa, seldom visited by the Missionaries, consequently they were little disposed to listen to our advice and admonitions. After the establishment of peace, these two sons, feeling that satisfaction had not been given on account of the death of their father, though peace was sanctioned and made by them, raised a party from among their friends and relations, consisting of about seventy, perhaps a few more, and set off in quest of a payment for their father. They killed several whom they found at the entrance of the Thames, and passed on to an island about thirty miles from Tauranga,--Mayor Island, which bears due North of that place. With these people Ngapuhi had been for a length of time at profound peace, and might be considered as allies. They killed all the males whom they found on the island, reserving the women and children as slaves, excepting a few who made their escape, under cover of the

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night, to Tauranga, and gave the alarm. The Ngapuhi afterwards passed on to Motiti or Flat Island, where they killed some more, and while they were feasting, the Tauranga natives, or Ngatiawa, fell upon them, and killed everyone, excepting a few boys and slaves whom they suffered to live, and in their turn regaled themselves. Ever since the news arrived here of the death of the two sons of Hengi and their party, this part of the island had been in agitation to go and seek revenge. Thus you will see the origin of all the matter, from two ship-girls fighting on Kororareka beach. Behold, how great a matter a little fire kindleth.

The reasons which induced us to go with the expedition were, in order to check the feeling of bloodshed which had shown itself in some quarters, though in others there was an evident reluctance to go. Our endeavours had been blessed on previous occasions, and we had hopes in this case; we wished, however, to use the means. Again, all were our particular friends, most closely connected with our settlements, and to whom we had been in the habit of speaking from our first coming to this land. It was acknowledged, generally, that their relatives were the first aggressors; and, as you will observe from my last journal, we were solicited to accompany them for the purpose of establishing peace.

January 3, 1832. At six, a.m., having taken leave of our families, and of all who were remaining behind, we knew not for what period, we set out on our novel expedition to Tauranga; Mr. Fairburn and I embarked in our boat; Tohitapu and Toe 1 in their respective canoes. We pulled off amidst the cheers of all who were assembled to see us depart. There was something affecting in the scene from all the connecting circumstances. We rounded Tapeka with a fair wind; spoke Titore at Ko Pito.; he wished us to land, and remain till the weather should be more favourable. As the wind was now strong, but it was too near home, we preferred moving on, and sailed to Korokaua, a quiet shady place in Paroa Bay. Pitched our tent, and spread our beds. We had provided four pieces of canvass, seven by four each, painted, to use as occasion might require, to protect us from the damp beneath, and from any leak in the tent in heavy rain. Assembled all for evening service, our party consisting of about forty; Matiu prayed in a very pleasing manner, imploring the Divine Presence to go with us, to give us grace in the sight of all, to terminate the horrors of war, and to prepare a way for the spread of the Gospel,--that this people, who had long been the captives of Satan, might become the children of God, through the merits of Jesus Christ. Many of the youths discharge this important duty far better than we can, having a greater command of language, abounding in figures of speech.

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January 5. This morning, no signs of movement among the natives. The discharge of several muskets, which we concluded were from Titore, put all in motion, and in a short time we were on the way. In less than an hour landed at Porua, a comfortable, sheltered spot; Titore at a short distance from us. At low water we went to see him, and spent some time with him. Some were making up cartridges, some making paddles, but the greater number sleeping.

January 6. At break of day, Tohitapu called out that a gale of wind was coming on, which induced the natives to lie still. To be unnecessarily hindered by the fears of these people we felt would be a great trial of patience, but the expedition was theirs, and it was our desire to remain passive. Mr. Fairburn and I arose, to examine for ourselves; observed the wind from S.W., the fine weather quarter. After some trouble, all began to move; Titore got clear off the ground. Pulled to, and doubled Cape Brett at seven o'clock. Thus we have been three days moving a distance of twenty miles; but so superstitious are these people, particularly in their war expeditions, that they must not take any cooked food in their canoes, and should but a few drops of water be shipped, they immediately land in a great fright. If they should be where they cannot land, everyone immediately ceases talking, and they commence karakia [their incantations]. But our object being to keep close to the leading men, we must endure the tardy movement. We breakfasted at Waikare, and soon found it was not the intention of the natives to move. We went to pay those near us a visit. While talking with Rewa, the sea breeze set in, which was as fair as we could desire; but he would not move, as it was contrary to custom to be in a hurry. This was truly vexatious, as all were eating and sleeping. Everyone, however, was very civil, and Rewa enquired as to the general idea of making peace. Titore proposed that we should move early in the morning, which was very congenial to our wishes. I asked him why the natives did not keep closer together; he replied, that it was their usual way for each party to go where they liked, that everyone was his own chief. What want of wisdom, even in a worldly point of view! but thus it is. Without anyone to direct, not only does each tribe act distinctly from the other, but each individual has the same liberty. If one be bent on mischief he cannot be restrained by the other. Thus tribes frequently suffer, owing to the obstinacy of an individual.

January 7. All in motion before day. Having finished our morning devotion on the beach, while it was yet dark we embarked, and were soon in the midst of a formidable fleet. Several strong contests in pulling. We kept our station very well, though weak-handed, in comparison to several of the canoes. Landed at Mangati to breakfast. Here were the remains of several sheds, built by some party which had preceded us, and our natives set to

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work to calculate numbers, by the stones which were lying there, used for the purpose of pounding fernroot; counting a certain number for each stone. They concluded it was Rewharewha, 2 and pointed out where he sat, and where others sat. In about an hour, we sailed pleasantly onward with the sea breeze; the coast very rugged; no appearance of natives. We arrived about noon at Tutukaka, a beautiful little place, with several deep coves, where small vessels might find shelter at any time, though there are some sunken rocks at the entrance. All the parties put in here, in consequence of Titore's canoe having taken in a little water. They all made for the shore as fast as they could, exclaiming, that he was upset. No more moving to-day.

January 8. At eight o'clock, all the natives in our neighbourhood assembled, and behaved well. It was the first Lord's Day that had been regarded here since the Creation. It was truly pleasing thus to be met together; a congregation of New Zealand warriors here called aside from their usual horrid conversation to sing the praises of the Lord, and to hear of Redeeming Love. They all acknowledged that it was a good thing thus to be assembled together. Some of Titore's people, contrary to his desire, were in the wood, shooting pigeons and hunting pigs. After dinner, we went round to Rewa, Wharepoaka, 3 and others, with whom we had service, by their especial desire.

January 13th. Titore, Rewa, &c, came round from outside. Wharepoaka had passed on, owing to the improper conduct of the natives here, in going to disturb those of the neighbourhood. After breakfast, we went to them all; they were very glad to see us, and gave us the usual welcome, "haere mai!! haere mai!!" We concluded that as the next day would be Saturday, it would be well to move on in the morning, and sit quietly on Sunday. They also expressed a wish that we should communicate with the Ropoto people on the other side of the bay,--that all should assemble for a general muster, as they had not done so since their leaving the Bay of Islands. About four o'clock, all were engaged in preparation, rubbing up their muskets, decorating their heads with feathers, and tying round their waists shawls and handkerchiefs of various colours, as aprons. Some few of the leading men had a mantle of scarlet cloth, trimmed with dogs' hair; others had splendid native mats. Thus equipped, with two or three cartridge boxes each, and here and there a sabre, each tribe or party formed into a body by itself at their respective places, waiting a signal for movement. During this period all was noise and confusion, each giving his opinion how the whole should act; the women, children, and dogs contributing their share to the clamour, running this way and that. At length,

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one party moved, with their muskets erect, slowly, but without regular step on to the beach, the usual parade ground. Having taken their station, they were followed by a second and third, and so on until all had joined that party. They reserved part of their force, who took up their station some distance off, in order to give them a meeting, which is universally done by a wild, savage rush amongst each other, or by the two parties passing each other, turning again, and forming one body. They now prepared for their haka, or dance, accompanied with horrid yells and screeches, throwing their bodies into frightful attitudes, distorting their countenances, turning their tongues nearly to the back of their heads, and rolling their eyes inside out, each jumping as high as his strength would allow him, tossing up at the same time the stock of his musket, to display the brass, which is kept perfectly bright. This being repeated two or three times, to the admiration of the beholders, and the exultations of all, they sat down, leaving a space in the centre, to make room for the speakers to run backwards and forward as they deliver their sentiments. This duty is generally taken by the chiefs, but anyone is at liberty to speak. On this occasion the speeches were very poor. Their numbers, roughly calculated, were about four hundred, under arms; which, with those already passed on, will make up about eight hundred. Some of our friends expressed a wish for some stirabout (boiled flour and water), and as the boys had caught a great quantity of fish, we did not hesitate to comply with their request. However, Moka, that evil-disposed creature, found an opportunity to make a disturbance, wishing to obtain two shares for himself, which caused a great deal of noise and angry expression. Several of the chiefs spoke seriously to Moka, on account of his conduct. The boys low spirited, owing to what had passed.

January 15. About 9 o'clock, a canoe came pulling close to the "Active," making a great noise, and singing with voice of victory. In passing us, they called out they had caught four Englishmen. We told them to come alongside. The men were part of the crew of the "Lucy Ann," lying in the Thames. They had left her twenty-three days, and were on their way to the Bay of Islands. The natives had stripped them of nearly all they possessed, but afterwards returned some of their things to them. Much consultation amongst the natives as to what should be done with the Englishmen. Most were for harnessing them to the great guns, that they might work them against the enemy. The natives very busy, preparing to move before daylight.

January 16, All in motion at two o'clock. Had the baggage put into the boat, and joined the canoes pulling out. Tareha's people called out to us to know what was to be done with the four men. We advised them to let the men go, which was done, At Mangawhai

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we observed large slabs of freestone, 4 which will prove, on some future day, of great importance in building. Moka fired a number of rounds from his great guns here, termed paura mamae [sacred powder), which he expended because this was the place where he received his wound in the thigh. There were many pretty places up here, and marks of former settlements, but the people had been swept away as with the besom of destruction. Former residences of tribes, now no more, are continually pointed out to us; but we may hope the day is at hand when the Lord will grant deliverance to this people, and stay the arm of destruction. The canoes continued to arrive until four o'clock; we were unable to count them, they were so dispersed, but suppose they were between forty or fifty.

January 18. The natives very apprehensive that Tareha would return to the Bay of Islands, as he had not yet joined the main body, and was in a large canoe with no other persons, except three of his wives to pull her along. The canoe was tapu, having conveyed the body of Hengi, the principal chief killed at Kororareka, to his former place, and was now to be taken to the place where his sons were killed, for the purpose of being broken up and burnt, and was consequently termed waka mamae 5 [sacred canoe]. There are very many things, such as garments, war instruments, paddles, &c, amongst the different tribes now going up, which are on their way for the purpose of being, I think I may say, offered up to the manes of the dead. They are therefore all sacred, and thus the whole of the natives are detained, because no one can enter this said canoe but old Tareha and his three wives. This was now the second time of his being left behind. A circumstance happened this afternoon which had nearly proved serious to many, or perhaps to all. A large shark had been caught, which turned round and fastened on a man's shoulder. His companions immediately came to his assistance, but not succeeding in freeing him. an attempt was made to kill the shark with a hatchet, when the unfortunate man received a cut on the back. The mad creatures, without considering the cause of the accident, immediately flew to arms, and would have fought under the idea of having satisfaction. How lamentable the state of this people, even as it respects this world.

January 21. No appearance of making any progress. This, however, would be of little moment, were the natives more orderly; they form a complete troup of uncontrollable fellows. Have been

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much concerned to hear that the Popoto, the natives from Hokianga, intend going in different directions up the Thames, to endeavour to fall upon the women and children of the allies of Tauranga. Some of the chiefs have been protesting against it, but we must commit the cause to the divine guidance of the Great Disposer of all things.

January 21. Sunday. Passed a more comfortable night, having sent for my bed from the "Karere" as there are no signs of moving onward yet. The weather against us. My bed hitherto has been formed of fern tops. Exclamation amongst the natives at the sight of some excellent fern-root which was dug up yesterday. Moka immediately gave orders to launch his canoe, for the purpose of going in quest of it. All immediately in confusion. I felt that to speak to him was of little use, yet it was my duty. I sent therefore to say that it was the ra tapu [sacred day], and that he must not resist the command of God; that to-morrow we would all go. He desired his people to remain quiet, which called forth marks of approbation from those near me. Thus are we encouraged to use the means, with simple faith in the Lord, to accomplish the end. This Moka is brother to Wharerahi and Rewa, a daring, impudent, self-willed savage, of considerable influence in the way of mischief, possessing, I believe, not one good quality. At half-past eight, a.m., assembled all in the neighbourhood to service. They behaved very well. After dinner went round to the Popoto; not many there. However, I had a pleasant conversation with Taonui, 6 and others. He appears a man of much observation and reflection, beyond the natives generally. Toward the latter part of the afternoon, the natives who were sitting around had much to endure to refrain from working. Haki, 7 a man of great respectability, sitting at the extremity of the beach, was at work with his people, but immediately laid his work aside on my approaching him. In the evening, Moka and Tohitapu put their canoes in order for moving in the morning, and from a few expressions that escaped them I could perceive that their intentions were bad respecting any natives they might see. They told me they were hungry, and as the wind continued from the eastward, they must go and dig fern-root, and cross the river at a narrow part, and that I had better remain with Tareha and Titore; but as I considered they were disposed for mischief, I determined to keep close to them, leaving the "Karere" to Titore, first sending a messenger in the morning, much cast down at this effort of Satan. Oh, when will the arm of the Lord be revealed in New Zealand?

January 27. Took up my quarters on shore for change; far more comfortable. No news, no movements; sad sacrifice of time,

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which would not be endurable, but in the hope of rendering important service, temporal and spiritual to this people. Was enabled to pass my time tolerably well in reading, writing, and drawing. This last greatly astonished the natives, to see the effect of a few pencil marks on paper.

January 28. They told me of the superstitious conduct of their party, in consequence of having burnt some sticks which were sacred,--the remains of some old sheds; and also some flax. A son of old Taniwha (god of the sea) had appeared to him, and upbraided him and his party with their great wickedness, saying that he would not be quiet until he had some men as a satisfaction for the sacrilege; that the present strong winds were on that account; that he would upset their canoes, and the sea should be rough for a long while. Old Tohitapu and others listened with great earnestness during this relation, and confirmed the opinion that the gale was in consequence of their trespassing on the sacred spots. Their fears of the Taniwha are very great. They must not put cooked food into their war canoes, eat or spit while afloat, or even have any fire in them, or smoke their pipes,--which must certainly be a severe exercise to their faith. I told them that the people of England were the great men of the ocean; they went everywhere without fear of the Taniwha; that, were the native vessels larger, they would move, as the English did, fearlessly from place to place. But this they could not see; they speak of remaining many days, that the sea may be perfectly smooth. At sunset, wind S.S.W.; fair to the Bay of Islands. Intimated my intention of sailing immediately, as we could be back before any movement. They approve of our proceedings. We accordingly got under weigh, and were soon away with a good breeze, leaving my boat and all the lads excepting two.

January 30. At eight, a strong breeze from N.W., which carried us soon to Motu-o-rangi, where we were boarded by the boat from the settlement, and learned that all was well in my family and in the Mission. In the evening, all assembled in my house to tea; nineteen adults and thirty-three children.

At Paihia, he was long detained by contrary winds. After an unsuccessful attempt on the sixth, and having to put back from Cape Brett, he succeeded in getting away.

February 21. Fine. My [Maori] boys employed putting our things on board, and preparing for departure. At noon, a sea breeze. Sailed in the "Karere," with a better prospect of proceeding than when we went out last.

February 25. The Mercury Islands five or six miles east; no appearance of our people. Very apprehensive that they have all passed on, and probably commenced their murderous and wicked proceedings, unless restrained by the mighty hand of God. Poor creatures! how greatly. they need all that we can do for them.

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Every man's hand is against his brother; surely the land is polluted with blood. Fresh places are pointed out to me where recent conflicts have taken place; but to the Lord do we look, who alone can deliver them from their cruel bondage, and make them willing to turn to Himself.

February 26. Sunday. At seven a.m., bore up and stood into the bay, in hopes of seeing our friends, or at least of obtaining shelter against the impending gale. Ran nearly to the bottom of the bay, but could not discover any coves, or bays, where we might anchor, as marked in the chart, and there was a considerable sea setting in directly on the shore. In our perplexity we sent the boat to reconnoitre, and in about an hour she made signal to proceed, which we accordingly did, and were considerably relieved by finding an entrance, close under a point, into a fine commodious river, capable of receiving any vessel. The country appeared well wooded, but no inhabitants, though marks of former residences. What a dreadful scourge is war, even in this remote corner! No sooner do strangers meet than fear is expressed. When shall the glorious day appear when the sword shall be turned into a ploughshare, and the spear into a pruning-hook, and the nations learn war no more?

March 3. At break of day, weighed and made sail for Tairua. As we approached the entrance, observed the canoes coming out, and were happy to observe my boat in the midst of them, and the boys all well. All appeared glad to see us. I again took my seat in the boat, with considerable pleasure, and pulled in with the canoes to Whangamata, a fine river for small vessels. After some refreshment, pulled out, to conduct the cutter in. The country appeared fine, well wooded and watered, but no inhabitants, though multitudes in former days. In the afternoon, the natives mustered their forces, but did not turn out more than four hundred fighting men; this is termed an army. Can anything shew the poverty of the land in point of number more than this, when we consider the great efforts which have been made to raise this expedition? True, we have to add those with Rewharewha and Wharepoaka, making in all perhaps six hundred, besides women and children. Their speeches poor. Was much distressed to hear that Wharerahi and a large party had passed overland to surprise Ngatiwhatua. Had a good deal of conversation with the chiefs; Titore well disposed. The natives appear generally to have paid external respect to the Sabbath during my absence, and they moved to-day in order to sit quietly tomorrow.

March 4. Sunday. The natives making a great noise, talking long before daylight, on all sides. When in want of my breakfast, I was told that fire and water were tapued; that none must eat or drink until the oracle was consulted, and that the Tohunga

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or priest was in preparation for the ceremony at a short distance. I went, and found eight chiefs assembled, in a retired and shady spot, and was at first forbidden to approach; but, after a little conversation, was permitted, under the plea of my being a white person. They were all entirely naked, and were fixing sticks about a foot long in the ground, in rows according to the number of canoes; the same was also done according to the chiefs of their opponents. Against each of these were placed two others of the same length, each stick being tied round with a piece of the flax plant. When all was in order, we were required to withdraw, except an old wretch who had scarcely five pounds of flesh on his bones. In about half an hour, the old fellow, with an air of great importance, came out and sat down amongst us. He enquired of Tohitapu his dreams, and related his own last night, which are too long to repeat. We then, with much caution, approached the scene of action, where he had been at work, and found the sticks in great disorder, as though a cat had been at play amongst them. About a third of them lay on the ground, by which he would denote those who were to fall in battle. He had one set of sticks for the boat,--that is myself and the boys; we were all safe. In a few minutes after our arrival, a large body of the natives rushed up with a great noise to learn the fate of the expedition, each making inquiries respecting himself with so much vociferation and earnestness, that it was impossible for any to hear. At length partial silence being obtained, the old man began to relate particulars, but did not advance far before he was confused, and the ceremony had to be begun over again. The sacred spot was consequently cleared of the presence of everyone, except the old priest, and we waited his pleasure on the beach. During this interval, I conversed with all around. They appeared to put as implicit faith in what this Tohunga should effect, as they would in the direction of the wind, by observing the motion of the clouds. I assured them they would soon abandon such things, as our forefathers had done, and embrace the Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ. Some acquiesced in what I said; others did not. At ten o'clock, all being tolerably quiet, we rang the bell for service. It had been sent from home in the vessel belonging to Pi, and was now used for the first time. It was a pleasant sound in this wild place, and in the midst of a still wilder mob. We assembled about a hundred; Rewa and Te Kohekohe were the only chiefs of note, but all were attentive. After service, Rewa told me they should soon believe our message. All were now tired of the expedition. In the afternoon, went and paid a visit round, to drop a word as occasion might offer. Had a pleasing conversation with Te Morenga.

March 5. We have now arrived within seven miles of Katikati, a river running up to Tauranga, which is in full view, the fires burning at the pa. I have many hopes and fears, but a few days will decide this important question. Many talk of taking slaves, but perhaps

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they do not yet consider that such a step will be attended with some inconvenience. At noon, the tide having ebbed, we proceeded on, but did not arrive at the entrance till past two, the tide being against us. It was most formidable, as the breakers were lifting up their heads in a terrific style on all sides. Several canoes were ahead of us to lead the way, and by following them we entered safely, passing between the rollers. I was certainly glad when we were passed, and am at a loss to conjecture how the natives ventured in. The river appeared very extensive, and will no doubt some future day be an important place. We landed at the beach, where Rewharewha and Wharepoaka had been but a few days since. Ascended the hill which forms the headland of the river with my glass to reconnoitre, at the request of some of the chiefs. I had a good view of the country, and of the two pas, but could not distinguish Rewharewha. The pas seemed enveloped in smoke.

March 6. At daylight again afloat, to pass on with the flood tide. About ten o'clock landed at Matakana, to put up for the day. An old woman belonging to Ngatimaru, who had great news to impart, was here caught by Tareha's people. She stated that great deeds had been done by Wharerahi and those with him against natives of Waikato, which, while she was speaking, I felt persuaded was all false; but it was painful to observe with what greediness her wicked expressions were received. She, however, gave information of Rewharewha being only a few miles distant on the opposite side of the river. In a short time, five canoes passed over to learn the news. We soon heard that the Ngatiawa had given Rewharewha four or five meetings, and that severe engagements had taken place; but I was much relieved to learn that none were killed or wounded on either side, as they had kept open order. About midnight, when all were asleep, the camp was alarmed by four guns being discharged close to the beach, and not knowing whether friends or foes, all were soon under arms; the sound of the shot--those messengers of death--flying over our heads, waking out of first sleep, was truly heartsickening, and represented to my mind the awful state in which these poor creatures are. We, however, soon learnt that it was an express from Rewharewha. The messengers came forward in silence, which struck a degree of awe over the assembly, who were sitting down, several fires being scattered about to give light, heightening the effect. The person who now stood before us was a stranger to me. He was a fine looking man, though wild in his appearance. He stood in silence, leaning on the top of his musket, a billhook, bright as silver, in his belt in front, and a handsome dogskin mat thrown carelessly over his shoulders; by the light of the fire he presented a fine specimen of savage nobility. He first spoke of the expedition of Wharerahi against Ngatiwhatua, then of their own interview with the enemy here, who had given them a meeting this afternoon. Several rounds were exchanged, but so respectful were they, that no mischief ensued.

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March 7. At daylight, all in motion, launching canoes, striking sheds, and talking over the news of the night. My opinion required respecting the proper charge for their great guns; declined the honour. At ten o'clock, all embarked, in closer order than heretofore, and presented a formidable body. They now displayed their various flags, which they had obtained from the shipping. We were, as near as I could could count, about eighty boats and canoes. About noon, arrived at Karopua, where Rewharewha was sitting. Took a view of our position; Otumoetai, the Pa of Ngatiawa, at two miles distance; several persons outside the pa, taking a view of the fresh arrival. The "Active" and the cutter belonging to Pi arrived. At low water, all our people set off in fighting trim, for the professed purpose of foraging on the plantations, very near the pa; some, however, went directly towards the pa, to the edge of a stream of water which was deep; only two of the opposite party were observed for a time. The numbers increased on each side, and the parties closed as near as they could, the bed of the river separating them; they kept up a brisk fire until dark, and the flowing tide obliged them to retire. None of the chiefs were amongst them, and I could not but marvel that none were hurt on either side. The skirmish lasted about an hour and a half. This affair gave fresh subject for conversation, which lasted nearly through the night. My mind much distressed at the spirit generally manifested. Tohitapu was amongst the worst. I spoke to him upon his deceit, at which he was very angry. I was glad to retire into the tent, and seek relief where alone it is to be found.

March 10. After midnight, orders given to embark; which was done with great disorder and noise. It being low water, we frequently got aground. This time was chosen for protection from the enemy, as we had to pass up the river where the engagement had taken place yesterday evening, though by this act they greatly exposed themselves in consequence of the continual noise which they made. Had the enemy acted with any thought, and with that courage known to Europeans, they might have planted themselves within two hundred yards of the canoes, and thrown all into confusion; but they were savages, and consequently their movements less destructive. When all were well afloat, we presented quite an armament; the surface of the river seemed covered; our force multiplied, from the face of the country about two miles distant in the rear being all on fire. The blaze illuminated the sky, and was again reflected upon the water; we appeared,--taking into consideration the desires of the people, and the object on which they were bent, issuing as it were from the infernal regions. We landed in the rear of the pa, and in a few minutes about three hundred lights were in motion, giving the appearance of a large town. I felt it was more prudent to remain in my boat until morning, not knowing how near the enemy might be, nor wishing to be run over by our own people. At

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daylight, there was a general movement towards the pa, all perfectly naked, except here and there one with a shirt on or a handkerchief round his waist, and a cartouch box buckled round before and behind, close under the arms or round the loins. Ngatiawa were out to receive them, and firing soon commenced on both sides. I ascended to the summit of an old pa, from whence, with the aid of my glass, I had a clear view of their movements, and soon observed Ngapuhi driven out of some bushes where they had taken up their station, and Ngatiawa displayed in considerable number in battle array. The firing lasted, I think, three hours, and various reports were brought of the killed and wounded. They then returned to their camp, having expended all their ammunition, bringing with them one killed and one who had been struck on the cartouch box buckled round his waist, by which he was saved. I was struck with horror to observe the carelessness of them all, particularly of the women and children. The firing ceased, and was succeeded by the clamour of Ngapuhi relating their great deeds during the action. Retired to my tent, overwhelmed with the transactions of the morning. About two o'clock, Messrs. Kemp and Fairburn came on shore, and after some conversation I determined to take up my abode on board the "Active," considering that our counsel was rejected, and that they had better now be left a little to themselves. On going out of the tent, I was much surprised to see the enemy in possession of the heights about half a mile distant, firing down upon some wild fellows who were exchanging shots with them, in full view of our whole party, occasionally dancing, and brandishing their muskets in defiance as we passed down to the boat. Several of the chiefs sat down by the canoes, and appeared crestfallen. None spoke but Moka, who desired we would not attempt to dress the wounds of their enemies. I told him, all were our friends through the island, and would all receive like attention from us. Several Ngatiawa were on the side of the river as we passed, but none attempted to molest us, being fully aware of our object amongst them. In what a wretched state is this people sitting, in darkness and the shadow of death, destitute of every hope, either in this world or the world to come; not knowing who are friends or foes, but daily dreading an attack from some unknown quarter! Many have said to me during our present expedition, how gladly would they receive a party of soldiers amongst them to preserve peace through the land. We trust, however dark and dreary the prospect is at present, that the Lord will cause this to work for their good and His glory. It is He alone "who maketh wars to cease unto the end of the earth; He breaketh the bow and cutteth the spear in sunder."

March 12. The firing continued through the night, but at daylight Ngapuhi drew out on all sides, and pressed close upon the pa. I looked to the Lord for help, that He might spare this people, for

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they knew not what they did. At one time our people were within two hundred yards of the fence of the pa; about forty or fifty took up a strong position amongst some bushes and long grass, but were soon dislodged by Ngatiawa, though under great disadvantage, as the one party lay concealed, while the opponents were completely exposed. The briskest part of the action took place in full view of the vessel. Numbers of children from the pa were out digging up the shot as it fell about them. Poor things! I trembled for all, and my soul was cast down within me when I reflected on the unjustness of the war.

March 13. All seemed quiet this morning, and we were in hopes it would continue so. After breakfast, Mr. Fairburn and I went to the pa to see Kiharoa, who had come down during the morning with his people to join those of the pa. We were received most graciously. It was distressing to reflect what judgments awaited all. There were multitudes of interesting children. We took a survey of the works which, for a native affair, are well constructed. While here, we observed Ngapuhi approaching, and learnt that a young woman had just been wounded in the arm. We felt it needful to take our departure, the contending parties not being at any great distance from each other. When on board, we observed some close struggles on the beach. The firing continued, more or less, upwards of two hours, and we saw two persons belonging to the pa carried off apparently dead. The cutter arrived from Maketu. A European came on board, and said he had come to see if Ngapuhi would accept the services of the Rotorua nation against Ngatiawa. He spoke of the cutting up of these poor creatures with apparent relish, as though he would join the natives in their savage repast. A schooner arrived, and anchored at some distance. Sent the boat to the pa to inquire the loss. Answer, four killed and three mortally wounded: could not learn what Ngapuhi had suffered. The firing did not cease till dusk. A boat came alongside from Ngapuhi, and informed us that one was killed, and some wounded. The European who came in the boat expressed his intention of supplying Ngapuhi with arms and ammunition, as much as they required, on trust. His expressions were disgusting, and we were relieved by his departure.

March 14. Calm, clear night. The natives in the pa pouring forth bitter cries and lamentations, bewailing their loss. A gun occasionally fired, added to the solemnity of the scene. At break of day, two canoes from Ngapuhi came alongside, for some great guns and small arms, ammunition, &c. The pa opened fire upon them, but the shot fell short. The natives seemed to scowl upon us, knowing that we disapproved their proceedings. Titore being amongst them, we sent the boat for him; he was friendly, but did not give us any hope, nor could we indeed feel any ourselves. After breakfast, we paid a visit to the pa, but did not remain long. The natives appeared in better spirits than I had expected. I en-

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deavoured to induce some boys to accompany us to the Bay of Islands, but they were afraid, not being able to judge for themselves. In the afternoon, Mr. Kemp and I went to Ngapuhi. Some were as usual, others would not speak, and appeared quite intoxicated with the fresh supplies they had obtained. We were determined to ascertain their real disposition with respect to Ngatiawa. Every voice was for war, and every wicked feeling seemed to have been let loose. About eight o'clock they commenced their speeches, but all in the same tone. Tohitapu was as wicked as any one. One of the chiefs belonging to Waimate, named Tinana, 8 said that we had been giving their descriptions to Ngatiawa, in order to pick them off, but he was soon put down.

March 15. Passed a sleepless night. The awful state of the people weighed much upon our minds. Our fears were great on behalf of Ngatiawa. Ngapuhi had the advantage in experience. How little do the natives know their real friends and their best interest. We concluded that our efforts must now come to a close amongst these people, and that it would be best to return home as soon as possible; we accordingly passed through the camp, and returned on board. After breakfast, hoisted in my boat and prepared for sea, as soon as wind and tide should permit. Several natives on board from the pa; amongst them Kiharoa. They did not appear to suffer so much as we did, but spoke of their hope that we should soon return, and that some Missionaries should be sent to their place; but I fear there is no hope that they will be able to oppose the great force brought against them, supported as their enemy is by the aid, influence, and superior knowledge of the European who is in close connection with them. In the evening, at high water, weighed and made sail, the wind directly in. Passed safely over various banks; but when close to the great hill which forms the south head, the vessel missed stays, owing to the swell caused by the ebb tide; there appeared every prospect of going on the rocks, which was alone prevented by letting go the anchor and taking in the sails. Everyone was much alarmed, the sea breaking on all sides; but as the tide was setting to windward, there was no strain upon the cable. In about an hour the sea subsided. We again weighed, and in a short time were out of all difficulties.

From this date up to the 18th, the journal is but a sea log. On that day Mr. Williams landed unperceived at Paihia, and, with delight and gratitude, found all well.

March 19. Felt very weary in body, and much distress of mind, at the present state of things in this land. All is dark, dreary, and dire confusion. By vessels from the southward we hear of nothing

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but war and bloodshed,--of the assemblies of large bodies of natives with muskets, gone forth utterly to annihilate all whom they meet; but we have one assurance, the Lord is faithful: He cannot err. It is a season which demands earnest and constant prayer of the Church in behalf of the nations of the earth, that they may be delivered from the chains of darkness. The great struggle seems to be at hand here, and most seem to be aware of it, gazing in anxious expectation for the result, should Ngapuhi persevere in fighting. Should they disregard our message, then all will be involved in war; again, should they be disposed to hear, then may we expect many openings for the introduction of the Gospel in various parts of the island. 0 Lord make bare Thine arm, and come and help us

Although he had reached home hopeless of success, and unwilling to witness the horrors which attend victory in Maori warfare, he could not rest. Some unaccountable feeling urged him to return, once more to try the temper of the people. The presentiment did not mislead him; for, since his departure from Tauranga, the war had been carried on listlessly. Ngapuhi complained that Te Wiremu's words lay heavy on them, and that their guns would not shoot. On the 26th, in company with Mr. Fairburn, he went on board the "Active," weighed, and sailed again for Tauranga. On the 31st they came to an anchor there, to the leeward of Maunga-nui.

April 1. Sunday. At sunrise, upwards of a dozen canoes were observed pulling towards us from Ngapuhi, full of men. They landed some distance from us, and continued running till they came abreast of us, each man with his musket. We hoisted a white flag, but they were not satisfied what vessel it was until they hailed us, when they set up a haka [dance], and called us to go on shore and see them. We were received by them in a friendly manner. They told us they had thought we were the schooner with which they engaged two days since, and had come to take her, and had brought six great guns. They related their proceedings during our absence, and appeared glad to see us. Titore, with three canoes, remained with us until the tide flowed, for the purpose of conducting us up the river, to the camp; the others returned immediately. At ten o'clock, held service on board. In the afternoon, we went up the river by ourselves, the canoes going in another direction, having observed some men on an island near us. We met a canoe coming to us, in which were the principal chiefs of Ngapuhi; they were very friendly, and returned with us. Tohitapu, with considerable self-importance, related their great deeds, magnifying the loss of the enemy. We passed through the camp, and were thankful to the God of all mercies for the great change in the tone of this people,

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from what it was when last amongst them. Many shook their heads, signifying that they were tired; others complained of want of food. Their attempts had failed. They found that their opponents were not backward to meet them; their great guns had been brought into action, and were of no use. They had dragged them close to the pa, two days after we sailed for the Bay, and were firing nearly the whole day without any effect, but had sustained some loss themselves; the two guns belonging to Moka had nearly fallen into the enemy's hand. News just arrived; a large reinforcement at Otumoetai, from Waikato. We felt encouraged to hope that peace might yet be established. We took our departure at dusk, with the understanding that we should return in the morning; all exceedingly civil.

Mr. Williams employed himself in passing to and fro, from the camp to the pa, though without satisfactory result. Some halfhearted fighting took place, firing at long range, and Ngapuhi claimed a victory, having driven Ngatiawa to their entrenchments; but it did not appear that any lives were lost. The tone of the assailants had been lowered by the continued reproaches of the Mission. There was division in the camp, some desiring to abandon the enterprise, others to press it on; but the latter carried the day. Nothing of a decisive nature was impending. Mr. Williams and Mr. Fairburn, having duties to perform elsewhere, determined to return home, without further waste of time.

Between them and home, however, a danger was to intervene, through which their work was all but brought to a premature and disastrous close.

April 7. As we passed on the weather cleared up a little, and the wind being fair, it was considered most advisable to proceed on to Aotea--the Great Barrier Island, as there were two good anchorages known. As we drew under the land, the gusts were so violent that we feared either the masts or yards would go. The vessel became unmanageable, and it was with many painful feelings we were obliged to take in sail, and let the vessel drift, which she did considerably. As the darkness set in, so also did our fears and apprehensions grow upon us. We could not keep the weather shore;--what were we to expect from a lee one? The wind and rain now increased, and brought before us all the horrors of a shipwreck in its worst form. It was an iron-bound coast, with rocks and small islands scattered up and down. Our personal fears were not great, but we had wives and children, who, in all probability, might never learn our fate. Eleven hours night!--a

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painful thought. Should we escape the fury of the sea, and obtain a landing, what then? There is no Christian hand to befriend us, none from whom we could obtain relief. Should any natives be near us, they would but add to our distress. But, Oh! my God, Thou hast been my refuge in distress, my help in time of need, it is Thou only whom winds and seas obey. It was Saturday night. During the hour of prayer at our respective settlements, we frequently reminded each other of their blessed employment. They little thought of our distress, but would be mindful of us; this supported us much.

April 8. A most anxious and agonizing night. The gale very severe, accompanied with heavy rain, and so unusually thick that we could not see the length of the vessel. The wind shifted in the course of the night to north. Spent the whole night in prayer to the Lord for His protecting care, unable to close my eyes, though up the whole of last night. At first dawn of day Mr. Fairburn and I were up, to discover where we were, and as the light came on, could perceive the dark, hazy loom of high land close on the lee beam, like the king of terrors frowning upon us, as if he sat brooding over the storm, ready to snatch his victims. We wore in haste and made sail, under an impression that it was Cape Colville, but soon perceived that it was the north head of Port Charles, in which there is no shelter. Stood on under all possible sail, to endeavour to weather the point which presented itself for a few moments on our lee bow; but despairing of this, as the sea was fast setting us to leeward, we determined to try and stay her, as the only alternative, there not being room to wear. She had missed stays several times yesterday, by which we were brought into the present situation. Every countenance spoke alarm, and it was declared impossible to save her. But what is impossible with man is possible with God. Though seriously impressed with our great danger, I felt a strong faith, or secret conviction, that the Lord would shew Himself a refuge and strength in this our time of need. We watched a smooth of the sea to put the helm down,---thanks be to the Lord, at that interval it was particularly so, and she came round in a surprising manner, though to all human appearance it was impossible she could weather the land, owing to the heavy sea which was running. We settled fast down upon some frightful rocks which were close to leeward, and soon brought them in our wake; but after a short time we were relieved by perceiving that we gradually drew off shore. We stood on, wishing to regain the islands to windward of Mercury Bay, but still the weather was so thick we could scarcely see the vessel's length around her. After standing on, with intense earnestness looking out, for our danger was not yet over, land was announced on the lee bow, close to us, which we perceived was the desirable point. We bore up in haste, and were soon in smooth water, under the lee

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of the Mercury Islands, and discovered what we had never before seen, though often in this neighbourhood, a commodious bay, in which we anchored about ten o'clock, to the unspeakable relief of our minds and bodies. At six p.m. we all assembled in the cabin, to offer up prayer and praise to the God of all mercies for our late deliverance, everyone being too weary to attend earlier. On reflecting on the deliverance of the past night and this morning, my soul is overpowered with gratitude to the Lord, our Shepherd. Who can declare our danger, or the protecting arm of the Almighty? We had sought for shelter in a known harbour, but were prevented from obtaining it, though close at the entrance, and lay exposed during a long night to danger on all sides; land was around us, and our chart incorrect; the weather so thick that we could not perceive land until close upon it, but at the moment it became needful for us to act, the day dawned, and danger at that moment was pointed out by a break in the haze, and we were enabled to do what alone could save us. The captain gave the order to wear, which would have been inevitable destruction. This was overruled, and she was thrown in stays, as the last and only resource. May it be a Sabbath long to be remembered with gratitude and love. Our lives have this day been given afresh to us and our families. The thought is overwhelming. What would have been their state had it pleased the Lord thus to remove us from them? for scarcely would it have been possible that any should have been spared to tell the mournful tale. To His name may we ascribe all praise, and dedicate our services to Him.

The one fault in Mr. Williams' journals is this,--that he throws his own doings too much into the back-ground. He does not tell us that it was through his own seamanship, under Providence, that the vessel was saved. It was he who put down the helm at that critical moment, taking the command out of the hands of the captain, and overruling the order to wear ship where there was no longer room for that manoeuvre. Those who are used to small vessels, of light draught, know what nicety of handling is wanted to get them round in a heavy sea, and can feel the intense anxiety of the moment before the filling of the jib, with an iron-bound coast under the lee. Now the peril so narrowly escaped was followed by a result which affected the course of his after life, opening the way to the malignant calumnies and to the persecution that, in after years, he was compelled to endure. It brought before his mind, in vivid relief, a consideration which had lain not quite unthought for, but which had been thrust aside by the urgency of public duties. What was

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to become of his family, should he be taken from them? The Society was hard pressed for means to maintain even the working members of the Mission; employment for the children was not to be found in New Zealand; to turn them adrift upon the neighbouring convict colonies was not to be thought of. He resolved, most wisely, as the event has shewn, to enable them to turn the labour of their own hands to account, by providing them with homesteads of their own, on which they might work their way to independence. Land had been acquired, with good result, from the natives, for the Parent Society; the same might be done for the families of the Mission. Let it suffice, for the present, to say that in the course of the following year, he carried the idea, thus formed, into effect; preparing the way for the permanent establishment of his children in the country.

In regard to the war, it may be stated, in few words, that Ngapuhi finally abandoned the enterprise; not beaten, but wearied, humbled, and confessing to failure. "The God of the Missionaries," they said, "had been too strong for them: their hearts, instead of swelling with bravery, turned round, jumped up, and sank down with fear."

On August 8, 1832, a general thanksgiving was held throughout the Mission for this result.

Let us descend from the graver incidents of flood and field to homely scenes. Missionaries had to live as well as to preach; and to live they had to work with hand as well as with head. Secular employment was waste of time, but there were none to relieve them of it. They had to master trades to which they had never served apprenticeship. If a man wanted a chimney to his hut, he had to build it; sometimes, if a man wanted a dinner, he had to fish for it. In bricklaying in particular, both Mr. Williams and his brother achieved for themselves imperishable fame; and the bricks, like those in Jack Cade's father's chimney, "are alive to this day to testify." The assurance that their "father was a Mortimer, and their mother a Lacy," would have gained no credence. "Now we find out what you have been brought up to," said a Maori who saw them at work.

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The following extract could not be conveniently placed in order of date.

June 27,1831. Commenced mixing mortar, and building chimney at the school-house. Much interruption from the natives.

June 29. At work at the chimney.

July 1. Returned to Paihia and resumed my work at the chimney.

July 7. Engaged with bricks and mortar.

July 16. Employed all the week plastering the school, and to-day continued building the chimneys. Laborious work; though several of the native boys are now very useful, and able to take our place in this dirty work.

July 18. Employed still on the chimneys.

July 26. Various points of business to settle with the natives, which occupied nearly all day.

July 27. Settled with Hiamoe and others respecting some land in immediate connection with the settlement.

July 28. Occupied fishing.

September 8. All the afternoon employed at Mr. Brown's house, anxious for its completion, that the school may be commenced.

September 9, 10. At work at Mr. Brown's house. It may be considered by some to be out of place thus to be toiling at bricks and mortar, &c, but be it remembered that family men here have a great weight and responsibility to endure: they are dependant upon one another; and as they constantly require the assistance of their neighbours, so must they give in return; thus are we, therefore, without distinction, required to assist ourselves, and all who may stand in need; and I trust that our children and grand-children will behold, for years to come, with pleasure and admiration, those exquisite pieces of work which their forefathers accomplished in the infant state of things in this land.

In August, 1832, the family party was strengthened by the arrival of Miss Coldham, 9 to join her sister, Mrs. Henry Williams,--another unwearying labourer at the work.

Mrs. Williams to Mrs. Heathcote.
Paihia, October 29, 1832.

I have so many things to thank you for that I fear I shall omit the half. You will rejoice with us that we were relieved from such an overwhelming combination of pleasure and pain as you anticipated, for the vessel that brought a sister, and well-nigh overcame us with joy, was not the herald of a bereavement 10 (that had been three

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months previously known and deplored), although it brought additional particulars to some, contained in letters to your husband and Lydia. Maria took us quite by surprise early in the morning in the latter end of August. We had heard two nights before from Mr. Stack that Captain Clendon was not likely to have a vessel for four months, and I had deemed my expectations almost hopeless. I sent all details of her arrival to Sarah. We are sobered down now, but it will be very long before we shall have unpacked all the budgets of family news, talked over old times, and asked after all friends. Even now it seems at times to be a pleasant dream, almost too delightful to be a reality. I trust she is sent hither by the Lord of the harvest.

To follow the details of an active and laborious life, is out of the question. The main events must be selected, from each of which we must pass abruptly to the next.

We come now to another peace-making expedition. After the return of Ngapuhi from Tauranga, Titore could not resolve to abandon the war, though professing pacific intentions. He went down again, carrying with him a party of Rarawa, allies of Ngapuhi, from the North Cape. As before, it was deemed expedient to follow them up. In February, 1833, Mr. Williams, with Mr. Chapman, set out, in two boats, arriving, in three weeks' time, at Maketu, a principal station of the warring tribes.

The earlier portion of Mr. Williams' journal is omitted, in order to place the party at once on the scene of operations.

February 27, 1833. As we drew near to Maketu, we observed the flag hoisted half-mast high; and soon learned that ten persons had been yesterday killed on the road to Rotorua. We were received very graciously by all on shore; everyone turned out to meet us, and give us the news of the day. Had some interesting conversation with the leading persons; and, from what I can discover, Ngapuhi would be glad to return. The people appear to be far better disposed than I could have expected, and sincerely hope that something may be accomplished. There is much pleading for Missionaries to be sent among them, to preserve the peace.

March 7. News that four hundred men had departed, to lay in wait for Ngatiawa. We enquired into the truth of this account, which being confirmed, we sent for some of the leading men, to whom we observed that we must leave them as soon as the weather should clear up, as they appeared determined to follow their own inclinations. This led to much conversation, and a visit from all the officers of state. There was also a second council in the pa, to

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which I was introduced. Some urged the necessity of having one or two days' good fighting, as a kind of finishing stroke, and settlement of all differences, Can there be any reasoning more Satanic. I told them, that if there should be any fighting on the part of these people while we were among them, we would leave them immediately. They promised there should be none, and strongly urged the necessity of our remaining until Titore should return.

March 11. In the afternoon, several idle youths crossed over to Ngatiawa, to offer them battle: a few shots exchanged. Toward sunset the parties increased, when one person was brought back dead. Immediately all was confusion and noise, firing guns, wailing and howling in a horrid manner. This last part exclusively belonged to the women, who arranged themselves before the corpse, throwing their bodies into every attitude, filling the air with their lamentations, cutting themselves till the blood gushed out, and besmearing their faces and arms. The frantic widow sat in grief upon the body of her husband--a most distressing spectacle!-- tossing her head and her arms around her, like one deranged. The chiefs retired to their respective places, apparently much chagrined that we should witness their folly, knowing that we should be much displeased at their proceedings. What a state of wretchedness and woe, without God and without hope! What hath sin wrought, that the hand of each should be thus lifted up against his fellow! As the natives had not acted in conformity to their declaration to us on our arrival, to remain quiet until the chiefs should assemble, we felt it needful to say that we should retire as early as possible.

March 12. Several of the chiefs came, to know if we were going; and urged us, evidently with much feeling, to remain a little longer; as, if we left them, there would be no hope of effecting a reconciliation between the parties.

Desultory fighting still went on: the power of the chiefs was inadequate to restrain the young men, burning for distinction in the battlefield; yet favourable chances were not wanting, which encouraged the Mission party to perseverance. For instance, Te Amohau, the father of the man who was shot on the eleventh, after he had concluded his crying over the corpse, addressed himself generally, and said that, "as he had now lost a child in the war, it was for him to deliver his sentiments, and that he should proceed to the Missionaries and make peace. He desired no satisfaction on account of his child, but that these proceedings might be stayed."

March 18. Some of the chiefs came early. They expressed their opinion that peace would be made; and urged the necessity of not leaving them to themselves. They are truly in the gall of bitterness,

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and in the bond of iniquity; unable to trust any one, and consequently living in constant fear.

This is the clue to the native toleration of interference by strangers: their desire to escape from the bondage of their own self-imposed laws. None more conscious than themselves of the misery and desolation which was brought upon the land by the scrupulous carrying out of the saying of old times--an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth; by the exacting compensation to the furthermost jot or tittle of what could be claimed, and more besides, to keep on the safe side; for this very cause keeping up the feud to perpetuity by destroying all chance of a balance of accounts. This they knew and felt; but the remedy lay not with themselves. The inexorable code of honour forbad. It is not so long, indeed, since civilized England was able to emancipate herself from similar trammels; and even then, not so much through change of heart as of fashion. When "the toe of the peasant began to gall the kibe of the courtier," when the vulgar were so audacious as to ape the customs of the gentle, when a linendraper fell in a duel, then, and not till then, did our own form of the lex talionis come to an end. Ridicule had succeeded, where preaching had been of none effect.

Now, the natives did see clearly, that what could not be effected by themselves might be brought about through mediation of a third party. They suffered the interference of the Mission without anger. It was, in fact, the increasing necessity of obtaining protection from against each other that ultimately caused them to subject themselves to government by the Crown.

Hopes of peace were ultimately destroyed by a mishap which occurred to the Rarawa.

March 25. At eight o'clock heard musketry in the old quarter at Otumoetai, and observed the Rarawa in their favourite corner, evidencing, with their usual caution, extreme disinclination to partake of the indigestible provision of Ngatiawa. After some considerable time they retired from the field. In the afternoon the Rarawa returned to their cover near the pa, and kept up the firing till sunset. Sometimes they appeared to be in close action,-- Ngatiawa reserving their fire, and rallying out occasionally. Two men and one woman belonging to the pa were killed, and some wounded. Of the Rarawa, three men killed, two of whom were

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taken into the pa, and consequently will be devoured. Titore was a good deal vexed at the result of their day's work, and declared to our boys that the people would not listen to him. Every appearance of a gale from the northward; prepared accordingly.

On the following day the Mission party abandoned their seemingly fruitless errand; got under way, and stood on their course for home, which they reached in safety on the fourth day of the following month.

The Mission work at Tauranga was followed by one unexpected result. To those who know the country, the obtaining influence over a Pakeha-Maori (an European domiciled among Maories-- Maorified) will be deemed a greater feat than the conversion of many tribes of natives. Mr. Tapsell has already been mentioned in connection with the re-capture of the "Wellington," as the one to whom the main credit of the exploit was due. He had established himself on the East Coast, as a trader, and, like other Pakeha-Maories, had to "take sides" in war time. Neutrality was out of the question.

June 8. Received two letters from Mr. Tapsell, a flax-agent, residing at Maketu,--the man who opposed us so strenuously last year, when at Tauranga with the natives. At the latter end of his first letter, which is written just at the conclusion of making peace, he says:--"My people bid me write to you to send them a Missionary. If you should approve of that, I hope you will send one to Tauranga, Whakatane, and the river Thames, as it would be the means of keeping peace among them."

This is the testimony of one who has been living several years among this people, and has tried the power of his abilities and strength of his European knowledge in keeping this war in agitation. What he expresses in his letter, I doubt not, is his sincere opinion,-- that the influence of Missionaries will alone stay this destructive work. In the course of a few days after peace had been concluded, some of the Rarawa were surprised and killed by some in connection with Tauranga, which immediately involved all in the renewal of hostilities.

Tohitapu's turbulent career was at last brought to a close. For some while past his influence had been on the wane, because of the lessening of faith in his powers of sorcery. In spite of his arrogance and violence, he had not been a bad friend to the Mission, and when he found that his Atua had succumbed before a higher one, had

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become comparatively mild and tractable. During his last illness, his friends and dependents had treated him with neglectful indifference; but, when dead, they fought for his body.

His exit from the world is described in a letter from Mr. Williams to his brother-in-law.

Alas! Poor Tohitapu is no more: not long since, he was brought from the interior very ill, and remained at the place above a month, when he died. He expressed for some days a desire for religious conversation and instruction; but finding that he did not gain strength, but rather grew worse, he requested that no one should speak to him on these subjects. His old superstition was too strong, though he did not submit to be karakia'd previous to dissolution. This last rite may be considered as "extreme unction," and he died in comparative silence for so great a man. It was on a Sunday, and there was a good deal of struggle within to abstain from discharging their guns as a signal of his departure. A few strangers came to see him after his disease, to show how they loved him. He had expressed himself favourably towards us. There was much scuffle for his body, as to who should have the honour of burying him. Some proposed Paihia, but this we declined, fearing that might bring the tapu upon a considerable portion of the land, and involve us in perpetual broils with the people. He was at last taken away to some snug retreat, and the last I heard of him was that the dogs had found him, and eaten a good portion of the flesh off his bones. Thus died and was buried the renowned Tohitapu, in total ignorance of a Redeemer's love. Often have I spoken to him and others, but it universally brought on a sleepy fit. The scarlet robe you sent for him, was not given; he was somewhat in disgrace when it arrived, and he declined so rapidly afterwards that we did not approve of giving it him.

July 15. Marupo 11 and the Matarahurahu came firing. Finding that the tupapaku [corpse] was removed on its way up the river, they followed, brought it back, and passed on to Waitangi, on the opposite side of the river. For some time there was a prospect of disturbance, but it passed off quietly.

July 25. News this morning that the body of Tohitapu had been stolen from Waitangi, and taken to Whangae by the Roroa.

The two following extracts from the journal are worth preserving:--

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February 3, 1833. Much cast down on account of the natives at Kororareka. Tareha to-day in a great rage with Rawiri. He came towards him when at Kororareka, roaring like an infuriated bull, in consequence of some of the answers in one of the Catechisms being opposed to his views of strict propriety, inasmuch as all men, without distinction of rank, are brought under condemnation, who believe not in the name of the Son of God. This doctrine, it is observed, may do for slaves and Europeans, but not for a free and noble people, like Ngapuhi: therefore, they will not receive it.

April 21. After we had concluded our service, one of the chiefs desired to know the meaning of the intelligence, communicated to them by Tami and Captain B------, of our receiving dollars for every tangata whakapona, [believer]? I referred him to them, as it was equally new to me as to himself. It appears that Satan, through the means of these, his agents, has been very industriously circulating the idea of our intention to seize the chiefs, in a short time, and have them conveyed to England; and that for those who receive our doctrine we are to receive dollars according to the rank of the individual. Passed on to Tareha, Rewa, Tohitapu, &c. All very civil, but spoke upon the subject of the dollars. I asked, "how many we had received on account of Ripi and Te Morenga?"

On May 5, 1833, Mr. Busby, as British Resident, arrived in H.M.S. "Imogene."

On the 17th he landed in state, under a salute of seven guns from the ship, and was received by a large assemblage on shore with Maori honours--namely, firing of muskets, unearthly screams, facemaking, and the inevitable haka. Much was expected from the influence of his position; and he had a hearty welcome from the Mission.

On the 21st, Mr. Morgan arrived, in the "Prince of Denmark," to join the Mission.

Henry Williams to the Reverend E. G. Marsh.
Paihia, September 23, 1833.

There appears in your letter of August 31, 1832, the name of Mr. Holford, a gentleman of whom we have no knowledge, except that in the kindness of his heart he has forwarded to you twenty guineas to be expended for our benefit; to whom I hope you will return our warmest acknowledgments. It is pleasing and encouraging to know that we are borne in remembrance by the children of God; it strengthens our hands and gladdens our hearts. We receive this

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present of Mr. Holford's with much gratification on behalf of our little ones. It is little we want for ourselves,--indeed nothing beyond what our friends in Salisbury-square provide. But we do feel the situation of the children, though perhaps more than we ought. But is this possible. Our first desire respecting them is that they should know the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom he has sent; and, secondly, that they possess neither poverty nor riches. The great question of the future prospect of our children has occupied a good deal of our thoughts. We feel that it is impossible to look to the Society, and therefore must use our utmost efforts to ensure them meat and drink; and consequently turn our eyes to the days of primitive simplicity, when Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob possessed their own flocks and killed their own mutton and beef. And as I know not how soon I must depart hence, I have been looking at a piece of land belonging to our friend Te Morenga of Taiamai, which will most probably form the basis of a "Family Estate" for my children, and a township for the natives. It is situated in a populous district, and I hope that, while it may afford a home for my young ones in time of need, it will also afford a light in the wilderness 12 to the inhabitants around. They have been long desiring that a Missionary should reside amongst them, but this could not be done. We have therefore nominated a Missionary's son (Edward). The natives appear well pleased, and so also am I. I returned from viewing the place on Friday last. The land is good, well watered, with a wood on one side of it. There, I think, the sheep and cattle belonging to the children may be attended to, and I propose to remove some of my trusty natives, who may act as teachers among their countrymen. But this opens a new field of ideas, such for instance as the providing every fraction for this great undertaking. But Rome, they say, was not built in a day, nor will this my projected city; but when I consider for a moment how a small house is to be erected, I find that there will be required, tools to a considerable extent,--carpenters' and blacksmiths'; also, ploughs, harrows, carts, horses, &c, before much wheat will appear for the preservation of the stomach; nails, gimblets, hammers, &c, pit-saws, &c, and also articles of trade to keep the thing a going. But we must go gradually to work. Mr. Davis has sent for some saws for himself and me, and I must obtain my tools and nails as circumstances may require, or rather offer.

After all that preliminary matter you may be a little surprised when I tell you that we have made up our minds to send Edward to England. I have not yet been able to learn anything concerning

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the King's school at Parramatta, and we have heard that Captain King, a southern whaler, a man of considerable respectability, may be in the Bay in two months for England. William and Mr. Brown have strongly urged the necessity of his going, as we may be able to do something for him which it may not be in our power to do for any of the others. The lad has exceedingly pleased us lately, and I should be desirous to strain every nerve. William has taken considerable pains with him in his Latin, and is now commencing Greek. We hope that our former wishes respecting him may be realized,--that is, that he may be with a surgeon. He appears to desire it himself. Should he make his appearance among you, you may expect full despatches.

The great work of the elder Missionaries, the fruit of years of unintermitting labour, was the translation of the Holy Scriptures into what had become for them--"the vulgar tongue." The arduous nature of this undertaking will not be appreciated upon first thought. It is no light task for a man of middle age to obtain the mastery over any language whatever, even with all the means and appliances that can be brought to bear,--grammars, dictionaries, and intelligent teachers.

A mechanician 13 of great original genius has been heard to say, that he had not only to invent the mechanism, but also the tools with which the machinery was to be made. In like manner these translators had to deduce and frame the rules which constitute a grammar; to fix an everchanging language; 14 to make choice among dialects, to compile a dictionary, and in so doing to find out, without a guiding literature, how much was pure, and how much alien--in plain English, "slang;" to winnow the wheat from the chaff; in fine, to bring a wild and unhandled language into subjection. For this, a certain amount of hard scholarship, and acquaintance with the science of language, was requisite. And this was abundantly possessed by Mr. William Williams, an

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Oxford man of repute, who took the acknowledged lead during this most difficult period of the work.

It is not intended to imply that the translation of those days reached perfection by a bound. Revision after revision took place, other labourers coming into the field, until the natives came to take the same pride and delight in it, for the very beauty of the language-- pure and idiomatic Maori, that an Englishman does in the authorized version of his own church.

But even mechanical difficulties contributed to the original imperfections of the work. Special founts of type are needed for printing in the Maori language; compositors have not a little difficulty in setting up from copy 15 in a strange tongue; and the correctors of the press were not professional, but amateurs. The first attempt, mentioned by Mr. Henry Williams with small respect, may vie, for typographical error, with the Bible, famous among book collectors, of Sixtus V.

Henry Williams to the Reverend E. G. Marsh.
Paihia, August 13, 1833.

We have just received a large quantity of books which have been printed in the Colony [New South Wales] in the native tongue. I hope our good friends in London will see in time the necessity of allowing a press and a printer. The book contains 250 pages: and abounds in typographical errors; not less I should think than two to a page. It must not be offered without correction. So much for colonial work: it is a sad place. The translation is very good, and in many passages may be denominated elegant. This is principally Williams' own indefatigable work; but it will be long before the whole Bible is translated. Had we a press, many would now be at work.

In April 1833, Mr. Williams submitted to the Committee his views concerning the extension of the Society's operations in New Zealand.

I should wish to call your attention to the state of the whole island, or rather of both islands, as our numbers have been increasing,

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and the general feature of the country has undergone very material changes within these few years; while there is scarcely a part of the coast where Europeans are not settled, for the purpose of procuring flax. Though I feel that it would be improper to require any one to proceed upon new ground against his inclination, yet it is evident that he may err on the opposite side. Our ideas have been long dwelling upon the savage state of this people; and thus it may continue, unless some more considerable exertion is made to extend our influence more widely. The subject has been brought forward occasionally, that we might so dispose of ourselves as to ensure a settlement not only at the Thames, but with a prospect of extending through the two islands. To accomplish this, however, a new system must be entered upon.

I have felt much encouraged by your drawing our attention to the extension of the Mission, in some of your recent communications to us, and more particularly in your letter of August last. We have all felt considerable fears as to your means of extending our efforts, independent of which, there are many points for consideration. We are, at present, divided into four Stations in the Bay of Islands, which will necessarily require a stated number of members. At these stations we have three public works in daily progress,--the farm for the Mission, the English boys' school, and the English girls' school, which may be regarded as a basis of our Mission, requiring our constant and peculiar care. After providing for these, it may perhaps be well to ask what probable strength you may, in reasonable calculation, be enabled to provide, for the whole extent of New Zealand?

By looking over the chart of the island, you will perceive that the part which we now possess is but a mere spot, and that at the extreme end. At present all is darkness, desolation, and death; but there is certainly no physical reason why it should thus remain. Communication with every corner of the land has long been maintained by the traders of Port Jackson. Englishmen have been placed on shore to reside, and the natives from these places have visited Port Jackson, and also the Bay of Islands, and have consequently formed extensive acquaintance with us and our desires respecting them. We are upon the eve of forming a station to the northward of Knuckle Point, and proposals are now going to Sydney to form one up the Thames, lat. 37 deg. 10', in the course of next summer. At Table Cape, also, is a chief of great note, related to these people: the neighbourhood of Entry Island, in Cook's Straits, would also form a commanding situation. Here we have leading points to begin with, also in the Southern Island. The intermediate space can be filled up or occupied as occasion may offer, either by dividing the Europeans, or by native teachers who may act under the guidance of the Missionaries.

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It is scarcely worth while to take account of spiteful stories invented and published by chance-visitors to the Mission stations, or of their complaints that they were not sufficiently well lodged and attended to. A passing notice must suffice.

Henry Williams to Mrs. Heathcote.
Paihia, August 29, 1833.

We feel sorry that your feelings have been called into exercise at the reading of Earl's book, and at the taunts of some whom you meet occasionally. We have learnt to endure these things; and so hardened are our hearts that they make not the slightest impression on us. We are engaged in a great work, and must not notice such things. Had Earl been less virulent, his statements would have had a more deadly influence, but in his eagerness he has overshot his mark. No one in the least acquainted with human nature could be galled with such extravagance. However, I have forwarded a few remarks for the Society, and will copy them for you, which you can use as you think proper, but I hope will reserve; for there are many who will gladly believe a lie, and will not be convinced by any evidence. Their good opinion and bad are alike one,--of no weight. Our trials, if I may so express myself, are manifold, and come from various quarters; yet, they shall endure but for a little moment, and work for us a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory. We are sorry that the Society should have felt it needful to have taken any notice of it publicly. I shall here transcribe a few observations which I have written to Mr. Coates.

Paihia, May 31, 1833.
Before the departure of the "Active," I should wish to send you a few observations respecting Mr. Earl's narrative of a nine months' residence in New Zealand.

We thank you for forwarding the book for our inspection, though under other circumstances we should not think it worthy of notice. However, I shall give you my own views.

The refutation had been copied for the press, but is cancelled. For these calumnies, paltry and spiteful, but of no serious import, are forgotten. It is enough to say that the exposure of Mr. Earl's statements was complete. Among other assailants were Mr. Dillon, and Dr. Lang; upon whose merits it is needless to enlarge. 16

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There is much sameness in a narrative of continual travelling, always for one or other of the two main objects,--peace-making, and the dispersion of the Mission. Lesser movements must be passed over, for the purpose of bringing into prominence the three journeys into Waikato, through which the southern stations were formed, and after many vicissitudes, ultimately placed upon a stable footing.

The state of things down there was wretched in the extreme. It was worse than a well-defined war between two tribes, where shelter might be had within the lines of either army. The land swarmed with Ishmaelite marauding parties, each with minor causes of grief subordinate to the main cause, which was, the disputed title to a tract of what might be fairly called "no man's land."

The first journey was undertaken with Mr. Brown, Mr. Fairburn, and Mr. Morgan, 17 extending to Matamata,--a great feat in those days. There Mr. Williams had a long conversation with Waharoa, 18

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the clue to all subsequent proceedings. Waharoa wished for Missionaries, and to obtain them, was willing to arrange for peace. He proposed that Mr. Williams should fetch down chiefs from Ngapuhi and from Ngatimaru (Thames), that all might be brought face to face. The promise that new stations should be formed was fulfilled; Mr. Fairburn and Mr. Preece going to Puriri; Mr. Brown and Mr. Wilson to Matamata; Mr. Morgan and Mr. Stack to Mangapouri. The voyage was made in open boats, the cutter "Karere" accompanying, as tender. The details shall be given in Mr. Williams' own words. It must be premised, however, that in this instance, as in all others, excepting one, his narrative is very much compressed; in order that this volume should not be swelled to an inconvenient bulk.

October 22, 1833. At half-past five, entered Whananake: a reef of rocks, of which it is needful to take particular care, runs out some distance from the North Head, in N.E. direction. We passed further up than formerly; no sign of inhabitants. The scenery very beautiful, but the river shoal, fit only for very small vessels. Pitched our four tents among the bushes, dined, held evening service, and retired to rest early, rather tired, the boats having been previously anchored in the river, ready for a move at break of day.

October 23. At daylight, all under weigh. Light air from the northward. Passed comfortably on to Tutukaka to breakfast. Assembled the boys in the shade, and held morning service. At ten, moved on, and at two, close to Te Whara; breeze shifted to N.W. at five; pulled to Mangawai by dusk; breakers at the entrance. Much care required to secure the boats, owing to the great stones.

October 24. All in motion at daylight, and by sunrise, pulled out, and with a pleasant breeze from the north, passed on to Omaha, our favourite spot. Determined to remain the day, to adjust our things, and send the boys for a stock of fern-root and fish; some in quest of pigeons. Our sportsmen soon returned; one having lost his flint, the other having spilt his shot in the bush. Replenished their stock, and started afresh. The lads returned early, with ten pigeons and a large collection of fine fish, which

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occupied them till dark to cook, as sea-stock. The boys appeared well satisfied,--a very important point.

October 25. Mr. Morgan called us up before three o'clock, telling us it was a fine morning, and little wind. As the moon had not yet set, we concluded it was daylight, and all hurried up. The sky looked dark and hazy, and gusts of wind seemed to indicate an approaching gale, as it passed over the hills and among the trees. We loosed from our pleasant retreat, and were soon outside, where we found wind enough. As we drew near the point of land, going into the Thames, the sea became irregular, owing to the ebb tide, and threatened to break on board; but we soon rounded, and were immediately in smooth water. We continued on to Motu Kawau, a large island; landed in a fine bay perfectly secure from wind. Here we pitched our tents, brought everything on shore, and prepared for a gale which was fast breaking upon us. The boys behaved well, and our encampment soon appeared like a little town among the trees which protected us from the wind. The rain fell for two or three hours, when the wind shifted to S.S.E., and blew strong.

October 26. At first dawn of day was waked by the sweet sound of the bellbirds; their varied notes fill the woods, and continue till sunrise, when they cease. Fine clear morning, but the wind strong from S.E.; could not move on our way. After breakfast, we went to explore a river a little distance from us. We found sufficient water, and perfectly secure for any vessel, and a place which it is highly important to know, as a refuge in bad weather. In the evening we were thrown into considerable alarm, owing to the absence of three of our boys, who had gone with the rest in the morning to forage for food, and were not returned. Apprehensive lest they might have been climbing over the rocks after birds, and fallen. One of the boys was Puhi, son of Rauroha, one of the principal chiefs here, who died a few months since. Had anything happened to this lad, all our hopes and views here would have been frustrated for a season, as the natives would have looked to us for satisfaction.

October 27. Sunday. The three boys returned in the night; they had lost themselves; we felt very thankful to see them. On what a slender thread do all our joys and consolations here depend! how far concealed from our feeble sight are all future events! We know not what an hour may bring forth. My rest had been disturbed through the night, under the apprehension that mischief had befallen this lad, and that we should not, therefore, dare to proceed on our way. At half-past ten, assembled in a shady spot, and held service; it was retired from the busy hum of man, for naught was heard but birds of sweet and varied note skipping from branch to branch, as though surveying the group of mortals who had landed on their isle, and had intruded upon the quiet of their abode; however, they did not betray fear, and as we sang the praises of God and our Redeemer,

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their voice was also distinctly heard with ours. But I felt a kind of indescribable something, as I viewed the ground upon which we sat. For many successive years, this neighbourhood has been the seat of war, in its most savage and infernal state. Not content with killing, but tearing even limb from limb has the foul demon taught his subject to protract human misery, and at times 'ere life has been extinct, they have commenced the work of cannibalism. Doubtless, this spot has witnessed many scenes like this, but now I knew it as an earnest for good that the Lord has heard the prayers of his people, and that the place is consecrated to His presence. At sunset, appearance of wind and rain obliged us to shift the position of some of the tents.

October 28. After breakfast, we crossed over to the south point of the island, to take bearings of the various islands, points, &c, around us. Considerable difficulty in ascending the hills, owing to the ferns, shrubs, &c, with which they are covered; however, our view was good, and I was enabled to take a sketch of the islands and country around. Evening fine; wind more from the westward; launched the boats, and put everything on board except our beds, in prospect of an early move.

October 29. Cloudy, and symptoms of strong wind. Determined to make the attempt to cross; shipped some water as we drew into the tide way; but the boys pulled well into Mahurangi; by a quarter past eight landed in a quiet bay, to breakfast. After assembling our boys to our morning service, we proceeded up the harbour, to see Mr. D. G. Brown; we found him well, and living in perfect quietness with about thirty of his natives. He gave us some information, and furnished us with a more correct chart of this part of the Thames. We left this beautiful place about three for Whangaparoa, and passed over in an hour and a quarter. The wind was strong, but we passed on comfortably.

October 30. Cloudy; wind scant; were therefore undetermined how to proceed. At high water, pulled to windward, and finding the weather moderate and water smooth, we crossed over on the ebb tide, and by twenty minutes past eleven landed in a small bay on the east side of Motutapu. We here found a small party, with Wharekawa. As we came in sight, they immediately began to prepare for defence, while the women and children ran off; but as the boats came nearer, they knew us, and discharged their pieces as a salute. We had some of their relations with us, who had been on a visit with us to the Bay of Islands. After a long and dismal cry, we had some conversation with them; they were going in an opposite direction to us. Before I left this spot, I mounted the hill, and took a view of the islands and their bearings, preparatory to correcting the chart. At half-past three we took our departure, and about five landed in a small bay on Motuihu. We had to contend with a rough sea for a short time, as the weather tide was making

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strong; but as we drew near to land, we found it quiet, and soon went to work upon our quarters for the night. Sent off a party to fish; they returned with a large quantity. In passing along these islands with a boat, it is highly expedient to consult the time of tide, as a sea is tossed up in a few minutes. As our distance was short, we intended to go to-day. We packed up at daylight, but our lads, whose independence cannot be exceeded, gave us to understand that we could not move without their assistance. We were consequently an hour and a half before we left the beach, and six hours before we arrived at Mokoia, a distance of about nine miles. As the labour of pulling fell upon them, I did not feel disposed to express my displeasure, though I had the misfortune to feel it. We at length arrived in a small basin, which had something romantic about it. The entrance was narrow, between rocks, overhung with small trees and shrubs. We here landed at Mokoia (Panmure), famous in New Zealand history,--the spot where about twelve years since stood the pa of Hinaki, which was then taken by Hongi, and very many put to death. The people in the pa had at that time about eight muskets, while every man of Ngapuhi was well provided with everything, fully equipped for the field. The land was now overgrown with fern and tupakihi bushes; no sign of an inhabitant could be observed in any direction. Part of a human skull lay on the ground close to us, which was more than half an inch thick; there were three deep cuts on it from a hatchet, most probably inflicted at the time of the general massacre. The country around appeared very level for a great extent; and the general report of the natives (for we could not examine far) is, that it is of the same quality with that here. The river on which this place stands runs up a long distance, to within half a mile of Manukau, which empties itself on the western coast.

November 1. Cloudy, uncomfortable morning. As we arrived at the heads of the river, the wind had so increased, that we were obliged to pull for a beach, to windward, for shelter. On our way, we came suddenly upon stones, when Mr. Fairburn's boat ran on one and stove a great hole; she filled immediately, and was obliged to run on shore, to prevent her sinking. This was a sad check to our proceedings. We made the best of our way to a beach about a mile distant to repair our damages. The fracture was near three feet in length. We pitched our tents, under the impression that we should be detained till after Sunday. This beach, which is nearly a mile in length, is where Rangituke, son of old Te Koki, was killed, about five years since. It was therefore interesting to us, and to our boys, who had the battle to fight over again, in their narrative.

November 2. Very fine morning. Sea breeze set in about ten. Obliged to remain in an inactive state, as we could not proceed owing to the accident of yesterday. Our little bark was finished in

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the afternoon and as there was no paint, we were obliged to substitute candle-grease, to keep out the water.

November 3. Sunday. No natives near us, to whom we could communicate the glad tidings of peace; very considerable dis-apointment, but hope to be with them to-morrow. Assembled our little congregation, and held service.

November 4. The breeze fair; carried us on to Pakihi. We landed on a fine steep beach, and had breakfast, but were first obliged to fish for it. We afterwards passed on to Wairoa, a river abreast of this island on the main. We went up two or three miles, but could not see any natives until our return, though fires were burning in several directions. As we were returning, a young man showed himself, fully prepared for action, with his gun and cartouchbox. Having satisfied himself who we were, he came forward. He invited us to the settlement which was some distance up the river, but we could not go, as the tide was low. On our return, we consulted as to the best movements to make, when it was determined to wait here for the "Karere" until Thursday morning, and then proceed, without her, up to the head of the Thames, should she not have arrived.

November 5. In the afternoon, we crossed over to a large island in order to give the boys opportunity to dig fern-root, as our stock of provisions is getting low, and no appearance of the "Karere." We ascended one of the hills, from which we had a commanding view. The island on which we were, was large--abundance of ground for many families. The rocks were covered with oysters, and pipis on the mud banks, which run out a long distance, and the sea full of fish of all kinds. It was melancholy to look around. All was perfect stillness--except here and there a bird, no bustle of active life--no vessels, boats, or canoes, moving on either hand-- over the surface of these waters which spread, like magnificent rivers, among these numerous islands. The hills in the rear are clothed with timber, without rendering service to any. Traces of former towns and settlements were visible, as we came along, wherever we turned, but all were destroyed.

November 6. Wind continues westerly, and we doing nothing, waiting for the "Karere." The boys employed in fishing and digging fernroot. All in readiness by sunset, for a move at daylight.

November 7. At break of day, all in motion; struck our tents, and proceeded on our voyage, having left a note for William Lewington, 19 suspended to a stick, with directions to follow us. The morning was extremely fine, and sea smooth; a light air from the westward. We came to a beautiful point of land, which ran far into the sea. Here we had some conversation with a small party, who wished us to land and take refreshment; but we were obliged

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to proceed on. They brought, however, a basket of stinking corn, which had been soaking in water for some weeks. This, to them, is a great treat, though the stench was unbearable to us. We passed on a little further, and put into a small bay to breakfast. The natives here were relatives to Puhi and Ngaiwi, youths who had been with us some time; they sat down and had a long cry. Having concluded breakfast, we continued our course with the sea breeze, which had now set in. Met a canoe with a number of natives, who had come to meet us; they saluted us with their muskets, and we proceeded together some distance; but landed at a small settlement, in order to make some examination of the quality and general character of the country, as it had been proposed to establish a new settlement hereabouts. It was so thickly wooded that we could not see far before us; but generally light timber. The soil appeared good. In the rear were hills covered with timber. We walked on to the top of the bank toward the sea, about a mile; but soon got off the good land, and passed over an entire bed of pudding-stones, from eight to fifty pounds each. We found our walking very uncomfortable, and again entered our boats, and continued on for about two miles; the hills coming close down to the water for some distance, when the land again improved. As this was the spot where it had been considered the houses should stand, we landed; Messrs. Brown, Fairburn, and Morgan entered the wood. My attention was occupied in speaking to the natives, about forty in number; I felt glad of the opportunity. Numbers soon gathered around, and we had an interesting meeting. The few patches of land here which had been cleared seemed very rich, but it did not continue far to the southward. We now passed on to Wakatiwai; our road lay along the bank of stones, which continued all our way; this made our walk heavy, and cut our feet. At about four, we arrived at the pa, where we saw our old friends Patuone, Kupenga, &c, and a good number of men, women, and children. All flocked around to gaze upon us and our baggage, which the boys, in our absence, had brought out of the boats, and put in a heap before them, to our great annoyance. After some trouble, we obtained dinner, of which we stood much in need. Before sunset, we assembled about a hundred and thirty natives, with whom we held service. In the evening, Patuone presented two pigs; he expressed great concern at not having any children. He complained that the Europeans had large families, but they had none. It certainly is a mystery to them how we become so numerous, and they so few. They tell us we are like the cattle, and shall soon cover the land; that we never die, as they do, but multiply exceedingly. I told him that their own great wickedness and abominations were the cause of all their distresses; they were corrupt in all their ideas and ways.

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November 8. Went to see the country around the pa. All the low land exceedingly good, but to no extent. At noon, we took the boat, and pulled to the land we had looked at yesterday, where it was considered the houses would stand. We walked directly through the wood, and found it very strong for some distance. The low land did not exceed a quarter of a mile, when we came to a rising ground, covered with kahikatoa; very ordinary; we continued to the southward, in a parallel direction to the line of coast, and then struck through the bush to the sea, but were much surprised to find that the whole of the low land here was one continued bed of round stones, with scarcely any perceptible soil. This fact, added to several other objections, appears to close our examination in this neighbourhood. On our return, we were much relieved by the sight of the "Karen" standing towards the place; she anchored at sunset, and delivered letters from our wives and children, and from many of our natives, for ourselves and boys. This was an interesting particular for the people of the place, as they were thus enabled to perceive the nature and value of written characters, by the testimony of these, their countrymen. Our boys seemed to look for, and read over their letters with as much pleasure as we did ours, to the delight of all around; they repeated them aloud, to the admiration of their auditors, who were struck with wonder, at hearing, as they described it, "a book speak,"--for though they expect that a European can perform any extraordinary thing, yet they cannot understand how it is that a New Zealand youth can possess the same power. Our communications were gratifying; all were well,--praised be the name of the Lord! At dusk, had evening prayers; Mr. Fairburn addressed the party.

November 9. Mr. Lewington breakfasted with us, and gave us the news from Paihia. Dr. and Mrs. Ross had come with him to Mahurangi. Our friends here, Kupenga, and Herua, appear jealous of our moving elsewhere. At low water, after much difficulty, we took our departure; the boys and the natives of the place wishing us to remain. The Seabreeze had set in, and soon carried us across. The "Karere" passed over the flats well, and we all arrived at Kopu by three o'clock. The natives here gave us the usual welcome, firing guns, &c. I met several who had seen me in the Bay of Islands. We were immediately surrounded, and while the boys were putting the boats and baggage in order, I sat down and had a long conversation with our friends. We contrived to get dinner before sunset, after which, we had evening prayers, and gave a few words of address to these poor people. They told us they had observed the Ra Tapu (had kept the Lord's day); but that was all they knew, as there was no one to instruct them. The country here is singularly beautiful; on the left are gigantic hills, the most varied of any I had ever yet seen in this island, well covered with timber. The opposite side of the river is perfectly

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level, and an extent of wood beyond the reach of the eye. Horeta soon arrived, a man of noble appearance. Retired to rest; very weary.

November 10. Sunday. The natives congregated around our tents at sunrise. After breakfast, assembled all for service. Mr. Fairburn addressed them. It was our intention to have pulled up to Turua, to have seen the natives there; but the tide was so late, and the banks of the river so muddy, we could not accomplish it. A number of natives sitting about all day. Toward sunset, held evening service with the people of the place; I spoke to them upon the New Birth; it was doubtless as new and strange to them as it was, eighteen hundred years ago, to Nicodemus. Parekawhiowhio arrived, a man of renown. I have for a long time been desirous to see him; he has borne a notoriously bad character as a sly, murderous fellow; he is now blind. We had a good deal of conversation with him, but he was as wild as a hyena, and seemed desirous of returning to the woods; he spoke with greater rapidity than any one I ever heard. Many inquiries through the day as to the time when the Mission would be established here. Much jealousy expressed. The natives were very kind. Our attention was called to the cruel acts of the Ngapuhi, at Te Totara, &c.; though it appears that, till within these twenty-five years, Ngapuhi used to be driven before these people.

November 11. Packed up the baggage, and sent the boats on board the "Karere." Walked with the old man, Horeta, to see some of his plantations. The land over which we passed was perfectly level, and far more extensive than we had anticipated; our walk was superb; we continued till we came to a small river, which runs among the hills. The scenery here was very fine; the hills at the back run very high and irregular, covered with timber, giving a fine finish to the landscape. We here took leave of our friend Horeta, and returned by Te Totara, a pa which had been taken by Ngapuhi about thirteen years since, before guns were introduced among these people. Ngapuhi had been sitting near the pa several days, receiving presents, and holding friendly intercourse; but, having obtained their confidence, they rose upon them and killed a great number, and took all whom they could seize as slaves. The most horrible cruelties were practised, and many chiefs were cast alive into their ovens. Some of the posts of the fence are still standing, and, from the extent of the ground we passed over constituting the site of the pa, there must have been a large number of people. Human bones lay scattered up and down, and the natives pointed out the spot where their relatives had been killed and eaten. We arrived on board the "Karere" by one o'clock, and prepared for our journey to Waikato. We left at three, and were soon carried up by the tide to Turua, where we landed; but no natives there. We examined the land in the neighbourhood, but found it low and swampy, the

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wood extending all along the right, without a break. Continued our course, and overtook a canoe; learnt that the people were up a small river, at their cultivations. We followed them, and soon found ourselves at an interesting settlement. The chief came forward to welcome us with "Hareru mai, poe? [How do you do, my boy?] They expressed great pleasure when they learnt who we were. We much admired this spot, as the land lay high, was of good quality, and considerable extent. We walked immediately to see their plantations, as the sun was now low. We were particularly pleased with the place and people, a long train of whom accompanied us from our landing to the foot of the hills. The natives made many inquiries when any one was coming to be with them, as they were people who attended to our karakia. Having taken our evening repast, we assembled all (about one hundred and fifty or two hundred) to evening service. It was a pleasing sight. They were confined for room in front, owing to a plantation of corn, and were consequently obliged to extend to the right and left. We had several fires in front of our tents, which, with some torches held by those in the distance, gave a striking effect to the scene. We commenced, as usual, by singing a hymn; but what was our surprise when we heard our whole congregation join and sing correctly with us! In the prayers, also, the responses were given by all, as the voice of one man. 20 We had not heard the like, and could scarcely believe our ears. It was very cheering to us; we believed that the Lord had now led us to the spot where His Altar should be erected. I addressed them, and found them very attentive. Many inquiries were made for books and slates: slates we had none, but concluded to give one of our new books to Tuma. We retired to rest about eleven, tired, though highly gratified by the day's proceedings, and thankful to the Lord. We found three boys here from the Mission, who had lived in our families for some time, and had acted as teachers. Thus we see the work of the Lord prevail.

November 12. Our natives slept around, and after morning prayers with these people, we took leave, and pulled up the river with the flood tide. The scenery was very beautiful. The land was perfectly level on each side of the river; on the right the wood continued, and stretched along to the S.E. On the left, the hills were our boundary at a short distance, with woods here and there. We did not remain at Te Karipa, as the people were all dispersed at their plantations. The river here narrowed, with the trees hanging over the bank on each side. As the tide was making strong against, we landed about noon, at a place where was a small party clearing

1   Toe, or Toue, brother to Taiwhanga, of Ngatitautahi; place of abode, Kaikohe.
2   Rewharewha, otherwise called Ururoa, of Tahaawai; residence, Whangaroa.
3   Wharepoaka, of Hikutu.
4   Many years afterwards, the Mangawhai freestone was made much of in the newspapers as a new discovery.
5   This translation of mamae [painful] has given rise to some enquiry. The canoe was a waka tapu; but its more specific designation, when employed on an errand of revenge, was waka mamae. A canoe, so called, would sometimes be built, to keep in memory a grief and the duty of revenge. Consequently the translation, though not literal, is by association correct. The explanation is supplied by the Maori clergyman at Paihia.
6   Taonui, of the Popoto; place of abode, Utakuru.
7   Haki, of Urikapana; place of abode, Manowhenua.
8   Tinana, of Ngatikuta. He fell at Otuihu, Pomare's pa, in the quarrel in which Pi was slain.
9   Now the widow of the Rev. John Morgan, who was for twenty-two years in charge of the Awamutu station.
10   In allusion to the death of Mr. Williams' mother, which, however, had been already made known to the family in New Zealand.
11   Marupo [kill by night], of Matarahurahu, or Ngatirahiri: place of abode, Pouerua.
12   How this anticipation was fulfilled, was shewn on the 27th November, 1873, when Trinity Church, Pakaraka, built in memory of the founder, was formally opened by the Bishop of Auckland, amidst rejoicing of natives from far and wide around.
13   The late Sebastian Erard
14   As in English, as indeed in every living tongue, the progress of change, though partially arrested by written stand-marks, is still going on. I have known it said to a person who had acquired the native language in childhood, but in a Mission family,--"Your Maori is too good for us; it is the language of the old times,"
15   An account of the translation, gathered together with some little care, is relegated to the Appendix. To a few, it will be very interesting; to the many, not at all. But the history, if only as a bibliographical curiosity, should not be lost; nor should the names of any who took their part in the work be forgotten.
16   While this volume was going through the press, Dr. Lang re-appeared in New Zealand, where he lectured upon the evil-doings of the New Zealand Missionaries. A public meeting, to which he was formally summoned by Mr. John Fairburn, son to the Missionary catechist, was held, for the purpose of exposing the untruthfulness of his statements, which, it was there alleged, were based on information supplied by one "Jones the Ratcatcher," of Kororareka. Dr. Lang declined the challenge; and then made it a grievance that he was accused of "shewing the white feather."

The Missionaries have been assailed by many; each detractor has been challenged to the proof; not one has had the courage to attempt to substantiate; and not one, that I have heard of, has had the honesty to retract.
17   Mr. Morgan arrived, to join the Mission, in May, 1833.
18   Waharoa, of Ngatihaua, is little known to the present generation, save as the father of William Thompson, the king-maker. But he was, perhaps, the greatest general that New Zealand has known. As his biographer, Mr. Wilson, has observed, had he led his tribes in 1863, we probably should not have so far forgotten him. He was not only a consummate tactician, but a desperate fighter besides; and in single combat was never worsted. He challenged one of his lieutenants to a duel with long-handled tomahawks, for having made a blunder in action, and met him. They were separated by the by-standers, luckily for the delinquent. He was, as a child, slave to the Arawas, at Rotorua (then known as Ngatiwhakaue). but was liberated. He was a posthumous child; named from the Waharoa [large gateway], in which his father, Taiporutu, fell, when attacking a pa at Wanganui. The passion of his life was the aggrandizement of his tribe, insignificant enough when he rose to its command. He drove Te Rauparaha and the Ngatiraukawa from Maunga-Tautari to Cook's Straits; he defeated the combined forces of Ngatimaru, Ngatitematera, and Ngatipaoa (Thames tribes), at Hauwhenua,--nearly annihilating Ngatimaru some two years later, though by an act of horrible treachery. He foiled Ngapuhi,- at Matamata, after challenging in vain their leader, Tareha, to single combat. Ngatiwhakaue alone, in the long run, managed to hold their own; for, although they lost a battle at Ohinemutu, they were able to hold the pa. Te Waharoa died at Motu Hoa, Tauranga, in 1834.

I have carefully collated Mr. John Alexander Wilson's well-told " Story of Te Waharoa" with the journals of Messrs, Brown, Hamlin, Morgan, Fairburn, Chapman, and Maunsell. The comparison is interesting, where parallel accounts are given; Mr. Wilson's being evidently derived, in the main, from Maori narrative. It is further confirmed by the enquiries of the Native Lands Court, wherever the matter treated of came within its cognisance; excepting in the date of the capture of Mokoia, where there is the difference of a year.
19   Sailing master of the "Karere"
20   The responses of a Maori congregation are most gratifying to a cultivated ear. They fall naturally into monotone; while the native perception of "time" is so keen that the words sound "as the voice of one man." We have something to learn from them in that respect.

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