1874 - Carleton, H. The Life of Henry Williams, [Vol. I. ] - [Pages 151-200]

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  1874 - Carleton, H. The Life of Henry Williams, [Vol. I. ] - [Pages 151-200]
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[Pages 151-200]

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ground; the people were uninteresting. At four, we again entered our boats, and pulled on, generally in a S.E. direction; a little before sunset we landed for the night, on the left bank, a fine, clear spot; an extensive tract of level ground here presented itself to view; we pitched our tents, and had dinner between eight and nine o'clock. Various accounts of the road which lies before us; according to some, we have more days' journey to accomplish now to our desired goal than when we set out.

November 13. We arrived at Raupa by nine o'clock. No one here; nor any fences up to indicate a fortress. We arrived at Wanake by quarter past ten; a party of the Whakatohae. We landed for a few minutes, but were afraid to remain, owing to the reported length of our journey. At eleven, we landed to dine and rest the lads, who had been pulling hard all the morning, and against the current, as we had now arrived beyond the influence of the tide. At two, came into a clear country, no trees on either side; in about an hour, we again entered a wood, and continued on to Tirau. We landed for a short time; but few natives present. Our guide was very solicitous that we should remain here, but, after much persuasion, we again moved on, up the winding stream, sometimes steering west, and again south-east. We landed for the night at half-past four, as the boys said it was going to rain.

November 14. Left our quarters at six, and at half-past seven landed at Te Ruakoawa; our course sometimes N.E., S.E., and S. We here secured the boats, concealed the paddles, &c, and prepared for our march. The day was the hottest we had experienced for a long time; not a cloud or a breeze. Our attention was drawn to the ascending of a column at no great distance from us, which was at first supposed to be smoke, but was discovered to be the ashes of fern carried up by a whirlwind. It appeared very remarkable, for there was not a breath of air near us; there were two other columns at a short distance. Halted at two o'clock for dinner, at the edge of a wood, much overcome with the heat, but thankful for the retreat. Our guide here left us, to proceed on to Waharoa; by which we inferred that the distance was not so very great; he went forward to apprise him of our approach. Four strangers arrived, who informed us that the old man was near at hand, and pointed out a wood where he resided. We were well refreshed by four o'clock, and at dusk turned aside, to go down to the bank of the river for the night. We here fell in with four Europeans, and a few of their natives; they were civil. We soon pitched our tents, lit up some fires, took a good wash, and had supper. The natives had prayers this evening by themselves; and while they were singing the hymn, the Europeans, who were near us in a raupo whare [rush house], and who rank among the New Zealand merchants, struck up their vocal powers, and sang the well known ballad "Old King Cole." Several places pointed out where battles had been

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fought, great men had fallen, and murderous scenes had taken place.

November 15. Did not move till late, understanding that the place we were going to was only a short way off. We passed through many swamps; the last was very deep, but I was carried over comfortably by the aid of two poles, though the bearers frequently sank in the mud up to the chest. We entered a wood, and soon found ourselves at the cultivations of the old man, Waharoa, who was sitting in state in the midst of his nobles. We were here welcomed graciously; potatoes and a pig handed over to us. After taking some refreshment, we all passed on to Matamata, the pa. We here pitched our tents, in a clear spot, a good assemblage watching our movements with much interest. In the evening, worship held here, for the first time, to the one True and Only God. Mr. Fairburn addressed them.

November 16. The old man appeared early at the tent door; I had a long conversation with him. The natives related many sad accounts of attacks having been made upon them by the people of the Thames and Ngapuhi, particularly at the time when the expedition went against Tauranga. A party made a sudden attack upon this place, under the idea that there were but few men here; they returned, however, without effecting much mischief. In the afternoon, sent a blanket to Waharoa as a present, in return for his attention to us. Many natives around, all the afternoon. Before sunset assembled all to prayer; very attentive. I spoke to them for a short time, and particularly told them to remember that to-morrow would be the ra tapu [the Lord's day]. They expressed much pleasure, and begged for a Missionary to abide with them.

November 17. Fine morning. The natives gathered round. We endeavoured to assemble the people in a large new house which was not quite finished; but this was objected to, as it was still tapued, and the women must not enter, although the men might do so. This was sufficient for us to drop the question; we therefore congregated together beneath the trees of an adjoining wood, and held our service; all very attentive. Our old friend Waharoa appeared much interested, and asked many significant questions, and at last inquired what they were to do without a Missionary to teach them. This man has been a great warrior, and it is highly gratifying to see him thus, as a little child, making inquiries. Our congregation formed a pleasing picture, it was composed of all ages, and many were perched about upon the branches and stumps of trees. In the evening, again assembled for prayer; I addressed them. The old man was again foremost in his inquiries; we were all highly delighted with him; he was desirous that we should remain, and he would conduct us to the various places of Waikato; but we cannot remain, our time being expended. The leading men spoke of the necessity of our seeing those of Ngatimaru, that they might not be tutu [vexatious]

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towards them, as heretofore, and gave an invitation to any of the chiefs of Ngapuhi to come, that a good understanding might be established, and all fighting cease. They pleaded hard for a Missionary. I trust the establishing a station in the Thames and in Waikato will be attended with very beneficial effects. May the Lord hear our prayers, and crown our feeble efforts with success! Waharoa is a venerable, grey-bearded man, bold, determined in his undertakings, and possessed of much natural good sense. Our conversation continued until dusk.

November 18. At half-past five, all were on the move homewards; the old man accompanied us three miles on our road, through the first swamp; it was a dirty place, with difficulty we crossed. The old man very particular in his last injunctions to return to him, and bring with us some of the chiefs of Ngatimaru and Ngapuhi; he was very kind, and gave us two small pigs and two baskets of potatoes, though there is scarcely a basket to be obtained, as all are planted. We arrived at a wood, where we dined; and at five we brought up on the edge of a wood; our boys seemed tired: our distance today eighteen miles, through several swamps and some little wood. Our boys commenced immediately to kill and clean one of the pigs, and to pitch our tents; we were soon in snug quarters, and passed an agreeable evening.

November 19. At twenty minutes past five, were on the move towards the boats, and after two hours' walk, arrived, thankful to find all safe. Our distance from Matamata computed at twenty-five miles. After a good wash in the. river, of which we all stood much in need, took breakfast, and proceeded down the stream; by six o'clock we entered the creek leading to Te Puriri. Our distance on the river, as near as we could determine, must have been forty miles; our movements received considerable check, as the tide was out, and not room for the boats; we with great difficulty effected a landing by laying down a quantity of fern-tops on the mud. Took supper, and lay down till high water, and then moved up the river.

November 20. Natives around at first peep of day, wishing to hear the news. After breakfast, previous to entering upon any arrangements with the natives of the place, we held a council as to the most desirable place of all we had seen in the Thames, upon which to form the proposed Station, when it was concluded that none had presented itself equal to the one we now are at. 1 We accordingly took a survey of the ground; wishing to give the natives some idea as to the portion required, we walked round the wood in the rear, and signified our wishes. There did not appear any objection, and with the wood there is level land in abundance, fit for any

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purpose, with fresh water streams running in various directions. Orders were given for the erection of three houses. Assembled the natives in the evening, and spoke to them as usual. This place, though deficient in some points, yet possesses many important advantages: it is central, and will stand between these two parties as a restorer of wounded feelings which have long existed between these people, even the tribes of this river, who have but one common enemy,--Ngatiawa, Waikato, and Ngapuhi.

November 21. The people in general consultation as to the erection of the houses; some of the old women very vociferous in their harangues. At high water took leave of these people, with many expressions of regard on their part, and many desires on ours that they might be blessed with every spiritual blessing. In two hours arrived on board the "Karere" lying off Kopu; all well. We immediately commenced our preparations for departure in the morning, should the weather permit, which however did not look very promising.

November 22. Rough night. Rose at daylight, and found the little vessel dancing in good style, lying across the tide; no moving out to-day, wind directly against us, and strong. We shifted our quarters to the shore; a quiet exchange. Rain commenced. Not many natives in the pa. A long discussion upon the murder which took place here a few months since. Determined, therefore, not to take any one with us from hence, though several applied to return with us.

November 23. Much wind and rain through the night; no appearance of moving. Some few natives, in the course of the day, uncivil in their behaviour, and importunate for payment for wood and water. In the evening, several strangers, Porua, &c.; had long conversations with them upon their sad and wretched state; they replied, they were very well before the Europeans came and brought muskets to Ngapuhi, and the God of the Europeans, Waraki, had carried off great numbers in sickness; they acknowledged, however, that the news we had now brought them was good, and they hoped all would attend. It is a lamentable truth that, wherever we find Europeans void of religious feeling established, the natives are far worse, their manners more insolent, more corrupt, than those who are more remote.

November 24. Sunday. Wind more moderate. Horeta came this morning. Messrs. Brown, Fairburn, and Morgan went to a settlement about eight miles on the coast to the northward, and some of our natives to Puriri. While at service, our old friend Urumihia came, in her canoe; she was very gracious, and continued with us all day. Our congregation small. In the afternoon, called on the young man residing here as flax agent; several youths at work fencing in his premises. Weather more promising for a departure in the morning.

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November 25. Our hopes of moving vanish; strong breeze N.N.W.; weather very warm; our friend Horeta took his departure for his plantations.

November 26. Heavy gale through the night, with rain; at daylight rain ceased, and at nine o'clock more promising; proposed to make the attempt to cross the Whakatiwai. Went to the "Karere" and having put our provisions in order, pulled out at the latter end of the ebb, and, after three hours' struggle with the wind and tide, and two hours' sailing, we landed at Wharekawa to dinner. We met here a number of men, women, and children. They inquired the news from the river and Waikato. We gave them a few words upon eternal things; and took our departure at nine, wishing to avail ourselves of the breeze, now fair. We called at a place where Herua was residing, and left word with him to join us in the morning.

November 27. A most lovely night, the moon shining bright; it was after midnight when we landed at Pakihi, the nearest island. We soon kindled good fires, pitched our tents, and, after a cup of coffee, retired to rest. Herua, with a large party, arrived before eight, and brought the two boys left behind; they were much disappointed when told that the Mission would be established among another tribe. At noon, landed on the west end of Waiheke; wind having shifted to N.W., by which our hopes of reaching home, this week, are all blighted. After refreshing the boys and ourselves, we again put off, at half-past three, for Motu Tapu; flood tide; several dangerous rocks were with difficulty avoided. As we passed along, we found ourselves suddenly in a race, and the sea boiling in a frightful manner. We felt thankful the distance was not great, and we soon pulled clear; the boys were a little alarmed, and extolled the merits of the boat, in being able to accomplish such wonders; had she been a canoe, we must have been upset. We landed on Motu Tapu, in a lovely, retired, sheltered spot, where the clematis and convolvulus and other creeping plants hung beautifully around. On the opposite side of the small channel was Rangitoto. While the boys were arranging the tents and our supper, we crossed over to make some examination of this strange place, of which we had heard so much. The natives described it as being impossible to walk there, owing to the wounds inflicted on the feet by the rocks,--and indeed no wonder, for the character of the place was as totally different from any land about us as it was possible to imagine. The island is one pile of lava, in blocks and masses of different sizes, in all shapes and descriptions, which have been torn asunder at some subsequent age; some resembled dross from a furnace, the small points and corners of which were so sharp, that it is almost impossible for a native to escape. The edges of oyster shells must be a trifle to this. At sunset, appearance of a gale from the northward; prepared accordingly.

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November 28. Quiet and refreshing rest. A gale at north; the summit of Rangitoto enveloped in clouds. Walked across the narrow channel, which was dry, to examine more particularly this curious place. Notwithstanding the stones lay in huge masses, with frequent openings and fissures, the depth of which could not be ascertained, bushes and shrubs appear to cover the whole island. I was enabled to obtain some good specimens of lava, the best I ever saw, and as fresh as though but just set. In many places it lay like a foaming sea, and many large flakes, like the feathered wave, when driven by a strong wind. I had now more leisure to view and contemplate this wonder of the Great Maker of all. In all parts of New Zealand are volcanic remains, but none like this, which retains such strong evidence of the once liquid state of this matter. In the afternoon, heavy rain; our fires were very necessary and comfortable.

November 29. This morning wind shifted to S.W., but too strong to venture across to Whangaparaoa; went over to Rangitoto to explore, and certainly these wonders of the Almighty, as here displayed, must strike the beholder with awe. We walked about a mile towards the mount over broken lava, which required our utmost circumspection, lest we should fall into some abyss below; we at length arrived at a clear, open space, many acres, which appeared like newly broken ground; it was free from moss or vegetation of any kind, except in a few small patches, where were some plants, as though left by design; I was much struck with this variation from the general disorder around. In the afternoon the weather was more moderate; prepared for a move at high water, as we concluded the wind would die away in the morning. At nine, left this place, but little wind; crossed comfortably, by midnight, to Whangaparaoa.

November 30. Fine night. At three, entered Mahurangi; discovered it with difficulty; lit fires, and lay down to take some rest. At seven, proceeded to the house of Mr. G. D. Brown; we did not long remain there. At two, arrived at Omaha; wind south. No "Karere" there; took a hurried dinner, and continued our course towards home. We entered Whangamata at dusk; the breakers were running in an ugly way at the mouth of the river, but the flood tide carried us in, and we took possession of our old quarters.

December 1. All weary. Held comfortable service with our boys. Saw the "Karere" some distance in the offing, standing to the northward; wind N.E.; fearful of another detention. At sunset, clouds moving fast from the southward.

December 2. Fine night. At two o'clock, all in motion, preparing for departure. Pulled out of this ugly place at low water, the breakers extending across the river, but passed out well. Continued our course, with a little wind, to Tutukaka, where we arrived by eleven o'clock to breakfast. We here remained three hours, to rest the boys, who had been pulling all the morning. In

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the afternoon again proceeded on our way; little wind, but considerable swell. At sunset, landed on a quiet beach; boys too tired to continue.

December 3. At two o'clock, all on the move and in good spirits, in the expectation of being at home in a few hours; breeze south, which carried us by eight o'clock round Cape Brett, and into smooth water. As the "Karere" hove in sight, we waited for her, and landed on one of the islands in Paroa Bay to breakfast, and put our persons a little to rights, previous to returning home, as we were in our travelling garbs, which were rough enough. We all sailed on together, with a sea breeze, and by noon were greeted by our families and friends, whom we found in health and peace, after an absence of exactly six weeks.

Europeans, while decrying the Missionaries, were not slow to claim assistance when in trouble, though not often mindful of the service, when rendered. One instance, out of many, shall suffice

April 18, 1834. Two captains came on shore to mention that their casks had been seized up the Kawakawa, whither they had been taken for water, and "to request some advice and assistance, if they could be recovered quietly, otherwise the various crews of the fleet would go up armed and get them by force." I advised them to let the crews attend to their own ships, and not attempt such a hazardous undertaking, as they would meet on very unequal terms: they might go up, but would not return. I told them I would accompany them in one boat, and what could be done I would do. We went accordingly, and found one raft of several tun butts; much beyond what I had expected. We passed on to the settlement; the natives soon showed themselves, and told us that the casks were some in one place, and some in another. After a long talking, scolding, and joking, we succeeded in recovering all, keeping them in good humour. Their demands were high for the water, and it was not until we were well down the river that I considered we had full possession, as they expected we should return previously with the required payment; we parted however on very good terms. We did not arrive at the ship before we were well wet, as it rained all the afternoon.

Shortly after this, Mr. Wilson and Mr. Fairburn, with their families, sailed in the " Fortitude" for the new settlement at Puriri. They were accompanied by Mr. William Williams.

The British Resident, who had been received by the natives with acclamation, was not suffered to remain long in ignorance of their

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temper. He had to sustain his position with no greater force than that of moral influence,--a plant of slow growth. He was "a man-of-war without guns," and some of the ill-disposed were not long in finding that out.

April 29. Mrs. Williams had been two days with Mrs. Busby, who was the happy mother of a son.

May 1. A little after midnight, was awoke by a messenger (an Englishman) from Mr. Busby's, to say that the natives had broken in the windows of his house, and had been firing guns, that his master and the whole household were in a state of alarm. I immediately roused up the settlement; sent to the surgeon of the "Eliza Frances," and took Mrs. Williams over to Mrs. Busby's, fearing consequences to her. Mr. Chapman accompanied us; found all in confusion and alarm. Mr. Busby had received a slight wound in the cheek, but by what we could not tell. In about three-quarters of an hour, several boats came from the ships, fully manned, with three captains at their head, loaded with muskets, pistols, lances, harpoons, &c.; but all was now quiet, and we experienced some difficulty how to dispose of this new force. The sailors were scattered up and down, snapping their guns and pistols, and threatening vengeance upon all who came in their way. However, by stating that Mrs. Busby must be kept quite quiet, our friends withdrew, stating their readiness to return upon a signal given. At daybreak everyone out to trace the depredators. Followed their track for a considerable distance, by pieces of paper, feathers, rags, &c. We returned, after two hours' search, without discovering anything. The natives we saw appeared ignorant of what had taken place. We were here, however, much grieved by perceiving that two balls had been found in the boards of the house, one of which had been fired at Mr. Busby while standing in the doorway, the splinters from which had struck his face. The second had been fired at two Europeans while passing the end of the house, and lodged in the weather-board; four or five guns were fired in all. As the affair assumed a very serious aspect, we sent messengers to the Waimate, Kerikeri, Whangaroa, &c, to acquaint the chiefs generally, that they might consider the most proper steps to take. We then went on to the Puke, to observe whether there were any traces in that direction. We were somewhat confirmed in our surmises, as several muskets were heard in that quarter; but nothing was found on the road. We met a party of the Hikutu, removing the bones of several of their relatives. These had fired the muskets, heard in the morning. We could here learn no tidings, but all felt persuaded that the perpetrators of the deed would be discovered in a few days. Returned home in the afternoon, to observe the state of the matters there; all quiet. At sunset, took some boys and a watch dog and occupied my post at Mr. Busby's, that I might in some measure

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relieve their anxiety. There were no natives but one chief near the house. About ten, an alarm was given by one of the Englishmen on watch that voices were heard amongst the bushes at no great distance. All were ordered under arms, and to quarters at all the windows.

May 2. Cloudy night. No appearance of the enemy; everyone still at quarters, and, as officer of the guard, I was armed with the garden rake, which I thought would do very well either to keep off, or draw to, my opponent, at all events it would be a weapon they would not be well prepared for. We remained on watch till about four o'clock, and had endured several serious alarms. First, by some fowls at roost, which were magnified into a troop of grenadiers marching down rank and file in military order. Secondly, by the knawing of a rat at the boards; but, last of all, the dogs began to bark and growl, and be uneasy. All were ready, and breathless silence reigned. A ponderous opaque body was seen advancing near, when, to the relief of our bold guard, it was pronounced to be the mare. "What! a man?" exclaimed some; "No, the mare." At daylight returned home; all quiet. At ten, Wharerahi and Rewa came over to learn the news; they appeared much concerned, and passed on to Mr. Busby's.

May 3. Fine. Titore arrived in the morning; much conversation with him respecting this unhappy affair. He expressed himself well; but as yet the parties are not known. He crossed over to Kororareka, to return on Monday. In the evening, the news that Marupo's slaves had done the deed.

May 6. Saw some of the Europeans living on shore, who expressed some alarm for their own safety, owing to the late affairs. A meeting to be held to-morrow by the masters of the ships in harbour and the resident merchants, &c, to move an address to the Governor of New South Wales, that more power may be given to Mr. Busby, to support the dignity of his office. Passed on to Mr. Busby's, where we met Titore and several others. Marupo was present; he acknowledged he was a bad fellow, but not so bad as to be guilty of so foul a deed. Our conference was, upon the whole, satisfactory. Culprits were not known, consequently could not be convicted.

August 29. Heke came early. I hope he is in earnest. Moka came over from Kororareka; I had now two of the greatest rogues in the land; they came however as changed men, which is evidenced by their conduct and conversation.

October 25. Fine. H.M.S. "Alligator" came to an anchor. In the afternoon, went on board. News of an attack on some pas at Taranaki by a party of soldiers sent over for the purpose of punishing the natives there for having murdered part of the crew of a ship which had been wrecked there a short time since. Three pas had been destroyed, and several natives killed and

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wounded. The natives showed every disposition to fight, but could not stand before the troops. Though this is a serious affair, I hope it may have a salutary effect upon the people generally.

October 27. Mr. Busby, Captain Lambert, and Captain Brown called; much conversation respecting Pomare, and upsetting his pa. Captain Brown wanted to seize a native in the settlement who had run away from his vessel, which I would not allow, as the natives had come forward at the request of Captain Brown, and upon my word that he should not be touched. In the afternoon, Heke brought forward a mat of a peculiar make, which had been stolen from Mr. Busby's house on the night of the attack upon him.

October 29. Mr. Brown and I went over to Mr. Busby's to consult with him as to the measures which had better be adopted, as something must now be done, inasmuch as the culprit was discovered, and the natives were in anxious expectation upon the subject as to how the Europeans would act. After much conversation, it was determined by Mr. Brown and myself to propose to the natives that the land belonging to Reti, at Puketona, should be confiscated, and given either to the British Government, or to Mr. Busby, and that he himself (Reti) should be required to leave this part of the island. We had not long mounted our horses at Whauwhauroa, when the whole party from Puketona came in sight. We accordingly assembled upon the spot, to determine what steps were to be taken. Titore said he had been endeavouring night and day to dive to the bottom of the matter, but he could not, and had now brought Reti to stand his trial before the soldiers. He soon appeared with a party of about seventy men under arms, fully prepared for fight. I was here told to challenge Reti with the offence, and see what he would say to us. I accordingly did so. He strenuously denied for a length of time, but ultimately confessed that he fired at Mr. Busby. I mentioned to Titore our idea of disposing of the affair, at which he appeared highly delighted, and much surprised at our moderation. We called on Mr. Busby on our return home, and mentioned to him the result of our interview with the natives.

October 30. Kawiti, Hiamoe, &c, with a large party, came to the house early to learn the news; they kept me in close conversation until it was time to attend conference. At eleven, we all went over to Mr. Busby's, where we met Captain Lambert; he was exceedingly polite, and paid a great compliment to the endeavours of the Missionaries; he returned to his ship, and left us to settle the business ourselves. We here met Titore, and many others. Our meeting lasted three hours; many angry speeches were made towards the natives in the immediate connection with Mr. Busby. It was concluded to take Reti's land at Puketona. The natives appeared happy at the prospect of settling the affair in so quiet a manner. Returned home much fatigued and weary. The "Alligator" sailed at sunset.

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It was not to be expected that all who engaged in a difficult and ungrateful service should have proved equal to the position. Some there were, unfitted by lack of stable character and earnestness for the work,--unable to reach that utter abnegation of self which was the first requisite of success, who dropped off like leaves in autumn, to be wafted home; but there, to tell their own story to their own advantage. Men who came out, possibly under the supposition that life in the bush was a sort of continual picnic, and that their duty would be comprised in exhorting meek and attentive heathen, all coming by degrees to conviction of the error of their former ways. When brought face to face with stern reality, these illusions fled away, and, with the illusions, the men whom they had beguiled.

About such as these, Henry Williams spoke plainly and uprightly, as will be seen upon more than one occasion. It was, moreover, a duty to do so, lest the Society should be misled; and what he thought, he never flinched from saying.

The following letter is, in more than one point of view, very suggestive. I am not about to develop the leading idea which it indicates, being engaged in writing the life of a Missionary, and not in giving advice to a Missionary Society. Suffice it to say, that the attempt to make men useful in two capacities-- to kill two birds with one stone, almost necessarily results in failure. The principle of clear division of labour is recognized in England: why not also in New Zealand. Give a man two sorts of work to perform, leave him to himself, and, almost of course (in a colony more especially), he neglects that which does not confer the higher social station. If labourers are to be sent out, send for the sole purpose of labour. Verbum sapientibus.

Henry Williams to the Reverend E. G. Marsh.
Paihia, February 14, 1834.

---------with his fellow voyagers have arrived amongst us; but we cannot say that we are any of us in the least gratified, excepting with the assurance of the good wishes of our friends in Salisbury-square, to assist and strengthen our hands, though our opinions are not in unison. I fear we must be more cautious in giving ours upon these

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heads, from the check we received in their last letter to us respecting the two farming men of whom notice had been given. I am fully assured of the kindly feelings of your Committee, in providing men who may relieve us from the laborious work of erecting chimneys and building houses, &c.; but how clearly to define this matter is the question. I recollect very well in London that Mr. Pratt said to me that I need not trouble myself about a house, as carpenters would go before and prepare one for me, and when finished I might walk in. Now just catch the idea. This is quite clear in England, where an order need only to be given and it is executed. When we have obtained assistance in our building, it has been by men paid by the day, whose only duty it was to work; and when that ceased, so also did their pay. But persons of this description coming out from England imbibe high notions as they come along, and when landed here have themselves to attend to, and others to attend upon them rather than give their attendance. This has hitherto been the case in every instance, and I doubt not will continue so to be. Economy has been the order of the day for many months past; it has been our study to reduce the expenses in every possible way; we are therefore surprised and disappointed upon the accession of this weight to the machine. True, we shall be glad of some hands; but they should be suited to our wants. It is our desire to bring the Mission under a new form with as little additional expense as possible,--to reduce our establishments in the Bay, that we may thereby extend our work and influence to more distant fields; and though the directors of the Mission (the Committee) should require their wishes to be put in force, still I consider that much deference should be paid to the opinions of those on the spot. A master, when he purchases tools for his workmen, exercises his own judgment upon the value of the tools, and the temper to which it has been wrought; but it is the workman who puts it to the proof, who can alone describe the exact kind and form, and general character of the tool he may require for certain and particular work. Now, we are the workmen who have the work to do, and must state the description of tool required. A carpenter cannot plane a board with an axe, nor bore a hole with a hammer, but each piece of work must have its appropriate tool. I know that our good friends acted with the most kindly feeling, in order to relieve our hands from laborious work; but that specific work is now past, I hope not to be renewed. I must say that the present position of the Mission oppresses my spirits. We are now a large body; and yet, what is doing as to what might be done were we more extended? . . . I have purchased a piece of land at Taiamai, of Te Morenga, 2 Mr. Marsden's friend. He is head farmer with his people, and is now putting up a raupo house, and fencing in a

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paddock. There will be some sheep, about forty, to put on, with some head of cattle, and a cart is in hand. The natives about are very much pleased, and I hope we shall there lay the foundation of a town or city. We shall have schools there, and general instruction under one of my leading natives. Marianne will soon be out of school; she is a most valuable child, and I expect must be admitted as a teacher, to relieve her mother, who is not quite so young as she was. Maria is now generally at Williams' house, and at the infant school. We have hit upon a plan which perhaps you will not understand respecting the boys,--that at fifteen they shall receive £50 as an apprentice fee, with a portion of land (two hundred acres), 3 and be dismissed from the Society's books. I feel that by this measure our hands will be more free, as also the public book. We were fearful of being put in a dilemma, as determining who should be in the Society's service, and who not; for all certainly could not. This, therefore, after much thought and consideration, we concluded upon as being most desirable for all parties. The parent must do his best, and as soon as possible.

Mr. Williams succeeded where so many have failed,--in obtaining from the natives a modicum of really good land. The Maori, while eager enough to get rid of worthless land, is scarcely to be tempted into parting with that which is of high fertility. And if, perchance, he does so, he will insist upon a quantity of bad being taken along with the good. Selections of oases in the desert are not to be accomplished in New Zealand. Any advantage, indeed, would be taken to compel a large purchase of barren land. As an instance, Mr. Williams was compelled to purchase a worthless tract of four thousand acres--uncultivated to the present day-- with the sole object of securing a right of way to the farm. The half of this, in after years, he cheerfully resigned to the Government, retaining the road line.

Notwithstanding the opening afforded by the farm, which, though in the long run it proved a complete success, was as yet but an experiment, Mr. Williams made an effort to obtain for his eldest son

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an English education, and a degree in medicine,--at that time the only one of the professions, called "learned," that was, in a secular point of view, of any practical use in New Zealand. Moreover, the latter occupation need not altogether exclude the former.

Henry Williams to the Reverend E. G. Marsh.
Paihia, June 20, 1834.

The time is fast advancing when I must close my scribbling. Two more days, and our boy leaves us. But how thankful I feel that he is not "going to fight the French upon the sea." I would rather follow them one by one to the grave, than expose them to the severe trials and temptations of a sailor's life, especially on board a man-of-war. He goes, I trust, under the guidance and direction of our divine Master, who I hope will do with him as seemeth good to him. I feel for him, for I have endured much; but he is going among those who will watch over him, and pray for him. You know our wishes; do as you can. At this distance we cannot propose anything, but as circumstances will allow, so would we hope you will act. I have not mentioned the lad's name to the Society--that is, to Mr. Coates; for I would not they should think I was throwing him upon their hands.

Again Mr. Williams returns to a subject which could not be long absent from his thoughts,--the future of the children. Then was the time for the Society to have spoken out, volunteering to take charge of the children, if there had been any objection to the purchase of land. But they were of one accord with Mr. Williams in this matter, themselves defending these purchases, at a later period, ably and unanswerably. 4

Henry Williams to the Rev. E. G. Marsh.
Paihia, December 1, 1834.

. . . . I am happy in the expectation that the children may soon be beyond the reach of want, humanly speaking, as I have been enabled to procure for the benefit of the children a good piece

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of land as a farm, upon which I have put some stock, which seem in a thriving way. This method we have adopted rather than suffer them to fall upon the hands of the Society. We had the means, and felt it needful to avail ourselves of it. And as the lad [Edward] in all probability will be called upon to exercise his abilities in the management of a farm in its various parts, should he not be a fit person to join the Mission, perhaps the knowledge of this would be most beneficial to him, should our first idea be beyond reach. However, let the worst come to the worst, I consider it will be money well spent, were he to return in a year or two, as it was needful to give him some idea that the world is not confined to the shores of New Zealand.

The Puriri station suffered, comparatively, few troubles, though not altogether exempt. 5 It was considered to be a city of refuge. But in February, 1835, Mr. Williams received intelligence which shewed that his presence was imperatively required.

He prepared for a second journey without delay, this time in company with Mr. Hamlin. He found the people involved in war, both among themselves and their neighbours around; but succeeded in bringing the tribes to some better feeling towards each other. Again he penetrated as far as Matamata, where he brought his influence to bear upon Waharoa. He left him well inclined for quiet, and proceeded to Ngaruawahia, where he had an interview with Te Wherowhero. After putting a stop to the fighting at Te Horo, it was arranged that he should return in four months' time, bringing with him commissioners from Ngapuhi and Ngatipaoa, with a view to settling their differences at a general meeting,--the Missionaries to act as arbiters.

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For the reason already assigned, Mr. Williams' memoranda of travel have hitherto been much compressed; but for once, his narrative shall be given in full, as a sample of his journal keeping,--a compound of diary and seaman's log.

February 11, 1835. My birthday: a good day to commence a Missionary tour upon. May the Lord grant His presence, and His blessing; protect my family, and bring me back again in peace! At daybreak we went on board, and immediately got under way, with the wind S.S.E. We were soon out of sight of the settlement, and came to an anchor at the Rawhiti. Went on shore with the natives. All were in full occupation; and we found a large party here at Wharerahi's place. A very sumptuous repast set before us, consisting of the dainties of the season,--fish, potatoes, kumera, and melons. At noon the sea breeze set in, which was directly against our getting out of the bay. Wharerahi having regulated everything to his mind, and giving every necessary instruction, particularly about the erection of a school-house, accompanied us on board. Working out of the bay occupied us till dark.

February 12. Wind S.; the little vessel kicking her heels about; everybody down. No appearance of sea breeze, as we had been hoping. Wind increased, reduced our canvas; considerable head sea; our passengers very unwell, lying about the deck in all directions.

February 13. Much wind. At daylight close to Whangarei; determined to run in and anchor, which we did after a few tacks. Hoisted out the boat, and sent the passengers on shore to wash themselves, and to get a little recovered. Wanted to go up the river, but the boys had dispersed to fish.

February 14. Light breezes from the west. At break of day, weighed, and stood out. Calm nearly all day, the boys catching fish; were enabled to procure a good quantity. In the evening, wind from the southward. A good thumping. A vessel at best a sad place, but a small one is very bad.

February 15. Hazy morning; more to westward than we had expected; a fine little craft; Mahurangi a little to windward. About ten o'clock, came to an anchor in this beautiful place. Captain Brown sent off a note, to request us to go on shore and hold service. We landed about eleven o'clock, and soon assembled a very comfortable congregation, twelve in all. The captain and his brother were very friendly. Held native service at three; and in the evening returned on board.

February 16. As the wind was still from the South, we could not move till high water. Went on shore to breakfast with our friends. Captain Brown takes very great interest in the Mission; he wanted much to commence a school here, but has not the means, and we could not help him out. At ten, weighed and worked out;

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continued working to windward till dusk. Much pleased and surprised at the sailing qualities of our little vessel. At sunset, dirty appearance; brought up for the night.

February 17. At daylight got under weigh, and stood to windward; at seven, brought up at the Tamaki. After breakfast, went on shore to see if we could discover any signs of natives. All was quietness around; no appearance of smoke, though the fern had been recently burned off in the neighbourhood. At one we weighed, made sail, and stood along shore between Waiheke and the main land. The soundings were very regular from seven to four fathoms. A superb anchorage for vessels of all sizes. At five, brought up close to Pakiri; too much sea to send our passengers on shore. Patuone somewhat out of order at the idea of the vessel not going to Whakatiwai, and spoke largely of his wish that he had come in a cutter that was in the Bay of Islands, which would have taken him whither he thought proper. I was obliged to give him some reproof, which tended to quiet him. Poor, ignorant children, they cannot perceive our care and desires respecting them.

February 18. Fine. At sunset, weighed and made sail through the northern passage by Waiheke, and was much struck with the beauty of the harbour, which is accessible at all times; it will some day make a valuable place, being by far the best anchorage, and deep water. At noon we were favoured with a sea breeze, and at five brought up off Whakatiwai. Went on shore with our baggage. Our boat was so deeply laden with natives that we with difficulty reached the shore. We pitched our tents outside the pa; the scene was enlivened by several fires, which were very welcome, as the evening looked threatening. When all things were put in order, Patuone commenced the narrative of his travels and the wonders of the north. He told them he had much to say, and should not leave off till daylight. All appeared highly interested with his marvellous accounts, and gave him their undivided attention. Patuone, like a true traveller, did not attempt to confine himself to a mere relation of facts, but strove to excite the admiration of his auditors, which he did most effectually, adorning his tale, as he went along, with some most outrageous fabrications; for example, in speaking of the attack made by H.M.S. "Alligator" on the natives in the neighbourhood of Taranaki, he stated that the slaves were salted down into casks in the same way that pigs are, and carried away as pork. This was only regarded as an embellishment, and consequently passed off with a laugh.

February 19. Rough night for our little vessel. Wind North, and appearance of a blow; could sleep but very little, owing to the multitudes of fleas and noise of the natives, who were true to their word that they should talk till daylight, when we were conducted into the pa, to receive the welcome of the grandees. We sat in silence for some time, in the presence of a great throng, while an old lady

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put forth her miserable strains in a tangi, our party concealing their faces in their blankets, responding by an occasional sigh. This lasted about twenty minutes, when Wharekawa arose and gave us welcome. Having sat down, Raumate, one of our party, said a few words, at the conclusion of which he spoke of the necessity of attending to better things, whereby they might obtain peace and happiness. A second chief of the pa, who had been shot through the head some years ago by a Ngapuhi, the ball entering at one of his eyes, spoke more particularly to Wharerahi. He expressed some apprehension of Ngapuhi. Our venerable friend, Wharerahi, next rose; he spoke like a noble man, with considerable dignity and grace, and what he said tended to quiet many fears respecting Ngapuhi. I was next required to say a few words; Mr. Hamlin followed me. When our conference concluded, they appeared pleased at our taking up the Waikato question, and expressed their willingness to preserve a peace, if consented to by their opponents. A large quantity of dried fish resembling sole was brought out, with potatoes, melons, &c. About noon, Patuone's wife came to her residence, where were assembled about twenty women, old and young, for the purpose of having a general cry with her. As she came towards them, they lifted up their arms, and all struck off in an instant in their most melancholy strains. We were sitting at a little distance with our boys, who all broke out in a most violent laugh at the absurdity of these people. The scene altogether, crying and laughing, was truly ridiculous, and we could not preserve our gravity. The howling lasted nearly an hour. In the course of the day I was enabled to converse with most of the chiefs; they, of course, defended their own conduct towards Waikato, but expressed their wish for peace.

February 20. Truly miserable night; thousands of fleas, and dogs howling most pitifully; almost disposed to join them; was relieved by day dawning, as all then began to move. About seven we were all in the boat, the sea very smooth; several canoes filled with the people of the pa in company, going up to Puriri to attend a hahunga; 6 but it is proposed first to call at the Pura, a place directly opposite, that we might consult upon the Waikato question. We landed, after a good pull, about ten o'clock, and soon learnt that a canoe had just arrived from Rotorua, with news of Pango with four hundred men going to Tamaki. This is a man whose head we saved in the Bay some years since, as Ngapuhi had charged him with having makutu'd Hongi at the time he was shot. We passed him on to his place at Rotorua. Oh, when shall their wars and murders cease? What destruction and confusion on every side! In the afternoon I had some pleasing conversation with the

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natives of the place, who were making great lamentation over one of their number who had recently died, and who was now laying in state, or rather his bones. I afterwards, at the desire of Herua and others, went to Waiomu; saw Tuwiri and others, who appear most strenuous about the war in Waikato. I found them rather stiff at first, but disposed to yield the point; I was pleased and encouraged at their attention, but grieved at their wretched state. No one has yet been to them to give instruction.

February 21. Fine; at seven we embarked, in all thirteen canoes, besides the boat. When off Kauaeranga, the natives fired some guns as a signal for us to land at their place. This was very inconvenient, but old Wharerahi was so very urgent that we were obliged to separate from the main body. We had to undergo the usual tangi, and afterwards told our tale. Paurangi and Hauauru spoke for some time, expressing their hope that the people of Waikato would listen to us, and that the war might be terminated. As the tide was nearly up, we left our friends here, and pulled up to Puriri by high water; were happy to find all well here, excepting little Marsh Brown, who has been ill for the last ten days. Messrs. Brown and Wilson had recently returned from Matamata, and Mr. Stack from Mangapouri. The news from these quarters is better than we had anticipated, though every one appears jealous of his neighbour. A fresh arrival of natives from Whakatiwai; very noisy. It was refreshing to meet in the evening at prayer meeting, at the close of a week of bustle, and on the eve of the day of rest. I took up my abode in my tent, being cooler and more roomy.

February 22. Sunday. Fine; natives around quiet. At nine, the bell summoned us to attend service. The strangers were ignorant of its intent, and ran off to their encampment. I followed them, and after some time most of them returned. We were enabled to hold an agreeable service, but they were nearly all strangers to our proceedings, and I was obliged occasionally to stop during my address until order was restored. Upon the whole, they behaved well, though impatient for the finish. We afterwards assembled at Mr. Wilson's house, for English service, where we mustered twelve Kaumatuas [elders], besides children. In the afternoon, I attended Mrs. Fairburn's infant school: twenty-eight were present. It was exceedingly interesting, as being early in this quarter. Most of the children were boys, seven years downwards. Each put on a blue frock on entering the house, which gave a clean, uniform, and pleasing appearance. The children manifested much pleasure and desire to learn, going through their various evolutions with considerable precision. At the conclusion, some of the old ladies of the visitors made a special request that the children might be marched round the flagstaff, in order that they might see them. Their wishes were complied with to their great admiration. But one of the most important characters of their school was Tine, a lady of considerable

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note, the wife of one of the principal chiefs here. She came in a clean blue gown, and took the lead, under Mrs. Fairburn, in pointing to the letters, and keeping order. She appeared very quick and intelligent, and is, I understand, a very well-behaved person. This is a highly important feature in this early Mission. Surely this moral wilderness shall soon rejoice and blossom as the rose, and this desert break forth into singing. There is something very pleasing in being able to convey instruction; to draw off the attention from this vain and sinful world of our fellow-fallen sinners. To hear these children repeat their catechism and answer questions put to them was very animating, and we could not but feel the assurance that our labours were not in vain. We closed the day by a prayer meeting, as there was no other English service. The strangers from Whakatiwai had conducted themselves very quietly all day, but were now growing impatient, desirous to break forth from that restraint under which they had evidently been held, and began gradually to commence their haka. I sent to Herua, to request him to keep his people in order, and to remember that the Sabbath was not yet closed. The noise immediately ceased.

February 23. At break of day I was awoke by the firing of guns, and the breaking forth of a furious tangi. This lasted about two hours, and was truly dismal. The strangers requested that the horses should be turned out to view, which was accordingly done, to their great wonder and satisfaction. At high water, the natives had a dance previous to their departure, and we were soon left in quietness. In the evening, I met four candidates for baptism: I am sorry to say that several have lately behaved very ill. They require much care and watchfulness.

February 24. Fine; preparing for our departure at high water. Settled all my business, and at half-past three we took our departure, after being much gratified with my visit to this place. We embarked in the large boat belonging to this place, taking our small one with us, for the purpose of dragging overland to Waikato. Wind fair. At nine, landed at Whakatiwai. A good deal of swell on, and we with difficulty found the proper landing-place. The natives came out to assist us, and soon kindled fires on the beach, to enliven the scene. Wharerahi soon met us, and was very civil. News from Waikato that some canoes had been drawn over on this side, to look out for stragglers, and that the various tribes were assembling to make a descent upon Whakatiwai, in two days. We consequently found the natives in some little alarm, though I do not believe a word of the report. The chiefs wish us to go over to-morrow to Maramaru, the nearest point from hence to Waikato, to see if we can discover any signs of an enemy. This will hinder us three days. How sadly perplexing! They little think the trouble we take in their affairs, or the expense of our proceedings; but I suppose we must go.

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February 25. Wharerahi came, and spoke about some dried fish which he wanted to take on board. I proposed that we should immediately take them, which the old man approved, and thereby our course was altered, through his regard to his fish. We consequently prepared our boats, and in about an hour, were on our way with a fair breeze. At two, we landed at Pakihi to dine, and about six, were on board the "Columbine." All well, and ready for sailing in the morning to Tamaki.

February 26. Light airs from N.E. At sunrise, weighed and made sail for Motuihi. Brought up at half-past two. Anchorage good; five fathoms close to the beach. At four, took our departure for the river Tamaki, and landed at Otahuhu at sunset. The country is good, and so divided by rivers, that it will doubtless be very valuable at some future day. 7 The various branches appear to run in all directions, forming islands of different sizes. We walked over the neck of land to Manukau, which is about three-quarters of a mile in extent. Good ground, and the appearance of a cart road, from the numbers of canoes which have been drawn over from time to time. No one here of late. We observed that the tide on the eastern coast was high water, while on the western it was yet low water. We pitched our tents in a clean place, and had plenty of fern. Our friend Tarawati gave notice that he had been startled in sleep, and that we should be surprised in the night. Spent a pleasant evening.

February 27. Two alarms in the night of intruders on our peace. Tarawati arose, and announced our name and nation to the darkness around, our object and intention, but no reply; all was silence. Boys in much fear and apprehension. At daylight, all quiet. Concluded that our visitors were rats, attracted by our food. The boys soon dragged the boat over, and at ten we were afloat in Manukau. We much admired the river and its convenience, though it was painful to reflect upon the numbers who had been killed in this neighbourhood; now not an inhabitant for a great distance. The tide soon carried us down to an extensive piece of water, twelve or fifteen miles broad, and in some places much broader; the length we could not see: it was quite an inland sea. We continued on to the S.E., and landed to dine and to wait the turning of the tide. Our guide told us that the entrance is very good, and the water deep, but the tide in the sea reach must run very rapidly, owing to the narrow space through which these waters must ebb and flow. Kauri trees stand thick on the north shore. We remained on shore about three hours, as the ebb tide had not concluded; as soon as the flood made we pulled up to Waitete, the

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pa of these people, but not an individual was to be seen. It was a miserable, wretched, filthy spot, the ground covered with fleas. We were undetermined what to do, as we feared the report we heard when at Whakatiwai might be true, and that all had gone against that place. This was a serious disappointment, as we were in hopes of passing Sunday with them. We could not follow them, the distance being too great, and time important. We accordingly turned back for the night to the place where we had been in the afternoon,--landed about nine o'clock, and soon recovered ourselves by the aid of fires.

February 28. As the flood tide made, we took our departure, and returned to Otahuhu by half-past ten, in hopes of saving the tide in the Tamaki river, but we were too late, and were obliged to remain till past six o'clock. The evening was fine, but we were four hours before we reached the vessel. The first news was discouraging. Some natives from the Bay of Islands had passed, and left information that a party of natives in four canoes, from Whangarei, were prowling about for the purpose of surprising any small party under Kahakaha and Mataura. My spirit was cast down within we. We felt a strong disposition to go in quest of them. Wharerahi, poor old man, appeared much concerned at their movements.

March 1. Strong wind from S.S.E., and cloudy; concluded to run to Mahurangi, as we lay in rather an exposed place; also to learn the truth of the report of Ngatitautahi with Kahakaha, &c, being abroad. We accordingly weighed and made sail. About nine o'clock, the rain came on so thick, we could scarcely see the land, though close, and it was now blowing a perfect gale. At noon, the weather cleared up a little, and showed our desired haven. We soon came to an anchor, and were glad to find refuge from the gale. The weather was too severe to go on shore. In the evening, held a pleasant service in the cabin.

March 2. A heavy gale, blowing and raining all night; decks leaky in several places. The weather cleared off at daylight, to our great relief. Called on Captain Brown. The wind being yet very strong, I remained on shore during the afternoon. Captain Brown is much interested in Missions, and a member of the Madras Committee. I spent a very agreeable time with him. I here learnt the particulars of the expedition, which had put in here; they were between forty and fifty in number, but impudent, mischievous fellows.

March 3. At daylight, weighed and made sail to our island, where we had left the boat. Much distressed at the conduct of the natives. The old man, Wharerahi, fretting to return, as he was sure no one would listen to us; it would be much better to let them fight it out and leave the land to us. Pouri rawa toku ngakau,--my heart is very sad. We had much consultation as to the best

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mode of proceeding; at length determined to proceed by way of Whakatiwai to Waikato, and see what can be done by way of establishing peace amongst these turbulent and uncertain people. Death and destruction rages on every side; all is desolation, and the common topic of conversation amongst them is war and murder. Fear is on every countenance, lest a party should fall upon them by surprise,--a fear which is not known to the northward. When shall the blessings of the glorious Gospel of Peace be sounded forth and received by the people? How little do they know the things which relate to their eternal salvation!

March 4. A gale from E.N.E.; could not move; employed reading and writing.

March 5. More moderate; wind N.N.E.; weighed and worked up to Waiheke, where Patuone was. We entered a small and important port; a very snug place. The weather being fine, we proceeded on our voyage towards Puriri, leaving the vessel at anchor.

March 6. Fine night and moderate wind. At half-past one, landed at the place of our friend Urumihia. The people received us very kindly, kindled fires, and brought us provisions ready cooked. After some time we lay down for a little sleep. At seven, we were again underweigh with the flood tide, and at noon arrived at the settlement, much in need of refreshment. All well, except little Marsh Brown, whom we left sick. Mr. Chapman had arrived from the Bay of Islands on his way to Rotorua, to commence his station there. No news from home; he had put back, owing to the southerly wind prevailing against him. Prepared immediately for a continuance of our journey up the river to Matamata, on our way to Waikato-nui.

March 7. At ten, were enabled to move on our way up this beautiful river. Nearly met with a serious accident by running on a stump, but were graciously preserved from all mischief. At five, landed at Waihou, where we determined to rest for the morrow, a party of natives being here, and a pleasant sitting place; a wood on each side of the river. It is quite a relief to be amongst the natives, though they buzz around like bees. A large number of children here. Fears expressed lest the enemy from Waikato should come down.

March 8. Sunday. Awakened at break of day by the grand concert of birds on all sides; it was truly delightful. I never heard anything like it, except in New South Wales; the notes are peculiarly musical. When the sun was well up, we assembled a goodly number to service; Mr. Hamlin addressed them; they were not so attentive as we could wish. In the afternoon, we gathered the children to school. We held service by ourselves amongst the trees, and in the evening again assembled the natives; they were more attentive, though as yet sadly ignorant. A report brought up that

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Kahakaha had fallen upon some of these people, which set them all in motion, though I believe it was untrue.

March 9. Fine; thick fog. Left our friends at sunrise, and soon arrived at a new pa, belonging to Patupo. We remained a short time here, talking with the natives. They presented us with some potatoes and water melons. Every one expresses fear lest he should be surprised by the enemy. How truly wretched and miserable! Of all people they possess the means of living sumptuously, but are in perpetual alarm. A hope expressed that we might be able to induce their opponents at Waikato to come to terms of peace. Landed at ten to breakfast in a beautiful wood. After innumerable turnings and windings in the river, we landed at half-past one at Raukawakawa, and proceeded on immediately. I had a better opportunity of examining the country than before; it is very fine and valuable. Many thousands of acres of fine meadow land, extremely rich, with rising grounds for towns and villages, with abundance of wood and water. The land generally is level, with a large range of hills extending in a south-west direction on the east side of the Thames, and other ranges of hills at the distance. At dusk, we halted at a wood for the night. The boys were very tired, carrying the provisions and baggage. With difficulty we were enabled to obtain water in the dark.

March 10. Heavy rain in the morning; could not move till nine o'clock. Passed the swamps better than we had expected, though a very little trouble would make them very comfortable. Met Mr. Wilson on his return to Puriri, owing to the illness of one of his children. News of a battle having been fought in the neighbourhood of Mangapouri. At half-past 3, arrived at the first settlement, belonging to Waharoa, and were immediately surrounded by natives from all sides, who continued increasing till we came to the new Mission settlement, where we found the old man, Waharoa, sitting in state to receive us. As is the custom, no one spoke for some time, but all sat in silence to be gazed upon. Mr. Chapman had left an hour before, on his way to Rotorua. Very perplexing; for I was anxious to hear a word from home, as he had left so recently. At sunset, we assembled the natives to prayers, and afterwards entered into conversation with the old man. Many inquiries to make concerning the war; he told us we must not proceed on to-morrow. He is a fine old man, and has been a terrible warrior. Felt tired, and glad to retire to rest.

March 11. Passed a comfortable night. The old man came at daylight. Mr. Chapman encamped about a mile distant. Took a survey of the buildings erecting for Messrs. Brown and Wilson, they were very good. The woods beautifully dispersed, and the country around very inviting. The pa is much improved and enlarged, and abundance of food in the ground. The old man conducted us round,--a great cavalcade of men, women, and children in company;

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it was with great difficulty we were enabled to keep our tents clear of people who came from Matakitaki. In the afternoon, gave Waharoa the box I brought for him, besides a blanket which Wharerahi sent him, and a pound of tupeka from Titore; he was quite delighted. In the evening we assembled all to prayer; but they were very restless, owing to the arrival of a messenger from inland, with the particulars of the late battle. Had a long conversation with the old man respecting the affairs of the nation; he had much to say of his own goodness, and the evil of his neighbours,--a failing not confined to New Zealanders. He objects to accompanying us to-morrow, as a son of his, in a quarrel with his wife this evening, attempted to destroy himself by throwing himself on a large fire; it is doubtful if he can live. The poor old man appears however favourable towards peace being made. We purpose moving in the morning, and shall take some of the chiefs of the place with us. Sewed up a man's back who had received a cut from a knife in an affray a day or two since; a large number of persons to gaze at the performance of so great an operation.

March 12. Heavy rain in the night, which continued till 2 p.m. The poor fellow who attempted to destroy himself not yet dead. I hear that two acts of suicide were committed last week; the sister of this man shot herself, through jealousy, on Saturday last; also a man a day or two ago. How great is the darkness that prevails around! We took leave of our friends here at four o'clock, as the wind had now changed, and the sun was shining. We brought up at sunset by a small wood, our party consisting of between thirty and forty persons. Two long days' journey before us to Mangapouri.

March 13. Were on the move by sunrise, and continued on the march by sunset, only resting once to breakfast. The boys were very tired, and we quite willing to halt. We pitched our tents in the midst of corn, and soon refreshed ourselves, taking dinner and supper together. My feet much chafed, owing to my shoes being too large, and passing through water several times; also from walking in their very narrow paths. We passed through a remarkable place this morning, where the ground had at some distant period suddenly sunk perpendicularly between one hundred feet, and two hundred--the extreme depth. Very many acres had thus fallen, presenting a very striking spectacle. The sides were composed of pumice stone, very small: it was singularly beautiful. Our road lay through this curious vale, and we soon entered another equally curious, through which the river winds its way, which is wide and deep; but the land on either side is carried in straight lines twenty or thirty feet, one above the other, with regular slopes, as though done by art, each side corresponding with the other, as the lines of an extensive fortification. We had to cross over the river where the stream is exceedingly rapid, upon a rudely native-constructed

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bridge, consisting of a few slender trees thrown across, over which we passed on our hands and knees. Our guides took advantage of our being entire strangers, and led us many miles out of our way, in order to show us Maungatautari. The latter part of our journey was by a sad rough road, up and down steep hills, through high fern, and rendered much more unpleasant by the thought that we ought not to have gone that way. We were extremely glad when the setting sun terminated our day's march, and we found rest on beds of fern.

March 14. Heavy rain in the night; could not move till half-past nine. A weary, heavy road, over steep hills, and through several swamps. Towards the latter part of the day, we had to pass through a dangerous bog; all that appeared to keep us from sinking, I know not what depth, was the roots of a weed, which seemed to float upon the surface, and bent under us like weak ice, obliging us to move quickly, lest we should fall through. We closed the day with one of the most dirty, difficult, and fatiguing bush marches I have yet experienced. It was raining not a little, and we had to pass over piles of fallen trees and broken timber, old roots which in many places were under water, consequently out of sight. We could not reach Mangapouri, and brought up beside Mangapiko, a deep, quiet river, at a place called Komako. Raroera is a pa about two miles distant, from which some of the people came to see us, when they heard of our being here. We told them the object of our journey, at which they appeared pleased. Heavy rain all the evening. Neither Pangarae nor Waru, the two chiefs, came near us.

March 15. Rain all night, but no wind. Numbers of strangers came from the pa to have a gaze at us. About noon, the rain ceased; assembled all who were near us to service, but found them exceedingly impatient: they were more attentive to our conversation through the day.

March 16. Gentle rain; no wind. Discovered that our meat had been stolen during the night, and soon heard who had committed the theft. Determined to show our displeasure by passing the pa in silence, and not communicating with any of the people. Packed up, and prepared for our march, notwithstanding the rain. Passed through a great field of corn, more than a hundred acres. As we approached the pa, the people appeared fully sensible of our intention, and none attempted to speak. Several followed us some distance, and seemed disposed to create a disturbance with us, though our own boys gave us the most trouble in moving them on. In about an hour we came to Otawa, the pa of Ngatiruru. We remained here only a few minutes, as we were wet, and did not know our distance. As we were leaving, a native of Raroera, the pa we had passed by in silence, made a seizure of a hatchet from one of the boys, but the activity of the boy was as great as that of the thief; consequently he recovered his property. Our boys here

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hung back again, and gave us much trouble. After passing several dirty places, we were happy to arrive at Mangapouri by two o'clock, very wet and hungry. We found Mr. Morgan well, and in the midst of abundance of work, having just returned from the contending parties down the river. The accounts very interesting, and fully evidence the influence Missionaries may have amongst the people in checking their evil ways. All appear disposed for peace, but do not appear to know how to bring it about. We purpose being amongst them as early as possible, as we hear they are to fight as soon as the weather shall change. Wiri, one of the leading chiefs here, came to see us. He is a fine-looking man, quietly disposed. The Mission garden here in good order, with plenty of cabbage, melons, cucumbers, and a good collection of fruit trees, &c. Our view rather contracted owing to the rain.

March 17. Rain through the night, no moving. Went to see ten thousand bricks made here in good order.

March 18. Rain nearly all day. Several chiefs came to converse upon the present state of affairs. Towards evening the weather cleared up; prepared to depart in the morning. The hills in the distance, and Pirongia in the front, are now uncovered for the first time since our arrival: they are very grand, and add much to the scenery of this place. The river also, which runs close by, is deep and highly valuable.

March 19. At daylight on the move with two canoes, with a number of natives. I was much delighted with the river; it is very noble. Observed several old pas; one of great extent, Matakitaki, was upset by Ngapuhi when Hongi was alive; many thousands were put to death. At noon we arrived at the Horo, a large pa, and the present seat of war. The inhabitants crowded around to view us; we were conducted within. The chiefs did not give us that welcome which is customary with Ngapuhi; we felt we were amongst a strange people; they were afterwards, however, more polite, and we had a long talk with them; they approved of all we said to them, and expressed a desire for peace, both with those now come against them, and also Ngatipaoa in the Thames. This is the troublesome party which fell upon Whakatiwai by night, some months since, and fired upon the people of Momoroiti a short time since. We proposed to see the opposite party, who we heard were in the neighbourhood; we accordingly took our leave, with a promise to return. We soon arrived at the enemy's camp, on the other side of the river; they all flocked down to us, brandishing their guns and other weapons, and rending the air with their infernal noises. They conducted us to old Kanawa in great state, amidst the whole throng of natives, old and young. The old man had a venerable appearance, with a long white beard. After the ceremony of placing all in due order in a large circle, in which the old chief took a very noisy and active part, I first arose and told the object of our visit,--to

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suppress their wars, and establish peace, that they might possess the blessing of the Gospel of peace,--peace with man and peace with God, through our Lord Jesus Christ. Messrs. Hamlin and Fairburn also spoke. We were replied to by old Kanawa and others. They spoke well, considering that they were the injured party, the attack having been made upon them; and, moreover, they had suffered the greatest loss in point of rank. About half-past five, some guns were heard from the Horo, which was about a mile distance. All were immediately in motion, and these savage troops were soon before their enemy. The firing continued till dusk; when this party returned, bringing with them one killed and four wounded, three seriously, probably mortally. How awful! These young men, a few minutes since, were in full vigour, and listening to our message; one has gone with it sounding in his ears, and the other will soon follow. This should be a solemn warning to them to ground their arms, attend to the voice of love and mercy; and a solemn call to the Missionary to be vigilant and active in that holy work in which he is engaged. For the day is far spent, and the night at hand, when no man shall work. We had a view of the whole affair, and dropt a word here and there, as circumstances would allow. Our party appeared now perfectly crest-fallen. Old Kanawa was the old savage, and we postponed saying anything to him while he was yet smarting from the loss he had sustained, for some were his immediate relatives. In half an hour we returned to our camp. In the evening, some from the pa came to learn the news. The returns from thence, one wounded. It is a singular feature in the warfare of this people that, at the close of a battle, they have an interchange of visits, and talk quietly over their plans of proceeding. We trust in the morning they may be better prepared to receive our message. A great clamour; every voice appeared in motion, recounting their brave deeds. I at length obtained relief by sleep.

March 20. A dense fog. At break of day, the taua off to the pa, to re-commence their murderous work. They soon returned, for it was too thick to see many yards off. Heard that they had gone, owing to the death of one of the youths wounded last night. A third near death. After breakfast, we crossed the river. Found the chiefs assembled in parliament. A large circle; three speakers frequently on their legs at once, with several voices joining occasionally. The speeches were much to the purpose. Afterwards, Maioha, brother of Te Wherowhero, introduced the subject of a new doctrine brought amongst them. The destruction of the world; when is it to take place? as they had heard that it was close at hand. Also the resurrection of the body. This led to much interesting conversation, to which they were very attentive. We paid a visit to the pa; the natives were very civil, and urged us to remain some time with them. On our return, we called on Kanawa, that we might know their mind, and proceed to Whakatiwai if still for war. The old man

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said we had better remain quietly, as a party would be here in the morning to join them, and then peace might be made, if we were sufficiently brave and strong to upset them. We resolved to remain and try our abilities. We feel this a critical period, but unto the Lord we lift up our voice; it is "He who maketh wars to cease unto the end of the earth, He breaketh the bow, and cutteth the spear in sunder."

March 21. A dense fog. Awakened in the night by hearing a woman making a great squealing noise; profound silence around. This was none other than the Atua now talking, commanding the people to be strong and quit themselves like men; for there would certainly be a battle, and the victory should be theirs. The screams of this witch were quite of a nature to alarm a weak mind. At daylight, a gun announced the death of one of the young men wounded the day before yesterday, succeeded by a dreadful howl from a number of women. It was truly dismal. An occasional gun appeared to give fresh vigour to these poor creatures, who made the air resound with their mournful strains. Crossed the river to the taua; old Kanawa told us to go on to the party just arrived to join them, and to show our anger to them, as we had to him. We accordingly did so; but, instead of finding three hundred or four hundred men, as we had been led to suppose, we observed only about thirty; sitting by themselves in an open space, and no one near them. We went up to them, and commenced our conversation; they appeared surprised at our telling them that we should put a stop to their proceedings, and persisted in telling us we should not; for it had been the custom with the New Zealanders from time immemorial. In about an hour, some women of rank came from the pa, endeavouring to modify matters. They were not ill received. As they had come on public business, the chiefs gradually came forward to meet them, to hear what they had to say, and to declare their own sentiments; but women make bad politicians; they said, in order to soften the feelings of the taua respecting their recent loss, that they were only slaves who had met them in the late skirmish; at which much indignation was expressed,--that chiefs should be shot by slaves. They endeavoured to explain themselves as well as they could, but much ill feeling was excited. However, we were glad to find that their affair were so far advanced as to hear that the taua was about to disperse. Poor Kanawa spoke very well; he said their work must be finished, as the Missionaries were angry with them. In the afternoon we paid a visit to the pa, and spoke to them of the necessity of sitting quietly on the morrow, promising to return to them. The natives proposed that we should hold service with them in the morning before we returned; their attention was very great. In the evening, Pero, son of Kanawa, came over, and told us that he was to go to the pa to make peace. We were much rejoiced to hear the news. Several natives remained about our tents till late in conversation.

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March 22. Sunday. Much rain through the night. At break of day, the taua on the move home, firing guns and making a great noise,--quite an uproar, yet none attempted to disturb us in any respect. We were glad when they had taken themselves out of the way, and quietness once more amongst us. After breakfast, we accompanied the commissioners for making peace to the pa. It seemed an infringement upon the sacred duties of the day, but there was danger in delay. On landing, I witnessed what I had never seen before,--the ashes of three dead bodies, of men who had been killed a few weeks since by an attack made upon the pa in the night. They were burned by their friends, but not wholly consumed; a small part of their bodies remained with their gun barrels to public view,--a horrid remembrance of their miserable state. We walked in slow order to the pa, where our friends had a cry in front of each other; they afterwards made a few singular but uninteresting speeches. When we considered that they had indulged sufficiently in this, we proposed to hold service, and soon assembled a large party, who paid much attention. We afterwards went to Kauwai, to see him previous to our departure. We had a few words with him respecting peace with Whakatiwai; he expressed himself well, and gave me his hatchet to carry thither as an indication of his good will. We returned to our encampment to dinner. In the afternoon, Messrs. Hamlin and Fairburn went to the pa to hold service, and I spoke to those sitting with us. We had some lightning, which Awarahi was somewhat alarmed at, as it was he tohu mate [a sign of death or of a battle].

March 23. Some chiefs and others came to our camp to see us off. They expressed their satisfaction at our visit to them, and the necessity of being frequently amongst them. We left soon after sunrise, and passed down this beautiful river. We were more than forty in the canoe. The turnings in the river were very various, and sometimes forming nearly a circle; the banks are high, varying from fifteen to forty feet; the soil good, and well wooded. At one, we landed at Momoroiti, the pa of Wharepu. We did not take any refreshment, for the weather was very hot, and the place exposed to the sun and full gaze of the natives. After a little conversation, we proceeded to a retired spot, where we dined free from the buzz of men, women, and children, and the fear of being trampled upon by them. We here overtook Ngatepo, and several canoes who were pulling down to Ngaruawahia to attend a general council. We called on Captain Kent, who resided about a mile from the pa, and we afterwards passed on to the assembly, which we found sitting in open order. The New Zealand customs certainly need much amendment, though I am happy to say there is a considerable change in favour of our northern friends; but in this neighbourhood all is very uncouth. No one came to meet us, or gave us welcome. We accordingly sat down at a respectful distance from the grandees

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of the place for a certain period; but remembering that we had come as teachers and fathers, we took the liberty of introducing ourselves. Te Wherowhero 8 I had never before seen; most of the others I had more knowledge of. We soon entered upon our business, the subject of peace with the Thames, and the establishment of a Mission at Manukau. Towards sunset, we proposed holding service; all assembled. Mr. Hamlin gave a few words on the necessity of salvation by Jesus Christ. We then returned to our encampment. The pa stands on the junction of the Waipa and the Horotiu; below this, the river takes the name of Waikato, and runs nearly two hundred miles to the entrance. The country round is very beautiful; several noble hills in the distance covered with wood. Much apprehension was expressed as to Kahakaha and Ngapuhi. Old Kanawa mentioned his alarm at the lightning of the past night, as it was uira tangata [lightning indicative of war and bloodshed], and that it had never failed to be true. Poor old man, what fear does he show, and how enslaved in chains of superstition.

March 24. Symptoms of a gale from the eastward. The natives making a great noise through the night, dancing and haka-ing. After breakfast went to the natives, who were assembled in debate. We had much interesting conversation with them; they entered into our views respecting the Thames; they consented to send some of their friends with us to treat for peace, and said they should proceed to Manukau in four months, when Mr. Hamlin promised to go with them; but as they are somewhat incredulous, I also promised to return with Mr. Hamlin as early as possible. With this they appeared quite content. At parting, I gave Te Wherowhero a blanket, and one also to Toha; Mr. Hamlin gave one to Kanawa. We proceeded on our voyage down the river at one o'clock, and brought up at sunset. This day the river was very shoal, stumps of trees standing in very dangerous positions for canoes or boats; in one place they were so close together that we could with difficulty find a passage. This had been at some distant period a wood, and the water seems to preserve the timber rather than decay it. We carried the breadth of the river generally a quarter of a mile. I lay me down to rest with a thankful heart, for everything appears in a fair way for peace with the Thames. I trust the Lord will permit it to be established permanently amongst them, and that his praise may resound on every side. It is distressing to witness the present state of the people, yet pleasing to be engaged in the way we are, in the immediate service of God and welfare of his creatures. Nothing can exceed the expressions of the people under their better feelings; they tell us it is a good work in which we are engaged, but that we should have been amongst them years ago; then would thousands

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have been spared to them, who had been cut off by the relentless hand of war. The wind sounds hollow this evening, and I fear we may be detained.

March 25. Much wind and rain through the night. Wharepu and several of his people arrived to accompany us to the Thames to treat for peace. He appears well disposed, and promises to meet us on our return from the Bay, and assist us up the river; he is a young man of much penetration, and a chief of considerable rank. He observed that, had we not arrived as we did, the fighting would have continued until all the tribes had been involved, and there had been a general destruction. How true is it, the beginning of strife is as the letting out of waters; but I trust the time is near when the members of the Mission shall pass through the length and breadth of the land, and wars be known no more. We had a large supply of eels to-day, the first I have seen fresh, though the rivers and creeks are full of them. Mr. Morgan attempted to construct a stew of the eels; a more horrible specimen I never beheld. At a general stand, owing to the gale; the boys constructing screens round our tents, to defend us from the wind and rain. Much lightning in the North.

March 26. A quiet night, and little rain. At break of day, the wind having abated considerably, we packed up our baggage and proceeded on our voyage. The canoe was very deep, and in one place, being obliged to cross the river where the wind met the canoes, I was very apprehensive that we should swamp, and have to swim. The water came in on all sides, but through the care of our Heavenly Father we sustained no further damage than a little fear. We landed at nine o'clock, as the rain was coming on, and in a very short time it fell in great abundance. We felt thankful at being able to find refuge in a wood on the bank of the river, both from the wind and rain; with the aid of fires we soon recovered ourselves, as all were more or less wet. Our movements are tedious, a step at a time. We cannot reach Whakatiwai before Saturday, and may not be able to do this, if the weather continues as it is. The day closed with a heavy fall of rain, but we were in snug quarters.

March 27. The rain ceased early, and we were happy to see the sun rise with grandeur after the gale. The face of "the river was perfectly smooth, and we were soon in our canoes and on our way. After continuing our course for about a quarter of an hour, we turned out of the main river up a small branch, called Maramarua, which conducted us through vast swamps on either side, until we landed, at noon, at a place bearing the same name, the nearest point to Whakatiwai. The channel towards the close became so narrow as scarcely to admit of the use of the paddle, and the turns so sudden that we could with difficulty proceed. We here took dinner, and were thankful to be thus far on our way; we shall be enabled by God's blessing to have a view of what we call our sea, on the eastern

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coast, by to-morrow early. We brought up at five o'clock, quite disposed to retire to our luxurious bed of fern, being somewhat weary after passing through the numerous swamps, the short rivers and brooks which lay in our way, and were rendered worse by the late rain. At sunset, two natives were seen on the road to Whakatiwai. Sent off a messenger to them, lest they should give an alarm that we were a party of the enemy. The two strangers soon made their appearance; had not much news to communicate, except that Kahakaha and Motutara were there in one canoe; the others had returned. The two strangers went back to Whakatiwai with the account of our proceedings at Waikato.

March 28. Fine morning. At break of day on the move; our road, as yesterday, wet and uncomfortable. At eight, halted to breakfast a mile's distance from Whakatiwai, our party consisting of upwards of forty persons. Numbers came forward to meet us, though none came near. The parties met and had their haka; and our party, belonging to and from Waikato, afterwards had a long tangi with the ladies of the pa, standing opposite each other. Some few speeches were made, but a heavy shower of rain put a stop to further proceedings. In conversation with the chiefs who were assembled in congress, Kahakaha accused us of being a makutu-ing people, and soon worked himself into a rage; seizing my coat, he tore one corner; he afterwards gave me his old, rusty sword, as a kind of remuneration, but I did not take it away. Kahakaha and Motutara, are two rough, uncouth natives, the latter a man with whom we cannot hold conversation, or communication,--a sullen fellow. I delivered to Herua Te Kauwai's hatchet, and had some conversation with him and Kupenga respecting Wainga; it was not quite so satisfactory as we could wish; but Kahakaha and Motutara are here sowing the seeds of iniquity. We received some letters from Messrs. Wilson and Preece, mentioning the illness of the children at Puriri. Mr. Fairburn left at two o'clock, and as the south wind blew in, felt it needful to avail ourselves thereof, and at four o'clock took our departure. The evening was calm, and at nine, we landed at Motunau, close to the anchorage of the "Columbine." I took some refreshment, and was kept in conversation with Wharerahi and others till midnight, when I retired to rest.

March 29. Wind S.S.W. At daylight, put off in a canoe to go on board, but when we had rounded the point we could see no vessel, and concluded she must have sailed for the river, (as was intimated in the communication we had received,) for the purpose of conveying Mr. Wilson and family to the Bay of Islands, in consequence of the illness of two of his children. We landed with feelings of great disappointment, but were enabled to spend the day in quietness. Obliged to go on half allowance of provision; my candle reduced to one inch.

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March 30. Cold, clear night; wind south, and fresh; we hope to see the vessel this morning; everyone lowspirited at the loss of a fair wind. It is painful thus to be detained at the end of our journey, for no apparent reason. Shifted our quarters to Puni, an island nearer to Hauraki, where we may have a clearer view of the sea. A look-out kept till sunset; no vessel in sight.

March 31. Cold night; wind continued the same; fair for the Bay. No vessel in sight. At ten, "a vessel in sight" was announced from the look-out, which was a cheering sound to all. We ascended the hill, to be sure of the pleasing news; we saw a vessel indeed, but, after some hours watching, she did not stand towards us, consequently left us with the unpleasant conclusion that she did not belong to us; but our desires for the schooner persuaded us that we saw a sail coming out of the river standing towards us. At sunset, were fully assured that what we had seen was our vessel, and, at half-past seven, heard the report of a gun. At nine, we heard a second. The canoe pulled out, but could see nothing. I lay down, anxious for the return of day.

April 1. Passed a sleepless night, desirous of knowing if there were any passengers on board. Seven weeks this morning since I left home, though it was thought we might accomplish our mission in three. At daybreak all in motion, and we were soon gladdened by the exclamation, "Ka puta, ka puta!" [she appears!] and looking out at the tent door, I saw our little schooner under weigh, and standing into the anchorage. We were soon off, and after a few fears as to whether or not we should be upset in the canoe, as the breeze was strong, and a good deal of swell for such a bark as we were in, we once more gained the deck on our voyage to the Bay, with the continuance of the favourable wind. The latest news from Tauranga direct is that Horeta and a large party of the Thames natives have been murdered at Whakatane; they had been fetched from hence, in order to assist that tribe in going against those of Opotiki. How grievously sad is the state of these people, whichever way we turn. At sunset we were close to Te Whara; pleasant breeze and clear weather, but very considerable swell.

April 2. Fine. At two a.m., close to Cape Brett; wind very light; the vessel thumping to such a degree that I felt quite disposed to be seasick, but the sight of the islands in the neighbourhood of Paihia perfectly recovered me. As we drew into the Bay, the wind headed us, but the boat put off from Paihia with my brother, Mr. Baker, and three of my children, who gladdened my heart with the news of "all 's well." The return home is an anxious moment, after several weeks of absence in a strange land, where no post carries a letter to distant relatives, but all remains in dark uncertainty. At one o'clock I landed, and was greeted by the natives, and finally by my dear children and wife, as well.

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We had much news to hear, and much to impart, as to what had occurred during the last two months. Surely I may say,--"The Lord is my Shepherd, I shall not want; He maketh me lie down in green pastures; He leadeth me besides the still waters."

Let us contrast with the turmoil of the South, some quiet school business in what may be termed the Mission homestead. The extract is from Mrs. Williams' journal.

May 8, 1836. Sunday. A bright morning, but a piercing cold wind. I sent for Hera, to put my infant school into her charge and Mrs. Ashwell's during my absence; went down to the boat with my husband; we got in at the rocks, and rowed against a strong wind, and were off to the Kawakawa before the bell had rung for morning service. Our row up the river was slow, the wind piercingly cold; I almost repented my undertaking. We landed a little before twelve on the Church Mission Society's land; twice I had landed there before, the first time ten years ago. The river and all its banks looked the same; but time had advanced and made many changes in us and in the state of the natives since then. We walked some little distance through low brushwood to the new pa on the opposite banks of the stream; we were carried across. We saw the men and boys standing in front of the new chapel, and concluded that morning service was over, and that they were at school. The old lady, widow of our chief, came to welcome us at the top of the steep bank, with several others: she conducted me to the verandah of a new kumara house, where she invited me to sit down upon a bundle of clean raupo. The number of women and children soon increased around me to a crowd. With most of them I was well acquainted, and first one and then another exclaimed, "Mata Wiremu [Mother Williams] is sitting at the Kawakawa!! Mata Wiremu is sitting amongst us!! sitting warming herself in the sun at the Kawakawa." It was not long before their bell rang for the female school, and I accompanied Ana, Hera, Meri, Katerina, Riripeti [Elizabeth], Mariana, &c. The roof was finished of the new chapel; it is wider than ours at Paihia, and entirely their own performance; but it was only boarded up about six or seven boards from the ground. A blanket was fastened up to keep the wind from my shoulders, the only chair at the Kawakawa placed for me, and fresh green fern spread under my feet; sixty-four women and girls were arranged in much order in different classes round the chapel, and twenty-four children. Katerina has the women's school, and Meri Makarini the children's. Ana exclaimed, "Mata Wiremu will teach the first class!" I consequently heard the catechism, but upon concluding walked round all the others, and looked at the children. Katerina had the book and pencil I gave her. They then gave an account of the morning sermon, which Moses had that morning addressed to them, but Ana gave such a prolonged account of "Te

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Wiremu's" at Paihia, a fortnight ago, the parable of the seed and the sower, that Henri called me to close before some who were waiting had said anything. Meri ran away and wrote a long slateful, which she brought me while I was seated in the verandah. The bell then rang for church; I counted about a hundred and fifty, possibly more, who were assembled for divine worship, at least half decently dressed in English clothing. Henry addressed them from Matth. VII, 24-27. As the floods had been at the Kawakawa, it was very applicable. It was a sight and a scene to stir up feelings of joy and gratitude to the Lord of the Harvest to be permitted this refreshing view of what God had wrought in the wilderness. Oh, may it assist us, may it encourage, amidst trial and amidst the actions and strivings of our great enemy, to feel that God is working, that His promises cannot fail, that His word is gone forth, and will not return void.

Such was the Kawakawa in 1836, and so it continued until the work was all but destroyed by the war in the North of 1845-6.

In a letter to his brother-in-law, Mr. Williams mentions the small beginnings of a farm, the success of which provoked so much jealousy in after times.

Henry Williams to the Rev. E. G. Marsh.
May 12, 1835.

I am glad you approve of my purchase of a piece of land for the children. I think also that you would be pleased with its situation. The stock upon it is doing very well, and in a little time we hope to have butter, cheese, poultry, eggs, &c. I think it may be more gratifying to Mr. Holford to learn that I have spent the £10 he was kind enough to present to my children in the purchase of sheep, which we hope will accumulate and prove of more extensive use than by laying it out in any other way. I have much pleasure in contemplating the rising towns in a few years, under the care of my boys, and trust that they may be made blessings to the poor natives amongst whom they may reside. My ambition does not wish them to settle anywhere else than in this land. We were some few years since much perplexed as to how we were to provide for our young ones; but this is now removed, and I have no doubt but they may possess as much land as needful for them and the natives around them.

To keep the promise made at Te Horo, during the second journey through Waikato, Mr. Williams undertook a third, in

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company with Mr. Maunsell. 9 Details shall be given, as before, in his own words; reduced, however, into the least possible compass. It suffices here to say, that peace is more easily spoken of than effected in Maoridom. The negotiations were upon the point of being abandoned in despair, when an idea occurred to Mr. Williams, which led to a complete success. It has been already mentioned that the seemingly insuperable difficulty lay in the disputed title to a tract of land, now known as the Tamaki. Mr. Williams suggested that the land should be ceded to himself; of course, for payment duly made. As usual, the real question at issue was not the thing itself, but the point of honour. The contending parties eagerly closed with the proposal; the stumbling block was cleared away, and thus another war was brought to an end. Mr. Williams, having no desire to become the actual possessor, now requested Mr. Fairburn to take his place in the transaction. Mr. Fairburn accordingly made the purchase, and acquired the land.

It will presently be seen how war blazed up elsewhere, more fiercely than ever, and how the new Mission stations, excepting The Puriri, were involved in the general ruin.

December 16, 1835. At daylight, sailed with a large party on board, amongst which were Mr. and Mrs. Maunsell, and some Ngapuhi chiefs. Evening, breeze fresh, S.S.W.

December 20. At daylight, close to Wakatuwhenua. At two, ran under Waiheke.

December 21. 10 Took the two boats with all the natives, and pulled up to Puriri; found all well; Messrs. Wilson and Flatt here, from Matamata. Rewa appeared in full dress. After breakfast, went out to see the natives, Tuma, Tarawati, &c. Made speeches which continued till past noon; chiefs of Thames rather jealous of Rewa's intentions. Sent off messengers to Mr. Brown and Mr. Hamlin, to meet us at Manukau.

December 23. Pulled down to Kopu, and entered the pa in much form and ceremony. After going through the usual speeches, we returned to the vessel laying off this place.

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December 24. Our party came on board to prepare for departure to Kaweranga. After breakfast, went on shore, and were soon on the way. The walk was pleasant, and we were enabled to see the site of the new settlement at Te Totara. As a Mission settlement it is admirable, under all the circumstances of the case,--a large pa on either side. We arrived about one o'clock, and received the usual welcome. After sitting in profound silence for a while, the old man, Horeta, made a long speech, which seemed very gratifying to Ngapuhi. After three or four persons had addressed the audience, I was required to get up. I spoke to them upon the present position of affairs amongst themselves, upon the jealousy with Waikato, and upon the stripping of Kati and Parati.

December 25. Much conversation with Horeta. About noon, the boat and canoe arrived; immediately proceeded to embark, and pulled along the East Coast to Urumihia's place. The lady was very solicitous that we should remain here during the night. Towards sunset, assembled for prayers.

December 26. Arrived at --------- 11 by eleven. Very civil; speeches, as usual, not very bright. I was obliged to give a few words.

December 27. Sunday. At ten, proposed to hold service, but everyone very reluctant. The chiefs were assembled in close debate, in a house, not disposed to leave off for karakia; I felt cast down: sitting upon a heap of stones not far off, I felt their situation to be truly distressing, and besought the Lord that they might be inclined to attend to the word spoken. In about half-an-hour, I gave them a second call, and was thankful to find that most of them came very cheerfully. We assembled a goodly muster, though several of the leading chiefs were not present. In the afternoon, I had a pleasant conversation with some small parties, and towards sunset held evening service. The attention of many of my congregation was very hard to gain; however, I delivered my message, and relied on Divine aid to bless the word sown.

December 28. At daylight, under weigh to Whakatiwai; overtaken by Mr. Fairburn; not well, and returned home. "Columbine" not out, though the wind was fair all Saturday. Landed at Wharekawa,--a pretty place; took breakfast, and proceeded on to Whakatiwai. Entered the pa in due form and order; long silence. At length Kupenga commenced, but evidently laboured under some embarrassment, not knowing what to say, as Rewa was expected to be going to take possession of Tamaki; he sat down, and again a long silence. In order to set them in motion, I made them a speech, which soon had the desired effect. I was opposed by an old man, who vaulted from side to side as a rope-dancer, so lightly touching the ground. He spoke in an angry manner, and was

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replied to by Moka and Rewa in much anger. After Rewa had run himself out of breath, Kahukoti [Coat], the head chief, replied in a mild manner, expressive of good-will. I concluded by stating the part we were desirous of taking to keep peace.

December 29. Before sunrise we were on our way with a fair breeze. We saw a vessel, which we supposed to be the "Columbine." Landed on Motu Nau to breakfast; at ten o'clock the canoes proceeded on, leaving us to remain for the "Columbine," which did not appear to be nearing us. At 2 p.m. the "Columbine" neared us fast and we were soon on board, with a fair wind, standing for Waiheke. We brought up in a small bay at the west end, and went on shore in quest of Patuone, whom we found in a very snug pretty place. Our party soon followed, when Rewa and Patuone immediately commenced a duet, at a tangi, which lasted about twenty minutes. After this was well concluded we took leave, and retired on board for the night.

December 30. Went on shore to ascertain the will of our friends: no one disposed to move. At length it was proposed that we should proceed on by ourselves to Waikato, and return with some of the opposite party to meet them at the landing place. 12 This arrangement quite met our views; we therefore took our departure without loss of time in order to save tide up to Otahuhu, and arrived at the landing place by high water. We immediately had the baggage carried over the neck of land, intending to move on at high water to Manukau; but by the time the boat was brought over, the sky became overcast with heavy clouds, threatening for rain. We therefore pitched our tents for the night and were but just in time to escape a good wetting.

December 31. About five o'clock was awoke by Mr. Fairburn's voice, who had just come over from Tamaki, having followed us. We were very thankful he had arrived, and that we had not proceeded, as we certainly should have done had not the rain set in.

January 1, 1836. Took our departure for Waikato. As we drew near the Manukau heads, we observed the natives on the right side of the harbour. Mr. Hamlin was not here. Natives not very communicative, nor did any offer food,--the first instance yet witnessed this journey. They brought a little fern-root, and some fish for sale during the day. Te Wherowhero and some other chiefs came to learn news, and then returned to their respective places. Towards six o'clock, Mr. Hamlin's boat was announced; I was sorry not to see Mr. Brown. We learnt that Mr. Brown was under considerable alarm for the safety of his house, owing to the woods around them being on fire, and therefore he could not come. He had had some

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trouble with his people, but had now brought them to order. Mr. Chapman at Rotorua had suffered considerable loss from plunder; and at Mangapouri a disturbance had taken place, owing to the insolent conduct of an obstinate young man named Awarahi, who not being pleased with Mr. Stack's mode of dealing with him, fired nine guns at his house, the balls striking various parts of the building. This last is certainly a very serious affair, and one which must be noticed; but there is in all these things abundant consolation in knowing that there is One on High who will cause all to work together for good.

January 2. Went to look at point of land on the north side of the harbour, to see if suitable for a station; very barren. At five o'clock, left for Otahuhu, to fetch Rewa and others. A long pull; landed late; no sign of Ngapuhi.

January 4. Ngapuhi announced; they did not hurry, but all came after waiting two hours, and fired off between two and three hundred cartridges (powder mamae) for Kati and Toha; Rewa afterwards burnt a fowling-piece for the same cause; they then assembled round Toha, and had a long tangi. At high water, moved off; proceeded to the heads, and joined Messrs. Fairburn and Hamlin.

January 5. Woman killed; head half off; trifling circumstance, all laughing and jesting; body thrown into the river. A few words with the man; he afterwards came with the others to receive Ngapuhi. Rewa and party came; feasted on fern-root, a new thing for Ngapuhi. General accusation of natives in Thames. I gave them a few words upon the necessity of making peace, saying that unless they were so disposed, Missionaries could not live amongst them. We had come as their fathers, but they must themselves determine the question. Messrs. Fairburn and Hamlin followed on the same side. I had some conversation with several chiefs; they approved of all we had to say, but doubted the sincerity of Ngatipaoa. At low water, crossed the river within the heads; very rough. A large party waiting for Rewa and Ngapuhi; all very civil.

January 6. At break of day, firing of guns at the approach of Rewa; a great noise, and men running about naked in all directions; they had their hellish dance, and then dispersed. As our time was advancing, we wished to proceed up the river, but had first to obtain permission, which was granted. We accordingly left the noisy throng in quest of a site further up the river. We landed at some places going up; the land very barren. At sunset, brought up two miles from the dragging place to Waikato [the Awaroa]. Clean lodging, plenty of fern-tops.

January 7. Examined the country in the neighbourhood, as Mr. Hamlin had considered this place desirable for a station. Could not recommend this situation under present circumstances, preferring to occupy the boundary between the two parties. Returned with the ebb tide to Awitu, saw the chiefs, and had long conversation

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with them. We told them we were now on the eve of departure, and wished to know their desires as to peace, this being now the second year, and little having been accomplished. They of course attributed all mischief to the others, but desired us to say that they were willing, and would leave the adjustment of the affair to the Missionaries. We were much encouraged by all they said, and concluded to go in quest of the leading men in the Thames, and learn what their desires might be, trusting that the Prince of Peace would lead us in the right way, and incline the hearts of the people to listen to Him.

January 8. At low water took our leave, after receiving particular instructions from Te Wherowhero, Haukai, and others, as to the nature of our message. As we approached Otahuhu, observed smoke and a number of natives, whom we found to be Ngatipaoa; they were very civil, and enquired with much interest as to the result of our intercourse with Waikato. In the course of the afternoon we held a council, when the chiefs acceded to our wishes to make peace. The disputed points were not much insisted upon, and they appeared to approve of our occupying the land between the tribes. 13 Two chiefs were deputed to return with us, Maukoikoi and Potiki.

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January 9. At two o'clock, struck the tents and embarked. As we drew near the native settlements, hoisted a white flag, as signal that we had a commission of peace. It did not, however, appear to be clearly understood. Moka came down to meet us, and immediately announced the names of the two chiefs. This was instantly answered by firing of guns, which brought the distant parties together, to learn the news. We walked up in state, and when we arrived, our friends arranged themselves in front of each other, and commenced a tangi. After a long interval, Kaihau arose and gave them a welcome, though interspersed with a few sharp expressions upon their desire to seize the land. All, however, passed off in good humour, and all seemed glad at the prospect of a cessation of hostilities.

January 10. At present, all are under great excitement, having but just arrived at the place, the scene of former desolation; they as yet do not feel themselves secure, the enemy within a few miles of them. Numbers of young people with them. Their state at present very degraded, their minds enveloped in darkness, and their bodies in filth. In the afternoon, went to see the natives around; very dark, and but slender desire for knowledge. In the evening, Mr. White announced Mr. Mitchell and Captain Wing, just arrived in the "Fanny;" they had come from Kaipara, which they reported as a noble river, and entrance good. Mr. Hamlin gave up his tent for their accommodation.

January n. At daylight, embarked with our party,--Ngapuhi and the commissioners for peace. The cross-sea caused by tide was such that the canoe nearly swamped, and I felt very thankful we were well through our difficulties. We afforded the commissioners an opportunity to pay their respect to Ngatiwhatua, who seemed now even disposed to treat them with disrespect; their speeches were not of a pleasing kind.

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January 12. In the morning learnt that Mr. W------ had been purchasing a tract of land, about twenty miles square, for four casks of leaf tobacco, value £8, whereby he had nearly bought up all the sitting place of the natives, and consequently hindered our Mission movement. Mr. Fairburn left for Mahurangi. No appearance of natives from Waikato for the purpose of ratifying peace. It is generally thought they will not come.

January 14. No signs of any one from Waikato; our natives feeling much indignation. At two, being high water, we took leave of Mr. Hamlin; pulled out to the entrance of the river, where a large party of Ngatimaru were sitting to see the conclusion of this negociation. Here we are to stay for a few days, to allow the opposite party opportunity to come up, if they think proper; but I fear the great enemy is keeping them back, his work not being yet complete.

January 15. About two a.m., a fire observed on the opposite side of the river; crossed over; a messenger from Waikato, stating that the party to ratify peace had been hindered by strong wind, and had but just arrived. Our party appeared pleased; Mate, a chief from Mangakahia, was deputed to conclude peace.

January 16. At daylight, Rewa and I pulled up to Otahuhu; met Mr. Hamlin, tired and weary. Chiefs not yet up, but near at hand. At noon, went to see them; had long conversation with them. Chose a site for a house. Ngatiwhatua down about Mr. W------'s purchase. Te Wherowhero, Kaihau, and Maiora accompanied us to Otahuhu to see Rewa; all very impatient; no food.

January 17. Took commissioners to meet Ngatipaoa; Ngatipaoa stiff at first, but more agreeable in their speeches.

January 18. Brought back commissioners to Otahuhu. Took departure for Puriri; arrived at Mohunga.

January 19. Proceeded on our way across Thames, and arrived by one o'clock; walked over, to Puriri; found all well; very glad at peace being concluded.

Mr. Williams had intended an immediate return to Paihia, after the peace-making at Otahuhu; but on his arrival at Puriri, not finding the "Columbine" as was expected, he determined to make a flying visit to Matamata, to enquire of Waharoa concerning the troubles at Mangapouri. On his arrival he heard of a foul murder committed at Rotorua, upon Hunga, cousin to Waharoa; Waharoa himself was then at Tauranga. Mr. Williams followed him up, in the faint hope of appeasing his wrath. But the offence was of such a nature that "satisfaction," as it is called in Maoridom, had to take its course. This brings us to Waharoa's war with Rotorua; which

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originating in one murder, increased by degrees in its destructive character, until it led to the temporary abandonment of the Southern Stations.

In December, 1835, Huka, of Rotorua, murdered and ate Hunga, cousin to Waharoa. No one palliated the conduct of Huka; but his own people, as a matter of course, were bound to fight for him. For the individual man, in the eye of the Maori law, does not exist: the act of the individual is the act of the tribe. At the instigation of Nuka, a chief of Tauranga, Waharoa's attack was directed, not against Rotorua itself, but against Maketu, a pa which belonged to Rotorua. The pa was stormed; about sixty-five of the defenders were killed and eaten, and about one hundred and fifty slaves were carried away prisoners. "Oh, how sweet to me will taste the flesh of Rotorua, along with their new kumaras [sweet potatoes]," said Waharoa to Mr. Brown.

Maketu was destroyed on the 28th of March. In retaliation for Nuku's proposal, Rotorua attacked the Tumu, a fortification belonging to Tauranga. The Tumu was taken on the 5th of May. The number killed, on the Tumu side, amounted to sixty men of rank, with more than two hundred women and children. On the Rotorua side, about an equal number of men.

From the time of the taking of the Tumu, the Stations at Mata-mata, Tauranga, and Rotorua, were each and all in expectation of being visited by the enemies of their particular people; each tribe sitting at its respective pa, apparently desirous to go forth and attack their enemies, but withheld by the expectation of being themselves attacked. Affairs continued in this uncertain state until July, when Waharoa assembled a force at Patetere, a village half way between Rotorua and Matamata. On August 6, he attacked the Rotorua pa. Rotorua had allies outside; a general engagement began; the allies were routed, and unfortunately fled through the Mission station. The house was pillaged by the pursuers, and Mr. Pilley 14 much maltreated. Every building in the station was afterwards fired, not by Waharoa, but by Rotorua, lest Waharoa should occupy it as a pa.

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About the middle of September, the Matamata station was stripped, not by a war party, but by a mob of thieves, with blackened faces, Marupo [Murder by Night] at the head of them. Mr. Brown, after these distressing scenes, quitted Matamata, for Puriri, which again he left in November for Tauranga, with Mr. Chapman, Mr. Wilson, and Mr. Williams, who had shown himself upon the scene.

Mr. Williams' journal is now continued.

January 26, 1836. Reached Matamata by two p.m.; Mr. Brown arrived in the evening. News of disturbance at Rotorua.

January 29. Preparations to depart for Tauranga. At one, Mr. Brown and I took leave, carrying with us a long train for some distance. Had to cross a large swamp; called at Mangapouri; was carried on a litter, which at times was uneasy from the beam sinking. We walked on in full view of the fall, which rolls down from the summit of the long range of hills which runs from Cape Colville in a south-east direction. We found the river somewhat deeper than usual, owing to late rain; I should have been glad to have waded over, but our natives objected to it; we were consequently carried over on their shoulders, and landed safely on the opposite side. We continued on to the foot of the fall, where we halted to dine, our distance being ten miles. Having rested about an hour, we commenced our ascent up the hill, which really required great exertion, but the view from the summit amply compensated for the fatigue. We here have an extensive country before us of level land, with rivers winding as far as the eye can reach; then we saw swamps which might be drained with little trouble. In the distance are hills which, for the most part, are extensively rich, well watered and wooded. We continued our journey upon table land for about three miles; it was very level, thickly wooded, and a delightful stream of cool, clear water running by the road side, over stony bottom; we also crossed several smaller ones, the sight of which refreshed us. The ground was very wet, owing to the clouds resting upon the hills; there are but few days without rain, though in the valley beneath the sun may shine in all his glory. Towards sunset we brought up in the woods, by the side of a clear brook, and pitched our tents. Our party was large, being accompanied by about forty persons carrying flax; amongst them several fine young women, but extremely low in their ideas of propriety. Held a pleasant service, and spent an agreeable evening.

January 30. Fine. At break of day all in motion, and had a good tough walk through wood; a dirty, rough, irregular road. At nine, came out into open space; had full view of Tauranga and coast for a long distance; continued course over hill and dale till past noon, when we arrived at Tupuna, where we found Waharoa, whom we wanted particularly to see upon the present state of affairs.

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We had much discussion upon the late events and desolating consequences of war. He admitted the justness of what was said, and his desire for quietness, but turned off to the evils of Rotorua; we could only say, all were evils alike. It was near sunset before the boat came for us; Waharoa and wife accompanied us to the settlement.

January 31. Waharoa came at daylight to go to the "Columbine," which had arrived.

February 1. Nakuku went to learn Waharoa's mind and intentions; he returned at ten o'clock, with a message to remain, and he would call on the morrow.

February 2. Fine. No sign of Waharoa; a second vessel arrived this morning, which will doubtless hinder our friend. Poor old man, he is very active in temporals, but no desire for things eternal. Mr. Wilson and I went to Otumoetai.

February 3. Moved on to Maketu; took refreshment at Mr. Tapsel's. We were enabled to proceed; canoes to carry us up the river; we brought up for the night upon a low piece of land scarcely above the water, and assembled the natives to service. I felt more weary with my walk than for a long time past.

February 4. At daylight, proceeded on our journey up this winding river, which runs through a swamp, generally deep, and but few places to land at.

February 5. Arrived at Rotoiti about eleven o'cock; the sight was beautiful and refreshing; we soon forgot the roughness and unpleasantness of the latter part of the road. The boat hove in sight after a few minutes. By the aid of a canoe we embarked all our party, and launched forth upon the bosom of these waters. The scenery was very beautiful, and the lake scarcely disturbed by the breeze, which carried us quickly on to our friends. We observed recently-formed settlements of natives in several places, where there were no signs of life on my last visit; everything was much altered for the better. We passed Mokaia; fair breeze, and did not escape a shower of rain. We landed on the Mission ground about three o'clock. Messrs. Chapman, Pilley, and Knight all well. Several natives came to see us. We walked out to the pa, but with considerable circumspection, owing to the holes of boiling water, which were very numerous in certain places; were received in a gracious manner, and conducted to an open space, where we met a large assemblage, who were soon seated in a circle. When silence was obtained, Pango rose and made his speech, bidding us welcome; he declared that the error was their own respecting the murder of Waharoa's relatives, and that they did not wish to fight. Being expected to speak, I expressed my displeasure at their late conduct. Instruction had been afforded them, but had now brought war in its foulest shape upon the country; God had loved them, and had given His Son as a Saviour to them, but to those only

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who received Him was He precious; their deeds were bad, but we would still see what could be done to appease the anger of their enemies.

February 8. Took departure across the lake with Messrs. Chapman and Brown in a small boat, which was deep with people and luggage.

February 10. At daylight on the move; walk very wearisome over the sands to Tauranga; relieved to find "Columbine" at anchor; went on board; Taipari came on board and Hekereia.

February 11. At seven, weighed and stood out on ebb tide.

February 12. At sunset close to Cape Brett; landed about midnight.

Mr. Williams had desired to return to the South almost immediately, Titore having announced that he was himself about to proceed thither on a peace-making errand. Titore changed his mind, having to do a little fighting on his own account, and the project was abandoned. But on October 11, the "Columbine" came in with ill tidings: Mr. Brown and Mr. Morgan had been stripped at Matamata; there was general confusion; Mr. Chapman wrote, urging Mr. Williams to go down again, which he did without delay. No detailed account of this journey has been preserved; only some memoranda in his travelling note-book. Even these must be now abridged.

October 28, 1836. Took leave, and embarked on board the "Columbine."

October 30. Kaweranga, ten miles. Anchored by ten a.m. Had service on board. In the afternoon, landed, and met the natives at Kopu.

October 31. Went up the river to the settlement [Puriri]. Met Messrs. Fairburn, Preece, Brown, Wilson, Morgan, Chapman. News. Matamata withdrawn. J. Flatt stripped by Rotorua. Child killed.

November 9. Showers and strong wind. Late in the afternoon, in company with Messrs. Brown, Chapman, Wilson, and Knight, pulled up river, and at dusk brought up. Pleasant evening.

November 10. Moved on, and landed at Ohinemuri; walked on till sunset, and brought up by a Wood. Fine country, level for considerable extent.

November 11. Pleasant night. In the afternoon had a view of the sea, and arrived at Katikati by three, the boat waiting. Had some refreshment, and proceeded towards Te Papa.

November 12. Arrived at Te Papa by two a.m.; all well. After breakfast, went to Maungatapu,--some speaking, but no disposition to peace. Returned, and found Taharangi and several others waiting for us,

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November 16. Sent messenger to Waharoa and Puriri. Afternoon, went to Otumoetai, and passed on to the place, on an island, to which it is proposed to retire in the event of war being brought into the neighbourhood. Had much conversation with Taharangi. After some considerable time, they seemed disposed to give way, and one man in particular, Amohau, said that peace should be made as soon as Waharoa made his appearance. In the evening, news from the Thames that the Rarawa were coming down with a vessel.

November 17. Went to Maungatapu, to see the natives. Nuka the only speaker; long conversation; his thoughts evidently evil. When coming away, he observed that if Waharoa should approve it might be well.

November 18. Waiting for Waharoa.

November 20. Sunday. Mr. Brown and I went to Maungatapu; assembled three hundred, men, women, and children.

November 21. Fine. Canoe from the southward, with Tapsel and Mr. P------. Ngatihe landed in considerable numbers. Held long conversation; pakeke rawa [very hard]. Afternoon, held examination.

November 22. Waharoa came over; his speech maro tonu [very stiff]. Determined to return, and hold on here as well as can be done; gloomy, very gloomy.

November 23. Prepared for departure. Nuka and others came from Maungatapu to see me.

November 24. Daylight, on the move. Taharangi came to see us. With much difficulty landed at Kati Kati.

November 26. Arrived at Puriri by sunset.

November 29. Committee till noon; took our departure in Mr. Wilson's boat. Landed about eight on west end of Waiheki.

November 30. Fine, calm afternoon; wind S.E. Landed at dusk on north end of Kawau; laid down on fern.

December 1. At half-past six, rounded Cape Brett; landed at Maunganui.

December 2. Bed of stone; hard. At daylight, moved on; at two p.m. landed at Paihia; all well.

In a letter to his brother-in-law, Mr. Williams describes the progress of the farm, which, as was usual with his undertakings, had become a complete success. In such matters, he had no experience; but, in the colonies, the greater aptitude of naval, compared to that of military men, in fitting themselves to new circumstances,--in turning their hands to anything, has always been remarked. They seem less trammelled by routine, and more ready to leave the beaten road.

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Henry Williams to the Reverend E. G. Marsh.
February 13, 1837.

I am paying more attention than heretofore to the children, a duty which I think has been too much overlooked, in a too ardent desire to carry on the public duties of the Mission.

You are aware that I purchased a piece of land as a farm, yet the general opinion of its qualities was bad. I therefore laboured under considerable disadvantage, and ploughed and sowed without hope, as the farmers told me I might get a crop of straw and no wheat. After my seed was in the ground, I paid a visit to the Thames and Tauranga, and on my return was thankful to learn that my wheat looked surprisingly well, and indeed it surpassed my utmost expectations. I pay an occasional visit to my native farmers, for I have no one else. The last week we concluded our harvest. Our Waimate friends tell me it is remarkably good, far exceeding their own crop. My boys are now preparing land for the next crops, and are extending their borders. I have a small native-built house for myself, and a large barn built by the natives. I have now to estimate in the year's expenses a blacksmith's shop of wood, cowshed, a shed for the sheep, and fresh stock-yards. We are obliged to proceed slowly, but, I hope, surely. I wish to have things brought a little to hand by the time Samuel shall have done school, which will be January next, if all be spared. Samuel and Henry have taken the lead this year, and feel their importance. I hope I may not be led away by these things; but it is needful to attend to the children, and put them in the way to do something for themselves, and not be turned on the parish. Mr. Davis' land, Mr. Clark's, and William's joins mine. In this respect it is well situated.

It is not surprising that Mr. Williams should have been so strong an advocate for regular government; either by strengthening the hands of the British resident, or through means of regular colonization by the Crown. From the first, the lawlessness of Europeans had been his great hindrance to the work. And these waifs and strays were gathering strength year by year, bidding fair at no distant time to take charge of the land. Not, indeed, that all Europeans were alike defiant of restraint; there were well disposed persons in the country, who were willing to support law, if law could only be had, and who took the only means in their power to obtain it. But the "roughs" were strongly predominant.

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Henry Williams to the Reverend E. G. Marsh,
Paihia, March 28, 1837.

By this opportunity I forward to your care a petition, which has been prepared here, and signed by several British subjects, though there are several who have not been able to put their names to ft. The one to the King is forwarded by Mr. Busby, and we thought that you would be able, by the aid of Mr. Hoare, to have it presented to the House of Commons by Mr. Buxton, or some one else.

. . . . .

It is high time that something be done to check the progress of iniquity committed by a lawless band daringly advancing in wickedness and outrage, under the assurance that "there is no law in New Zealand." Without some immediate interposition on the part of the Government for our protection, our position will become very desperate, as we may expect to be surrounded ere long by a swarm of rogues and vagabonds, who indeed carry all before them, both as respects the respectable Europeans and also the natives.

The troubles in the South, never quite allayed, had become serious. The "Columbine," which had been left behind, arrived at Paihia, with refugees from Matamata.

The North, for some while past, had enjoyed comparative immunity from disturbance. But in March, 1837, war broke out again. Mr. Marsden was then upon a visit to New Zealand,---his last, and made mention of it in a letter to the Society.

It is upwards of seven years since my last visit. On my arrival here, I find two of the principal chiefs at open war--Pomare and Titore; in consequence of which, the whole island was in the greatest commotion. The chiefs from all parts have assembled, with their men, to support either Pomare or Titore. I have repeatedly visited both parties, with a view of bringing them to terms of peace; but have not succeeded. The Rev. Henry Williams has used every means in his power, but as yet without effect. There were one hundred and thirty-one Europeans in Pomare's pa, and a great number in Titore's camp. These are generally men of the most infamous character; runaway convicts, and sailors, and publicans, who have opened grogshops in the pas, where riot, drunkenness, and prostitution are carried on daily. What will be the issue of the contest, cannot be foreseen. Pomare's pa is very strong. It appears to be impossible for Titore to take it. A few days ago, Titore sent eight hundred men, in forty-two war canoes, to attack Pomare's pa, but they returned, after much firing

1   The Puriri was chosen as a central position. The Haurake [Thames] natives were of four grand tribes, -- Ngatimaru, Ngatipaoa, Ngatiwhanaunga, and Ngatitamatera.
2   Te Morenga, of Urikapana.
3   Two hundred acres, to be purchased for them by the Society. This proposal was agreed to by the Society, but was clogged with conditions which could not be accepted. It must here be observed that purchase by the Society, as suggested, was a matter quite distinct from purchase by the Missionaries, out of their own private means; yet, when in aftertimes these latter purchases were treated as a political question, an impression arose--assiduously fostered--that the Society had forbidden their Missionaries to acquire, by private purchase, more than two hundred acres each.
4   In April, 1831, the Church Missionary Committee had passed a resolution, as follows:--

"That the situation of the Society's Missionaries in New Zealand be represented to his Majesty's Government, and that they be requested to place them on the same footing with regard to grants of land, in New South Wales, as the children of the chaplains in that Colony,"

That is to say, four square miles--2,560 acres, for each son; and the half of that amount for each daughter.
5   For instance, Kapa, a Waikato, and his wife were on a visit to the station: Koinake, a chief of Whakatiwai, at feud with Waikato, came to see them, protesting that all past animosity was at an end. After remaining three days in the valley, eating and sleeping with them, he succeeded in persuading them to accompany him to his kainga, down the river. They had not proceeded more than ten or twelve miles, when the vulture landed with his prey, killed them both with his hatchet, and carried the bodies in his canoe to his own settlement, where they were eaten. This was in revenge for the death of a relative, cut off by Waikato some seven years before. See Mr. Fairburn's journal, June 24, 1834.

Some while after, Waikato retaliated by a descent upon Whakatiwai, attacking by moonlight on a Sunday morning, killing fifty, including women and children, with the loss of only three of their own party.
6   A raising of bones before laying them in their second and final place of burial.
7   When consulted by Governor Hobson as to the site of a capital town for New Zealand, Mr. Williams, who had noted the capabilites of this district, recommended Waitemata. He is, in fact, the founder of Auckland.
8   In later times king, under the name of Potatau.
9   The Rev. Robert Maunsell, now Archdeacon and D.D., arrived to join the Mission, November 26, 1835.
10   On this day, Captain Fitzroy, in aftertime Governor, anchored H.M.S. "Beagle" in the Bay. He visited Waimate, showing much interest in the school, and in the affairs of the Mission. On the 23rd, Mr. and Mrs. Ashwell arrived, to join the Mission.
11   A blank in the MS. journal.
12   Patuone and Ngapuhi were apparently not willing to trust themselves in the heart of the Waikato, and therefore proposed that Waikato should come up to meet them, on what was at that time neutral ground,--Otahuhu.
13   This mode of settling the dispute having been taken unfair advantage of by the Government, in the attack upon the Missionary grantees, requires further explanation. The tract of land thus purchased (£900 in goods, at the Commissioners' valuation, being the price) was extensive, though its extent has been largely exaggerated. The question was, not how much, or how little; but how bloodshed should be stayed. The Government ultimately reaped the benefit of the transaction, taking possession on the plea that it was not native land, for the natives had sold it; that it was not the purchasers' land, for the Government would not let them have it; and that, therefore, it was Demesne of the Crown. A remnant was returned to the purchaser. Mr. Fairburn's own proposal had been, to retain one-third of the whole for his family; to convey one-third to the Church Missionary Society, and to place the other third in trust for native purposes.

Subjoined is Mr. Fairburn's account of the transaction, followed by a corresponding account from Mr. Williams.

Mr. Fairburn to the Church Missionary Society.
November 27, 1838.
In January, 1836, Mr. Williams arrived at the Puriri, with a few Ngapuhi chiefs from the Bay of Islands, to endeavour to effect the establishment of peace between the Waikato and the Thames; which object having been accomplished, and the boundaries of land settled between the two parties, the Thames natives immediately made application to sell at once their portion of land joining on that of the Waikato, declaring that peace could not exist for any length of time unless they did so, as there would be perpetual infringements on each others' territories. About a week afterwards, the same natives came in a body to the Puriri, and almost insisted that the land should be purchased. It is also particularly worthy of remark, that the whole of that portion purchased was entirely unoccupied by the natives; but now, I am enabled to invite such natives as are well disposed to sit down together, without any distinction of tribe. And there are now living in the neighbourhood portions of three different tribes, who would not have sat together under other circumstances.

Henry Williams to the Church Missionary Society,
January 11, 1839.
It was a disputed piece of land between the natives of Waikato and those of the Thames;--that is, the former wanted to encroach upon it, and take possession. I was, previous to the transaction, with the natives of both parties, endeavouring to bring about a better understanding among them; and was told that the great obstacle was this piece of land,--that neither party could take possession, as it would create an immediate war. In order, therefore, to set this question at rest, I told them that neither should have it, but that I would take the land for myself; to which all gave consent. Of course, it was understood that payment was to be made for it: I had no desire for the land myself, but felt that it was needful that it should be purchased. I therefore proposed to Mr. Fairburn to take it, which he accordingly did; and since that period there has been no word of dispute between the natives of Waikato and the Thames upon the subject.
14   Mr. Pilley and Mr. Knight were assistants to Mr. Chapman.

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