1874 - Carleton, H. The Life of Henry Williams, [Vol. I. ] - [Pages 201-245]

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  1874 - Carleton, H. The Life of Henry Williams, [Vol. I. ] - [Pages 201-245]
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[Pages 201-245]

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on both sides without effect. Two war canoes met, and engaged, when three men belonging to Titore were killed; two of them were brothers, and men of high rank.

Mr. Williams' journal, during this period of turmoil, is singularly meagre. He does not even make mention of his own final success, though he recounts the steps by which he worked up to it. Mrs. Williams' journal is more discursive; but neither one or other give any account of the origin of so unexpected an outbreak.

The immediate cause was the death of Kirimahore, a woman belonging to Ngapuhi, killed at Te Uruti, near Kororareka, by Ngatikahungunu, living at Otuihu, of whom Te Mauparaoa was the chief,--allied to Pomare and Whareumu, through them to Kawiti, chief of Ngatihine, and through Ngatihine to Te Urikapana, of whom Te Haupokia was a chief.

But, previously to this, Te Rangiwehekura, a southern woman, and wife of Te Haupokia, had been killed at Pakeretu, on the road from Te Ahuahu to Waima, where she and Te Haupokia had plantations, by one of Pi's men, of Waima. It was for her death that satisfaction had been taken by Ngatikahungunu. The question arises, how was it that Te Haupokia did not himself avenge the death of his wife, leaving it to a southern tribe to do so? The answer is, that Te Haupokia was believed to have brought witchcraft to bear upon Pi's people, and that a great mortality among them had consequently been set down to the work of Te Haupokia's gods. The woman, too, being a southern, probably a slave woman, her death was not considered a sufficient cause for war.

But Ngatikahungunu were not so easily satisfied; and, taking advantage of a land dispute between Ngapuhi and Ngatihine, as to the boundary line of the Kororareka block, surrendered to Ngapuhi, in consequence of the death of Hengi, slain at the battle of Kororareka, some seven years previously (Tikitikioura, at the back of Uruti, being the disputed point), killed Kirimahore, a Ngapuhi woman, at Uruti;--thus, not only avenging the death of their relative, slain by Pi's men, but, by a clever stroke of policy, making it appear as an outbreak of the old feud in which Hengi was killed. It is remarkable that the death of Pi should have been the result.

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Mr. Williams was absent when the disturbance began, being on a visit, with Mr. Marsden, to the Mission station at Kaitaia. In a letter written shortly after his return, he seems to treat it very lightly.

Henry Williams to the Rev. E. G. Marsh.
April 12, 1837.

I have returned from Kaitaia since Saturday last, and we found the natives here in great confusion, and know not what to say to them. However, on Saturday morning the parties met, and after firing at each other for about three hours, the list of sufferers were one Englishman wounded in the foot, and one pig in the shoulder. Things look black around, but we shall be better able to judge in a few days. Mr. Marsden seems very much recovered since his landing; he is so very infirm that he is obliged frequently to rest when out for a walk, and requires much nursing and care. He has been very much delighted with all he has seen since his arrival; he says, nothing which we could have written could have conveyed to him the true state of the Mission.

The following extracts are from Mrs. Williams' journal.

April 3, 1837. A fight at the pa [Otuihu, Pomare's place], or rather a squabble, which we fear will bring on trouble. A woman shot.

April 5. Mr. Brown has written to Henry, urging his return, on account of the disturbed state of the natives.

April 8. Henry, Mr. and Miss Marsden surprised us. The "Columbine," when in sight, had been mistaken for the "Jessie." A happy return. The dear old gentleman was delighted with his visit to Kaitaia.

April 9. Henry went up through Kawakawa. He heard of the fight, and saw the canoes. No settlers at church. Heard of Mr. Greenway's alarm, from the war party. Henry had called on Captain Clendon, and brought a box from them to be in a place of safety.

April 10. Henry went to Kororareka, to see the army, and talk with the leaders, to sound their dispositions towards peace.

April 11. Mr. Marsden went with Henry and Mr. Brown to the pa.

April 14. Mr. Marsden and Henry went to Kororareka.

April 15. A fearful day of excitement. Just as I went to the infant school, with Mr. and Miss Marsden, Henry saw a movement among the canoes; was off, and up the river in his dressing-gown before we knew he was gone. Mrs. Clendon and her children were brought over for refuge. She came weeping, and made me shudder with the account she gave of their skirmishing and fighting, and

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dropping down as fast, and my dear husband among them in the very thick of it. My husband returned safe. The poor natives had made a sad affair of it.

April 20. Henry, Mr. Brown, and Mr. Baker went to Kororareka, to see the captains of the vessels, who had a meeting on the occasion of the fight. Mr. Busby went also. Mr. Marsden went to see Captain Dillon, of the "Jessie." Rongo came, and her husband, John Heke. Rewharewha at Waimate. Our men at the farm, Matiu and Puriri, in great fear. The storm of war seems gathering, and fears increasing. But the Lord reigneth: we need not be dismayed.

April 22. A volley of musketry at daylight. Papahia arrived at Waimate.

April 23. Henry went up the Kawakawa.

April 24. Henry went to see Papahia, at the camp at Waimate.

April 26. Henry went inland.

April 27. Mr. Kemp breakfasted with us. The canoes were passing and firing; many sights and sounds of war.

April 29. All was commotion. The fleet of canoes moved up the river, from Kororareka and Waitangi, to the attack of the pa. Henry was off before the breakfast bell rang: I had terror and anxiety to endure again.

May 2. The natives firing and fighting behind the hills, near the Haumi. All the natives in the settlement up the hill, to see one man wounded.

May 3. Henry went to Kororareka; thence to Whauwhauroa to meet Mr. Davis.

May 4. Mr. Davis and Henry went up the river, and returned in good time.

May 5. .Henry and Mr. Davis went over to Kororareka.

May 7. Mr. Davis and Henry went to Kawakawa. It seemed now to be established that the Europeans should be unmolested.

May 9. Henry set off directly after breakfast, to go and visit the Kawakawa; but the canoes passed from Waitangi before he started, and the firing soon began, and continued till three o'clock. The canoes were seen going from Kororareka. The firing had been heard at Waimate.

May 10. Mr. Marsden, Henry, and Mr. Clarke went to Kororareka, after there had been much firing, and playing, like children, at bo-peep. The canoes from the pa, and those from Waitangi, coming out in a body, and daring each other to follow.

May 11. Mr. Marsden and Mr. Clarke went to Kerikeri.

May 12. Henry did not return from Kororareka, where he had been toiling among the natives, till four o'clock.

May 16. We heard of John Heke's near escape, being chased in a canoe from Wahapu. How sad that this Christian native should in any way mix in these civil wars.

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May 22. The canoes fired all day. Reports of killed and wounded.

May 23. Henry and Mr. Brown went up the river, and to Kororareka. Mr. Marsden went with Mr. Baker.

May 26. Two vessels coming in; one expected to be the "Buffalo," or "Rattlesnake."

May 27. Mr. Mair came with the letters just as we were dropping off to sleep. It was H.M.S. "Rattlesnake."

May 27. Mr. Marsden and Henry went on board the "Rattlesnake," and returned; the former in high spirits at having secured his passage to Sydney.

May 29. Captain Hobson and the first lieutenant called, with Mr. Busby. The captain is a thin, pleasing man, said to be the original of "Tom Cringle," of "The Log."

June 4. Henry off at day-dawn to the Kawakawa. Heard news of peace at the southward.

June 6. Mrs. Clendon and children to dine, and spend the day. Captain Clendon, after landing Mrs. Clendon, picked up two captains, and saved their lives, from a boat upset, round which they were struggling; but he was near endangering the lives of his boat's crew, from the Waitangi mob, who ran along the beach to fire at the boat, the natives being of the opposite party.

June 14. The canoes went up, a formidable shew. News arrived of the slaughter of Pi; a chief of Hokianga killed. This mischief was done when we least expected.

June 17. Henry returned unsuccessful from his attempt among the natives to procure peace.

June 18. Henry went up before it was well light to the Kawakawa.

June 19. To our surprise, heard that Captain Wright's place had been stripped, and their inmates half murdered by three Europeans.

June 28. Henry informed us the Committee would be here next week, on account of the natives assembling, and the prospect of making peace.

July 4. Mr. and Miss Marsden embarked on board the "Alligator," for Sydney, taking with them our eldest daughter, Marianne.

July 8. Henry up the river, peace-making.

July 11. Pi's son [Adam Clarke] arrived from Waimate. A grand haka of natives on the beach.

July 12. Henry went up with natives, and had a fatiguing day; Wharerahi and Tamati Waka called. Noise of guns, and natives dancing on the beach.

July 14. Henry returned with news of peace having been made; he had taken four individuals up to the pa. Rewa and Wharerahi came over in the evening to say that Kororareka were angry with the arrangements for peace.

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July 15. Rewa's great gun went off at Kororareka, as a sign they were angry. Henry had ordered "Maroro" [" Flying Fish"-- the large boat], then ordered the little boat; and Wharerahi seemed inclined to give up all hope. All seemed gloomy again. However, Wharerahi came to beg the great boat might go, and he and Henry went to the pa, taking a red flag and a white one, for peace or war. We had the happiness of seeing Henry's boat return with his white flag flying to Kororareka, two canoes with him. A white flag was hoisted on shore. We knew that Henry had brought the Kororareka people back from the pa with a chief of the pa.

A few words from Mr. Williams' journal must suffice.

June 4. Canoes at Waitangi moving up the river. Went up the Kawakawa to give notice of the Hikutu being out; much concern expressed. Return to Otuihu: Ngapuhi returning; much firing. One shot from the great gun fell close.

That is, close to him. The story of this shot is amusing.

Pomare had a big gun, but no round shot. He boarded a trading vessel at night, and endeavoured to obtain some from the master. "No," said Captain ------; "you will be shooting Williams if I do; I know that he is going up." Pomare promised so faithfully to fire wide of Mr. Williams, and pleaded so hard, that three shot were given him, to get rid of him. The next morning, Captain ------, not feeling quite at ease, deemed it advisable to go up himself, to keep Mr. Williams out of range. He found him standing right in the line of fire, and had some trouble in persuading him to move, for they were beyond the range of musketry. Scarcely had they moved aside, when a shot ploughed up the ground where they had stood. Mr. Williams, much surprised, exclaimed, "Some rascal has been supplying them with round shot." He was then for returning to his former ground, supposing, it is to be presumed, that Pomare had no more. But the vendor knew better. He kept his own council, however, and managed to detain Mr. Williams a short time in conversation. Another shot came, and again another; "and then," says Captain --------, (he tells the story himself, with glee,) " knowing that there was not another shot in the locker, I walked forward as if I were the bravest man in creation."

On another occasion, during this outbreak, Mr. Williams was assaulted by an angry native, his only weapon being a long, sliding-

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jointed telescope. The assailant was prepared to parry what he expected, a blow across the head; but, feigning to cut, Mr. Williams gave point. The telescope, of course, shut in; and the fellow, seeing how short a portion was left in the hand, believed himself run through the body by the remainder. By the time he had satisfied himself that he was sound in wind and limb, his anger had subsided.

May 10, 1838. Kawiti sent to Tareha to whakatika [make straight] his pukapuka; but no notice appears to have been taken.

On the 12th, he writes:--

Mr. Baker and I went over to Kororareka to take Kawiti's patu; the Kororareka people not inclined to receive it.

The presentation of the patu,--a flat batoon carried in the hand, is equivalent to an offer of peace. Rendre l'epee is a custom something akin to mis, though going farther, as implying absolute surrender. The patu is presented by a third party; generally a woman of rank. For instance, when Governor Grey made peace with Heke, he was not permitted to see Heke himself; but he did see Heke's wife, Harriet. In this instance, the entrusting the office to Mr. Williams was a signal proof of the confidence reposed in him.

During this war Titore fell, and died at Kororareka.

As a parallel to the "telescope affray," mention may be made of one more of Mr. Williams' bloodless victories with unusual weapons. A bevy of the Kororareka ship-girls had given notice of their intention to visit Paihia, to flout the Missionary interference with their vested rights. They came accordingly, dressed in all their finery, to tawai [taunt] the sober school girls. At the time of their arrival, a language committee was being held in the chapel. On landing from the canoe, in which they had paddled themselves across, they opened the attack by a ruri-ruri. 1 When a report of these proceedings reached the committee, Mr. Williams sent William Puckey, a modest youth of about twenty years of age, to start them off. The enemy met him with such language and gesticulation, that he was fain

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to turn and run for it. "Nonsense," said Mr. Williams, "do not be beat by a parcel of women; go back with Mr. Fairburn, and try again." But the two were no better able to stand fire than the one, and were routed, in utter dismay. Mr. Williams then sallied forth himself, umbrella in hand, the whole wharekura [school] looking on in silence, wondering what was to come of it. The women, knowing well that this was the advance of "the old guard," the crisis of the battle, redoubled their action, calling out, "Here comes karu-wha [four eyes]. The leader, herself a great lady in the land, came on brazenly, pukana-ing 2 at her adversary. Karu-wha gave her a great whack on the flank with his umbrella; she yelled with astonishment and indignation that one of her rank should suffer a blow, but fled; the others did the same; the whare-kura shouting with admiration,--kua whati, kua whati [they flee, they flee]. "Follow them up," said Mr. Williams, "and duck them." The school, men and boys, nothing loth, gave chase; there was a scene of floundering in the water; and the saucy damsels got such a ducking in the tide as sent them crestfallen home again, wiser, if not better, than they came.


In June, 1838, Mr. Williams' eldest son, Edward, arrived from England, invalided, by consequence of brain fever. Unable to bear the greater severity of the English climate, he had been ordered to return, and so came to an end his hope of a professional career. He came, by way of Hokianga, a bar-harbour on the West Coast. Signals were made on shore that the bar could not be taken, the sea being too high; but the master of the vessel resolved to chance it. Probably he had no choice but to do so, for it was blowing hard on to a lee shore; or he would hardly have run so desperate a risk. He gave his passengers the option of being battened down under hatches, or lashed on deck; Mr. Edward naturally preferring the latter alternative. The ship had been under double-reefed topsails; but the master now set every stitch he could, lashed two hands to the wheel, himself in the rigging, and put her right before the wind.

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It was just a chance about her broaching to; with a stiff breeze aft, they were becalmed as often as she fell between the seas, the sails lying flat againt the mast; but she held her way, the three well-known rollers were passed, and they found themselves in smooth water, the pilot boat awaiting them. "I never expected to see you safe across," said the old salt; "did you not make out the signal?"


In September, Mr. Williams was called by subpoena to New South Wales. Mention has already been made of the attack by four Europeans on Captain Wright's house. One of the culprits, James Doyle by name, having been committed for trial, was so unwise as to call Mr. Williams as a witness on his behalf. Mr. Williams' evidence was conclusive, and led to a conviction; but the interruption to work was great, for he did not reach home, on his return, until the 18th of December.


In 1838, Mr. Williams was sorely tried by the establishment of a Roman Catholic Mission in New Zealand. Bishop Pompallier, with two priests, landed at Hokianga, intimating that nine others were to follow. They made some way among the natives at first; but were unable to maintain their ground. Mr. Williams met them from time to time in public argument. Controversial matter is avoided, save where needed for vindication of character, in this "Memoir;" it shall suffice to say that, at the present time, there are very few pikopo 3 natives in the Colony.

On the 28th of April, a French man-of-war, with two French merchant vessels, anchored in the Bay. All three fired royal salutes in honour of the King of France's birth-day. The Frenchman commenced a survey, and to facilitate operations, set up small flags on certain points of land. The natives, who had from the time of Marion regarded all proceedings of the Oui-ouis with suspicion,

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came to the conclusion that the country was being taken possession of, and hastened in great alarm to Mr. Williams. He laughed, and told them that they had nothing to fear until they saw a large flag run up to a high pole on the main land; but that that would really have a meaning. On the following day, Mr. Williams was told that the French captain had double-shotted his guns, having been informed that the Missionaries were inciting the natives to attack the ships.

Mr. Williams' dictum about flags was not forgotten; and in after years, when the flagstaff at the Bay was made a cause of war, he was accused by the English, on the strength of his having thus laid down the law about the Frenchman, of having treasonably excited the natives to rebellion, by telling them that the hoisting of a flag indicated the taking of the country from them; also, of having told Heke to cut down the flagstaff.


Hitherto, the Mission work had been carried on by Europeans only. The time was now ripe for turning to account the agency of such native converts as could be relied upon. Ordination, in New Zealand, was not yet possible, for want of a Bishop; nor, perhaps, would it have been yet advisable, without the test of further trial. Native teachers, however, would be confirming their own faith, while imparting it to others. An opportunity came to be afforded which was not thrown away. 4 Mr. Wm. Williams had been informed that at Waiapu the ra tapu [Sunday] was observed, and that the natives met for service. This was through the teaching of Taumata-kura, who, a slave to Ngapuhi, had attended school at Waimate, and had been carried down, with other liberated slaves, by Mr. Wm. Williams to Waiapu, in January, 1834. Though he had not been baptised, he taught and preached, acquiring much influence; and when invited to a fight at Cape Runaway, agreed to join the expedition, stipulating, however, that the slain should not be eaten. He headed the attack upon the pa, his book in one hand and his musket in the other, under a shower of bullets, but was not hit. His escape was attributed to the power of his God, and his influence was clenched.

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The value of a native ministry, since abundantly confirmed, was at once perceived; and in October Henry Williams sailed, taking with him six volunteers, -- three for Turanga, and three for Waiapu.

What follows is extracted from his report to the Society.

Toward the end of October [1838], I sailed with a party of natives, to establish them as teachers at the East Cape and Turanga, among those distant tribes. I found the natives very numerous, when compared with those of this part of the island; and at all the pas, both at the East Cape and Turanga, all seemed perfectly prepared to receive Christian instruction. Their repeated and strong solicitations for teachers are a loud and imperative call that the field should no longer be neglected. The visit paid to these places a twelvemonth since has had a very salutary effect. The demand for books was great and general; and it was truly distressing to be obliged to turn away without the means of giving relief. I distributed, in the course of my journey, five hundred slates, and a few early lessons and catechisms. Books I had none. Three of our married teachers were placed at the Cape, and three at Turanga. We were enabled to make a commencement with schools, and there is little doubt that they will be continued, unless suffered to languish and die from the want of Missionary support.

It would be easy, were strong impressions desired, to tell a sensational story of the horrors of the war in the South,--of the fiendish atrocity, of the perfidy and objectless cruelty with which it was waged. But there is no space for these things here. It is enough to say that turmoil wore itself out by degrees, as it needs must where desolation succeeds to strife. So soon as there was a chance of making good the ground, the Southern stations, with some derangement, were re-occupied. It may be said that a general dispersion of the Mission families, for some while past concentrated in the North, took place.

During the absence of Mr. Williams at the South, Bishop Broughton arrived from New South Wales, in M.S. "Pelorus," on a pastoral visit to the native church. With him was the Rev. Octavius Hadfield, then a deacon, not having till now reached the required age for priest's orders. This gentleman had been compelled, through ill health, to leave Oxford, where he was advised to try a milder climate. Mr. Williams returned about a week after their arrival.

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The Bishop was most active in supervision, scrutinising all with a careful eye. He visited as many stations as his time, or rather that of Captain Harding, would allow; confirmed about twenty children of Missionaries, and about double that number of natives; admitted Mr. Hadfield to priest's orders, and consecrated two burial grounds,--those of Paihia and Kororareka. A foundation of regard and confidence was laid between the members of the Mission and the Bishop of Australia, which was never disturbed. It was deepened, moreover, by a common memory,--that of Samuel Marsden, who had but lately passed away. The Bishop preached at Paihia on Christmas-day; when he reminded his hearers that on that day was completed the twenty-fourth year of the establishment of the Mission, "his venerable friend" having landed on the 24th December, 1814, and preached his first sermon, on the beach, on the following day,--the Festival of the Nativity.

After the Bishop's return to Sydney, he addressed a full report to the Society in England. It is too long to be given in full; but an extract will be read with interest.

Sydney, New South Wales,
March 28, 1839.

Having rendered this short account of the principal incidents during my residence in New Zealand, I shall now offer to the notice of the Society those conclusions with regard to the present state and future prospects of their Mission which I was enabled to form, through the exercise of my judgment upon all which presented itself to my observation. In thus proceeding, I shall use great plainness of speech. It is in my power, I think, effectually to contradict the assertions of the adversary and the scoffer, who have some times gone the length of affirming that the attempt to Christianise the people of this nation has been a failure,--that nothing has been done. On the other hand, I shall not suffer my admiration of that which has really been effected, to hurry me into an unqualified approval of everything connected with the establishment of theMission, or the operations of the Missionaries; nor to deter me from pointing out any particulars in which I think there is room for improvement.

First, with regard to the Missionaries of the Society, I must offer a very sincere and willing testimony of their maintaining a conversation such as becomes the Gospel of Christ, and the relation in which they stand to it, as the professed guides and instructors of

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those who are, by their agency, to be retrieved from the service of sin. Their habits of life are devotional, they are not puffed up with self-estimation, but appeared to me willing to learn, as well as apt to teach, and among themselves they appear to be drawn together by a spirit of harmony, which is, I hope, the sincere effusion of their hearts, prompted by that spirit, of which love, gentleness, and goodness are among the most delightful fruits. It is upon the continuance of this spirit among themselves that I raise my principal expectations of their continued success among the natives. Without unanimity, there can be no successful combination of their exertions, nor is any blessing upon them to be hoped for, such as has hitherto visibly attended them, and in a very ample measure.

At every station which I personally visited, the converts were so numerous as to bear a very visible and considerable proportion to the entire population, and I had sufficient testimony to convince me that the same state of things prevailed at other places, which it was in my power to reach. As the result of my inspection, I should state, that in most of the native villages, called pas, in which the Missionaries have a footing, there is a building, containing one room, superior in fabric and dimensions to the native residences, which appears to be set apart as their place for assembling for religious worship, or to read the Scriptures, or to receive the exhortations of the Missionaries. In these buildings generally, and sometimes in the open air, the Christian classes were assembled before one. The grey-haired man and the aged woman took their places, to read and to undergo examination among their descendants of the second and third generations. The chief and the slave stood side by side, with the same Holy Volume in their hands; and exerted their endeavours each to surpass the other, in returning proper answers to the questions put to them concerning what they had been reading. These assemblages I encouraged on all occasions, not only from the pleasure which the exhibition itself afforded, but because I was thus enabled, in the most certain and satisfactory way, to probe the extent of their attainments and improvements. The experience thus acquired has induced me to adopt the habit of applying the term "converts" to those alone, for many such there were, who, in the apparent sincerity of their convictions, and in the sufficiency of their information, compared with their opportunities of acquiring it, may be considered Christians indeed. They have, as the Society is probably informed, the whole, I believe, of the Liturgy in their own language, accompanied, for several years past, with portions of the New Testament.

But a very great work has been accomplished in now providing them with a translation of the whole volume, copies of which are distributed to such as are likely to employ them well, as rapidly as, with the limited means in their possession, the Missionaries are able to have them bound. This translation will ever remain a

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monument of laborious and well-directed piety. My acquaintance with the language was not sufficient to enable me critically to judge of its fidelity to the original; but in my conversation with the Rev. W. Williams, the principal agent in this great work, I availed myself of every opportunity to ascertain the exact literal rendering of any passages which chanced to be the subjects of our immediate attention; and, upon inquiring--which I did very closely,--into his reasons for adopting particular words or phrases, to express the sense of the original, I was gratified to find that he was invariably prepared with a reason; and my impression is, that where there were conflicting reasons, each carrying weight, he had generally given the preference to that which deserved it. In speaking of the character of the converted natives, I express most unequivocally my persuasion that it has been improved, in comparison with the original disposition, by their acquaintance with the truths of the Gospel. Their haughty self-will, their rapacity, furiousness and sanguinary inclination, have been softened--I may even say, eradicated; and their superstitious opinions have given place, in many instances, to a correct apprehension of the spiritual tendencies of the Gospel. Their chief remaining vices appeared to me to be indolence, duplicity, and covetousness.

Mr. Williams' sphere of action was now about to be again enlarged; this time, as before, through the agency of a native convert. A slave, named Ripahau, 5 had been instructed at Paihia. Having obtained permission to visit his relatives, who were living at Otaki under the protection of Te Rauparaha, 6 he gave of what had been

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given to him. The possessor of one book, he taught them to read from it. Presently a part of the Gospel of St. Luke, in which Ngakuku had written his name, found its way from Otaki to Rotorua. The missing portion had been used for cartridges. The result was, that Te Rauparaha's son and Matene Te Whiwhi, at hazard of their lives, made their way to Paihia, deputed to request that a Mission station might be established among themselves. Sooner than that they should be disappointed, Mr. Williams offered to take charge of it himself; but this was overruled, for Ngapuhi could not spare him. Mr. Hadfield volunteered; Mr. Williams undertook to accompany and establish him.

From Mr. Williams' journal. 7

October 21, 1839. Wind fair. Sunset, embarked and got under weigh; Mr. Clarke, Mr. Hadfield, Mr. Wilson and his children, Mr. Stack, passengers.

October 23. Wind increased to a gale. Stood into Tauranga.

October 24. Strong wind. Thought of going overland to Kapiti. Boys opposed to it. Concluded to visit Maketu and contending parties.

October 26. Mr. Brown, Mr. Clarke, and myself left for Maketu.

October 27. Maketu; met in friendly consideration. Passed on to the Waikato tribes; after much opposition, they proposed to retire in the morning. Went over with the news to Maketu. Insolent language, in consequence of which Waikato determined to remain.

October 30. Saw Waikato again; no disposition to move, owing to the insolence of last evening. Returned to Tauranga.

October 31. Set sail.

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November 1. Stood close for land. Landed Hamuera and his party,--native teachers.

November 2. Tumbling night. Landed Mr. Clarke, Mr. Stack, and some natives.

November 7. Saw Cape Palliser (Kawakawa). Bore up before the wind, and were soon in smooth water. We drew in more to the land to get a better observation, and found an opening. We were soon in a most splendid harbour, Port Nicholson, called by the natives Poneke; quite a different place to what is laid down by Cook. We came to anchor in a perfectly sheltered place, with sufficient room for all the fleets of England. Some canoes came off, and informed us that the " Tory" 8 [ship] had been here and purchased the whole place. That they had desired to reserve a portion of the land for themselves, but the European would have the whole. A fortnight since, a dispute arose among some of the natives respecting land. Not being able to come to any satisfactory arrangement, they took their guns. Of the aggressors seventy fell; of their opponents twenty. The parties are now in open arms, though closely related and sitting together. The land in question was intended for Europeans, and would probably be sold for a few blankets. The "Tory," I learnt, was in Queen Charlotte's Sound, purchasing land; and they were endeavouring to obtain Taranaki (Mount Egmont). We were told that the natives were to have reserved for them one thousand acres for every million sold to the association. Riki (Dick) came on board and gave pleasing information of the progress of the Mission in Port Nicholson (Poneke), and on the coast to the North. Went on shore, and had long conversation with the natives. Numerous applications for books. Gave two Testaments and some prayer books. Reihana (Richard) with his wife and family appear to be established here, and to take a lead among their people. He had opposed the proceedings of the chiefs with the "Tory," but to no purpose. He reserved his own portion of ground to himself. This young man will, I hope, be found very useful here. He appears steady in all his transactions. For several years he lived at Paihia, and on the removal of Mr. Davies to Waimate, he accompanied him thither. He came here about three months since, and takes the lead in the service amongst the natives.

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November 8. Got under weigh; wind came on strong; could do nothing in working up to Kapiti; stood over to Cloudy Bay.

November 10. Went on shore; met the natives at service. Saw the Europeans, and held service. Much pleased with them. Heard that the "Tory" had been to Kapiti, buying all right and title to the land for a considerable extent.

November 11. Met Mr. Guard and Mr. Wing, with whom we had much conversation as to the state of the natives in this part of the island, and their desire for instruction. Mr. Wing expressed his desire to assist in distributing books, if sent to him. The schooner "Hokianga" arrived from Taranaki. Mr. M------ came on board, and reported their landing at Taranaki; that at first they were apprehensive of the natives, who presented themselves with their muskets; but upon their calling out that they were Missionaries, all ran towards them and gave them a hearty welcome. Mr. M------is an infidel, and his companion a Jew. Enemies to our cause; but in this instance it was convenient for them to hail for Missionaries.

November 12. Wind against us; stood across the Straits, and determined to land at Port Nicholson and walk overland. In the afternoon anchored in the harbour. Several natives came on board, with whom I made arrangement to accompany us on the morrow. My companion, Mr. Hadfield, very unwell; much distressed to observe his weakness, fearing that he will not be able to undertake the journey.

November 13. In full preparation for our departure to Kapiti, where I hoped to meet the "Columbine." Landed at Ngauranga. In the afternoon, proceeded up the harbour in a canoe to Petoni. We brought with us one hundred prayer books, fifteen Testaments, and six catechisms.

November 14. Found my companion, Mr. Hadfield, very unwell this morning. Doubtful of his proceeding; he however determined to make a beginning. Took a good breakfast as a preparation for my journey; my companion a draught of cold water and a crust of bread, a sorry commencement. Mounted the height on our way to Kapiti; joined in the evening by Reihana.

November 15. Received an express to go to Manga, a pa of Te Rangitakaroro. Arrived at noon, amidst heavy rain, and were happy to find ourselves opposite to the island of Mana. Passed close to Te Koriwa, a place where are several Europeans whaling. Saw Neti, the native who came out in the "Tory," who gave us an account of the proceedings of the Agent of the New Zealand Land Company.

November 16. Prepared to cross over to Mana, which occupied some time, owing to the numbers who wished to accompany us. We were nearly one hundred in the canoe, and I was somewhat fearful of consequences. It was about two miles across. We landed at the

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pa of Rangihaeata, 9 who received us with all due honours. Several Europeans were here, who were civil, one in particular, who was very solicitous that we should take some rum, which gave me an opportunity to speak on the evil of the practice. While here, heard the account of the dreadful deed committed by Stewart at Bank's Peninsula; 10 the prisoners were brought to this place and killed with savage brutality. Passed to Oeka, where we found two Europeans.

November 17. Held conversation with Moturoa and some others, who appeared in a pleasing state. After breakfast, went to Porirua. Held service with natives; about ten Europeans present.

November 18. Moved off at daylight; a large company. Travelling rough and heavy, over deep sand, sharp rocks, and large stones. Detained at four or five places along the road where the people came out to welcome us and invite us to remain and eat. They would not, however, allow us to pass without giving them a few words, as they were believers in Jesus Christ. I did so, and was much surprised and delighted at so unexpected a change. As we drew near Waikanae, numbers joined our party. A most gracious reception at the pa. In the evening, some of the chiefs came to the tent, and kept me in conversation till I could talk no more.

November 19. The boat arrived from Kapiti, to convey me over to Rauparaha, whom we found to be more agreeable than I had anticipated. He received us graciously, and entered fully into conversation upon politics, and the necessity of laying aside his evil ways. He said he had sent two letters to me, at different times, requesting me to come down to him; and, lastly, he had sent his two sons to fetch me, and I had done well to come to him. I was much pleased with the apparent interest shown by the old man. We had service at his place, and took up our abode upon the "Atlas." The old man presented me with a splendid pig.

November 20. Rauparaha came off at daylight, and we had much conversation with him. He was much pleased that Mr. Hadfield had come to reside among them. He was interested with all his son had to tell him of all he had seen in the Bay of Islands

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and among the Missionaries. The old man told me that now he had seen my eyes, and heard my words, he would lay aside his evil ways, and turn to the Book; and on the morrow, he would proceed to his people, who live about sixteen miles to the northward, and "tread down the anger," that there might be no more fighting. It was then proposed that we should proceed to Otaki, on the Southern Island, near Bank's Peninsula, to make peace with his enemy, Tairoa, that he might plant and eat his potatoes, and catch his fish, and believe on Jesus Christ. In the afternoon, we went on shore, and the old chief urged our conversation on the subject of religion. He was much interested with the doctrine of the Resurrection. We held service at his place, and were heard with great attention.

November 22. Embarked Mr. Hadfield's horses in a large canoe, and passed them over to Waikanae. We went over the ground on which the late battle was fought, owing to the payment for Port Nicholson not being generally distributed. For a native affair, it must have been very desperate, the unevenness of the ground bringing the parties into close combat. Rauparaha's people led the attack, and were defeated by the people of Waikanae. The old chief himself was not present. I was shewn the sepulchre of their enemies, whom they buried with military honours, with their garments, muskets, ammunition, &c, not reserving to themselves anything which had belonged to them. This is a new feeling, arisen from the great change which the introduction of the Gospel has effected among them. We saw their late chapel, a very large one, which they were obliged to leave, owing to the war; they have now a new one, in the pa. These chapels, and many others around, were built through the influence of a young man instructed in the Paihia school, named Matahau. He lived many years with my brother, and afterwards with me, and returned, many years ago, to his relations at this place, among whom he has laboured with astonishing zeal and perseverance. He has taught many to read, and has instructed numbers, as far as he is able, in the truths of the Gospel, so that many tribes, for some distance round, call themselves Believers, keep the Lord's Day, assemble for Worship, and use the Liturgy of the Church of England. The schools, also, are numerous. I felt that our boy, Matahau, had set an example which ought to rouse the Missionaries to every exertion, and act as a powerful appeal to the friends of the Society at home.

We took leave of Rauparaha. I determined to proceed overland to Tauranga, reluctantly giving up going to Bank's Peninsula, a field I had long desired to visit, and for which I had now an excellent opening. But I felt it needful to turn my course northward, from the disturbed state, in consequence of the new war; that I might do what I could to effect a peace, and visit the natives of Whanganui, who had sent many pressing invitations. We had much conversation

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with the chiefs previous to our departure to their enemies of the other tribes, for the purpose of endeavouring to make a peace. Towards sunset, we had a large assembly for service, and in the evening were much gratified by examining about twenty candidates for baptism.

November 23. We proceeded on our march for Otaki, with a long train of followers, who intended to accompany us half way. About four o'clock, we arrived at Pakakutu, the pa belonging to Kuru. It is a small one; but Kuru had separated from the main body, that he, with his people, might have service without fear of interruption. We had service with the people of the pa, the first time that any Europeans had declared to them the truths of the Gospel. Kuru and others afterwards came to the tent door, and I had much conversation with them. The chief observed that he knew several hymns, but could not catch the tunes, and had therefore composed some of his own, of which he gave a specimen. He afterwards commenced repeating the morning service, and I believe would have continued to the end had he not been interrupted. I was much delighted with him, and gave him a primer and two prayer books.

November 24. Te Kuru and his people accompanied us to the great pa. Watanui, the chief gave us a gracious welcome, but, as it was the Lord's Day, they abstained from their usual practice of calling out on our approach. We proceeded to the chapel, a very good building, about fifty feet by thirty; several hundreds were present, though I understand that comparatively few attend to instruction. We afterwards held school, and had much conversation with Watanui and other chiefs. In the evening, we held service outside our tents, and continued in conversation till late.

November 25. Watanui came at daylight to conduct us to his pa, where all the chiefs were assembled. I had a long conversation with them upon the present state of affairs. Some were for war, and others proposed to proceed to Waikanae, the place of the enemies from whence we had come, when the potatoes should be planted, and they would make peace. Watanui's two sons seem to be well-disposed lads.

November 26. Expressed my wish to my lads to return by way of Taupo, overland, to Tauranga. They were not willing, being alarmed at the length of the journey.

November 27. After breakfast, Wata came for us to proceed with him to Waikawa. On our arrival, we had to go through the usual form of speechifying, which occupied much time. We found a good chapel here, though a small one, and many came for conversation on religious subjects. We gave away four prayer books, and a Testament. After our repast we proceeded, crossing several streams of water, and came in about two hours to Kowau, a pleasant place, with abundance of grass. Natives came out of the pa to welcome

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us. Many speeches were delivered upon the present state of the country. Several old ladies came forward to hold a crying in compliment to our lads, their distant relatives. Towards sunset, we all assembled to attend evening prayers. My words, to many of them, were very new, yet all were attentive. Much conversation in the evening; the chiefs appeared generally indisposed to making peace.

Back to Otaki; sent to Wata to know our movements, as he objected to our returning to the opposite party at present. Sent Hemi Tautari to Waikanae to give notice to them to sit close within the pa.

November 29. In the afternoon, we observed a movement among the troops, and crossed the river in readiness for a march towards Waikanae. As the sun declined, our numbers increased. I held evening service on the beach. Several speeches upon state affairs were made. The troops determined to remain for the night, lest they should be overtaken by the rain; but as the distance is rather great for one march, I requested permission to proceed halfway, and wait for their coming up in the morning. This was objected to, as none must precede the Aitua [sacred spear]; and I did not choose to interfere with any of their military customs. However, after some time, it was proposed to send a small party before us; the person carrying the Aitua keeping about one hundred yards in advance. Our attendants were all highly tapued, and we were forbidden to eat until we should have arrived at the enemy's pa; I, however, occasionally stole a piece of biscuit, under cover of the night, as we had not tasted anything since the morning.

November 30. At break of day, our troops came up, upwards of three hundred, and gathered round in full military costume; their heads dressed with feathers, their best mats on, and some of them with shawls tied round their waists. They were desirous of having prayers before moving onward; at the close of which, several speeches were made, all good of their kind; the whakaaro [judgment how to conclude this affair] being left with me. We all pushed on until we came within three miles of the pa at Waikanae, when the chiefs gave Mr. Hadfield and myself leave to drink at the brook, and directed us to go onward to Ngatiawa, to put up the white flag, and declare their willingness for peace; they then shook hands with us, and we continued our march. About fifty men accompanied us till within a mile of their enemy. We crossed a river, and soon joined our friends, the Ngatiawa. A body of natives were out to meet the enemy, should they show any disposition to fiht. We were received with much kindness. All assembled in the general place for discussion, and some used angry expressions; yet the general voice was for peace; and Matahau, their teacher, the young man who formerly lived at Paihia, and who had married the daughter of the principal chief of Waikanae, was selected to go out

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to ratify the treaty of peace. We then ate our first meal since noon yesterday. In the afternoon, the troops belonging to Waikanae turned out, to the number of about five hundred, and made a display of their force in a war dance. Afterwards we had evening service, and then met the Christian natives in the chapel, consisting of some native teachers, who accompanied me, and a few from the neighbourhood, previous to my administering the Lord's Supper on the morrow.

December 1. Lord's Day. The natives held prayers close to my tent; the singing, though the tunes were purely native, was very agreeable. Some Europeans came, and expressed great satisfaction that peace had been established. At eight o'clock, we assembled about twelve hundred at service. In the afternoon, we assembled all at school, old and young, and afterwards held evening service, with a very attentive congregation. Continued in conversation with a large party at the tent door till late.

December 3. Obtained some supplies, as my boys had consented to accompany me overland.

December 4. We assembled the natives in the chapel, and admitted our friend Matahau to the christian rite of Baptism by the name of Joseph. It was an interesting service, particularly so, considering that this young man had been made an instrument in the hand of the Great Head of the Church in conveying much knowledge of divine things to his benighted countrymen. We now proceeded to Otaki, and at sunset held service at the tent door. Mr. Hadfield and myself agreed that it would be most desirable that he should occupy this place with Waikanae, from whence we had come this morning, as his main stations, seeing that he could pass from one to the other, on horseback, with ease in an hour and a half, and keep a general oversight of the settlements all round, until he should have more assistance, which it is highly important should be speedily afforded to him.

December 5. Took leave, and commenced my journey alone; more than three hundred miles through the heart of the island,--an entirely new road, not yet explored by Europeans. At sunset, brought up at Waikanae. Heard of Wiremu Neira (William Naylor), who was assembling a large army at Whanganui, to come against these tribes. Much fear of him was expressed.

December 6. The Manawatu; a large river, with large quantities of drift-wood. This river will doubtless be of importance at some future day.

December 9. Our road lay over sand-hills for two hours and a half, to the Rangitikei, where we found the land much improved. Proceeded up the river in canoes, the current so extremely strong that the natives were obliged to pole the canoe, requiring the greatest care that our bark should not be upset. So irregular was the surface of the current that at times it ran more than a foot

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higher than our canoe. I kept my eye upon our boatmen, who appeared perfectly composed, and aware of what they were about; I therefore kept myself perfectly quiet. On landing at the pa, the people drew up, rank and file, to shake hands. Hakeke, the chief of the place, most anxious for my protection and comfort, took up his abode at my tent door, as guard for the night.

December 10. Desired to move on, but the proposition was opposed, as a large body of natives were expected from Whanganui, with hostile intentions against Otaki.

December 11. Ngatiruanui arrived. Wiremu Neira came to my tent, of whom I learned, with great surprise, that they were on an expedition against Otaki, having been sent for by Paura.

Gave him a severe lecture, which he took very well, though much confounded. He at last observed, "What could a native teacher do by himself?" He excused his party having their guns from the circumstance that Tamati Waka took his people over to the Bay of Islands with their guns. I gave him notice that after dinner I should go to his taua, and give them my opinion on their proceedings. I found them very obstinate and saucy; they said they were going to carry the gospel, and shewed their books. Our party drew off, highly displeased.

December 12. Natives talking all night; discussing the subjects of the day, whether to proceed, in defiance of what I had to say, or to return. At daylight, assembled the people at my tent door for prayers, after which, one of the strangers addressed the taua. After breakfast, heard much loud speaking among the taua. Drew near, in order to learn the point of interest. Much inflammatory language; extremely insolent. Many spoke, but all of Ngatiruanui very violent for proceeding at all hazards.

These impudent fellows profess to be under the guidance of this Wiremu Neira, who cannot read, and is extremely ignorant. The sooner this ceases the better for all. After dinner, had conversation with lads from Taupo, which was very cheering after the contest of the forenoon. These youths had books, which had been given them from Rotorua. Wiremu Neira sat by, but said little. Learned that the taua felt very uncomfortable at their insolent conduct. They said that if Neira proposed to retire they would do so. I gave Neira a close word upon the impropriety of his conduct. Whether they go on or retire will be determined by the Great Disposer of all events. Heard much of a baptism which had been introduced by that man Neira, and had many questions proposed to me as to its correctness. This ceremony appears to be the washing of the head, which has always been considered as sacred by the Maori, in warm water, out of an iron pot; the person at the same time confessing

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his sins. This ceremony, termed kokiro, is supposed to effect a washing away of sin, and a release from tapu. A perfect cheat of Satan. 11

December 13. Neira came to hear my further opinion. I observed that it had been already given. Took my departure about eight a.m. Neira followed me about a mile, and told me that he should return on Monday, and some, if not all, of the taua. Crossed two rivers in the afternoon; Whangaehu appeared of some consideration. Had a good sight of Taranaki [Mount Egmont] and Tongariro; both covered with snow in the height of summer. Two most magnificent objects,--one on the coast, the other in the interior of the island.

December 14. Arrived at Putikiwaranui, on the Whanganui, the largest river of this coast. On the banks, up which I was to proceed into the interior, are large settlements of natives.

December 15. Wiremu Neira returning on his way home. Assembled on the beach to service; a congregation of three hundred. Engaged in talk with Wiremu Neira and others, reprobating the new kokiro doctrine.

December 16. At daylight, much noise and firing of guns; Wiremu Neira and others leaving for Taranaki. After breakfast, held council with the chiefs respecting their land, as they were in considerable alarm lest the Europeans should take possession of the country. All approved of their land being purchased and held in trust for their benefit alone, 12 Fearing delay, the chiefs determined to conclude the affair immediately. They accordingly took it in hand, and, with their secretary, drew out a rough draft for my approval. Closely beset; natives wishing to thrust themselves into the tent.

This morning's work was fraught with serious results to Mr. Williams. His endeavour to save a remnant to the natives from the grasp of the Company brought down upon him a storm of invective, which ceased not during his life, and pursued him even after death. It will presently be necessary to go into this question with full detail.

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December 18. Crossed the river, to see two parties. Kurukanga and other young chiefs came; very solicitous for books.

December 19. Turoa and other chiefs came to see us off. I promised that a Missionary should soon come to reside among them, and do trust that this most interesting post, where all are eager for instruction, will speedily be cared for. They requested that the Missionary might bring a wife, as then he would be likely to stay with them. Moved off, after being detained for our party to finish crying. The river was very broad for about ten miles up, with level land where it became narrower, but steep hills on either side. At four, we landed at Kauarapaua, the pa of Te Tauria, the chief of Ngatipa, the original inhabitants of the place. Received many applications for books. Tauria, though very unwell, came across the river; all insisted that he had been makutu-ed [bewitched].

December 21. Landed at Uritini, a pa of some size. The natives importunate for books. Again at Oawitu; the same solicitations. Passed on to Ihurangi, for the Lord's Day. The people were delighted at the arrival of a Missionary among them. I found several who could read, and there was a great demand for books. Towards sunset, we assembled all for evening prayers; all seemed highly gratified.

December 22. The natives assembled at my tent at break of day. After breakfast, at which I had many spectators, the bell, an old musket-barrel, was rung for service, and I had a good congregation. The responses were very good, and called forth the admiration of my fellow-travellers. I consider the service of our church to be singularly adapted for the preservation of order in these native congregations. I was kept in close conversation, on important points, all day. In the evening, again held service. The natives were very urgent for Missionaries to come and reside among them.

December 23. It was determined by our friends that we should go to Pukeika this morning, return to this place, and take our departure from hence, across the country, to Taupo. We landed at a small settlement, to see the people, who were very much delighted, I being the first Missionary who had visited them. I was kept in close conversation for about two hours, the people having gathered for that purpose. They were here also very pressing for the residence of Missionaries among them. The demand for books was also very great, but my stock was nearly exhausted. About noon, we arrived at Pukeika, a formidable place, and the surrounding scenery grand. The eminences were covered with wood, save where the land had been cleared for a hamlet; the river, winding between the hill, gave a finish to the landscape. Being obliged to wait until morning, I took up my abode on the beach. Some natives, hearing that I was in the neighbourhood, came down the river to see me. Two young men, in particular, took up their position close to me,

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and kept me in close conversation, till I could talk no more; they appeared to be in a pleasing state, and could read well. I gave away the last of my books here.

December 24. At daylight, three bells for morning prayers were heard from different hamlets in the neighbourhood, a pleasing sound. The two young men renewed their inquiries. At eight o'clock we took leave, and passing rapidly down the river, landed, at ten, at the place from whence we were to commence our march to Taupo. Our party consisted of twenty-five natives and three pigs; we parted with the two natives who brought us up the river from Whanganui heads, and were now about to return. We were detained two hours at the place of Aomaro for potatoes, as we had here to arrange our provisions for the road, there not being any place of refreshment between this and Taupo, nearly a week's very difficult march. At dark, we brought up by the side of a river, Te Umukoura, at the bottom of a very steep hill, which called forth my utmost effort to keep my footing. Some of our party did not come up till ten o'clock.

December 25. At eight o'clock we arrived at Mangaitoroa, a fine stream of water. The descent to the river being nearly perpendicular, I was obliged to take off shoes and stockings to prevent slipping. A fearful road. One of our fellow-travellers, the largest of our pigs, fell down the precipice, and broke nearly every bone. Detained for two hours, while the boys cut up the pig. One of our natives gave notice that we should meet a tira [a party], as he had struck his foot against a root.

December 26. About noon, we met a small party coming from Taupo; they gave us news of wars and rumours of wars, and were very much surprised at finding a European in the wood, especially when they discovered that he could speak to them in their own language. As our meeting was in accordance with the notice given yesterday, our party had much conversation upon the truth of the prediction of our fellow traveller.

December 27. At peep of day we were on the move, climbing over very large trees, and going through low, swampy ground. At eight o'clock, we were thankful to find ourselves clear of the wood, and entering a level country. The volcano Tongariro rose before us, the summit covered with snow, a splendid sight! The road we had just travelled was certainly the worst we ever passed over; in many places we had to creep under trees, and again to climb over and walk along the trunks of those which had been blown down. During the remainder of the day, our road was generally level, but intersected by many streams; at one place was a very singular rush of water from a rock, which formed the source of a large river. We brought up for the night at the foot of Ruapehu, the land very high, and apparently but a few feet below the snow which lay on the mountain.

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December 28. To-day we travelled for five hours over barren ground, no vegetation of any kind, one continued bed of pumice-stone. We passed through a rushing stream of sulphurous water from Tongariro, and crossed the source of Waikato and several other rivers. Our walk was very uninteresting, except that towards the close of the day we met with some rare plants.

December 29. Lord's day. Our party lay quiet till eight a.m., everyone being much overcome. We have little food left, having expected to arrive at Taupo yesterday. At noon, we assembled for service, which we much enjoyed.

December 30. Obliged to walk through heavy rain, having no provision. Passed Roto Aeru, a fine lake on our left. We at length arrived at an old plantation, where we found some wild potatoes. Continued our March till four, when we arrived at a settlement on lake Taupo, a magnificent sheet of water, about thirty miles in length, with various fine bays. We were received with great kindness, and abundance of food handed out, though almost all the men had left yesterday on a fighting expedition, in consequence of a kanga [native curse] having been uttered respecting a chief. These abominations have nearly ceased northward. Toward sunset, I assembled all for evening prayer, and addressed them; while I was speaking upon the necessity of laying aside their lying vanities, a woman, who may be said to be under the influence of an evil spirit, came forth with the utmost fury, and declared that if these things were spoken against, she would cast herself into one of the boiling springs, and instantly ran off, professedly for that purpose. Several followed to secure her, while others coolly replied that she had better do so. I continued without further interruption, noticing to them the enmity of Satan to their even hearing of the one true and only God, and Jesus Christ whom He had sent. In the evening, I had much conversation with the people assembled around my tent, who were full of curiosity and wonder at all they saw and heard.

December 31. In the morning, a deputation arrived from a place at a short distance from us, to request our removal thither, as some of the leading men on the lake were waiting for us. We accordingly got under weigh and went to Te Rapa. Many speeches were made by our friends, who bade us welcome, and we had also to speak in our turn. We had here an evidence of the duplicity of old Watanui, the chief of Otaki, near Kapiti, from whom we brought a letter to the chief of Taupo; in this he desired that the people of this place would not attend to anything I had to say, as it was all deceit, but make a requisition for the tribes to go and join him against Ngatiawa, to renew hostilities, though peace had just been established. All much surprised at the conduct of Watanui, but as the character of the Missionaries was well known, his letter was treated with silence, and Iwikau, a brother to the principal chief, said he would not comply with the desire of Watanui, but would accompany me to the

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Bay of Islands. We afterwards proceeded to Pukawa, where was a a good chapel erected at the desire of Mr. Chapman. I began to feel myself drawing near home, from having arrived at a place where one of our Missionaries had been. I had much conversation with the people here, though they did not evince any great anxiety for instruction.

January 1, 1840. At break of day we started for Motutere, that we might arrive before the wind sprang up. The place was small and dirty, and very much crowded, owing to their continued fears of attacks from the tribes of Waikato. We were not long here before there was considerable disturbance among the natives, everyone running for guns, and a general preparation for battle. I at length heard that the party who had come to settle the affair of the kanga [cursing] had taken away a man's wife, in defiance of all remonstrance. The disturbance, for some time, assumed a serious aspect. I was thankful to have an opportunity to send a messenger to Rotorua, to give notice of my having arrived thus far on my way. I examined all who could read, and found twenty-six who could do so, some of them very respectable. I had a good assembly round the tent, till late. Iwikau told me he would not go with me, owing to his fears of Ngapuhi (the Bay of Islanders); after some time, however, he concluded to go.

January 2. We proceeded to Rangatira, a very confined place, upon a point projecting into the lake. The people here were in much fear of Waikato tribes. I was glad to find a chapel here, and that all professed to be believers. I was engaged in talking until a late hour. Messengers arrived from Rotorua, bringing a short note from Mr. Morgan; they had heard, by way of Tauranga, that I might be expected, and had sent me some tea and sugar and a bottle of porter. The chief sent his son to accompany me, to fetch a Testament and a few books and slates.

January 3. We passed down the river Waikato, about three miles, and landed at some boiling springs, a very terrific spot; we were obliged to move with every possible care, lest we should fall through the ground into some dreadful cauldron below. On landing, one of the boys went to gaze, when a column of hot water issued with a horrible roar. The lad was reproved by the old people of the place, the spring being held in superstious regard, After breakfast I felt inclined to see this hot fountain, which we had not observed in motion since the retreat of the boy. The natives, seeing me approach, called out that it was the abode of the God of the Lake; however, I advanced, though with caution; I put my staff near the orifice of the fountain; a surly growl was heard from within, and up spouted a column of boiling water, warning me to retreat with all despatch. The natives immediately raised their voice, and particularly desired that I should not repeat my visit. I thought it most advisable not to do so, lest by another eruption they might be still more confirmed in their

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superstitious ideas. Towards sunset, we ascended a steep and high hill, which was very wearying, being at the close of a fatiguing march. I felt it the more from not being able to discover the necessity of doing so, as our road appeared to lie over level ground. I was, however, amply repaid by finding a pleasing little band of enquirers after truth, who had formed a pa on the summit of the highest hill which could be found, as a place of refuge from the tribes of Waikato. There were two very old men, who could not read, but were well acquainted with many leading points of Scripture doctrine and the services of our church. Several young men could read. Though I was very tired, I held service, and afterwards continued in conversation with them till a late hour,

January 4. We took breakfast on the new bridge over the Waikato river, which is a very noble piece of work in itself, and must have been attended with much trouble. The bridge is formed of four very large planks, the ends of which rest on a rock in the middle of the stream: I was surprised to learn that the river does not rise in the winter,--the rain being, I presume, absorbed by the vast tracts of pumice, which extends for many miles. Towards the close of the day, I felt very faint, from the heat, and must have halted, had not Mr. Morgan's horse arrived, which in about two hours conveyed me to Ohinemutu, the pa of Rotorua. The chiefs assembled, though it was dark, and detained us, to hear all the news from Kapiti and Taupo. They afterwards furnished me with a canoe, which soon carried me to Mr. Morgan's house, at Mokoia, the island in the middle of the lake, where I was very glad to sit down once more in the quiet abode of a Missionary.

January 6. Old Te Heuheu, the principal chief of Taupo, came from Maketu. Much interesting conversation respecting Kapiti, Taupo, and the contemplated wars.

January 7. Went to Ohinemutu, for the purpose of meeting chiefs, to determine what should be done respecting Maketu, the grand bone of contention between them and Waikato, but found them too childish to arrange. Sent a messenger to Tauranga, to give notice of my intention to proceed on the morrow.

January 8. Took departure for Tauranga.

January 9. This morning, the rain fell heavily; but, as this was the last day, all were in good spirits, and determined to proceed. Our walk was exceedingly comfortless, as we soon became wet through. The rain continued till noon. At two o'clock, we emerged from the wood; my clothes, shoes, and hat torn to pieces. I could scarcely keep them on. While pushing my way through the wet bush, I came suddenly upon my brother, who had arrived at Tauranga three days ago, and had set off this morning, with my third son, Henry, to meet me, my note having been received last evening. This was a most unexpected pleasure, as I had concluded that he, with his family and my son, must have proceeded to

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his station, never anticipating that he would put into Tauranga. At sunset, I had the pleasure of meeting my brother's family, Henry and George Clarke accompanying him to Poverty Bay; I had much news to receive, much to relate, and many mercies for which to be thankful. It was truly a joyful meeting.

The result of this meeting, fortunate in both senses of that word, was the formation of a most important station,--that of Whanganui. Before Mr. Williams left Paihia for Cook's Straits, it had been a matter of much regret that he and his brother were not likely to meet again for a long while to come, as Mr. William Williams would have to take departure for Turanga [Poverty Bay] before the return of the "Columbine" could be expected. By the double chance, however, of the one having resolved upon crossing the island to Tauranga [Bay of Plenty], and the other having been driven into Tauranga by stress of weather, a meeting did take place. The representatives of three districts were brought together, and thus it came about that the views of Mr. Henry Williams were carried into effect without delay.

So strongly was he impressed with the need of Whanganui, that he had resolved, could no one else be found, to undertake the charge of the station himself.

Henry Williams to Mrs. Williams.
December 6, 1839.

I have altered my route, and am proceeding overland to Taupo, Rotorua, and Tauranga; then, I trust, home. We left the "Columbine" more than three weeks since, and have been put to considerable inconvenience at her non-appearance; I am now travelling with little more than what I stand in. I obtained a supply of sugar, flour, &c, and a pair of shoes, from Captain Mayhew, which enables me to proceed onwards.

Such is the importance of establishing a Mission at Whanganui, that, rather than not hold here, I would come with my family; in the Bay, there is no idea of the state of things in this part. There is, I understand, good riding from here to Kawhia, also to Port Nicholson.

I have secured a piece of land, I trust, from the paws of the New Zealand Company, for the natives; another piece I hope I have upset. Our friend Ripahau I baptised on Tuesday morning; the work which has been effected through his means is great. I am sorry I have no books to give away as I pass along; they are all on board the "Columbine." They require, to begin with, here, not

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less than five thousand prayer books and two thousand Testaments, besides school books, slates, writing paper, &c. I want much to return home, to have a talk with Mr. Mason, and Mr. Burrows, if arrived. One of them must come here; for it will not do to leave Mr. Hadfield here by himself. We must have men and women down here, and that immediately.

The first who took charge of the Whanganui station, April, 1840, was Mr. Mason, drowned, unfortunately, in 1843. He was assisted by Mr. Richard Matthews, who, however, did not long remain.

On January 18, 1840, Mr. Williams reached home, having accomplished a travelling feat which, in New Zealand, was as yet unmatched. The difficulty can scarcely be appreciated by those who only knew the country in later years, after colonization by the British Government, and the quieting of intestine feud.


Mention was made, a few pages back, of the storm of invective to which Mr. Williams was exposed, in consequence of his interference with the land dealings of the New Zealand Company. Acting, upon his own responsibility, in behalf of the Church Missionary Society, he purchased from the native owners a piece of land, in order that it should be held in trust for the benefit of the native race. The trust, however, was not accepted, the Committee fearing collision with the Company. Mr. Williams was left outside, to bear the brunt of the Company's assaults, and the expense of the transaction. Being informed that the Company had themselves made provision for the natives, by the securing of reserves,-- a mistake indeed, for the so-called reserves were not secured,-- he abandoned the land to the Company, retaining, however, to himself, for his outlay, and as an acknowledgement of his title, one acre, 13 which he gave towards the endowment of a church. This is the well-known "Wellington Acre;" the whole story of which must now be told, from first to last. The falsehoods promulgated about this matter are rampant, even to the present day. Land-sharking and unblushing rapacity are attributed to him still,--if not in the North, at least in the settlements formed by the New Zealand Company.

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About the year 1837, an Association, called the New Zealand Association, was formed in England, having for its object the purchase of land from the Maori, to be disposed of, at a profit, to intending colonists. The question of profit was kept in the back ground, and the advantage of colonizing the country brought into high relief. But the extension of the Colonial possessions of the Crown is a matter of public policy, belonging to the decision of the Queen's Government, and cannot, of course, be suffered to be irregularly brought about by private individuals.

Henry Williams had long been an advocate for an authorized and orderly colonization of the country. The evils caused by the influx of a convict population were on the increase; nor was there any hope of checking them, save by subjecting all comers to English law. But this could be done only by direct action on the part of the Crown. He clearly saw that irregular action would only increase and perhaps perpetuate the evil. Moreover, the natives, for the sake of money in hand, were beginning to evince a desire recklessly to part with their possessions, 14 bidding fair thereby to reduce themselves to a pauperized, and therefore turbulent mob, beyond the hope of civilization. To land sales upon a moderate scale there could be no objection; but excessive land sales were resisted by a system of putting lands into trust for the benefit of the native race. The sale of a large block of land at Kawakawa, to a private individual, was in this way hindered by Mr. Williams, and the disappointment is remembered to him still.

His views are best expressed by himself, as shewn in an extract from one of his letters to the Society.

January II, 1838. The pamphlet relative to the New Zealand Association, and your remarks, we have now under consideration. I have read them with

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considerable interest, and do not hesitate to say, that unless some protection be given by the British Government, the country will be bought up, and the people pass into a kind of slavery, or be utterly extirpated. The European settlers are making rapid advances, and are beginning to hold out threats. Should any encouragement be given to the Association, thousands would immediately come and overrun the whole country; and the natives must give way. The only protection that I can propose, is, that the English Government should take charge of the country, as the Guardians of New Zealand; and that the Chiefs should be incorporated into a General Assembly, under the guidance of certain officers, with an English Governor at their head, and protected by a military force; which would be the only means of giving weight to any laws which might be established, and preserve that order and peace so much required. The natives have many years since proposed that this should be done, and have repeated their desire from time to time.

These views were adopted by the rest of the Mission, as appears from their letter to the Society, through their Secretary, Mr. Clarke.

Your letter of July 6, 1837, has been brought under the consideration of the Committee of Missionaries; and it is with much apprehension they view the introduction of the New Zealand Association, as it must terminate in the total ruin of the people, as a nation, if entered upon as proposed, though so recently received under the nominal protection of Great Britain. As yet, there is no shadow of Government in this country; each tribe, and each individual of a tribe, acts independently of every one; hence those acts of violence which are committed with impunity, and the sale of land, which the natives are too frequently disposed to make for the sake of a little present gain, without considering future consequences. We therefore regard, with considerable fear, the announcement of this Association, in the present state of the country,--as they will be enabled to purchase up the whole island, without fear of opposition, and, consequently, claim a right of sovereignty,--to prescribe laws to all within their dominions, setting at defiance any means which might be afterwards entered upon for the protection of this people. The Missionaries have endeavoured to devise some means whereby the land might be preserved more sure to the rightful owner, or the sale of land be more difficult or less general; but have not succeeded. The natives have, in some instances, proposed to give their land in trust to the Missionaries, to preserve it from being sold by any single chief, or purchased for a nominal value by any designing European, or company of Europeans. There are two large tracts of country now held in trust for some of the tribes in the Bay of Islands. This has been the means of preserving the land at present to these tribes; but it has been disapproved of by the

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Corresponding Committee, though no better means pointed out . . . The natives are very degraded, under the subjection of Europeans of corrupt habits; and though we have been preserved by the good Providence of God, still do we live in the fearful foreboding of some political convulsion, which must necessarily result from the serious position of our affairs. The Europeans residing at present in the northern part of the island may be estimated at more than one thousand, and daily adding to their number. In May last, we forwarded a Petition to the King and Parliament, praying for protection against the lawless bands of Europeans residing on shore in this island. We regret we do not observe in your communications to us any means pointed out whereby New Zealanders may look for protection from encroachment, excepting the appointment of a small ship of war.

In a subsequent letter to the Society, Mr. Williams maintains his previously formed opinion. It is much to the same effect as the former letter, but is here inserted because it makes specific mention of the holding tracts of land in trust for the natives, lest they should altogether denude themselves of their possessions; a system which was presently misrepresented as a deliberate endeavour to hinder the colonization of the country. And this, notwithstanding the adoption by the British as well as by the Colonial Government of still more stringent means,--of even excessive means, to secure the end which the Mission had sought to attain.

June 18, 1838.

I hope our letter to you, relative to our views respecting the proceedings of the New Zealand Association, will arrive in sufficient time to be of some use to you, in preventing so great an evil to this people, as the establishment of such a Company in this land. In that letter you will see our general opinion; and as Europeans of different nations are frequently arriving among us, it is highly important that no time should be lost, for the preservation of the tribes around. The natives frequently enquire what course to take, and are evidently alarmed at the present movements.

Your letter to Lord Glenelg I have read, and think your arguments much to the purpose; though I am not quite so ready as you are to give to those gentlemen, connected with the plan, full credit for the purity of their motives, and the benevolence of their intentions. In my own mind, I have no doubt as to their intentions, which are benevolent to themselves alone.

Your observations (p. 16), "knowing as I do, &c," were perfectly correct at a certain period of the Mission; but for some years past, in consequence of the general influx of Europeans, we have had

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great difficulties in restraining the natives from disposing of their lands. This fact I should have thought you were in full possession of, from the frequent communications from hence upon the subject. At this settlement we hold two large tracts of land in trust for the natives of the Kawakawa. This was objected to by the Corresponding Committee, and communications thereon made to you, with reasons for entering on the trust.

It is worth the while to make a short extract or two from the correspondence of other members of the Mission, the more effectually to dispose of the reiterated charge that the Mission were opposed to the colonization of the country. It is worth the while, simply because the charge is untrue. There is always some gain in chasing a falsehood out of the world,--in diminishing the number, even by one. But what if they had thrown obstacles in the way? could that be decently made a charge against them? What came they forth for to do? Was it not to devote themselves, at the sacrifice of all hope of worldly fortune,--even of life, should the sacrifice be required, to the well-being, moral and material, of the native race? Were they likely, or could they have been expected, to take any but the one question into consideration,--to stray from the path marked out from them. It was a matter of opinion only, and, as usual, supposed difference of opinion was treated as a crime,--was persecuted by those who boast of being ultra-liberal, but whose practice, as obtains with most of their sect, is inversely as their profession. It adds, however, to the discomfiture of reckless assailants, to be shewn that they have been wrong, not only in their deductions, but in their facts; in premisses as well as in conclusions. The Mission, in the unbiassed exercise of their own opinion, deeply impressed by the evils which they saw gathering around them,--evils against which they felt themselves powerless to make head, did come to the conclusion that, in the interests of their flock, it were better that the country should be governed by the Crown. To the necessary incidents of the change they were not blind; but they may be pardoned for not having foreseen the follies and vagaries of those who, having succeeded in shaking off the effective control of the Crown, and in substituting a travestie of what they are pleased to term Responsible Government, created and

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fostered the bitterest hostility between the two races; hostility which even now, by virtual withdrawal of European pretensions, is scarcely appeased.

Mr. Davis thus expresses himself on the same question.

Waimate, May 26, 1838.

What the British Government will do, in the present case, appears uncertain. But to deliver up a country, which is not their own, into the hands of a company of men whose primary object is gain, is a crime, I trust, my countrymen will never be guilty of. That something ought to be done, there can be no doubt; or we shall soon get about us a lawless band, who will possess a sufficient force to take possession of the country, whenever they think proper. . . . If the country is to be colonized, let it be done by the British Government.

Mr. Maunsell, writing from the southern district, agrees with his brethren. His letter is quoted as somewhat modifying the apparent condemnation of the whole body of European settlers of that epoch.

August 7, 1838.

I have lately been favoured with your expositions of the plans and views of the Colonization Society for this land, and caught a hasty glance at Mr. Wakefield's reply to it. We certainly do look with apprehension on such a project; and have little doubt but that it will result in the extermination of the aborigines, and not without loss to the settlers. Their idea of sitting quiet in this land, with an armed force and such extensive powers, is ridiculous: the desultory influence of a few scattered settlers is so different from that of a body of fortune-hunters, who organize that influence into a system, and support it by power . . . . . Both publications were, I think, too sweeping, in speaking of European settlers. They are not all so bad as has been represented. At the Bay, there are some worthy and respectable individuals, besides others scattered throughout the land . . . . . The remarks, however, may stand good of the majority of the settlers.

These views, openly and dowrightly expressed by the Mission, were of course unpalatable to the leaders of the Association. Mr. Gibbon Wakefield, in order to discredit the testimony of the Mission, attacked their personal character; adducing the statements of one Flatt, who had been employed as an agriculturist by the Society in New Zealand, but had left in discontent. These were quickly disposed of; but, as usual, the charges obtained more

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currency than the refutation. The Mission had, however, the satisfaction of learning that the Association had lost their bill, thrown out, in the House of Commons, on the second reading, by a large majority; also, that the Lord's Committee on the "Present state of the islands of New Zealand" had, after an extended examination of evidence, made favourable mention of the Mission labours. The Report stated that the Committee were of opinion "that support, in whatever way it might be deemed expedient to afford it, of the exertions which had already beneficially effected the rapid advancement of the religious and social condition of the aborigines of New Zealand, afforded the best hope of their future progress in civilization."

The loss of the bill put an end, nominally, to the Association. But it revived under a new name. The New Zealand Company was formed, in May, 1839, with the same object. Bolder than the Association, or exasperated by the memory of failure, the Company determined upon commencing operations, not only without an Act of Parliament, but in defiance of the British Government. They despatched several vessels to New Zealand, with colonists on board, and formed a settlement in Cook's Straits, to which they gave the name of Wellington. In this, the Company were wrong-doers; their entire proceedings were unconstitutional and illegal. 15

It was not likely that Mr. Williams should look with more favour upon the Company than upon the Association. His strict views of discipline and of respect for the Crown would indeed incline him to look upon it with less. He could not recognise, as an authoritative body, individuals who had set up an independent

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dominion of their own. 16 He also foresaw the troubles which afterwards arose, from the attempt to extinguish the native title wholesale, by persons who were ignorant of native customs and proprietary rights. Still he would rather, for choice, have "given them a wide berth." He was brought, however, into collision with them, by finding himself called upon to purchase a piece of land, which the Company wanted for themselves. His object was to place the land in trust for the benefit of the natives; their object was, to buy with a view to selling again at a profit. For this, he was assailed with unmeasured abuse by the Company's chief agent, Colonel Wakefield, 17 --a man whose antecedents had been such, that he should have been the last to cast a stone. It must, however, be observed, that, for good and sufficient reason, these calumnies were not made public in New Zealand, where they would have been immediately exposed, but were brought forth in England, in a letter to "The Times."

The following is Colonel Wakefield's account of the transaction.

May 25, 1840.

Since my last letter, Mr. Williams, the Senior Missionary, has been here, deputed, as he implied, by Captain Hobson, to purchase the sovereignty of these parts of the island from the chiefs, and to lay claim for himself to the land I mentioned in Lambton harbour. In the former object he was unsuccessful, the natives referring him to me; but at length, when the chiefs learned that Mr. Williams and myself had come to an arrangement respecting his claim to the land, and had received from him a quantity of blankets as the price of their submission, they executed, I am told, some paper, of the purport of which they assure me they were totally ignorant. The whole transaction took place in an underhand way, and without the countenance and assistance of any of colonists.

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With respect to the land claimed by him, amounting to forty acres or more, in the best site of the town, to which, in the opinion of everybody here, he had not a shadow of right, the bargain with the natives who assigned it to him two months after my first visit here having been concocted in fraud, I thought it better to compromise the matter with him, and to ensure the support of the Church Missionaries, by giving him an interest in the place; and, therefore, after a candid avowal on his part that he wished to have a slice for himself, and other confessions equally disinterested and compatible with his pretended anxiety on account of the native reserves, I agreed to give him an acre of the land he claimed for himself, and one acre for the sole use of Richard Davis, the native; they, in consideration of the land being surveyed, yielding all their rights to the Company. I cannot express to you the feelings of repugnance entertained by the respectable colonists who came in contact with Mr. Williams towards him, on account of his selfish views, his hypocrisy, and unblushing rapaciousness.

How such a tissue of falsehood, bearing its own character stamped upon the face of it, could ever have gained credence, at least among persons accustomed to weigh the words they read, is strange. There was, however, a favourable receptivity,--a desire to believe. The Company's settlers were accustomed to consider the natives as intruders upon New Zealand soil, and any claim on their behalf was treated with ridicule, tempered by fear; otherwise, the absurdity of charging any man with "rapacity," for interfering with the gains of a trading company must be apparent.

What if Mr. Williams had so interfered, for his own advantage? Had he not as good a right there as they? Was there a divine right of money-making inherent in the Company? But he was not acting for his own advantage, as shall presently be shewn. Is it not strange, again, that the more respectable among those settlers could have been induced to believe that a well-bred gentleman would have used such words as "a slice for himself;" or that any man, not absolutely a fool, would have placed himself in the power of a person of Colonel Wakefield's character, by carrying "candour" to such an extreme?

Mark, now, how plain a tale shall set down detraction. Let Mr. Williams' own statement, 18 which no one yet has ever ventured to impugn, be contrasted with Colonel Wakefield's.

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In November, 1839, I paid a visit to Kapiti, at the express desire of Rauparaha, the principal chief in Cook's Straits, who had sent up a deputation to me of his son and nephew. We put into Port Nicholson, the wind not allowing us to proceed direct. Here I found some of our old natives, amongst whom was Richard Davis, who informed me of the whole of the proceedings of Colonel Wakefield in the purchase of Port Nicholson and the surrounding country, together with the opposition which he himself had given, and that his own piece of land he had not sold to the Company. Davis and his wife accompanied me to the northward, and after some weeks he mentioned to me that his wife had been wishing that they should proceed to Taranaki, her own country, and that he thought he should sell his land in Port Nicholson. I remonstrated with him; but told him that, should he dispose of it, I would give him what he should require, and that he and his people might remain upon it as long as they wished, and that the land should remain for them. It was for this purpose I made the purchase, being at that time wholly ignorant of any reservation of land for the natives in the way in which I have understood it. On my return to the Bay of Islands, I mentioned the circumstance to the local Committee of the Church Missionary Society, and recommended that it should be taken as the public property of the Society until we should see how the Company might act. This was declined on the part of the Committee, as it would bring us into immediate collision with the Company, which it was thought better to avoid; accordingly, the whole expense was thrown upon my hands. In the following May, I returned to Port Nicholson, with the treaty between Her Majesty and the chiefs of that part of the island, to obtain their signatures. I waited on Dr. Evans on my arrival, from whom I learned the general proceedings of the Company, and the reserve of one hundred and ten acres in this the first township, besides an equal number of country sections, with which I was perfectly satisfied, and expressed the same to Dr. Evans. I mentioned, therefore, to Dr. Evans the purchase I had made of a piece of land within the township, and that I was willing to see what arrangement could be made respecting it. I did not see Colonel Wakefield till Saturday following, at the house of Mr. Hunter, when he used highly improper language. In the presence of several gentlemen, I informed Colonel Wakefield that I should not enter upon the subject while he indulged in such language,-- that I had already shewn my desire to Dr. Evans to meet the wishes of the Company, if it could be done. I observed that I would meet Dr. Evans on the Monday following; and, accordingly, on the Monday Mr. St. Hill and I met Dr. Evans at the house of Davis. Dr. Evans mentioned, to my surprise, that he had been retained on the part of the Company to dispute the claims of

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Davis to the land in question; that he was only a slave, and had no right to it. I observed to Dr. Evans that I was sorry he had assumed such a position, as I was in hopes we might have adjusted the matter quietly; but if he thought otherwise, we must come to an immediate conclusion,--that I had shewn a willingness, on my part, to enter into an arrangement, which was now declined by him; therefore the consequences he and they must take upon themselves. I observed, that I was well acquainted with the custom of New Zealand, and that I maintained the right of Davis prior to the arrival of Colonel Wakefield. Our conference here closed.

After some hours, Mr. St. Hill came to me and renewed the conversation. He asked me, if I would give up the claim for a sum of money. I replied, certainly not.

On the Wednesday following, while preparing to take my departure,--not being able to obtain the signatures required, owing to the opposition of Colonel Wakefield and others to the treaty between the chiefs and Her Majesty, Colonel Wakefield came to me, making a most ample apology, and expressed his regret that he should have given way to his hasty feelings on the previous Saturday, and hoped that I should not leave the port with unfavourable feelings, and that he was ready, if I wished, to make a public apology. The fact was, that Colonel Wakefield wanted the land, and was willing to make any sacrifice confined to words. I replied to Colonel Wakefield, that I also much regretted that he had allowed himself to be carried away by his feelings; that his apology was sufficient, I desired no more; that I had, on my arrival, waited on Dr. Evans, and had shewn a desire to enter into an arrangement about the land, learning, as I had, that reserves had been made on behalf of the natives; that I saw that their town would be materially injured without the land in question, as it was a most important and valuable spot. I therefore told Colonel Wakefield that, in consequence of the reserves having been made, I would present the land for the benefit of the Company, reserving one acre for Davis, and to have any portion myself, I could not have less than one acre.

The reservation of these two acres was more particularly to shew that the land was mine by right of purchase; that I had full right and power over it; and by virtue of that right I presented the land to the Company, and, in order to put that right beyond dispute, I reserved these two acres, and also my right of a first selection of the same upon the said land, which will be seen by the Deed.

Colonel Wakefield evidently did not expect this donation, from his great surprise expressed. Dr. Evans and Captain Smith, Surveyor-General to the Company, observed to me, in the presence of others, that the Company would not allow this act of magnanimity to pass unnoticed; that they should recommend that country

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sections should be attached to these two acres; and, moreover, they recommended that I should take these said two acres to myself; that the Company would look out and provide for Davis. This I declined. I observed to these gentlemen that the Company could, if they thought proper, make acknowledgment of this transaction.

I need scarcely say, that the only acknowledgment ever received by me, is the extract of the letter of Colonel Wakefield, which appears in "The Times" newspaper for September 5, 1840.

The following is a copy of my letter to Dr. Evans, on the presentation of my Deed to him.

Port Nicholson. April 29, 1840.

My dear sir,--In presenting the Deeds 19 of land lying between the two streams of water, Pipitea and Raurima, I beg to observe that I do so for the benefit of the Colony, from a representation that the available land for a town is confined.

I reserve for myself one section; less I could not. For the young man, Richard Davis, I also reserve one section; these two sections, of course, I select prior to any others upon the same land.
Wishing you and the colonists every prosperity, I remain,

Your most obedient servant,
To Dr. Evans,

Of the correctness of the statements of Colonel Wakefield you may now be able to form some idea. I challenge Colonel Wakefield, or any other person, to call in question, in any one particular, my explanation.

The land presented by me to the Company was not less than sixty acres, in the first situation in the town, at that time not worth less than ten thousand pounds, and now probably worth forty thousand pounds. The presentation of this piece of land to the Company, freely on my part, and without one shilling of expense to them, is strikingly at variance with the Colonel's most charitable

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expression when speaking of the Missionaries of the Church Missionary Society,-- "but as regards their grasping and selfish acquirement of territory, &c, I can confirm most fully, &c."

The section which I reserved on account of Richard Davis, he is now living upon, and I am happy to say, from all accounts, conducts himself well, and acts as a Missionary among his countrymen.

The section reserved for myself, I intend disposing of, the proceeds of which will be appropriated to the erection of a church in that part of the country where the various members of my family may be located. I need hardly mention that this purpose was formed from the first, and is not consequent upon any observations which have since been made.

The acre section was sold, and the proceeds now form part of the endowment fund of Trinity church at Pakaraka.

But the donor of the land was over-easy of credence. He gave it up to the Company, on the ground that the Company had, as they alleged, made town and country reserves 20 for the benefit of the native population. Now, this much boasted provision was only nominal. The so-called reserves were not reserves, in the right meaning of the word. They were lands left unsold; not legally secured, and therefore open to being dealt with at pleasure by the Government. And what was wanted has been so dealt with. 21

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It is only fair to subjoin a Government plea, as contained in a despatch written in June, 1848.

It may be fairly assumed, therefore, that it will be only reasonable and just that the Government, having done so much for the natives, should re-imburse themselves from the lands originally set apart for reserves for the benefit of the natives.

Valeat quantum. Some there are, to whom this argument is of sufficient force.


On February 26, 1840, Mr. Williams baptized his trusty friend and brother peace-maker, Patuone, 22 elder brother to Thomas Walker Nene, whose name needs no further mention. Also, Patuone's wife, by the name of Lydia.


The New Zealand Company had set the Crown at defiance. The British Government, seemingly afraid to take extreme measures with a body of such influence in the House of Commons, resolved upon coming to the front, taking possession of the country for the Crown, and establishing a regular government, to control the irregulars. Captain Hobson was sent out, as Governor, and New Zealand became a British Colony. With his arrival, the first period of Mr. Williams' career,--that which was purely Missionary, in a foreign

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land, is brought to an end. With the second period, political action, forced upon him as a duty, is somewhat intertwined. So much for the time during which he was permitted to work without hindrance from superior authority. His mana 23 had become paramount. In a country where a stranger was regarded as an enemy, he went where he, pleased without hindrance, and did almost what he pleased with those around him. It is instructive to compare the latter with the earlier pages of this book,--those which describe the life he led at first, how he was compelled to bear with the bullying insolence of every turbulent chief,--just able to secure standing ground for his foot and nothing more,--again and again on the point of being driven off; and how, out of all these troubles, he came forth at last, an acknowledged master, a power in the country that was not to be gainsaid.

The difficulty of peace-making in New Zealand has to be understood before it can be appreciated. War does not wear itself out in New Zealand; on the contrary, it spreads like fire, so long as there is stuff to consume. The inexorable law of blood for "blood for blood" keeps on multiplying cause for vengeance, which only extermination can fore-close. Nevertheless, after a

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series of wars, which are computed to have cost over sixty thousand lives, Henry Williams established his name as "the peace-maker" over the face of the country. In peace he handed it over to the new Government, who had only to maintain what he had achieved. And when, seven and twenty years after, he was called away, peace was voluntarily agreed to between two warring tribes, for they felt that this would be the most fitting tribute to his memory.

While the splendid failures of some upon whom eulogy has been lavished are notorious, it seems not to have been perceived, save by an observant few, that the invariable result of what Henry Williams undertook, was an unpretending and quietly achieved, but complete success.


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1   The ruri-ruri is a very bad variety of haka,--brandishing of hands before the face, with et-caeteras, and accompaniment of forbidden song.
2   To pukana, is to roll the eyes and put out the tongue.
3   Upon the derivation of this somewhat uncouth word, the learned are not agreed. Some treat it as a corruption of episcopus; others, from the Maori words pico a po [stoop till night], because the priest bends his back in prayer from morning till night. The first mentioned derivation is probably the right one.
4   See "Christianity Among the New Zealanders," Ch, XIII.
5   Called Matahau, at Otaki.
6   Rauparaha is the last of the trio of the great Maori generals. His father, Werawera, was of Ngatitoa; his mother, Parekowhata, was of Ngatiraukawa. Both alike claimed descent from Rotorua, who came from Hawaiki in the "Tainui." This was the canoe which was dragged across the portage at Otahuhu, on its way to Kawhia, where its occupants settled, spreading presently as far as Maungatautari, the original district of Ngatiraukawa. He took as chief wife Akau, widow of Hape Te Tuarangi, of Maungatautari, the mother of his son Tamihana Te Rauparaha, now living at Otaki. After many battles with Waikato, in 1817 he joined Thomas Walker Nene and his brother Patuone in a raid upon the southern tribes. Ngatiruanui were routed with great slaughter; also Ngatikahungunu, at Wairarapa. During this expedition he cast a longing eye upon the island of Kapiti, advantageously placed for the obtaining of muskets and ammunition from vessels trading to Cook's Straits. Feeling, moreover, that owing to the alliance between Te Wherowhero, of Waikato, and Te Waharoa, of Ngatihaua, that his own position at Kawhia was becoming insecure, he succeeded, by much persuasion, in inducing Ngatitoa to abandon their ancestral possessions, and to migrate to the South. The battles that he fought in compassing the object, and his many hairbreadth escapes, do not concern us here; they have, moreover, been commemorated by Mr. Travers, in his interesting narrative. It must suffice to say that he did succeed in establishing himself at Kapiti, securing himself, through masterly diplomacy, by alliances; even persuading a section of Ngatiraukawa, under Te Whatanui, (of whom more anon,) to leave Maungatautari, and to settle in his vicinity. Crossing from Kapiti, he carried desolation into the Middle Island, and there acquired that territory,--the Wairau, which gave rise to the first fatal encounter, under British Government, between natives and Europeans. It did not appear, however, that he was the instigator of the massacre, and it is certain, at all events, that the Wairau had not been properly bought. Accordingly, the offence was condoned by Governor FitzRoy. In 1846, he was taken prisoner at Porirua, on suspicion of treason, by Captain Stanley, of the "Calliope," acting under Governor Grey; but was liberated after a while. He died at Otaki, in the year 1849.
7   This journal is condensed from the original manuscript; not from the C. M. S. Register, in which expressions that might have given umbrage to the New Zealand Company are carefully excised by the reviser.
8   This statement is corroborated by Mr. Buller, of the Wesleyan Society.

"I spent a day on the Island of Kapiti, and then proceeded to Port Nicholson. On my arrival there, I learnt that the land which had been formerly agreed by Mr. Bumby as the site of a Mission Station, had been disposed of to the New Zealand Land Company. But, on enquiry, it appeared that the actual proprietors of that spot had not sold, or agreed to sell; but that certain other chiefs had undertaken to sell the entire harbour, &c, and apportion the payment according to the right possessed by the different claimants. The proprietors of the Te Aro (the name of the place in question) had not signed the deed, nor consented to the sale: only two out of the six had taken the payment. A house had been built on the place for us, and they were very anxious for me to remain among them."
9   Te Rangihaeata was nephew by the mother's side to Te Rauparaha, his father, Rakaherea, having married Waitohi. His sister, Topeora, married Rangikapiki, of Ngatiwhakaue, by whom is the well-known Matene Te Whiwi. It was he who directed the massacre at Wairau, as payment for the death of his wife, killed by a random shot at the beginning of the fray. The following is from Mr. Travers' account.

"When Wakefield and party were dead, Rauparaha rose and said,-- 'Hearken, Te Rangihaeata, I will now leave you, as you have set aside my tikanga [correctness]; let those of the Europeans that have been killed, suffice. Let the others live.' Rangihaeata replied, 'What about your daughter that has been killed?' Rauparaha replied, 'Why should not that daughter die?' Rauparaha also said, 'Now I will embrace Christianity, and turn to God, who has preserved me from the hands of the Europeans.'"
10   The well known story of "The Bloody Elizabeth."
11   This disposition to go beyond what they were taught,--to make additions and improvements, culminated, many years later, in hauhauism. The propensity is not confined to Maoridom.
12   This may appear, at first thought, a very one-sided arrangement,--that the owners should receive payment for what was for their own use and benefit. But the title could not well pass without some consideration. The system here suggested has been since adopted, to a small extent, by the Government. Had it being carried out to a much larger extent, those troubles which are causing, even still, so much anxiety, would have been altogether avoided.
13   One acre was also reserved for Reihana, the original owner.
14   Many natives, taking advantage of the inexperience of the purchasers, were selling land to which they had no right or title whatever, preparing the way for the troubles that afterwards came in. What else could have been expected by thinking men. Why should more honesty be expected in New Zealand than would be shewn in England, under like circumstances? If a man were to walk the streets of London offering a thousand pounds for Apsley House, he would not be long to find a seller. But purchase would not imply a conveyance. We can only suppose that the Company, taking so little pains to make enquiry, sought a colourable pretext for occupying lands, the possession of which was presently to be maintained by force.
15   Matters of a purely political character are avoided, so far as possible, in this "Memoir." But the scurrilous language of the Company's Agent towards Mr. Williams leaves no option, save to place the two parties in their right position towards each other. Henry Williams was not the man to sympathize with illegal proceedings; and that the proceedings of the Company were illegal, no one any longer affects to doubt. They themselves laid their own case before Sergeant Wilde. His opinion was, that "the parties would not be justified by law in acting under the agreement;" that "no acts which might be done or committed could be legally justified under the authority of the agreement; and that the course for the directors to take was, to "give notice to those who might be likely to act under the supposed authority of the agreement, that they must not do so, on account of its illegality."
16   The Company not only set up a separate dominion, but strove hard to maintain the independence. They did their utmost to hinder native chiefs at Wellington from attaching their signatures to the treaty of Waitangi, by which the sovereignty of the islands was ceded to the Crown. A continuous stream of invective was kept up against the three first governors, Hobson, Shortland, and FitzRoy, not upon personal grounds, for all three were estimable men, but because they wielded the authority of the Crown, and respected native rights, guaranteed under solemn treaty. In their anxiety to see the treaty broken, they committed the indiscretion of calling it, "a device to amuse savages." The bitter rebuke which they received from Lord Stanley, Secretary of State for the Colonies, a gentleman as well as a statesman, is not yet forgotten.
17   Of the Spanish Legion.
18   Mr. Hobbs, of the Wesleyan Mission, had kindly sent to Mr. Williams a copy of "The Times" newspaper, containing Colonel Wakefield's charges.
19   To place the matter beyond all cavil, it should be observed that in the deed of gift the lawful ownership of the land in Mr. Williams is acknowledged as follows.

Port Nicholson, April 29, 1840.
Memorandum of Deed of Gift from the Reverend Henry Williams, of the Bay of Islands, of certain lands at Port Nicholson, to Colonel William Wakefield in trust for the New Zealand Land Company, witnesseth--That the Reverend Henry Williams is now lawfully possessed, according to the law and custom of the native inhabitants of New Zealand, of certain tracts of land at Port Nicholson, in a place now commonly called Thorndon, and which has been selected as the site of the principal town to be formed in the territories of the New Zealand Land Company, and that the said lands so lawfully claimed by the said Henry Williams do extend from the beach called by the native inhabitants, ------, to the mountain called Tinakore, and bounded on the south side by the brook called Pipitea, and on the north side by the brook called Raurima, &c.
20   Tenths, so called, but in fact, I believe, elevenths,--one allotment set against ten; not out of ten.
21   The land given by Mr. Williams to the New Zealand Company having been made over on the assumption that the so-called reserves had been secured to the natives, ought, in strictness of honest dealing, to revert to the donor, on its being shewn that the security was only nominal. But this is a flight of morality which in these times would be treated as Quixotism. It is possible that the New Zealand Legislature may yet be shamed into making good the whole of the reserves, or into giving an equivalent for what has been alienated, and those who are of a dreamy temperament may expect it. From a cause which may be readily surmised, all attempts have ended in nothing. For instance,--in 1844, an Ordinance providing for the Trusts was passed, and received the royal assent. But one of the clauses provided that the Ordinance should not come into force until it had been published in the "Government Gazette." Would it be credited in England, that a protest was entered against the Ordinance on the ground that the trustees named were all of one religious persuasion; and that either for that cause, or for another cause unavowed, the requisite notification was not made. Those who seek further information are referred to the speech of the Hon. Mr. Mantell, in the Legislative Council, ["New Zealand Hansard," August 26, 1873,] and to the judgment of the Court of Appeal in the case of Regina v. Fitzherbert, from which, said Mr. Mantell, "the Council would see that the Court appeared to decide that those tenths were in the hands of the Crown, unencumbered by any trust; that the Governor had no power to make native reserves; and that Her Majesty never executed any trusts or imposed any incumbrance whatever upon the reserves."
22   Eru Patuone was the principal agent in arranging the settlement of Mr. Hobbs, of the Wesleyan Society, at Hokianga, in 1827. There was little distinction drawn at that time between the two Missions, which worked very amicably, not together, but side by side. He died in 1872, a few months after his brother, Tamati Waka Nene, and was interred with military honours, in the Church of England burying ground, at the foot of the flagstaff hill, on the North Shore, Auckland. His age is not accurately known. The coffin plate gave 96, but he himself used to say that he well remembered Captain Cook.

Patuone had been always a friend to the Europeans, from the time that a Scotch company endeavoured to form a settlement at Herd's Point, Hokianga. Having married a southern woman of high rank, known as Riria (Lydia), he left the northern district, taking up his residence on the north shore of the Waitemata, where he was considered as the protector of Auckland, at that time weak and defenceless. Whenever any danger threatened, Patuone was "sent for,"--notably when Ngatipaoa, said to be five hundred strong, landed in Mechanics' Bay. With his men, he took up a position behind the earth-works near St. Andrew's church. During the course of Heke's war in the North, Patuone fought on our side; but, generally speaking, he was more distinguished in council, and as a peace-maker, than as a warrior. Possibly his fame was eclipsed by the exceptionally brilliant feats of his younger brother, Nene.

The daring act of creeping into the pa at Ruapekapeka, by which it was ascertained that the defenders were outside, resulting in entrance by the troops, has been in error attributed to Patuone, but was performed by another brother, William Walker Turau.
23   I know not where to look, in English, for an equivalent to mana. It will be found in old English, if anywhere. "Sway" will nearly express the meaning, but not quite; in mana there is a latent association of fear. Possibly "influence," (if the old technical use of the word, which comes down at least as far as Milton, be superadded to the modern use,) would more nearly approach the meaning.

Mana has to be taken according to its context. It appears to have originally denoted "weight of character." But, by degrees, the meaning became amplified, and partly mystical. Nomen (associated with Numen), or its Greek equivalent, taken in the Scriptural sense, might cover its variety of meaning more nearly than any single English word; implying authority. Hic per nomen, non intelligi nomen istud, constans certis literis et syllabis, sed dignitatem, majestatem, et gloriam." [Suiceri Thesaurus Ecclesiasticus.] " Provoke him not, for my name is in him," Ex. xxiii., 21, would mean, as I understand the passage, "He has my mana." So, also, "baptised into (not in) the name of our Lord."

The word is of historical interest. A question was raised, whether Rangitake [William King] had a right, by virtue of his mana, to veto the sale of land at Waitara to the Government. This issue, though not the sole one, was keenly debated. What is mana? Some of the newspapers, taken, perhaps, by the jingle of words, gave as an equivalent, "manorial right." The guess was not so very far from the mark.

It is for the consideration of Oriental scholars whether nomen and mana have not a common Sanscrit root,--'gna, cognosco, from which, naman, nomen.

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