1865 - Davis, R. A Memoir of the Rev. Richard Davis - CHAPTER IX. MISSIONARY OPERATIONS...1843...1852.

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  1865 - Davis, R. A Memoir of the Rev. Richard Davis - CHAPTER IX. MISSIONARY OPERATIONS...1843...1852.
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Revival of religion--Native Outrages--Flag-staff four times cut down--Kororarika sacked and burnt--First New Zealand War--English repulsed in storming Pa-- Epidemic--Pa stormed--Peace proclaimed--Restless State of the Natives--Religion of Natives deteriorated by the War--Whaling Station sacked--Native Method of cooking Rice--Opposition of Heke to restitution of Land purchased by the Missionaries--Heke and Natives alarmed from belief that the English Government designed to despoil them of their Land--Decrease of Aborigines from 100,000 to 50,000--Probability of their Extermination--Cause of this Decrease, and probable Extermination--Persecution of Davis by Heke--Snow for the first time witnessed in that part of New Zealand--Native Day-School gratuitously kept by two Daughters of Davis--Character and Death of Heke--Search for Gold in New Zealand--Remarkable Kindness and Commiseration of Bishop Selwyn to Davis in his deep Affliction--Ordained Priest by Bishop Selwyn, Trinity Sunday 1852.

"WAIMATE, NEW ZEALAND, Feb. 22, 1844.

"MY DEAR SIR,--Since my last letter to you, I find from the Record that our dear friend, the Rev. Mervin West; has entered into his rest. I had just previously written to him. All is well with him. He has joined the blood-bought throng. May we be prepared to follow him! I am at present under the doctor's hands. Three days ago death presented itself to my mind, and for a short time it was startling. The attack was rather alarming, but it has now passed off, and I have the prospect of sojourning a little longer in this vale of tears. May every moment be spent to the glory of God!

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"During these last few months the work of the Spirit has been visible amongst my people. It commenced at Kaikohe, and for some time its progress was confined to those people alone. It has, however, now manifested itself at Mangakahia, and I hope that the hearts of some are beginning to be awakened here. They who have been made partakers of this grace are chiefly, though not exclusively, those who are most advanced in the divine life, and who have endeavoured to walk according to the will of God's word. It is quite an illustration of John xiv. 21-23: 'He that hath My commandments and keepeth them, he it is that loveth Me. And he that loveth Me, shall be loved of My Father, and I will love him, and manifest Myself to him. If a man love Me, he wall keep My words, and My Father will love him, and We will come unto him, and make our abode with him.' The convictions of sin in some have been of a more painful nature,--so much so, that their constitutional health was for a time affected. Yet, in these cases, the spirit of conviction has been so accompanied with the spirit of adoption, that, although great tearfulness and hatred of sin have been produced, yet, in their greatest distress, they have been enabled, although with trembling, to cry 'Abba, Father.' Others have been so affected, that when spoken to of the love of Christ, or when they have been speaking themselves, their hearts have been melted down, and the tears have flowed plentifully, and they have almost for a time lost the power of speech. The first commencement was at Kaikohe in October last. I accompanied the bishop to Kaikohe on his way to Mangakahia, where he was going to hold a

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confirmation, and to administer the Lord's Supper. The natives told us that a person had been taken ill suddenly in a singular manner. We endeavoured to ascertain the nature of the disease, but could not make it out. There was also the appearance of reserve in the communication. After the bishop left next morning, I inquired more particularly into the nature of the complaint, and clearly perceived it was conviction of sin. I lost no time in visiting the man. I found him sitting in his house, with a serious and even solemn aspect, but the peaceful appearance of the eye spoke the holy feelings of the soul. He had for some time, in company with another young chief, been in the habit of reading the Scriptures with prayer; and we know such holy exercises, when accompanied with fervency of spirit, must produce a happy result. I said but little to him. I saw he was blessed with the spirit of adoption. I felt I was on holy ground. I felt bowed down under a sense of my sinfulness. I felt Unworthy to put my polluted hand to so glorious a work. It greatly rejoiced my heart, and I endeavoured to improve the subject. Not long after my return home to Waimate, I learnt that the young chief, who had been in the habit of meeting with this man, was, to use their own term, taken ill also. On a Sunday morning, just as I was going out to hold service in another part of my district, a messenger arrived requesting my immediate attendance at Kaikohe. Knowing what was the matter with the man, I went and held service at Taiamai, and proceeded across the country to Kaikohe. During my journey I fell in with some of the Kaikohe congregation. I asked them who had

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addressed them in the morning? They told me Hill had addressed them--the person who had sent for me--and I learnt that he had addressed them from Rom. vii. 24, 'O wretched man that I am! who shall deliver me from the body of this death?' This quite confirmed me in my suppositions. I found Hill in a most solemn state of mind. His convictions were deep and penetrating. They had produced an anguish of soul, which had had a serious effect on his constitutional health. Sin had appeared in fearful, yet true, colours. It had become an insupportable burden, but it had not produced that fear which borders on despair,--so graciously did God deal with him. As soon as he saw me he began to exclaim against sin. He observed, 'The sins of the whole of mankind appear to me, in comparison of my own, to be no larger than my finger, but my own sin appears larger than the world.' He expressed a strong desire to be freed from sin, but did not feel desirous to be relieved from anxiety. He desired to have the work deepened in his heart. Next morning a teacher accompanied me in visiting the sick. Our conversation turned on some passage of Scripture to which I referred, to illustrate our subject. During this the man's head fell on his bosom, and the tears flowed rapidly down his cheeks. I said, 'What is the matter with you?' He exclaimed, 'Many of us are in this state. Our hearts greatly desire Christ. We have no heart to work, nor is our food so sweet to us as heretofore.' My soul rejoiced in this state of things. The language of Simeon has been the language of my soul, 'Lord, now lettest,' etc.

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"March 2d.--The good work has increased at Kaikohe, and more so at Mangakahia. Last week sixteen natives were brought down at the latter place. My paper will not allow me to give an account of my last visit there. At Waimate, also, several have been blest with this spirit of adoption. From the copy of Brainerd, which you gave me very many years ago, I have received much benefit and assistance. That book describes the true missionary character. It gives an exact description of the work of the Spirit on the minds of converted heathen. No missionary should be without it. The work is the Lord's. He is doing it in His own way. I have only to stand still and see the salvation of God, as wrought in the hearts of the few who have been thus blessed. The enemy is here going-over the same ground which he did in Brainerd's case, so that a vigilant look-out is necessary, as some of the natives have begun to dream dreams, and others to see visions. Against these I have cautioned them most strongly,-- entreating them to keep close to the Scriptures. I am concerned to be obliged to leave my people under these circumstances for seven months. I am just about to proceed to Kaitaia to take charge of that district, while Mr. Matthews goes to Waimate to prepare for orders; and while Mr. Puckey attends the bishop's general language meeting. May the Lord carry on His own work! This, I trust, He will do. I cannot see that I have had any part therein. With very kind regards to Mrs. Coleman,--I remain, my dear sir, sincerely and affectionately yours,


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November 5, 1844.

"MY DEAR SIR,--I thank you and Mrs. Coleman for your kind congratulations. It was only at my ordination that I was enabled to obtain the summit of my wishes, and to accomplish the object for which I left my country, namely, to preach the Gospel to the heathen, and to have all the powers of my body and mind thrown into that channel. This object I have now obtained. May the Lord make me diligent and faithful! I thank you also for the care you have taken of me in Salisbury Square. IN THE CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY I HAVE THE GREATEST CONFIDENCE. They passed a resolution appointing me to Waimate, ordering that I should be allowed to remain in my house until we heard from them again, and revoking what Mr. Kempthorne had done.

"The bishop has made a formal avowal of his religious sentiments, and of their being in strict accordance with the Church of England. This he did in a synod held at Waimate on the 26th of September last.

"Before I left my district to go to Kaitaia, an awakening had taken place in the minds of some of the people of Kaikohe and of Mangakahia. This work was evidently the work of God. His arm appeared to be made bare for the salvation of the people. Some of the most advanced Christians had a deep sense of the evil of sin impressed on their minds and consciences. A sense of pardoning love, through Christ, followed those impressions, with a strong desire for perfect holiness of heart and life. Satan, the great enemy, took advantage of the distance from us

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of Mangakahia, and one man, who, although baptized, had never been a consistent character, gave out that he had been called by the Spirit to preach the true Gospel, and before a remedy could be applied, the little body became divided into factions. This, as it took place after I left, gave me very great pain, as I was fearful the true cause of Christ would be injured thereby. The bishop however visited them, and the evil was removed. But during my visit to them the other day, I observed with pain that one of those who had been led astray, and who was and is still a consistent character, appeared much at a loss in answering scriptural questions. May we all be preserved from the delusions of Satan. At Kaikohe I found those who had been thus blest walking consistently, and manifesting true piety. They have lost that warmth of spiritual feeling which I left them in possession of, but they are adorning the doctrine of God their Saviour by the consistency of their lives. In other parts of the district I found Satan had made sad havoc. Half the congregations had deserted their respective places of worship, and evil in various forms had sprung up among them. This is painful, and did I not believe in the power of the Divine word, I should despair of ever seeing the breach repaired. But, blessed be God, the preached Gospel is all-powerful when accompanied with a Divine unction from above, so that I do not despair of not only seeing the breach repaired, but the spirituality of the flock increased. There is, however, much to contend with at this time, and unless supported from above, the missionary may sink under his trials.

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"The political state of the natives is bad. For a long time much jealousy has been manifested by them relative to the measures of Government. The seeds of discord, which were sown by disaffected Europeans at the time the treaty was signed, and at all convenient opportunities since, are now producing fruit. The cutting down the flagstaff was the first public outrage, and many others have followed of a more flagrant nature. People have been plundered and stripped of their property with impunity, and in some cases without the slightest provocation. This has been done by young, headstrong, inexperienced natives. Application has been made to the Governor for protection, and the result has been that he has announced his intention of removing all Government officers from the Bay on the 31st of December next, and has invited all those who wish Government protection to come to Auckland. Consequently very many have left, and others are preparing to leave. Such measures will cause a great sacrifice of property, but they will hinder much bloodshed, and, I hope, be the means of bringing the natives to their sober senses.

"November 6th.--Thus far I had written yesterday, when some of the missionaries came to attend a committee to be held here. The account they gave of the state of the disaffected natives is bad. Two fresh outrages have taken place within the last week, and excitement is increasing. I will relate the simple facts attendant upon a circumstance which has just taken place here. A young wicked European had been with a MOST NOTORIOUS wicked woman. A young chief of a savage character had also been with

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her. This chief took advantage of the state of the times, and demanded satisfaction. The European, under the direction of some natives, refused to give it, and the natives took him under their protection. But as he was a white man, and we are considered all of the same tribe, the chief was determined to seek his satisfaction from amongst us. To carry this plan into execution, he was joined by about ten desperate fellows equally wicked with himself, and they arrived in Waimate on Saturday evening last. In the night they endeavoured to steal a horse, but could not catch it. They then agreed to go and plunder a house about half a mile from Waimate. But mistaking the house in the dark, they knocked at a door of a house in which some natives are living. They, seeing their mistake, asked to be allowed to cook some food. They acknowledged that it was their intention to have rushed into the house and plundered it, if they had not thus mistaken it. On Sunday they kept themselves well out of the way, and after night, having laid their plans to rob a house about two miles from Waimate, and tie up the inmates until they could get off with their booty, they proceeded to put their plans in execution. On their arrival they found a horse tethered in a paddock, took it, and returned home. On Monday a party of three natives followed the horse, and found it with this chief. He fearlessly made the above confession to them. The horse he would not give up. In the Bay of Islands things are much worse, and Europeans are all leaving, as fast as their circumstances will admit them to do so.

"During my residence of six months at Kaitaia I was

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much pleased with the docile simplicity of those people. They are very different from the turbulent Ngapuhi tribes. I do not mean to say that they are better Christians, or farther advanced in Christianity than those people (for I believe that some of our natives are more advanced than they are). but they manifest a more dependent spirit on the instruction of their missionaries. These are indeed troublous times. What will become of us the great Head of the Church only knows. I do not doubt His power to protect, but I fear our lukewarm and dead-alive proceedings are calculated to bring evil upon us. Nor do I doubt of the perpetuity of the infant Church here; God has a Church among the natives. A great work has been affected. But we have not given God the glory as we ought to have done, nor were we so diligent as we ought to have been, while the hand of the Lord was upon us for good. Our time of trial is now fast approaching. May we enter the furnace with faith, and come out purified! It gives me much pleasure to hear of your success in being made the instrument of bringing souls to Christ. May your labours BE BLESSED, and may they redound to the glory of God! William is in the college; he has also the bishop's native school, and is prepared to go with him to Auckland.

"IN THE SUCCESS OF THE CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY I REJOICE, YEA, AND WILL REJOICE. It is composed of a body of faithful men who know the Gospel of Christ, and are prepared to defend it; yea, they have defended it against the brazen-faced heresy of Tractarianism. But for them, and their coadjutors, that heresy would not have been

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checked as it has been. With kindest and best regards to Mrs. Coleman, in which Mrs. Davis joins,--I remain, my dear sir, affectionately and sincerely yours,


April 15, 1845.

"MY DEAREST FRIEND,--Before you receive this you will have learnt from the public papers our situation. Heke, the chief, has succeeded in cutting down the flagstaff in the Bay of Islands four times. The last time, he did it while part of the forces attacked the town of Kororarika. Had the soldiers kept their position, he could not have succeeded the last time. But they walked out of their log-house to see the fighting, and while they were looking on, the daring chief shot the soldier on guard, and a few others in the house, and took possession. Many were killed and wounded in the town on both sides. But the natives were not to be resisted, and the town fell into their hands on the evening of the 11th of last month. On the 12th, it was sacked and burnt. Thirty-five men from the 'Hazard' sloop of war, with their captain at their head, fought bravely. Their commander fell, it was supposed, mortally wounded, but it is reported he is likely to recover. About the same number of soldiers were present, but could not resist the natives. There were also about 200 armed Europeans, some of whom are reported to have fought bravely, but they were all obliged to give way. H.M.S. the 'Hazard' also poured in her round shot, shells, grape, and cannister, but the natives, nothing daunted, did not

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give over until these forces were silenced. The town's people, in the afternoon, hung out a flag of truce, and requested to be allowed to retire quietly on board the ships which were then providentially in the Bay. This was granted.

"The day following the sacking and burning took place, and continued for several days. The well-disposed natives were much disappointed at the victory gained by their countrymen, and were much dismayed. A strong party from Hokianga soon formed and commenced hostilities, but the other party is the strongest. Waimate was likely to have been the seat of war, but the Government party retreated towards Hokianga. The other party came inland, and stayed a few days at Waimate, which caused much terror and confusion. They did some mischief, but the settlement is still spared. How long it may stand is very uncertain. The war is now carried on, on the north side of the Mawe Lake, called on the map 'Omapere.' Our residence is about six miles in a direct line south from the horrid scene of action. Few of our natives have hitherto joined in the conflict. They at present behave well, but we are in a precarious state. We know not how soon we may be cut off. My mind is weak, and my faith does not seem sufficiently strong to bear me up under the expectation of a violent death. But God is faithful, and I trust will not desert us in the trying hour. I have sent Marella and Sophia to Kaitaia, which is at present quiet. May the Lord preserve them there! Severe threats are held out against all Europeans at present, on account of the obstinacy of the Government party, but we cannot prevail

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on them to be quiet. The chief, Heke, professes great regard for us, as we are living on his land, and he considers as under his protection. Should he fall, we know not what may befall us. May we be delivered from leaning on an arm of flesh' In the midst of these events my son James was taken ill. About ten days ago I had him brought here from Waimate on a litter. But the Lord has dealt graciously with me in this respect, for on the 14th day of his fever it left him, and we hope he is now recovering. But he will require care for some time. The chief, Heke, has been stirred up to do what he has done by agitators, who have made him believe, that the English have taken their country from them, etc., etc., and that they will ultimately be either cut off or made slaves of. This some Americans living in the Bay are said to have insinuated. Heke is acquainted with the early history of England, with the history of America, its disunion with the mother country, and what caused it, etc., etc. This he could not have known but from either Americans or English. I consider we are more in danger from the present war than we should have been if the natives were engaged with the troops, and that it is likely to be more disastrous to the mission.

"23d April--The war is still carried on, and alarming threats are held out against Europeans. I last night wrote a strong letter to the loyal party, to endeavour to prevail upon them to stop fighting. It was taken by a Wesleyan missionary, who accompanied a small party of his people for the same object. Under the protection of the loyalists and neutrals our persons may be safe, if they would give

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over fighting. If they continue it, humanly speaking we shall be in danger.

"25th April.--Party returned without effecting anything. In fact, I fear matters are made worse. This day we expect a dreadful battle. Farewell, my oldest and dearest friends. Thank you for all your kindness. If spared I shall write again soon. If not you will know the reason. May the Lord prepare us all for His heavenly kingdom.--I remain, faithfully and affectionately yours,



June 28, 1845.

"My dearest Friend, -- The goodness of God has hitherto protected us, poor encumberers of the ground as we are. Our believing natives, and a few others of the well disposed, have continued faithful to us, and have established themselves around us. My old friends from Mawe, having been stripped of everything by the war, and driven from their place, are also come to live with us, so that we have two new small villages springing up around us. These places they are fencing in with stockades. This is, indeed, a time of great trial. Nothing but a sense of my acceptance in the Beloved could support my almost worn-out nervous system. The Word of God is everything to us. What could we do without it? How precious, also, are some of the old authors to me! Romaine's Life, Walk, and Triumph of Faith are very good, with some others; but Owen is my favourite author. O what light he throws upon the holy Word! In what a clear, scriptural, lovely view he presents the Saviour! Alas, how lean our

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modern divinity is! I am almost afraid to say anything of the religious state of the natives. I am too much alarmed at what I witness in the awful departure of many from the truth. Since I last wrote, much fighting has taken place. A sharp battle was fought on the 12th inst. between the loyal and disaffected natives. The disaffected, although consisting of 500 men, were kept at bay all day, and ultimately driven off the field by the loyalists, although their force did not exceed 100. Three of our people fell, two on the side of the disaffected, and one on the side of the loyalists. When the bodies were brought home, as one of them was a principal chief of great note and bravery, he was laid in state, about a hundred yards from our fence, before he was buried. The troops were in the Bay at the time, and were sent for by Walker, the conquering chief; but they were so tardy in their movements that they did not arrive at the seat of war to commence operations until the 24th inst.! This tardy movement allowed the natives so to fortify themselves in the stockaded Pa, fence within fence, and with ditches and breastworks, that although they have now been firing cannon upon them for three days, they have made little impression on the Pa. A few have been slightly wounded by splinters, but none have been killed. They are secure in their ditches and excavations. The British troops are three to one of the natives, but they find they have a daring foe to contend with in the New Zealander. The fighting is about five miles from us. The reports of the cannon shake our house. A breach was made yesterday, but as few troops were at hand, the natives made a sally, and drove them off.

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"2d July.--Last night, just as I had got to bed, a hue and cry passed from village to village that the troops had attempted to storm the Pa, but had been driven back with great loss. This quite unnerved me, and kept me in a feverish excitement during the night. The depression of my spirits was increased by the exultation with which the news was received by the greater part of the natives. Previously my spirits had been depressed by adverse intelligence, as a party from the Pa fell upon a party of Walker's on Monday night or early this morning, and succeeded in killing some of them. This is the first time any of their old murderous actions have been brought into practice. I feel indeed, now, that it is necessary for us to live with our lives in our hands, that we may be ready to be offered up should we be called to the trial. When danger is distant, faith seems strong; but when brought near, it is tried. We are living, humanly speaking, altogether in the power of the disaffected party. But greater is He that is for us than lie that is against us. Not that during the night I felt I was not accepted of God, but flesh shrunk from the prospect of a violent death. This ought not to be. O how valuable now would be the company of an experienced Christian brother!

"3d.--Many accounts are afloat with regard to the number of soldiers killed. The natives report 40 killed and 100 wounded. If this be true, I fear they are too much weakened to proceed with their warfare, as the number of natives in the Pa are increased. Many went away from fear of the troops, who have now returned again. I am fearful for the troops. May the Lord bring this sad

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affair to a speedy end! I know the race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong, yet I cannot but feel much at the death of so many of my countrymen. But hush, my soul; 'shall not the Judge of all the earth do right?' Lieutenant Phillpotts is reported to be among the slain,--a son or near relative of the Bishop of Exeter. You will, doubtless, be surprised to learn that a native fortification should hold out so long against Her Majesty's forces. The Pa is about 100 yards square. Large posts of strong timber were first put up, from a foot to eighteen inches square. These posts are placed about five or six feet asunder. Between these posts the spaces are filled up with split timber, sufficiently thick to resist a musket-ball. The upper part of this fence, which is twelve or fourteen feet high, has the flax plant hung on it to very near the ground. Having accomplished this outer fence, they next dig a ditch for the men to stand in, and fire through the bottom of the outer fence. A second fence is then put up, and the excavated earth is carried into the inside, and built up as a breastwork. The men here stand on the ground, and rest their guns on the breastwork. Of course they do not use this inner part of the fort until their outer fence is assaulted. Inside of this breastwork they have a stone wall, and excavations leading to different parts of the Pa. They also live in excavations, and the roofs of their houses are covered with earth, so that the small shells the troops throw into the Pa do no harm. I should think they must have fired 400 cannon-shots into the Pa and through it, and only one man has been killed thereby. The outside fence has suffered. When the troops

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stormed the Pa, they threw ropes over the fence, which was much shattered, and pulled it down, thus exposing themselves to a deadly fire from the breastwork through the second fence. Not daunted, they threw their ropes over the second fence; but this, not having been so much affected by the cannon, resisted their attempts. The attack was, no doubt, made by the bravest men in the little army, and their loss is serious. Mercifully for the troops, there were but few people in the Pa at the time the assault was made, perhaps not above a hundred. But half that number would have sufficed to defend it. I shall commence another letter immediately. O how sweet peace would now be! O how desirable is rest from these toils! My heart was cheered from reading Bunyan's visions. How vividly, yet scripturally, he describes the ecstatic bliss of our Sabbatic rest! Reading the account has made me desire to be dissolved, and to be with Christ. The thoughts of the enjoyment of the beatific vision disarms Death of much of his terrors. Pray, O pray for us, and for the poor natives! With Christian love to Mrs. Coleman, in which Mrs. Davis joins,--I remain, my dear sir, ever affectionately yours,


"P. S.--My beloved wife, although I have entreated her to allow me to send her to a place of safety, will not leave me. She sees my weakness, and has finally cast in her lot with me; so, if we perish, we perish together. My two sons are also with me, and James's wife and children. I trust we are in the hand of God."

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July 24, 1845.

"MY VERY DEAR FRIEND,--Since the close of my last letter of the 3d inst. troubles and difficulties have thickened around us. After the disastrous affair of the 1st inst., both parties remained quiet for several days. But the dead being buried, and the wounded removed, Her Majesty's forces again commenced firing on the Pa from a thirty-two pounder. The natives escaped from it, under cover of the night, on the 10th inst. Some few had been killed, but their loss of life was trifling, in consequence of their excavations. After their escape, they observed they were safe in their entrenchments from the shots themselves, but were frequently nearly buried with the earth ploughed up by them. The greater part of the shells thrown into the Pa proved harmless, as they burnt down without exploding. In fact, much powder was thereby furnished to the natives, as when the shells went out they poured the powder out of them. These shells, it is reported, were bought in Sydney at a cheap rate. So much for cheap things. The thirty-two pounder was got from Her Majesty's ship the 'Hazard.' Had it not been for this gun, they could not have much affected the Pa with their field-pieces. On the 10th, at night, a large party of men, women, and children came to this place. This raised some fearful apprehension that we should soon be involved, as we expected the troops and loyalists would be in pursuit in the morning. The next morning, nothing daunted, having left their wives and children in Heke's Pa at this place, the men returned to Taiamai to fire a farewell volley towards their place, which

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they expected they were looking at for the last time. They were permitted to fire this volley without molestation. This rather surprised me. On the 12th instant I had the pleasure of seeing the fugitives in motion passing our house. At this moment my eye caught sight of the smoke of a musket fired on the road from Taiamai to this place, from which I learnt that there was a party in pursuit. Immediately I set out and met the people, all natives, about 150 in number, about a mile from our house. They came towards me with a flag of truce. They inquired for the people. I told them they had passed on. Their chief told me they were come to destroy Heke's Pa, and desired me to go and send all natives out of it. I went to the Pa, and to my great anguish of heart, I found about fifty men, and among them some of our own people, prepared to defend it. I delivered my message. They sneered at it. But, after some parleying, it was agreed that I should return to the party, in company with a young chief, to learn their final determination. We went, and after much preamble the party agreed to return to Taiamai without burning the Pa, and come back on Monday with the troops to accomplish their object, very justly observing, 'If we burn the Pa it will be done without bloodshed, but if the troops come they will both kill and destroy.' I felt very indignant with our people who had joined the people in the Pa. They observed, 'We do not care for the Pa, but let the troops come and burn it; let it not be done by our own countrymen.' They, however, agreed to give up the Pa, and it was burnt, without bloodshed. This I solely attribute to the goodness of God towards us. I never saw

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two parties so near fighting without doing so. During the time I was in the Pa, on the first visit, just as I was about to leave with the chief to learn their determination, the party was seen in quick advance about 200 yards from it. I thought all was lost. The party in the Pa took up their positions; and, as we walked out of the Pa together, I said to the chief, 'What shall we do?' He replied, 'Walk quietly in the road home.' Observing they drew up for a dance, we advanced towards them and adjusted matters. A few days after my son James went to Waimate, and having been informed that the Commander-in-Chief was very indignant with me for having hindered the natives in the execution of their duty on the 12th instant, he went to him to inquire into the nature of the charge brought against me. It appeared that the party, on their return to the camp, reported that, had it not been for me, they should have taken Heke's brother prisoner, etc., to make their own case the better. As the Colonel stated, that he had taken notes of what I had done, and forwarded them to the civil power, I wrote a simple statement of the whole affair, and forwarded it to the bishop, and am now awaiting the result. I know I have nothing to fear, as the accusation is false. Alas, how the face of everything is changed! how very different from what it was a few years ago! The natives were then desirous for religious instruction; so much so, that some or other of them were always at our houses, and when we went out they joined themselves to us, in order to converse on religion. Some would come and ask liberty to go to their distant friends to carry that knowledge of religion to them which they had received.

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Hundreds learned to read the Word of God. Their muskets were thrown aside and became rusty, but their books were always in their hands. The missionaries considered the battle fought and the victory won. The natives became lukewarm. Yea, we became lukewarm altogether. The time of trial came, and they fell. Very few have stood the shock, and I tremble lest even their number should decrease. Awful trying state indeed.

"August 4, 1845.--Since the flight of the natives from their Pa there has been a cessation of hostilities. Oh, if it be the Lord's will that peace may be restored, how thankful we ought to be! About a fortnight ago, in consequence of my being likely to get into difficulty with the troops, as before mentioned, and from an exaggerated account thereof given to the chief Heke, he sent a message to say that he was willing to come and die with me. I wrote to him, assuring him that as I had done nothing against the laws of my country, I had nothing to fear; that the flag was my protection. I also suggested to him the propriety of writing to the Governor to solicit terms of peace. To this advice he attended, and on the third day I received a letter from him for the Governor. This letter I forwarded without delay, not unaccompanied with prayer for a blessing. I feel much for this chief. He has done wrong; he has been the means of much loss of life. But he was drawn into it by wicked men, who told him he had lost his country; that the flag flying in the harbour was a sufficient demonstration thereof; that the natives were all no better than slaves; and that their children would actually be so. This was enough. The information ran

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like wildfire, and the result has been most disastrous. He has been, during the time he took part in the warfare, a most magnanimous foe, and the military appear to have a great respect for him. I tremble in case the Governor should be inflexible, as, in that case, the war will be carried on. And as there is much sympathy for Heke, I fear many more will be added to his force, and much more blood shed, and, after all, the natives driven into the woods to become murderous bushrangers. Whereas, should peace be made, I think Heke and his party will be found faithful and loyal subjects of the Queen. Pray for us. With Christian regards to Mrs. Coleman, in which Mrs. Davis joins,--I remain, faithfully and affectionately yours,


September 15, 1845.

"MY VERY DEAR FRIEND, --A few days ago we had the pleasure of receiving your case containing your valuable presents of books and clothing, for which please to accept our best thanks. The Parker Society books I value much; they contain important matter suited to the perilous times in which we live. I have long desired to have them, and made an effort to procure them, but failed. Thank you sincerely for continuing to me the valuable Record paper. I have also to acknowledge your kindness in procuring the prime shoes and boots from the honest Ryde shoemaker. Such articles are of great importance to my wearing-out frame. Had it not been for the want of the shoes, we should have allowed the case to have re-

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mained for a time longer at Auckland, as our saddening war is not yet brought to an end. My last letter was closed August 4th. Since that period we have been permitted to remain in quiet. Everything has been done by us in order to bring about a peace. This has drawn upon us the vituperation of many of our dizzy-minded countrymen, by some of whom we are looked upon as traitors and enemies to our country. This comes as a matter of course, as they look no farther than to second causes, and must throw the blame of their failure somewhere. Whether we shall succeed in bringing about a reconciliation is at present uncertain, as the negotiation moves slowly. The troops are still at Waimate, and the natives have strongly fortified themselves in the woods in positions difficult of access to the military. I much lament the desecration of the Society's settlement at Waimate. I have lifted up my voice against it in Salisbury Square, and I hope that they will lift up their voice to the powers that be. As soon as the troops are drawn off, if peace be not made, we have reason to fear it will be destroyed. By this impolitic movement we shall probably lose much influence amongst the natives. But for missionary influence the Government would have had to contend with thousands instead of hundreds, and the result would have been most disastrous. Whatever you may hear against us, on this you may rely, that I have done nothing derogatory to my missionary character, nor to my character as a true Englishman and faithful subject to the Queen. I have felt as an Englishman. I have felt much for the loss of my brave countrymen; and since the fatal

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disaster at Ohaeawae, I have felt much for their safety. The, natives, I know, are capable of taking care of themselves. It was a happy thing for the troops, that they did not succeed in getting into the Pa. Had they accomplished their object, from the construction of the Pa the poor fellows must all have fallen. It was a sad sacrifice as it was of human life, and ought not to have been made. The Commander-in-chief had every opportunity of viewing the interior of the fort from the heights only about 500 yards distant. People's mouths were opened rather largely on the subject. The bravery of the poor fellows who made the attack was beyond all praise; but the wisdom of their commander has been questioned. To judge of this I leave to wiser heads than mine.

"Sept. 23d--Up to this time we have been permitted to live in quiet. This is the goodness of God upon us.

"We have had for about six weeks an epidemic amongst us which has lately assumed rather a malignant character. In the month of August I buried five of our little community. This month seven have already died, and others are in a dying state. The epidemic first made its appearance in a fever of a rather stubborn and unbending nature; latterly it has assumed a different form, and is accompanied with dysentery of a dangerous and putrid kind. I have now twenty patients on my hands. They take up my whole time in preparing and administering medicine, and feeding them with a little comfortable nourishment. I trust that those who have been removed have, the greater part of them, found mercy. The enemy is, however, very busy, and is now endeavouring to make them believe

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(some of them) that they are bewitched. In the strength of the Lord only do I seem to stand. I feel much the state of the mission. The enemy is on the alert in every quarter. I feel much the sad state of the natives. I feel fearful, and have much mental conflict against which to contend. How empty and vain every false way now appears! We must receive our religion SOLELY through the Bible; I say through the Bible, because the blessed book is sealed to all who are not under the teaching of the Holy Spirit. I feel to stand in the hour of trial, WE MUST BE BIBLE CHRISTIANS. The Jesuits are taking every advantage of the sad state of affairs; however, I judge them not. Some little time ago I received a letter from Heke, the leading chief in this sad affair, containing the following paragraph: 'Ye elders, cease to lead us astray; you have already been our very murderers. We already know a great deal, and shall soon know much more.' This was in answer to a letter which I had written to him to recommend a speedy reconciliation with the Government, and to press the necessity of a speedy repentance. He was probably alluding to the manner in which we represented the treaty to them, to induce them to sign it. I have received information on the subject of this paragraph of rather a different character, but at present I shall leave it with Him who judgeth righteously. We have no protection but that of God, and may we never desire any other. But, situated as we are, in order to possess peace we must know in whom we have believed. I feel at times very nervous; it makes me fearful lest I should betray any feeling calculated to dishonour the Gospel. How pre-

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cious would the company of a Christian brother be! But the Lord knows what is best for me. O that unbelief did not so much hinder me in endeavouring to do and suffer all the will of God! Alas! how strong rebellious unbelief is! I think the mercy next to our eternal salvation is that of being delivered from the power of rebellious unbelief. O for grace to enable us to glorify in life and death our faithful and covenant-keeping God! At this time there is indeed much wretchedness among our poor natives. In addition to the dire calamity of war, and the scourge of the epidemic, they are very poorly housed, having collected themselves together in a hurry, and they are worse clad than they have been for many years. Their abodes are indeed, for the most part, abodes of wretchedness. Many of them have, I fear, eaten all their food, as their numbers have been increased by those who have fled from the seat of war. I have made a little provision, but what is that little among so many! The fern root will soon be fit to dig, and then they will be able to rub on; but, poor things, they have no sea to which they can go and feed on fish. O how much everything is changed! What saddening havoc Satan has made amongst us!

"September 29th.--There is now, I hope, some prospect of peace. The natives are assembling in great numbers. If the war should be continued it will be dreadful, and will, I fear, soon become general. With our united and best love to Mrs. Coleman,--I remain, my dearest friend, affectionately yours,


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December 20, 1845.

"MY DEAREST FRIEND,--My health is again pretty good, but I still retain my deafness. Sorrow of heart may bring me down again, as I cannot but feel much saddened at the awful state of affairs. On the 18th my soul was pierced as with a dart by being informed that my Mangakahia accredited teacher had joined the wicked rebels. This he could only have done from relationship. This man has for years lived and walked as a Christian, as far as I could ever learn. In the beginning of the last year, when I visited them, I found him in what appeared a very gracious state. His eyes flowed with tears when he spoke of sin and of the love of Christ. Alas, how fallen! and how little to be depended on are these natives! It was but too evident to me the other day, that the chief and his people were under the influence of their native superstitions. They spoke of God with becoming reverence, and doubtless do not neglect their prayers, but they appeared entirely under the influence of the god of this world. We hear that some shots have already been exchanged between the contending parties, but this time we are fourteen or fifteen miles from the scene of action. It is our intention to remain at our post until we are driven away, or removed into eternity. The faithful few are worthy of our care. The Lord, who is our refuge and strength, will deliver us in proper time in His own way. I trust the Church is lifting up her prayer for us. The epidemic still prevails. Three persons have died this week. O that the eyes of the poor natives were but open to a sense of the nature of

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this visitation! But no; to my great grief I have this moment heard that seven of our people have made up their minds to go to the rebels, and join them in fighting. O how saddening is this to me! It is true they are people who make no profession of religion, although some of them have been baptized; yet when they are sitting quiet they are out of the way of danger and are in the way to get good.

"23d.--Judge of my feelings you cannot at this present moment. I have just heard from the Mangakahia chief that it is their intention all to move off to-morrow to join the rebels. I have done all I can to persuade him to give up his intention. I can only sigh and groan over the state of affairs. I have no Christian brother near, but I hope in that Friend that sticketh closer than a brother. O what a call, on my part, for humility and earnest prayer!

"29th.--Went to-day an hour and a half's walk to a high hill, from whence I could clearly distinguish the old chief's Pa. I saw the smoke from the mouth of the cannon as they were firing at the Pa. It is reported to be a very strong fort. I cannot but feel much for the poor troops.

"January 2d, 1846.--We have commenced this year under a very gloomy aspect. O for faith to rely upon God alone for protection! Every day much firing has been reported; yesterday, sharp fighting, doubtless, but we have not heard particulars. It is reported the troops fell back yesterday. It is a very anxious time. A vessel has been sent to Hokianga to take away such people as were afraid to stay. We have heard that some of our Wesleyan friends have sent their wives and children away to Auckland,

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which is, I fear, not very safe: in that neighbourhood the natives are fighting amongst themselves. How ill-advised are the proceedings of Government in the removal of Captain Fitzroy! He was a man the natives had begun to feel confidence in. Of the present Governor they are very jealous, and serious consequences may arise from the blind, injudicious step. Threats are reported to be held out against my people, because some few wild fellows, whom they endeavoured to keep at home, have joined the rebels. This has caused some excitement, and made me feel seriously. Not that I believe the reports, but they have a bad effect on the natives.

"I spent a little time with a very interesting Christian. His wife died during the time I was lying ill. She was much younger than he. They had two children. She appeared to be the joy of his heart, and at her death I trembled for him. But no; like the pliant willow, he bowed his head to the storm. This evening he observed, 'She is gone; she departed in peace. I shall follow by and by. Should an attack be made on us, I shall be thankful for the stroke which sends me from earth to heaven. All I wish for in this world is to have my heart filled with true faith and the love of God. O for more love to God!' This man is always cheerful, and always appears to have the love of God in his heart. But even over such characters I have been taught to rejoice with trembling.

"14th.--Yesterday the news came that the Pa was taken on Sunday by the sailors, and that twelve Europeans were killed and thirty wounded. The native loss uncertain. It

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appears the natives did not expect fighting on the Sabbath, and were, the great part of them, out of the Pa, smoking and playing. It is also reported that the troops were assembling for service. The tars, having made a tolerable breach with their cannon on Saturday, took the opportunity of the careless position of the natives, and went into the Pa, but did not get possession without much hard fighting, hand to hand. The news, although I felt thankful so little blood had been shed, unfitted me for reading, writing, and even for praying, for a time. From this you may judge how nervous I am become.

"January 22d.--For several days firing has been heard in the direction of Hokianga. The report is, that a Pa has been fired at by one of Her Majesty's ships, because the chief thereof would not give up some people who had just returned from fighting against the troops. This report has not yet been authenticated. The archdeacon and all of us are branded as traitors and rebels. The Last Day will declare who have been the traitors and rebels.

"HALLELUJAH! THE LORD GOD OMNIPOTENT REIGNETH. News is JUST COME that the natives have made peace among themselves, and that the loyal chief, Walker, is gone to Auckland to fetch the Governor. Messengers are gone in all directions to assemble all parties together. O for a thankful heart! O for a devoted heart! I cannot yet realize the change. It is like a dream. So sudden, and at this time so unexpected. At present I know not particulars.

"January 26th.--The natives are assembling in the Bay in order to settle a peace, but at present I have not been able

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to learn whether the Governor will consent or not. With the former Governor there would have been no difficulties, and we should have had communication on the subject. With the views of the present Governor I am at present unacquainted. I hope everything will be done by Christians in England to support Captain Fitzroy's cause against the wicked New Zealand Company. Here they have three things against him:--Firstly, That he was unfriendly, as every honest man must be, to the New Zealand Company; Secondly, That he was a friend to the natives; Thirdly, That he favoured the missionaries.

"Waimate, 27th.--Peace is proclaimed, but although I feel relieved, and am thankful, yet what I have this day heard of the manner in which the missionaries are traduced, grieves me to the heart. I know that the missionaries have been faithful to Government, and that as British subjects they have done all in their power, consistently with their relation to the natives, to serve their Sovereign. I think it is quite time that the missionaries, for the sake of the Church, should have recourse to legal proceedings. I think it must be so in this country. Those charges which were brought against me, I did not allow to rest until my character was cleared. With Christian love to Mrs. Coleman, in which Mrs. Davis and the whole of my family join,--I remain, my dear friend, faithfully and affectionately yours,


"Archdeacon H. Williams is unwell--no doubt from the vile reports in circulation."

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July 31, 1846.

"MY VERY DEAR FRIEND,--Since my last letter things in this quarter have been settling down, but very gradually. At the first proclamation of peace there was much jealous suspicion manifested, and we scarcely knew what a day might bring forth. But like the sea after a gale, although it runs high, yet it subsides, so tranquillity has been restored. As the Governor, when he came to the Bay to see the people in May, did not give the chief, Heke, notice of the meeting that he might attend, he still continues to express his disappointment, and will sometimes hardly believe the Governor has made peace with him. The Governor is now at Port Nicholson. The last account we heard from thence was, that the natives had attacked a party of troops, killed six of them, and mortally wounded two others. The loss on the side of the natives was not known. I fear much mischief may arise from that quarter.

"The return of peace we hailed with thankfulness, but alas! the ravages of war made on the minds of the natives soon turned our joy into sorrow. Alas, how fallen! Satan has taken every advantage of the war. The spirit of disregard manifested by the troops to the sanctity of the Lord's day has been imbibed by them; and progresses to an awful extent, I fear, when they have it in their power. On Easter Sunday the chief, Heke, had a bullock killed to feast his friends with, and the Sunday following was reported to have been spent in card-playing. Five years ago, the people would not allow even their food to be prepared for cooking on the Lord's day. A revival of their

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old superstitions has also taken place to a melancholy extent. These superstitions have assumed in some instances a new form, more calculated to deceive. The tattooing system is again in full vigour. And the Papists are doing all they can to make converts. Only last week I was told that a priest lately arrived from France had visited Heke with the present of a gown in his hand for his wife. During his stay, he made the following remark: 'John Heke, the Queen sent you the missionaries, the Queen sent the soldiers to destroy you, that is all I have to say.' This I conceive to be a true development of the genuine Jesuit. And yet these Popish priests can go anywhere, and at any time, and can say what they like, without any notice taken on the part of Government; while we are termed traitors on every trivial and false report that wicked people choose to make. Mr. Kemp is now under the displeasure of Government on account of false reports. But as to the truth of the accusation he is as innocent as you yourself. Mr. Clarke has been put out of office as Chief Protector of Aborigines. He was perhaps too faithful and too honest. May the Lord look with mercy upon this distracted country, and preserve it from ruin!

"My own people, who have continued with us, are, I hope, in a pleasing state. They are pretty regular in their attendance at prayer-meetings, of which we have two every week, and a meeting for imparting catechetical instruction to those who cannot read. I also meet a Testament class twice a week. These are the means which the Lord makes use of, next to His strengthening grace, to support me and keep me up amongst them. We have had

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one case of awful apostasy in one of my teachers. For many years he apparently walked according to the Gospel, appeared to be a zealous teacher, and a great disciplinarian. But he has fallen into sin. He has taken a second wife, and is now living in open sin with his two women, to the great disgrace of the Gospel. And it is reported that he has again returned to his native superstitions. For a long time I have been jealous of him, and cautioned him accordingly, but his devotedness too often lulled my suspicions. This case, with the awful wreck around me, at times fills me with fear and trembling, lest I should have been deceiving myself and others. How great is the responsibility of the missionary character! Who can be sufficient for these things? Alas, I fear we have done wrong! For I cannot but think, had we been more attentive to the spiritual state of our own souls, the Lord would have blessed us with a greater degree of discernment of spirits in the natives we admitted to baptism. But the mischief is done, and I would desire to repent in dust and ashes. O that we could catch, even but a little, of that flame that burned so bright in India a few years ago in the immortal Henry Martyn! How sweet is the first Collect, to my soul, in the Communion service! What a privilege to be enabled to love God perfectly! The memories of Brainerd and Martyn are among my richest jewels,--what gems, called jewels, can be compared in real value with them? How rich in fervour also are the letters of Whitefield! how refreshing to the soul! Hervey too,--what a host of worthies! They all breathed the love of God to man, because the life of God was in them. In their lives TRUE Christianity shone

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resplendently forth. Alas! how meagre is the religion of our day! Then Christ was exalted--now the Church. Doubtless you will remember that you supplied me with these precious gems while I was at Woodrow Farm. I always highly prized them, but never really enjoyed them so much as now.

"August 28th.--Still we are blessed with peace, but the enemy is more on the alert than usual. Heke has just returned from Hokianga, where he has been to see his friends. Poor fellow, amongst his countrymen, as a patriot, he has raised himself to the very pinnacle of honour, and is much respected wherever he goes. His mind has doubtless suffered much from this state of things, but I fear he has not much more to lose. Nothing of a hostile nature was made the subject of conversation during the assembly of the natives. But among the deep-thinking natives another war is foreboded. This foreboding arises from the impression of their minds. I told them, if they believed in these forebodings, and forsook the Lord, God would forsake them, and their expectations would soon be realized, as Satan would soon hurry them on to destruction. There is, I am aware, a quarter from whence war is to be feared. Some of Walker's party continue to hold Mawe against his consent, and against the proclamation of the Governor. This is very aggravating to Heke's party, and should they persist in retaining that place, it will be most likely to involve another war. May the Lord Jehovah avert the storm! My daughter Jane has just lost her second son, and our twentieth grandchild. The dear babe has been early transplanted from this bleak world to the climes of

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bliss. Happy change! Mrs. Davis, and Marella, and Sophia, join in Christian love to Mrs. Coleman and yourself.--I remain, my dear friend, faithfully and respectfully yours,


October 23, 1846.

"MY VERY DEAR FRIEND,--The case you mention of the young lady from Ventnor is interesting. The effect of the announcement of her approaching death by the Clifton physician, evinced her faith in, and her love to Christ. I fear such cases are rare, but they ought not to be. God has provided richly for the exercise of the faith of the believer. Surely if we KNEW the love of Christ, which passeth knowledge, we should, with St. Paul, desire to depart and to be with Christ. MUCH IN THESE DAYS IS SAID ABOUT THE CHURCH, THE MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST, BUT ABOUT CHRIST, THE MYSTICAL HEAD, VERY LITTLE IS SAID. MUCH IS SAID OF THE POWER OF THE CHURCH, BUT LITTLE IS SAID OF THE POWER OF THE SPIRIT. THESE ARE DAYS OF KNOWLEDGE, BUT IS IT KNOWLEDGE OF THE RIGHT KIND? Alas! no. O that all the ministers of Christ would impress upon their congregations the NECESSITY of knowing God, according as Christ has promised to reveal Him, John xiv. 21-23. O that they would impress upon their hearers the necessity of the witness of the Spirit, Rom. viii. 16, etc. O that they were more studious to open out to their people the blessed privileges of Christianity, such, for example, as 1 Cor. ii. 9, 10. There is also, as appears to me, another sad deficiency in the present system of preaching

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--namely, the power of the Gospel is not sufficiently insisted on. Too much allowance is made for what are termed constitutional failings. For instance, if a man, from quickness of temper, be betrayed into passion, it is spoken of as a constitutional failing, and Romans vii. 15 is resorted to, etc., as though the Gospel was deficient, and had lost its power to subdue the power of sin. I am quite convinced that the Gospel is not only the power of God, but that when its full power animates the regenerate heart, it ought to retain its soul-pacifying dominion. Yea, and that it will do. From these observations, you may learn the nature of my fears with regard to the nature of Christianity in this distant part of the world. I am rejoiced to learn that you consider vital Christianity is gaining ground in the higher classes of society. This is, I hope, a good omen.

"A few days ago I heard of the death of Mr. Coates. In him I have lost a faithful and tried friend. And what has not the cause of missions lost in him? He has ceased from his arduous labours. He has entered into rest; but I mourn his loss to the Christian church. I had but lately closed a letter to him. To him I always wrote in the greatest confidence, and his judgment never disappointed me. Dear, dear man! 'The chariot of Israel and the horsemen thereof!'

"Your letter arrived at an auspicious time. I had prepared to set out on a ten-miles' journey, when a person came and said, 'What! are you going out to-day? Have you not heard that a special messenger from the Governor has arrived at Heke's place to conclude and ratify the

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peace? Stay at home. Heke, Kaueti, and the Governor's messenger are on their way to meet Walker here, who is also expected to arrive to-day.' Of course I did not go. In the evening, Heke rode in to our place in full dress as a chief. He told me he had received satisfactory letters from the Government, and requested to be furnished with paper, pens, ink, etc., in order that he might answer the Governor's letters. On the 7th inst. Walker and a small party arrived. The meeting was very satisfactory to all parties. Thus has peace been once more restored to this distracted district. O that our hearts were but sufficiently thankful to God for these His great mercies. But alas! who can tell the extent of the evil occasioned by the war? Thereby our little disciplined parties are become a moral wilderness. Heke expresses himself as well as can be expected. But alas! I fear he has the blood of the slain on his head. He has begun to speak out with regard to those who led him into the evil. I believe a deep plot of a serious nature was laid, and that Heke was the tool or instrument selected. But although the case appears pretty clear, yet no doubt, it was laid with too much subtlety to lead to detection. The charm is, however, now broken.

"Previously to the receipt of this communication from the Governor, although there was no war, yet it could not be said there was peace. Very few days passed in which we did not hear jealous surmisings. And although I had confidence in my country that the proclamation of peace would not be causelessly broken, yet it would have been thought, perhaps by some of the loyal party, an advantage to them (not Walker) to have renewed the war, and which

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they might have done on a trifling occasion. I know Walker was very fearful on this point. Walker is a brave, generous man, and honest and open in all his dealings. Not so some of his followers.

"None can duly estimate the blessings of peace but those who have witnessed the exciting horrors of war. War converts man into a demon, and makes him a different creature from what he is in time of peace. But this peace thus restored is not a rose without a thorn. My son James came in with Walker to inform me that a formal complaint had been lodged against Mr. Burrows and myself by one of Walker's chiefs. The wicked man told the captain of H.M.'s ship, that there was a danger of war, and that I was likely to stir up Heke thereto, etc., etc. I heard the whole accusation rehearsed before Walker by the chief himself, and in the presence of the Governor's messenger. It was as false as it was wicked. Walker was very indignant. And the wicked man, in order to do us as much injury as possible, insisted that his report should be entered in writing, and this was done. What may be the consequence I know not. The cause is in the hands of God. At all events our names will appear to much disadvantage in the blue book hereafter. God knows, that during the whole of the war I did all I dared do in order to assist the Government in what I considered their righteous cause. I KNOW THEY WOULD HAVE HAD MANY MORE MUSKETS POINTED AT THEM, HAD IT NOT BEEN FOR MY INFLUENCE. For this I seek no commendation. In so doing I only did my duty as a Christian, and as an Englishman.

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"I hope when I next write I shall be able to give a more encouraging account of my people. The present state of my district saddens my heart very much, so at times as to affect my constitutional health. My hopes are a little raised by the peace. But I am fearful, as I know they are in a wild, wicked state. During the war I had a pretty good number of people with me whom I thought sincere, but several have withdrawn themselves from a regular attendance at public worship since the war, and some of the baptized young men have recently been tattooed. My communicants at Kaikohe stand firm, generally, and a few others, and these are growing in knowledge and grace. It was a mysterious providence which appointed us here at the outbreak of the war. Nothing could have been further from my wish than to have had to do with rebels against my country. I know the disaffection, which the bishop saw among the heathen chiefs here to Government, was one reason why he was so desirous to appoint me to this place. The trial has, indeed, been great, but I have no doubt it has been good for our souls' health. I have three congregations in a broken-up state by the war, and should not the Lord permit me to gather them again, I scarcely know how I shall bear up under it. I know that our dear Redeemer is faithful, and that He does all things well. And, I trust, He will bless me with grace to enable me to leave all things in His hands. But my case is not a common one. At Otava, particularly, where we had fifty communicants, and a simple-minded Christian people, they have scarcely now the form of religion amongst them, and there are scarcely six of the

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people of whom I have hope. At Taiamai it is nearly as bad. Hikurangi was never a promising place, but they have given up even the form of religion. My Mangakahia people have been much shaken, but I hope there is still good amongst them. On Sundays now, when my people do not attend service as they ought to do, it affects me, and brings on a pain in my chest. And should things continue as they are, my sorrows will not be likely to decrease. To live to the glory of God is all my desire, but, alas! the state of my people is a great affliction, and I tremble for myself lest I should not be found faithful. Sad as it is, I wish it was confined to my rebel natives. In all the natives who have taken part in the war, both loyal and rebel, there appears to be the same sad falling off, so deadly is the spirit of war in its evil effects upon all right and proper feeling. As few of the northern people joined in the war they are less affected, and, I trust, the Gospel is still prospering there. I am much pleased with the manner in which the Kaitaia settlement is conducted; it is a credit to the mission. Mrs. Davis and the children send their very kind regards to yourself and Mrs. Coleman. With my very kind regards to Mrs. Coleman,--I remain, faithfully and affectionately yours,


January 5, 1847.

"MY DEAR FRIEND,--Your letter of June 1846 I received a fortnight ago with much thankfulness. The contents thereof, and the subject to which they lead, continue to

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refresh my weary soul. The subject of the near approach of our Divine Redeemer to complete His conquest over sin, and finally to deliver His redeemed Church from all her enemies, is to me of great importance; I often speak of it to my people. I feel particularly thankful for the Table of Chronology. It is not long since that I was examining my Comprehensive Bible on this point, but I could not deduce anything therefrom that was to my satisfaction. From the different authors I have read, I learn there is much difference of opinion with regard to the age of the world. The term of 6000 years is, I consider, conclusive. And if we add, which I believe we may, forty-five years for Samuel's administration, your chronology brings us near the period when the kingdoms of this world shall become the kingdoms of our God and His Christ. But whether the chronology be correct or not, the signs of the times proclaim the Saviour's near approach. From the rapidity with which the latter prophecies have been fulfilled within these last few years, and from the manner in which God seems to be preparing His Church for her final conflict, I think the redeemed are warranted to look up and rejoice that the day of their redemption draweth near. As this subject has been one of consolation to me at times, ever since I have been in this country, I shall thankfully receive Elliot on the Apocalypse, read, and study it with care. I am now beginning to look forward with pleasure to the arrival of the books, but I am truly ashamed to be so much expense and trouble to you. I have not left a stone unturned to procure the publications of the Parker Society. Had it not been for your kindness, I should have

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failed in my object. I shall consider the whole as a rich prize. I trust the reprint of these works is among the other dispensations of mercy towards the Church, to prepare and assist her in her growing and accumulating trials. I am astonished at the rapid progress Popery is making in England. But we know what Popery is, and from a knowledge of prophecy, were prepared to expect this last effort of the Man of Sin. But, alas, that there should be a Popery of a more insidious and deadly nature in our own Church! Popery might have slain its tens, but I believe Tractarianism has slain its hundreds. Had it not been for Tractarianism, Popery would not have procured that footing in England and in her colonies which she at present possesses. It is with satisfaction I learn from the Times of June 2d, which you were so good as to send me, of the annihilation of the New Zealand Company. It has, however, done its work. It has effected a deadly purpose. Its effects are a scourge to this country. To the proceedings of that Company many of the existing, and, I fear, still impending evils, may be traced. But even here we must bow to the sovereign power of Heaven, who orders all things according to the counsel of His own will. Doubtless there were many belonging to that Company who had brought themselves to believe that they were actually benefiting the natives by their measures. And to the ear of an Englishman ignorant of the native state and character, there was much that sounded plausible. But those measures could not be made to work. Captain Hobson saw the difficulties, and felt them. Captain Fitzroy saw and felt much more, and to his wise forbearance and judicious proceeding may

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be attributed the present existence of the colonists. Had he acted as he was wished and requested, Wellington would have long ago ceased to exist but as matter of history. Yet such was the blind infatuation of the people, that instead of acknowledging the wisdom and kindness of him to whose wisdom and prudence, under God, they owe their lives,--they burnt him in effigy!!! Governor Grey has done what they wished Governor Fitzroy to undertake. And why? Governor Grey has a force, Governor Fitzroy had none. I trust the colonists have now seen enough of war. They waged it themselves. A breach has been made. But who can tell when it will be healed, or at what price? there is some reason to fear awful consequences. May the Lord avert them!

"With us there is a restlessness among the natives, which augurs an uneasiness of mind and apprehension. This is apparently occasioned by the seizure of the chief Rauparaha. This is reported to have been done by Government, while he was quietly sleeping in his Pa. No doubt he was a bad, murderous-minded man. But I fear the measure may prove impolitic. It is currently reported among the natives that he has been hung. This I have flatly contradicted. But they say, 'You do not know. His death is kept a secret to keep us quiet' I am aware that British law brought to bear upon the natives, as enacted by Captain Fitzroy, would be a great and salutary blessing. But I fear the suspicions of the natives are too much awake at present to allow of the measure, unless enforced by ten or fifteen thousand troops. From this you may judge of the state of the mission. I had hoped that

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peace being established we should have seen better days, but all is uncertain. Sometimes my hopes are a little raised. Then fear prevails. The enemy thus keeps the late fighting party in a continual state of excitement, so as to leave them little opportunity for better thoughts. My own few natives continue steadfast, and I trust are progressing towards a better world. They still retain something of the former simplicity, when they did not allow even their potatoes to be prepared on the Sabbath for cooking. From Mangakahia we have also pleasing accounts, which district I hope to visit in a few days. Heke is at present in the Bay on a visit to the loyal party. He has a considerable force with him, all armed. I expostulated with him against going armed, but without effect. He was evidently afraid of being taken as Rauparaha was. I believe he had no evil intention in going, but I am sorry to learn that the Europeans are much alarmed. I shall not close my letter until he returns. Heke is a turbulent, uneasy-minded, proud man. I fear we have little reason to expect much peace while he is alive.

"January 8th.--I am sorely grieved to learn that Heke is engaged in removing the dead. This looks bad. Alas, alas, the mission! Walker is on the look out, but he has no force with him, and the 200 troops are cooped up in a part of the Bay so as to render him no assistance, should anything happen. O for a stronger faith in the sovereignty of God!

"'February 4th.--While Heke was in the Bay the Governor arrived. He was invited on board the steamer,

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but he would not go. He was afraid of being made a prisoner. Nor would the Governor go on shore to see him. On his return Heke brought with him, it is reported, as many as three canoe loads of dead bodies and bones, and deposited them with the bones of their ancestors. This circumstance, together with a movement of a party of the Bay natives into the interior to clear land, lead me to expect that they may be about to come inland to take up their residence. This must ultimately take place, if it does not now. They are clearing land about seven or eight miles to the south of us. I do not at present perceive any movement on the part of the natives which would lead me to think they meditate further hostilities. But, alas, there is no visible improvement in their Christian state! I have lately returned from Mangakahia. At that place the Gospel has so far broken fresh ground, that a chief and his party have professed Christianity. The chief himself appeared particularly in earnest. The result is with God. May fruit be ultimately produced to His glory! My old natives on that river (the place, or rather valley, takes its name from the river) appear to retain some of their former simplicity, and I was thankful to find them in their present state, although much weakness was manifested. The Government appears to be jealous of us missionaries in this district, and we suffer persecution from them. But hitherto an hair of our heads has not been allowed to fall to the ground. Of this I am conscious, that from the commencement of the war I have done my best both for the Government and for the colonists. May the Lord make us faithful! We are indeed spectacles both

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to angels and men. Among the latter, we have but very few friends in this country. May we prove worthy of the friendship of the former (Ps. xxxiv. 7; Heb. xii. 22). Mrs. Davis and the children join with me in Christian love to Mrs. Coleman and yourself.--I remain, my dear friend, faithfully and affectionately yours,


May 1, 1847.

"MY VERY DEAR FRIEND,--On the arrival of your case I felt in a strait about a place of worship, and was contemplating enlarging the schoolroom for that purpose. But to this I felt a serious objection, in consequence of the continuance of the school under the same roof in which God was worshipped. But when we found we had nothing to pay for so many valuable things, the question was decided. I called my people together, and told them, as but few of them could saw timber, I would pay the sawyers for sawing the timber, if they would procure shingles for a covering, and erect the building. To this they readily and thankfully agreed, as they wished to reserve the present building as a school-house, to have the use of it for prayer, Scripture-reading, and other catechetical meetings. The new building will be forty-four feet long, about twenty-two feet wide, and twelve feet high, with small Gothic windows. We have already much of the timber sawn. Besides my own personal labour, and that of my sons (as I intend to procure their services, and that of their team), the building may cost me £60,

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some part of which I hope to procure from my friends in this country, as I do not wish to apply to the Society for any advance from their sacred fund on the occasion; nor do I intend to apply to any of my friends until the building shall be nearly or quite finished. Please to thank for us all our unknown friends, and let them know that their kind donations will be applied to more exclusively missionary purposes than they had intended them.

"The account of the number of your communicants is very interesting. Your sphere of usefulness appears to be much extended, and, what is better than all, your labours much blessed. We are brought very low. The enemy has been permitted to make sad havoc amongst us. With very few exceptions, those natives who joined in the war continue in a dead, confused state. They do not give up the idea of returning to the Church, but the enemy still holds them in bonds. The morals of the loyal natives have apparently suffered more than those of the rebels, as they have been brought more under the demoralizing influence of Europeans. We have here and there a bright spot, from whence we may hope light may radiate and again illuminate our dark horizon. We have been blessed with the former, and may we be worthy in Christ to receive the latter rain, for the eternal benefit of our poor despised people. From the line of policy pursued by Governor Grey, we have not much reason to expect any thing very friendly from him. He seems to be under the influence of those who are at the head of the New Zealand Company. The manner in which he has already treated us amounts to injustice, if not to persecution. If we are

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persecuted, I hope it will be without a just cause. Such persecution will not fail to bring with it a blessing. My spirits are often much depressed at the state of the mission.

O for more grace to humble myself under His almighty hand! O for a more simple faith in Christ! There is, I fear, a storm gathering against us.

"Rangihaiata has again been doing mischief at Port Nelson. He has stripped a whaling station of property to a considerable amount,--report says £500. With this exception the country is generally quiet. Archdeacon W. Williams has just returned from an extensive tour in the district of Port Nicholson or Wellington. His account of the state of the natives is encouraging. He tells me, in a letter just come to hand, that he was received kindly at all places, and attention paid to his preaching; that evident improvement had taken place at Ahuriri, where Mr. Colenso is, and at Wairoa, where Mr. Hamlin is.

"How truly alarming is the state of priest-ridden Ireland. How very superior our poor despised natives are when compared with the lower orders of that country. I certainly read in the newspapers of measures, not to say anything of their cold-blooded murders, far more savage and barbarous than I ever witnessed in this country. Here, too, is a great scarcity of food, as the potato crop was lost, and the Indian corn did not come to anything from the long and serious drought. But the natives do not despond. They are always lively. My sawyers tell me they cannot go on much longer with the work, as their food is done. They are now sowing wheat extensively, and are beginning again to talk of a mill. They prepare their wheat by

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boiling it in lye. This process takes off the bran. They then put it in fresh water and cook it, and it has the appearance of superior rice, and makes a good and nutritious food. But many of the poor creatures have only the spontaneous produce of their country to depend upon during the whole of the winter. This does very well when there is no sickness; but when sickness comes in the time of scarcity, they have not strength to grapple with it, and numbers are removed to another world. I fear much for them during the winter we are now soon to enter upon.

"I feel the removal of Mr. Coates very much, and more recently Mr. Northover has been taken. The excellency of Mr. Coates was known to many. The excellency of Mr. Northover was known to few. They did conjointly the business of that great Society. They were long together in their lives, and in their deaths they were not long divided. I know not one personally of those directing the affairs of the Society. There is now no one to whom I can write in confidence. My wife and children join with me in respectful Christian affection to Mrs. Coleman and yourself.--I remain, my very dear friend, respectfully and affectionately yours,


June 15th, 1847.

"MY EVER DEAR FRIEND,--From my last letter you would infer that we were expecting to have some trouble with the Colonial Government. Those expectations were, that the Governor intended to resume our lands, by declaring the title-deeds thereto, granted us by the late Governor,

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illegal. With regard to myself, I feel that I did what was just and right in providing as I did for my dear children. My purchases did not exceed what I considered necessary for an estate on which my children could commence, and from thence branch off as opportunities may offer. Every circumstance connected with this purchase, its nature, extent, and capabilities were made known and brought under investigation in Salisbury Square, and I received the thanks and the approbation of the Society, both in their public letter, and in a private letter from my dear departed friend Mr. Coates. So that whatever is done or said on this subject, I feel I have a clear conscience. 2d, That the Governor designed to accuse us of being the instigators of the war. This grave and serious but untenable charge is grounded on the fact, that I was the first purchaser of land at Waimate. It is true I purchased the land, but as agent of the Church Missionary Society, and made use of it solely for the objects of the Society. It is doubtless also true, that this purchase of land set the natives upon selling other lands. But if so grave a charge is to be brought against us, and represented to the world, nay, recorded, it is manifest that causes for accusation against us are rare, or a charge so groundless and so untenable would not be resorted to. I learnt the foregoing from a gentleman who heard it from the Governor, and I feel it is due to you, that you should be made acquainted with it. I should not have written now on the subject, had it not been for the following information yesterday from the Bay: 'News just arrived in the Bay from Sydney. Troops on their way. All lands to be seized, except those por-

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tions actually under cultivation by the natives. All is to he taken at the point of the bayonet. News from the south bad. The troops and settlers besieged at Wanganui by the aborigines, and confined to a stockade, having only the sea open to them. Fears are entertained for Taranaki (New Plymouth). The Sydney news was not confirmed though spread abroad.' The outbreak at Wanganui is in consequence of some people who were hung for a most cold-blooded murder, of which you will doubtless have heard more particulars than I have it in my power to give from the public papers. The news from Sydney is also of a still more serious nature, if true, as the blessing of peace will be banished from the island, our usefulness brought to an end, and much blood be made to flow. Even the thought is to me a severe stroke. Should not the Lord be pleased in mercy to support me from heaven, to witness the destruction of the poor natives will probably break my heart. And for this reason I write to you while I am able. My spirits are very much depressed. Last week I saw Heke, and was refreshed from his conversation, and hope once more seemed to blossom in my breast. He told me it was his desire to seek after God, that he had made the proposal to the people in the neighbourhood that they should all assemble at one place, which he said he had selected and cleared, build houses, live together, and erect a chapel, and attend it. These proposals he said he had made, and that it was his purposed determination to leave them if they would not agree to his proposals. I also visited another place last week, when I fell in with some of my old Waimate friends, who, although they did not

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join in the war at first, ultimately joined therein, and involved themselves. When I spoke to them about their having again public worship, a chief observed, 'What can such sinners as we are do? we have the blood of war on our feet. We can do nothing unless some person should come and tell us there is forgiveness for us.' I spoke to them, and told them prayer would commence that day,-- that they must commence public worship on Sunday. This I hope they did. There are also other circumstances which have led me to hope that the Lord would return to us with a blessing. This appearance of things has been as health to my bones, and I was enabled to walk twenty miles a day without much fatigue. But alas! what a change appears at present to be likely to take place! The present report is like a sword through my bones. I shall keep my letter open for a few days until further accounts may come to hand.

"June 19th.--Nothing fresh has come to hand, but the natives have heard reports, although they are not yet acquainted with the whole in circulation among the white people. They appear jealous. I hope the Lord is making this circumstance a refining furnace for my soul. I feel much drawn out after the natives, and at times my heart bleeds when I consider the precious opportunities which have passed away. The wound is deep, and nothing but the leaves of that tree which is for the healing of the nations can heal it. These, I hope, have been applied by the Divine hand. God has been gracious to me. Should you have more books for me, please not to send them until you hear from me again. I have been made to fear that,

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should the reports be true, and war become general, we shall lose all. May the Lord enable me to say, 'Thy will be done!' I set but little value on other things, BUT ON MY BOOKS I SET A GREAT VALUE. My nervous system was, it appears, broken down during the war, and it is, I fear, but too probable that it will never be recovered. When I reflect on that awful period, and the sad scenes which daily passed before my eyes, I am led to wonder how we got through it. Surely the goodness of God alone supported us. Now when I walk over the ground, sometimes I almost start from fear. The reconciled presence of the ever blessed God, and communion with him in Christ, are my only support, and I need no other. All will be well in His good time, who orders all things both in heaven and earth. Pray for us, my dearly beloved friends, that we faint not in the day of trial, that we may then be faithful, that we dishonour not His blessed cause. While there is time and opportunity it is my wish to be diligent. Our little day-school, kept by Marella and Sophia, is some comfort to me. In this department we have had much to try our patience. Many children came for a time and went away. We have now about twenty who have been regular for some time, and are, I hope, likely to continue, as they are for the most part children of parents who are seeking salvation for themselves. This they cannot do aright apart from seeking as far as they can salvation for their children also. Ten of these children can read in the Scriptures. They can sew pretty well, both boys and girls. They know something of addition and writing. They know the Church Catechism well, and are now learning a

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catechism of Scripture names, and Stillingfleet's explanation of the Church Catechism, which my son James has translated for us. In this way, I hope and pray to be able to proceed, until the wheels of life stand still. My dear wife and children unite with me in Christian love to Mrs. Coleman and yourself.--I remain, my dearest friend, faithfully and affectionately yours,


October 19, 1847.

"MY VERY DEAR SIR,--When I last wrote it was under much depression of spirits, occasioned by the report of instructions having been received by the Governor to take possession of all lands not in immediate cultivation by the natives. Whatever those instructions were, they have been so far kept private, that the natives are not fully acquainted with them. To make them known and attempt to carry them out, would be the destruction of the colony. The natives here are again in a state of suspicion. They appear to be aware of the ultimate design of Government to take their country, and are jealous of every movement. The Governor is now wishing to form a settlement or township in the vicinity of Keri Keri, and applied to Mr. Kemp and myself, who hold some land in trust for seven of the mission families in that neighbourhood. We gave our consent as trustees, if the parties concerned gave their consent also. The natives, of course, formed one of the parties. The second day after I received the following letter from Heke the chief:--

"'To the Elder.--There is a word from me to you,

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to you all. It will be for you to send it to Mr. Kemp and to Mr. Williams, that they may come to Waimate in order that I may learn your views, and that you may know mine. Soon our words will be divided, as well, as our bodies, and my love removed from off you, and yours perhaps from me, perhaps not. Yes, it will, because you have agreed that soldiers shall be settled at Kahikatea, at the Waterfall, at Keri Keri, at the Wiringatau, at Putoetoe, at Waimate bridge, and in Waimate valley. This is good. But what of us? Must we fly? Yes, we must fly like stars.' (As the country would thus be full of settlers, he meant there would be no road for them to go to the Bay.) 'When this letter reaches you, be quick to send to Mr. Burrows, that he may send to Paihia and to Keri Keri. Be quick. If this day had been fine I should have moved to-day. If to-morrow is fine, I shall move to-morrow. Here endeth my love to the world, and also to the straightness of the spiritual word. We will go together to Waimate.
(Signed) 'From HEKE POKAI of Toutoro.'

"The day following I set off to Waimate to fetch Mrs. Butt (Serena), whom the bishop had kindly brought from Nelson, with her children, to see us. On the road I looked back, and saw a party of natives drawing near to the house. I returned, and found it was Heke. He had about forty men with him, but not armed. He was respectful, but appeared close. I told him I had agreed to the Governor's proposal for the township, if the parties concerned agreed also, of which the natives was one,; and that I thought the

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town would open a sale for the produce of the country. 'That it may do,' he replied, 'but what will it open besides? It will let in all kinds of wickedness. We shall have no road to the sea. Thieving will be introduced, our wives and daughters abused, and you will have no followers. The Governor wishes to possess himself of the country. This township is only preparatory thereto, and I shall oppose it,' etc. etc. I said all I possibly could in favour of the Governor, and reminded him that he had hitherto done nothing to lead them to think he was their enemy. He asked me if we had not received a letter from the head of the Church in England. I told him we had received a letter from our fathers, to inform us that they had put our land question into the hands of the Governor and Bishop, and that they must say how much we were to hold, and that I had heard that it was the Governor's intention to return the surplus lands to them, which certainly was a mark of his goodwill towards them. He replied, 'None of the lands could be received back; and that while the Governor was quarrelling with us, it was not likely he would be at peace with them.' After this conversation I went to Waimate, with a wounded mind and heavy heart. On the following day, the 9th instant, I saw Heke and party in company with Mr. Kemp. From the manner in which he questioned Mr. Kemp, it was very evident that he was pretty well acquainted with Government measures, and with the gossip of the Bay of Islands, which is abundant in falsehood and slander of various kinds. After going over what he said yesterday, he said, 'The lands which had been made sacred to our children must

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remain so; they must not pass into other hands. Now they and the children had things in common. The children went on their lands, and the natives on theirs. If they passed into other hands, they, the natives, should not be able to walk or sit on them without walking or sitting on needles, and if they went to get firewood their hands would be tied.' He was told, that our fathers had heard that blood was likely to be shed about those lands, and that they requested they may be given up. 'That no blood should be shed,' he replied, 'was good, but the lands could not be received back.' What a flat contradiction to the despatch of June 1846! He was requested by me to receive any lands quietly back that the Governor may offer him. Heke is evidently under the impression that it is the intention of Government to take possession of the country. He says it is not his wish to commence another war with the English, but if the Governor opens the bottomless pit by commencing a war to possess their lands, they shall only give them up with their lives. This chief professes friendship for the missionaries, but I have no opinion of him as a Christian, nor are his proceedings calculated to benefit his country or people. With the exception of Walker's party, which is but small, the whole of the tribes around pay him profound respect, and in a great measure his word is their law. He is a shrewd man, and possesses a degree of sense, but he does not make a good use thereof, as he spends apparently the greater part of his time in card-playing, or other childish games. All opportunities I have visited his place to watch any opening which may occur, to try what I could do to re-establish

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worship. So that when any one of them is ill, I make a point of visiting him. But alas! every effort has hitherto fallen to the ground. Not that they live without the form of godliness, for I believe they have sometimes daily prayers, and I believe Heke does all he can to suppress immorality; yet they are living without hope and without God in the world. Therefore the country has nothing to hope for from such a character, but much to fear, as his influence is great. To me he is very respectful, and I have no doubt but his respect is at present genuine; but he builds too low who builds below the skies.

"November 3, 1847.--My heart is pained in consequence of the unsettled state of the land question. The position taken by the Governor is most extraordinary. He has written to the Society to recommend our removal from the North, because he considers we are likely to stir the natives up to war!!! But He, to whom all hearts are open, knows how opposite all our thoughts and desires are to such wickedness. Much has been done to injure our reputation with the world, and our interest with the natives. But when this affliction has done its work it will be removed. I have put my case now into the hands of the bishop. Years ago I put it into the hands of the Society, received their thanks for so doing in a public letter, and a private letter from the late secretary, exonerating me from blame; nevertheless, I feel the cause of missions calls me again to submission. With regard to the proceedings of the Governor, they now amount to actual and serious persecution. O that we may be worthy of it! O for more of the Spirit of Christ! O for more

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love both to God and man! Although much distressed at times, even to anguish of heart, yet the Lord at other times comforts me with a sense of His mercy.

"Some few of my natives give me comfort by the consistency of their lives and their separation from the world. If I can only lead these few on I shall be thankful, but not contented. I think I can now see the goodness of God in pouring out a convincing spirit upon them three years ago. If this had not been the case, humanly speaking, I should have been left alone in the midst of the rebels. My meetings with these few are frequent, and growingly interesting, and I trust nothing but death will separate me from them. For the natives generally, as a people, I have no hope. They do not exert themselves to meet the exigencies of circumstances. A European population of magnitude is starting into existence around them and amongst them, and their diligence is not stirred up to compete with them. The natives have the advantage, as they are masters of the soil, and have all the resources of their country at command; but they do not appear desirous of anything but to retain their nationality, and hold possession of the soil, which, while possessing, they do not use. This, however, does not alter or in any way affect the cupidity of the New Zealand Company to possess themselves of their soil, and this Company is now, it appears, in high authority, which accounts in a measure for the heavy hand of oppression which is laid upon us. The Church Missionary Society, and its missionaries, have justly opposed the proceedings of that Company, and with considerable effect, from time to time, during the administration of the former

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Government. The Company is now in power, and we are to be the victims; but the Lord reigneth. It is a great and bitter trial. Death sometimes appears in the pot, but the heavenly Prophet interposes His healing power, and the nauseous draught becomes a strengthening tonic. His presence gives life and restores peace. My soul longs for rest and perfect deliverance, but this is wrong. O for grace to take up the cross daily! I have not yet found a person out of my own family who appears to agree with me in the course I am pursuing with regard to the settlement of my land claims with the present Governor.

"My son-in-law, Mr. Butt, was admitted to priest's orders in September last, and has now for a short time the pastoral charge of New Plymouth. This he will retain until the Bishop takes back his wife and family, when he will again return to his pastoral charge at Nelson, on the second island. Serena has three children. Mrs. Davis and the children join with me in Christian love and respect to yourself and Mrs. Coleman, as does also Mrs. Butt, with many thanks for your kind remembrance of her. -- I remain, my dearest friend, with much respect and affection, sincerely yours,


17th March 1848.

"MY VERY DEAR FRIEND,--In former letters I have acknowledged with gratitude the receipt of the box with its contents to which you allude, and have also given my opinion on the Second Advent, as you kindly requested. Yes, my dear sir, any remark or illustration of God's Word,

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which seems to reveal the near approach of the Saviour to complete finally His work of redemption and restoration, is received by me with almost inconceivable gratitude and pleasure. Alas! who can view without pain of heart, not only the reigning, but the raging power of sin? Bad as it is in England, it is worse in her colonies. The stream of immorality, which commenced to flow many years ago, from the intercourse of the natives with the shipping, has now, by colonization, become enlarged, and possesses a strong and overwhelming current, which will soon annihilate the native tribes. How often is the question asked, How is it that all savage tribes fall and become annihilated before civilisation? The question is natural enough in the mouths of those who are ignorant of the real state of things. But let only the question be put in its true and legitimate form, and it is easily answered. How is it that all savage and barbarous tribes fall and become annihilated before demoralization, or rather, more properly speaking, before the deadly immorality introduced amongst them by those who are called civilized beings? This is the TRUE way of stating the question, and it conveys its own answer. This country has already suffered much, and if the people have decreased in the same proportion generally, it is very probable, if twenty years ago the island contained 100,000 native inhabitants, that it does not now contain more than 50,000. And if the aborigines decreased so fast when the stream of immorality was comparatively small, what may we not now expect when it is so much enlarged? Awful thought! IN TWENTY YEARS, I FEAR, BUT FEW OF THE NATIVE RACE WILL BE FOUND ON THE ISLAND. The

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Gospel alone must stem the torrent and preserve the natives, but alas! feeble are the means and weak the efforts made to effect so great an object. And viewing things among us in this light, you can, my dear sir, easily believe, that the least sound of the approach of the triumphant Saviour is by me listened to with delight.

"The darkness increases, and the gloom thickens around us. Heke, the chief, is an unprincipled man, and is likely to prove our greatest enemy. He is, however, I am thankful to say, at peace with Government, and will, according to the present appearance of things, prove a useful tool in the hands of those who are doing all they can to load us with the odium of all the wickedness of the late war. Heke was always an enemy to all that was good, although at times, particularly during the war, or in his other quarrels with the Government, he appeared more friendly. And why? because, by falsely using our names, he could gain influence among the natives generally. The glaring falsehoods he coined against us during the war were of the most abominable nature, and calculated to cause us to be very justly suspected by the Government. My mind is deeply wounded with the state of affairs, and it is only the hand of God that can support me. A little time ago, that grief which has slain its thousands was bringing me down, and would have soon laid me low; but the Lord supported me, so that I again feel better. To insure the favour and protection and guidance of God, we must be, in Christ, literal and Bible Christians; we must shun all that is doubtful.

"My district, which contains altogether only between seven and eight hundred people at present, was never in

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some parts so wicked, nor in other parts more truly promising, than at present. I have lately visited Mangakahia, when I was out a fortnight. There the believers are, I hope, growing in grace, and the Gospel is progressing around them. The principal chief and his party have, within the last year, come over to them. This is a great encouragement to them. On the 20th ult. I never had so long and arduous a duty to perform. Before the services, between the services, and after the services, and in the evening, while the beautiful full moon was the only light in the chapel, I was engaged. As soon as I closed with them I went to bed in my tent, which was in their Pa, and had soon the pleasure of hearing the different parties singing and praying around me, to close the day with God. The chief lately come over is anxious for baptism. He is, I believe, truly sincere, but too ignorant at present to be received. The Christian party seems to be growing in gracious and tender feelings. They appear to be fearful of doing wrong, lest they may bring dishonour on the cause which they profess. They will not allow any of their native customs to be introduced among them, and send from among them those who continue obstinate in sinning. The chief lately come over is following them in the same rigid discipline, and has already sent away from him some young men who persevered in having their faces tattooed. They have also a man set apart as a teacher, to take care of their children. At Mataiawa, a place within ten miles of Kaikohe, there is, I hope, some new movement. A chief and his wife have been candidates for baptism for some time. I was there a fortnight ago. The chief was very anxious.

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After speaking of Christ and salvation, I asked if hoereally felt a great desire after Christ. He replied, 'Look at that mountain' (which was within a mile of us); 'look how it is covered with rock. Equally large is my heart after Christ.' He remarked, 'If you continue to persevere at this place, all will soon come over. The old chief, Huarahi, has already come over.' Here, at Kaikohe, I trust the work of the Spirit is becoming more and more visible, in a holy and more decided determination to live only according to the Gospel; and in teaching and preaching I seem to have light and knowledge given me. At the respective places where the Sacrament has been lately administered, namely, at Mangakahia and Kaikohe, we had ninety-eight communicants -- thirty-seven at the former, and sixty-one at the latter place. Our day-school, of upwards of twenty scholars, would be in pleasing progress, were it not for the chief and his wicked party of young men, who appear to watch the growth of every girl until they will suit their purpose. This is a great affliction, but we must labour under it as long as we can. The rod of the wicked may not always be permitted to rest thus upon us. My heart often sighs out the prayer, 'Come, Lord Jesus, come quickly.'

"By the time this reaches you, great changes may have taken place amongst us. Pray for us (2 Thess. iii. 1, 2). We have indeed unreasonable men to deal with; yes, an unreasonable, unprincipled, deep, designing man, who is scarcely delivered from savage barbarity, and who is still held fast and bound by the chains of their old superstition. Heke's proceedings have been for years as a sword in my

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bones, but from the close of the war up to within the last month he allowed me to remain in quiet. But as soon as ever he began again to mingle with other Europeans, he has recommenced his persecutions. Oh, how is that missionary privileged whose chief is a Christian, or even a man of principle! Doubtless these afflictions are necessary for me, or they would not be allowed to exist. He commenced his present proceedings by abusing my poor wife, during my absence at Mangakahia, because she very justly objected to his riding my horse during my absence, although she felt afterwards obliged to give up the horse to him. During his friendly profession, I frequently expressed my sorrow of heart in consequence of the endeavours which were being made to fix the whole odium of the war on the missionaries; but he treated it with contempt, and when he mentioned it last he said, 'In a public meeting you can be easily cleared from this.' Now he has taken the same view, and said the other week at Waimate, 'Davis himself was the root of all the evil. He came to the country with his horses and ploughs, bought land, ploughed it up, sowed wheat, etc.; and when other people saw the value of the land, they bought also. From thence arose the evil.' Surely we may as well say that the sea is an evil, through which we have commerce with all nations, because ships sink, and are lost in its waters; or that fresh water, which is a staff of life, is an evil, because people have been drowned in it. But I must leave those things with Him that judgeth righteously. O for faith to he enabled to recline, during the fury of the bursting of the storm, on the Rock of Ages! O how sweet would the

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counsel of a truly spiritual friend be at this time! but of such I have none. Mrs. Davis and my dear children send their best love to you and Mrs. Coleman, and please to receive the same from me.--My dearest friend, ever affectionately and respectfully yours,


"KAIKOHE, 1st April 1849.

"MY DEAR CHARLES,--On my first arrival in this country, the natives were savages in every sense of the word. You cannot be aware how lavish savages are of human life. One old chief, who formerly lived at Waimate, was in the habit of having slaves killed for the purpose of food. How changed the scene! To God be all the glory. On the day I received your letter, I visited a party of Christian natives in their Pa. A messenger brought a letter from this old chief, while I was there, to this effect:--'My children, you behaved well in the last affair. Your cause is just. Had you been the aggressors, I should not have respected you. I have heard the threats against you. Fear not. We shall assist you. But listen to my advice, and do as I wish you. When the hostile party come, remain quiet. First give the hostile chief the Word of Life. My children, let him throw the first stone, yea, the second stone, before you attempt self-defence. Trust not in your guns, Look only to God. Pray constantly and believingly to Him for protection.' This change has not been partial, but universal throughout New Zealand. All the natives have not been brought under the saving influences of the Gospel. Some still adhere to their old superstitions; but I know not a

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tribe, whereof individuals have not turned to God. In some the knowledge of Divine things is shallow. We have waited for the outpouring of the Spirit to deepen the work of grace in their hearts. This, blessed be God, I have lived to see.

"The Lord has graciously preserved us through the war, whereby my wife and myself have been severely tried, and our nerves and constitutions have been greatly affected. Previously the mission cause resembled a stately ship in full sail to the heavenly port. The gale of war arose right ahead. Her progress was impeded. The sea ran high. Many seas were shipped. All the lights were extinguished. But she held her course, because the gates of hell could not prevail against her. The gale ceased; the weather cleared. But one-third of her crew alone remained. This filled our hearts with sorrow and sadness. We are now in a more healthy state, and are again making progress with humility and caution. The gloom since the fatal storm has been dense; but a beam from the Sun of Righteousness illumines our darkness. May we hail with humble gratitude this returning mercy! The war has drawn a distinct line of demarcation between the children of God and the children of the world, and has separated the wheat from the chaff.

"English Christians cannot realize the state and feelings of Christian New Zealanders. In happy England, children are taught to lisp the Saviour's name. Principles of conscience are impressed on the infant mind; and a fear of sin is imparted, which can seldom be quite obliterated, even by the most hardened. When God speaks to the soul in

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the still small voice of His love, or in awful denunciations from Sinai, the return of the sinner, who has been thus early instructed, is comparatively easy. Olden lessons are recollected; former impressions are revived; and the lamp of hope in Christ is lighted up. Not so the New Zealander. Only lately have the Maoris consented to send their children to our schools. Born in sin, and early initiated in all the barbarous superstitions of their savage forefathers, when brought to the knowledge of the truth, they possess no youthful instructions to enlighten and inform their minds; and Satan endeavours to revive and strengthen the pernicious lessons of evil inculcated in their youth, to enslave their minds, and ensnare their souls. There is scarcely a Christian New Zealander whose mind is not more or less held in bondage by these superstitions. From the rising generation educated in our schools we anticipate a brighter light of Christianity to shine forth. But you must not conclude from this, that there are no experienced Christians among the Maoris.

"My round of HOME duties is as follows:--On Sundays, two services and the school. On Monday mornings I meet and converse with the catechumens and communicants who wish to attend. The catechumens are few. The recent communicants in the district are 108. On Wednesday mornings I examine the Testament class in the day-school, and on Wednesday evenings we hold a prayer-meeting, when those who wish remain to read the Bible. This is most profitable, both to the teacher and the taught. On Saturday evenings we have another prayer-meeting, generally well attended, as the natives return from their

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distant places of labour early on Saturdays to prepare for the Sabbath.

"Mr. Charles Davis, who accompanied us to New Zealand, was not a relative of ours, although of the same name. He remained with us between two and three years, then returned to England, married a wife, and came back to Port Jackson. There he embarked, with his wife and a converted Jewess, in a colonial brig bound for this country. The brig has never since been heard of. It is supposed that she foundered in a gale the first night after she sailed from Port Jackson. Different islands have been visited by our own vessel in quest of them, and every inquiry has been made, in vain. The last day alone will reveal their fate.

"In the distant parts of my district I have found much improvement and growth of saving knowledge among the candidates for baptism. I have baptized eighteen adults and twelve children, and married four couples of the newly baptized. It was a gracious time. The power of the Lord was among them. A work of grace was visible. They were evidently pressing forward to obtain the everlasting-prize. Two of my teachers, now itinerating, will visit them before they return. These natives are strictly churchmen. They repeat the Church Catechism daily. Their chief is an active Christian, and used every means in his power to bring his people to a SAVING knowledge of Christ. God has greatly blessed his labours. They hold prayer-meetings twice a week, and one of my teachers told me that they pray habitually in private. At Kaikohe the work of grace is deepening in a few, and many walk con-

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sistently; and we have evidences of the power of God to save, and of His gracious dealings towards those who seek Him with their whole heart.

"Be attentive, dear Charles, to your Sunday-school. Do all you possibly can to lead your young scholars immediately to Christ. If you think the youngest child in your school too young to be truly converted to Christ, you are in error. The younger the child, the greater is the hope. Use the means, and be confident of success. Stick close to your church. Everything necessary to your present peace and eternal salvation is to be found in her in rich abundance. Some Dissenters have done much good, for which I love and respect them. But I am thankful that I am a Churchman. The Prayer-book, next to the Bible, has been a solace to me in the deepest affliction. Give my Christian love to your wife and family,--and believe me to remain, my dear Charles, faithfully and affectionately yours,

Stourton Caundle."

"July 30, 1849.--The hills were covered with snow, the first ever seen by the natives inhabiting this part of New Zealand. The Putahi was also covered.

"July 31.--This morning the hills were again white with snow.

"What shall I render to my God for all His mercies vouchsafed to me, so very unworthy a sinner? Thou hast, O Lord, preserved my life. Thou hast raised me up from sickness. And now, O my God, grant this to thy other

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mercies --enable me to live exclusively for Thee, and bless me with large measures of Thy grace to enable me to overcome sin and every evil propensity. O give me faith, a simple, realizing, appropriating faith in Christ, and grant that this faith may be manifested by a life of holiness. O Lord, make me perfect in love. Enable me to walk before Thee, and be perfect in the ever-blessed Redeemer. Deliver me perfectly from the fear of man. O bring the restlessness of the natives to an end. And now, O God, I pray Thee to prepare me for my great duties in the missionary field. Bless me with a Divine unction, that I may not only bring the true Gospel before my people, but that my preaching may be attended with the powerful influence of the Holy Spirit. Lord, hear my prayer, and let my cry come unto Thee. O enable me, in Christ, to walk before Thee with a perfect heart."--Journal.

"KAIKOHE, 19th March 1850.

"MY DEAR JOSEPH,--I am thankful to hear that there is a revival amongst you. May the Lord extend it! Did it begin amongst you or the natives? Make the most of it. Be much in prayer and watching that you hinder not its progress, and that you guide it aright. Those under the influence of God will be brought under the first work of the Spirit, conviction of sin. At such seasons Satan is always busy and active to deceive or to alarm. Be not ignorant of his devices. When you perceive any under conviction of sin, be not too forward to pour in the consolations of the Gospel. Let the Spirit do His own work. When the sinner is bordering on despair then you may

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lead him to Christ, to the fountain opened for sin and for uncleanness. But even in this you must act with caution. IT IS BETTER TO PROBE TOO DEEP THAN TO HEAL TOO SOON.

"I recommend to all my dear children to pray in secret until they love secret prayer, until it becomes the life of their souls, and to read the Word of God until they cannot live without it, to read therein by day, and to meditate thereon by night. I know the backwardness of the human heart, even of the renewed heart, to these practical duties. But this must be guarded against and overcome. Whosoever has no desire for prayer and communion with God possesses not the first rudiments of vital religion. What is prayer but the breathing of the soul after Christ, without which spiritual life cannot exist? To live without prayer is to live without God. Alas! alas! how deceptive is the common Christianity of the day!--I remain, your ever affectionate father,

"To the REV. JOSEPH MATTHEWS, Kaitaia."

May 6, 1851.

"MY VERY DEAR SIR,--Marella and Sophia were highly delighted with Mrs. Coleman's kind remembrance of them. They give nearly all their time, and much of their attention, to their school, which they keep without emolument from any quarter. It is the best and most regular day-school I have seen in the country, and the progress of the children does them much credit. The Society allows £15 a year for the school. This is spent in clothing for the children during school hours, and for many other little

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things required in the department. As our natives, from their situation, have but little opportunity of traffic with Europeans, both they and their children are but poorly clad. This renders such a use of the money necessary. But experience soon taught us that our system would not answer. For the destitute state of the children, when they put off their school garments, and went home in their own clothing at night, affected their health. Some of them died, and others were ill in consequence, so that we found it necessary to furnish them with entire clothing.

"The warrior chief, Heke, was removed by death in August last. In his death there was hope. He was attacked yearly, twice, with the same complaint, consumption, and I did not expect him to recover. In fact, from the second attack it can scarcely be said that he did recover. When he found himself sinking, the last time, he came and took up his abode at Kaikohe, in order that he might be near to medical and other assistance, which he doubtless felt he was in need of. He was in a very wicked state of mind when he first arrived. On his way to Kaikohe he had possessed himself of a second wife. This caused a great altercation between him and his real wife when they met at this place, and he told me himself that she had beaten him, and used him very roughly. This, although he was a fierce, violent man, he quietly endured, and as the new wife did not come to their place, the breach was soon made up with the first wife, who faithfully and affectionately attended to him to the day of his death, and has not yet ceased to mourn for him. She is a superior young woman, and he was in the prime of life.

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But on his arrival he was more wicked and savage than I had ever seen him, and his last public act was one of extreme violence. He sent his party to take a young woman, as a wife for one of his young men, from a party of his own family and friends living at Kaikohe. His party was repulsed, and returned without the woman. This, ill as he was, threw him into a great rage. This I was witness to, as they were living close to us, and he told me he would kill her. Next morning I was with my communicants examining them previous to their receiving the sacrament, so that I did not go to him. I, however, saw his party was armed and in motion, and a horse was led out round to the other side of his fence, that I might not see him mount, and he headed them, and went to the place, and coolly fortified themselves within two hundred yards of the place where the woman was. Having accomplished this object, he sent two of his people to fetch the woman, and the party allowed them to take her without resistance, as they had no wish to fight with their own friends. Several of the Christians were also present to restrain them. This was one of his worst actions, and was carried out in a cool-hearted, savage manner. But Divine Providence had ordered that it should be his last. He returned much exhausted, and I thought he would soon die. I continued to visit him daily, but it was a trying duty. In a little time his savage, sullen temper passed off, and he became calm and peacefully minded. The change was almost sudden, but the lion became a lamb, and in this state he remained, with very little exception, to the day of his death. He was four months ill, and I paid him every

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attention in my power; but although he was attentive to what I said to him, and particularly in having prayer, yet he was always backward to speak on the real state of his soul. My last interview with him will never be forgotten. He was fast sinking into the arms of death, and my duties having called me from home, I had not seen him for nearly a week, but as soon as he knew I was present, he took me by the hand, which he long held with a firm grasp, and fixed his eyes on me during nearly the whole time I was with him, beaming with affection. On the Sunday before he died he was much exhausted, but expressed much affection. His mind appeared to wander. I told him to keep his mind fixed upon Christ. He replied, 'IT IS THERE FIXED.' These were his last words to me. After I left him, late in the evening, all his people being with him, he would not be content until they all assembled in his presence for a late evening service, which was held by a Christian native. His own people asked him, in his last hours, where he would recommend them to live together after his decease. He replied, 'IN EVERLASTING LIFE.' The question was repeated, and the same answer returned. After his death, I went to ask for the body for Christian burial, as it was his wish, although he knew it would not be granted by his followers. I found the body tattooed and lying in native state, both body and place highly ornamented. The body was covered in front with a scarlet cloth fringed at the borders. The cloth was drawn up so as to cover the mouth. A strip of black crape was tied over the eyes. The head was dressed with beautiful white feathers. On his right side was a musket, on his

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left side was parasua, and before him was laid a mere. After consulting with all the chiefs present, I found it was in vain to expect they would give up the body. I summoned them, put on my surplice, and took my stand close in front of the corpse, and read the funeral service, and gave them, to the best of my power, a suitable address. This opportunity was a subject of thankfulness. I felt that the blessed Redeemer had the vantage ground, as John Heke had died a professed believer in the glorious Gospel, of which the greater part present had been witnesses. All were not only respectful, but much affection was also manifested. I hope the poor man was saved, but it is but a HOPE. In his previous illness he had expressed himself penitent, but now although a degree of penitence was evident, yet he did not express it as I hoped he would have done. My hope for him is built more on what I heard from his people since his death, than on my own knowledge. He doubtless felt ashamed to say much to me on his own feelings and views, as he had often deceived us, and fallen back into sin, but shame of this kind ought not to be where sincerity is. Heke was a singular man. He was proud and aspiring. In his youth he was wild, wicked, and cruel. After his baptism, which took place when he was, I believe, under deep conviction of sin, he lived quiet and as became his profession. But a war broke out at the south, in which he was tempted to take a part. In one of their engagements he was shot through the neck, and very narrowly escaped death. For a time he was again under conviction of sin. A war in the Bay broke out some time after, in which he took an active part. After this period

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his religion was of a very uncertain character. When the Government Commissioners arrived in the Bay to investigate the land claims, one of his sales of land was among the first investigated. From thence may be dated his insubordination to the British Government. He then said that he perceived that his right to dispose of his own land was questioned, and he told the gentleman who had formerly purchased the land from him, that he was quite ready to put an end to the altercation by driving the Europeans out of the country. In this spirit he ever after lived, and in this spirit he died. He was also made acquainted with the manner in which the question was discussed in the Court of Sydney, under Sir George Gipps. A native of this country was there, and what he could not comprehend he was made to understand by some person present. During his lifetime he was turbulent and tyrannical, and at this settlement we had but little peace. For when he was away, and we were quiet, the dread of his return embittered our peace. Since his death we have enjoyed our unusual quiet, and I hope with feelings of thankfulness. His people are living hitherto quiet, but they have not returned to the Christian duty, as I hoped they would have done. They are very respectful, and have in some cases made me acquainted with their movements, which has given me an opportunity to give them advice.

"In my missionary work I now derive much valuable assistance from the native, whose letter to the Society was published in their last report; and from others also, whose hearts the Lord has touched. In a few of my people here the work of grace is deepening, others hold on their way,

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and now and then we pick up a strayed sheep, and now and then others, from without, are admitted by baptism into the fold. At Mangakahia, which is the southeastern end of my district, and nearly forty miles distant, the work of the Lord appears to prosper. For many years we have had a very interesting party on that river (Mangakahia is a river); but soon after the close of the war, the native teacher led me to this party. They appeared wild and wicked, and to possess some of the plunder of the town amongst them. They were people of Kauhiti's tribe (Heke's contemporary in the war); in fact, Kauhiti was the bravest man, and fought all the battles. At this time, he is at least seventy-five years of age. They had therefore seen much service, and appeared hardened, and I felt no pleasure in visiting them; but God had mercy in store for them. Their chief, a fully tattooed, steady, active man, at length became a candidate for baptism. About two years ago he was baptized. One of his nephews was also received into the Church, and the sturdy chief was soon transformed into the active Christian teacher. On my arrival among them in October last, a great change had taken place among them, and I found many anxiously seeking the Lord. I then baptized eleven adults, and several children, and left them full of activity. In the early part of last month, they were visited again. Soon after my arrival, the chief brought forward all his candidates present, and arranged them before me, twenty-one in number. I conversed with them all, and felt much embarrassment of mind, as they all appeared equally affected with divine truth, and all proper candidates for baptism.

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I was very fearful lest they should not be duly prepared, and, having been admitted, should fall away. I cried to the Lord to direct me. After this class was done with for the day, the chief brought forward those who were baptized in October. Their state removed a portion of my fears, and cheered me. Amongst them the work of grace was visible, and could not be doubted. The next day, which was Saturday, about thirty-five candidates were brought out, of whom nineteen adults were set apart for baptism. This was a hard, trying day. On Sunday I baptized the nineteen adults, and married four couples of the newly baptized in the morning service. In the afternoon service, I baptized thirteen children. On Sunday also, there was an accession of candidates, among whom were two old chiefs, who were in a pleasing state of mind. These chiefs, when I saw them in October, were in a very dead, hardened state. I left this interesting people, apparently in a humble and holy state of mind, earnestly seeking God as their chief good. They come sometimes to visit me, some of them, especially the chief, who now and then visits Kauhiti, and visits me at the same time. One of Kauhiti's own children was among the baptized. This chief has also been the means of bringing back a whole party, who had fallen into a state of sin and forgetfulness during the war. He is sincere, active, and diligent, and God appears to bless him and his labours. If spared, I hope to be with them again in July. Last winter, I did not visit them, and I thought I must give up my distant winter visits, but it is best to wear out in the Redeemer's service. The journey is heavy for me in the winter, not

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from the distance, but from the badness of the road. It takes me two days to arrive at the first chapel, which is not more than thirty-five miles distant from Kaikohe. A few years ago, I could walk the distance in summer in one day, but those days are past. My dear wife desires her kindest love to Mrs. Coleman and yourself. She is much debilitated within the last year. She had much to try her during the war. Mrs. Burrows left the Waimate during that period, but my wife was determined to remain with me at all hazards, and this she did apparently without fear, but the reaction is being now felt. Marella and Sophia will write soon to Mrs. Coleman, as soon as they can send a little specimen of the children's work. With Christian love to dear Mrs. Coleman,--I remain, my dear sir, most affectionately yours,


"P.S.--The time is now fast approaching when we shall meet again in the presence of our dear Redeemer. Happy hour! blessed consummation!"

September 12, 1851.

"MY VERY DEAR SIR,--Popery is what it ever was, a great apostasy from the faith of the Gospel. That the Pope is Antichrist, there can be no doubt in the minds of those who possess a divine unction from above; but the deadly root of stealthy, heretical error is, alas, found among us, even in the bosom of our own Church. This, I conceive to be the solid ground of fear. Even the Evangelical party, although they have preached the Gospel, and lived

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the Gospel, yet their ministrations have been, with very few exceptions, unaccompanied with that unction and vitality necessary to arouse a slumbering church. I read a little work some time ago, which appeared to me, as far as it went, to strike at the root of the evil, and to point out a remedy. This was by Angell James, entitled, I believe, 'The Earnest Ministry.'

"Alas, we have sadly departed from the faith and practice of our fathers! In our day there is doubtless more refinement, but where is that masculine manifestation of faith and practice, patent in the lives and writings of the Reformers? Alas, it is not to be found, because it is not! The refinement of the age has deadened the edge of the Gospel sword. May we be thankful to God, who put it into the hearts of His servants to publish their works.

"The Church in this country is very far from being in a prosperous state. The High Church party is active and industrious. The Low Church appear not fully awake to their high calling. There is not that anxiety expressed amongst us to endeavour to pluck poor souls as brands from the burning, which is expressed in the Scriptures, and which characterized our forefathers. Whatever may be the result of the Papal aggression, it is but too evident that the Lord has a just controversy with His Church. She has long ceased to watch and be sober. The enemy has not only been allowed to invade and enter her camp unmolested, but has been treated with the greatest respect by her watchmen, and even cherished in her bosom. In this sin, we, in this part of the world, have our full share.

"In my district, as a missionary among the natives, I

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often feel encouraged to hope that our labours are not in vain. Several have safely arrived at, and others are evidently on their way to a better world. But there is also much to discourage. Every inch of ground must be contended for, and much watchfulness is necessary, in order to hold it after it is acquired. And O, after all, how help less and useless are our best endeavours without Christ! The school, which Marella and Sophia keep, gives me much pleasure. Their whole time is alternately devoted to it, and I hope in the right way; and I am thankful to observe the progress of their scholars, and that the Lord has given my children a will to the work. My eldest son, James, is a great comfort to me. He is truly pious and devoted to God, and is bringing up his children in the right way.

"The natives have now another serious hindrance introduced amongst them, namely, that of hunting for gold. Some of the disappointed Europeans from California have returned, and have given it out as their opinion that gold is to be found in the country, and have been looking after it. This has roused the natives, and they, many of them, are engaged in examining their districts. It is reported that gold has been found, but I hope not, as I fear it would be the cause of much quarrelling, and perhaps bloodshed.

"My dear wife and children unite with me in Christian love to Mrs. Coleman and yourself.--I remain, my very dear sir, affectionately and respectfully yours,


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21st December 1852.

"MY VERY DEAR SIR,--The bishop stayed with me two nights in his visitation tour May last. He came to me as a Christian brother indeed. He talked to me, reasoned with me, prayed with me, and tried in every way to comfort me in my heavy affliction. And when he returned from Kaitaia took me with him on board his vessel to the college at Auckland. There I received every attention from the bishop and Mrs. Selwyn, and from all the members of the college. But my state of mind and body was too weak, to receive much enjoyment. On the Trinity Sunday following he admitted me to priest's orders. St. Paul's Church was crowded. The bishop preached a very impressive sermon. I tried to make a full surrender of myself to the Lord. Mr. Chapman and myself were admitted to the order of priesthood. Messrs. Wilson, Nihil, Hill, and Gould to the order of deacon. After this, as the bishop left on a missionary trip to the islands, I went to Auckland and spent a fortnight with Mr. Kissling, one of our missionaries. While I was there, the Judge and Mrs. Martin paid me much attention. Mrs. Martin called on me on my first arrival, and the Judge a few days after. They pressed me to stay at their house. My youngest daughter, Sophia, has also visited Auckland and the college, and was received into the best society. I mention this that you may know how graciously God has remembered mercy in this my severe visitation.--I remain, my dear sir, in much affection, faithfully yours,


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