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THE author of this volume having enjoyed a favourable opportunity of acquiring useful and interesting intelligence respecting the colonies of Australasia, during his journeys and voyages in the Southern hemisphere, ventures to submit to the notice of the public a descriptive narrative of his experiences in that important quarter of the world. His chief object in this publication is to describe New Zealand, but he deems it essential to this purpose to give a comparative account of the neighbouring colonies visited by him, during the last three years.
Strongly impressed with a conviction that colonization is the natural remedy for that wide-spreading national distress which arises from great excess of labour over the means of employment, the author deems the present time very opportune for bringing these subjects before the public. The climate of Australasia, and the range of its productive capabilities, as well as the high commercial importance which its colonies have acquired, even in their infancy, stamp this region as superior, in present and prospective
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importance, to every other that is accessible to the improving and creative powers of British industry and capital. To those whose means of subsistence is limited to the value of their own industry, and who have families to establish in life, the most interesting subject, perhaps, in a worldly sense, that can engage their attention, is Emigration; nor does the same question less powerfully affect the middle and educated classes of society, who are in this country overwhelmed by the pressure of competition.
Very important statements, and the evidence of strong statistical facts, are adduced in this volume, in the hope that the Government and Legislature will speedily direct their attention to the importance of these colonies and to their grievances.
It will, perhaps, be asked, why the author did not remain in the Southern hemisphere, since he reports so favourably regarding New Zealand and some parts of Australia? He has only to reply, that business called him to England for a time, and that he sees in the fine climates and growing importance of these colonies an attractive sphere of employment for himself as well as for others; not, he begs to observe, merely in the profession of medicine, --for that is everywhere overstocked, --but rather in the various and comparatively advantageous pursuits which are accessible, in every new country, to persons of limited means and ordinary capacity. In announcing the probability of his again crossing the equator in search of a home, the author follows the
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example of a gentleman, whose rank and wealth indicate that his return to New Zealand, with the determination to become a colonist, is the result, not of necessity, but of inclination. Having just seen the pamphlet of the Hon. Mr. Petre, the author takes this opportunity of acknowledging that to it he is indebted for the important thermometrical observations made at Wellington, from April 1840 to April 1841. At the same time he begs to express a cordial admiration of that manliness of character which has induced this gentleman and others to exchange a life of luxury and ease for the more arduous but more useful career of colonization.
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Departure from England--Objects of interest--Madeira--Emigrant ships--Daily routine--Surgeon superintendant's duties--Neptune Islands--Kangaroo Island--Indigenous mammalia of New Holland --Depredations of the dingo--St. Vincent's Gulf--Holdfast Bay --Landing of emigrants--Grog selling--South Australia--Wooden houses--An old colonist--Carrying out merchandise.................p1
Road to Adelaide--Scenery--Town of Adelaide--Rival townships --Land jobbing--Town allotments--The small lot system--Society and politics................15
Geography of South Australia--Nature of the soil--Aspect of the country--Mountains and rivers--Internal communications--Lake Torrens--The Murray river--Cultivable land--Plain of Adelaide-- Vegetable wonders--The Glenelg.............23
Progress of the South Australian colony--Population and flocks-- Imperfect survey--Compulsory idleness of the colonists--A prosperous settler--Disappointed emigrants--Causes of disappointment --Undue expectations--Who should emigrate--South Australian Company's farmers...............40
Incidents in Adelaide--A dust storm--A native chief--King Jack-- A native entertainment--Character of the New Hollanders--Native
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marriages and duels--Treatment of the Aborigines--Appointment of protectors..........p55
An excursion by night--Cattle station--Acacias--Trees of Mount Lofty--Internal roads--Prices of building materials--Feathered tribes--The Angas--Sports of the bush--Grasses--Cattle company's station--Wages of servants--Mount Barker district............66
Port Adelaide--Sixteen Mile Creek--Mangroves and fish--Native guides -- Intellect of the natives -- Yorke's Peninsula--Traces of volcanic action -- Salt lagoons -- Natives of Yorke's Peninsula -- Artificial irrigation.................79
Australian fisheries -- Sperm whales -- Vessels employed in the whaling trade -- Snapper fishery -- Seals, and the mode of taking them--Propriety of restricting the seal fishery.................89
Indo-Australian commerce--Commerce of New South Wales--Articles of foreign countries consumed in the Australian colonies, &c. --Trade with New Zealand--Polynesia--Climate and productions --Prospects of colonization..............96
Recent discoveries--Portland Bay--Harbour of Port Phillip--Gipps' Land--New harbour--Clarence River -- Structure of the coast-- Buildings, &c. -- Sydney, Population and character of -- The domain--Visiters--Sheep farmers--Expenses of living--Caution to emigrants--The Museum..........104
Society at Sydney -- Luxuries and accomplishments--Social intercourse--Emancipists--A fete--Misrepresentations of the state of society in New South Wales--Report of Transportation Committee --Reformation of convicts--Value of convict labour -- Norfolk island--Statistics at fault--Dr. Bland............118
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Employment of capital and labour--The Australasian colonies--Trust companies--Banking--Joint stock companies--Value of land-- Sheep farming--Value of sheep--Choice of pasturage--Horses-Horse racing--Cattle grazing -- Dairy farming--Agriculture-- Storing of grain--Value of land in Ilawarra--Wine--Tobacco-- Market gardening--Trip to Paramatta--Culture of the orange-- Australian gardening--Production of wool and silk--Manufactures..............132
Grievances of New South Wales--Separation of Australia Felix-- Emigration fund--Importance of the Australian colonies--Their consumption of the products of British industry..........169
Purchase of lands in New Zealand--Immoderate acquisitions of land --Voyage to New Zealand--The Three Kings' rocks--A New Zealand conqueror--Sea round the North Cape--Manganui settlement--Character of the coast--Scenery--Massacre of the ship's crew--New Zealanders of the present day--Settlement of disputes --Recompence for insults and injuries--Similarity between the New Zealanders and the Irish.............173
The Bay of Islands--Magnificent marine view--Kororadika--The British resident -- New Zealand law -- European population -- Catholic bishop--Metropolis of the northern tribes--Native wine --Tabooism--Colonel Wakefield.............187
Return to Sydney--Governor of New Zealand--Colonial jealousy-- Cession of the island to England--Importance of New Zealand --Alison on colonization--New Zealand Company--Principles of colonization--Wellington--New Plymouth--Allotments of land --Nelson colony--Agricultural prospects--Peace of the colony-- Reservation of lands for the natives............201
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Second visit to New Zealand--Passengers on board--Changes at Kororadika--A native village--A native chief--Effects of colonization on the native character--Natural intelligence of New Zealanders..........227
Rumours of attacks by the natives--Projected township--Falls of the Wytangi--Mountains and rocks -- Tradition of Mawe--Fertile district--Mineral springs--A tabooed woman--Education of white children--Religion of the natives--Lake Maupere--Native hospitality and cookery--Agricultural establishment--Kaori forest. -- Rain and wind................239
Dr. Lang's misrepresentations--Results of missionary labour-- Landsharks--Influences of commerce--Rev. S. Marsden--Native village--Mission settlement..............258
War dance--The Tangi--A feast--An important event--Murder by a native--Judicial proceedings--Aywarre--Native and European intercourse--How to be regulated..............269
CHAPTER XXI. French Discovery squadron--Antarctic continent--French claims on New Zealand--Author's object--Perforated rocks--Mimi-Wangati--Tuttikokka--Sawing--Harbour of refuge--Maraetai--The Tamaki--Volcanic district--Wyheke--An island home--Coromandel harbour--Mr. Webster--Geological rambles--Native fortresses--Warlike trophy--A female corpse..............280
Climate of New Zealand--Gales--Departure for the Thames River-- Rangipukea-- Coast of Shouraki--Volcano of Tongarido--Mouth of the Thames--Mr. M'Askall--Tribe of the Ngatimadous--A missionary chief -- Excursion up the Thames--Mr. Bidwill-- Tauranga--Rotorua--Boiling springs--Lake Taupo--Return to Coromandel harbour..............300
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Tauranga--Formation of coal--Mr. Bidwill--Rotorua--Hot springs --Solfataras--Lake Taupo--Ascent of Tongarido--Eruption-- Anecdote--Native sculptors--Names of the islands--Tavai-poenamoo--Akaroa--Harbours in Cook's Straits--Stewart's Island..............314
Cultivable productions of New Zealand--Vines--Kumeras--Potatoes --Maize--Clearing of land--Choice of seeds--New Zealand flax-- Its utility--Timber--Feathered tribes--Absence of reptiles--Dog's --Wild pigs--Early migration of the New Zealanders--Colonial Cadetships.........323
No. I. --Australian Trust Company....341
No. II. --Free passage.........344
No. III. --Colonial revenue--Abstract of Port Phillip, for the years ending 1839 and 1840.........350
No. IV. --Colonial revenue of New South Wales, including land-sales, during the years 1839 and 1840.........351
No. V. --Despatch from Lord John Russell to Governor Hobson, shewing the arrangement finally entered into between the New Zealand Company and Her Majesty's Government. Dated March 10th, 1841........352
No. VI. --Second colony of New Zealand. --Correspondence between the members of the second colony and the New Zealand Company.............361
No. VII. --New Zealand Company.............369
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PART OF THE NEW PLYMOUTH SETTLEMENT, IN THE DISTRICT OF TARANAKE, NEW ZEALAND.
SHEWING THE RANGE OF HOUSES RECENTLY BUILT BY THE NATIVES, IN ANTICIPATION OF THE ARRIVAL OF EMIGRANTS.
MOUNT EGMONT LYING[?] DISTANT
Engraved by J. C. Armytage.