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EMIGRATION is now allowed, throughout the United Kingdom, to be one of the most important social questions of the day, regarded as a means of improving the material comforts of all placed in reduced or straitened circumstances, who are possessed at the same time of ordinary vigour of mind and body, to withstand the rougher modes of life which residing in new countries entail.
But the Colonies of Great Britain are very numerous; some are situated in tropical countries, with a considerable foreign population; others in more temperate climates, but still with an admixture of a foreign or a convict population; but New Zealand has been colonized principally with a hardy yeomanry, brought out direct from the Parent Country, and presents corresponding advantages, distinct from those presented by other Colonies. These may be expressed as presenting a field, --not for the accumulation of rapid fortunes, but --for enabling those who desire rural pursuits to continue their calling, with the same freedom, and among a society actuated with the same feelings as those which are maintained in Great Britain; but possessing, with a fertile soil, and a far healthier climate, a greater amount of room for exerting their energies, than the crowded state of the Parent Country permits.
The attractions of a rural life differ greatly from
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those of a town. And to a rural population different arguments require to be used than those required by the inhabitants of towns. Thus information on the topics, philosophical or otherwise, usually discussed in Colonial society; some autobiography or antecedents in the lives of those who have gone there in order to know what style of people may be met; discussions on general policy, to hear what the Colonists think of the Institutions of England, after they have tried a new country; but, above all, a statement of the principles that appear to regulate the economy of investing money, in order that those without previous experience may have some guide to follow on first embarking on a business new to them: are all points on which a rural population like to be informed, though they do not present the same interest to residents in towns. These latter, being accustomed to greater luxuries, are not as generally willing to forego them for a period, in order to undertake the rougher life of a young Colony, in the hope that by doing so they may ultimately improve their circumstances.
The Canterbury Province can especially appeal to the gentry of Great Britain who delight in rural affairs, for hundreds from their ranks have settled there. The writer relates the experience he has gathered in the Colony, trusting it may prove useful to those purposing to proceed to that rising Province, and be acceptable to its friends in the United Kingdom, and that it may also interest the public generally, who desire information from that quarter of the world.
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The class of families among the gentry from which our Colonists are mostly furnished --The information they desire is different from that which is required by other classes of the nation--The purpose of the writer is to meet that information and to avoid subjects which have been entered on by previous writers--A distinctive feature in the Canterbury Scheme of Colonization pronounced to have succeeded--The general plan of the Book.............1
ON THE INFLUENCE OF RELIGIOUS DIFFERENCES UPON THE POPULATIONS OF NEW ZEALAND.
Colonial life modifies Sectarian Prejudices, but does not disown Religious Convictions--The Political bearing of the influence of Religion is a distinct study--A general knowledge of different Creeds is considered useful, in order to avoid offending the feelings of those who profess them--The mass of mankind study only one Creed--Therefore a summary of different Creeds, with a view to their political bearing, becomes useful--The Historical Definition of Religion---Natural Religion exists all over the world--Some Definitions of the Christian Religion stated--A Source stated from which differences with the Church of England have arisen, and produced Separations --The Political Bearing of some differences between Presbyterians and Dissenters with the Church of England stated--All Protestants do meet and worship together in New Zealand--A definition of one prominent difference among all
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Protestants and the Church of Rome--How the High Church party in the Church of England support their doctrinal positions-- The recent Oxford Movement noticed--Butler's "Analogy" recommended, as shewing a ground of common belief running through all Protestant professions, and therefore useful in quieting scruples in all such when first acting together..........7
TO BECOME A COLONIST DOES NOT FORFEIT SOCIAL RANK OR POSITION.
Prejudices prevail throughout the Public Services against the occupations of a Colonist--One way to meet these prejudices is to relate the Histories of some who have left these services and become Colonists--The relation of misfortune in the previous history of a Colonist does encourage others suffering under misfortunes to proceed to a Colony--The Autobiography of a retired Military Settler, with his remarks upon some customs and ideas of his former profession--He is satisfied with the exchange he has made -- Some sources of prejudices to Colonization among the upper ranks of Society stated--Only a portion of those who go to a Colony are urged by previous disappointment............29
ON THE PRELIMINARY WORK ATTENDING; THE INAUGURATION AND ESTABLISHMENT OF COLONIES.
The Establishment of Colonies is generally a tedious process--What is the proper office of enthusiasm--The Legal Powers which are granted a Public Company for carrying on Colonization--The Company generally have to borrow money in order to erect Works required in the Colony, and to send out the labourers required-- The newly-arrived Colonist generally finds an old hand in the Colony to suit him better than a labourer just arrived in it--The great call for Labour, and how the Provinces endeavour to obtain it--The boon of Self-government being granted to New Zealand, plenty of local business is before them--A notice of the New Zealand Company and of the Canterbury Association..............47
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ON THE PRICE OF LAND.
The situation of Land enters into its value--Sites for Towns--Values of Town Lands--Value of Land adjoining Towns--The fixed price system compared with the auction system--The price of Waste Lands is now regulated by the Provincial Governments--A summary description of Lands that have been occupied in all the six Provinces, with a view to the circumstances that have regulated the price placed upon them, noticing Markets for export, and general political means of support, and shewing that all have a different policy to support, and must be left to do that for themselves, and that no Province ought to interfere with another--Free-trade policy is not connected with the price of Colonial Waste Lands -- Summary of arguments in favour of the "Sufficient-price theory"-- The application of this theory in the Canterbury Province, to the exclusion of Speculators in the Waste Lands, and to the great service of the Squatting interest--A large Speculator of Waste Lands in Australia occasioned several Squatters to proceed to the Canterbury Province, where they proved very useful--The same person reported as being willing also to speculate in the Waste Lands of New Zealand...........59
ON THE INVESTMENT OF SMALL CAPITALS IN NEW ZEALAND.
The amount of Capital which is generally taken to a young Colony-- Those without previous experience must notice that persons embarking to begin a "Farm or Station" of their own must expect little returns for the first few years; and this is only analogous to the circumstances of England and Scotland--A notice of the Products generally raised, with their recommendations--The Pastoral occupation is generally considered the most profitable--Mercantile and Professional employments generally obtain the quickest returns --Persons without a previous experience in business are now advised to put their money out on mortgage on arrival--The necessity of caution in beginning to Farm on Waste Lands--Erroneous estimate of Colonial occupation formed at a distance--Labouring men advised to turn immediately to different employments, instead
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of keeping only at one--Labourers from the rural classes most desired in the Canterbury Province--Money is generally invested so as to draw an income from several sources--Young single men recommended to move about, and learn different occupations, before they determine ultimately where to invest their money-- Observations on the Winds and Climate of New Zealand...................84
COMMERCIAL AND FINANCIAL MATTERS.
The small amount of Goods passing through a Merchant's hands in a small Colony, obliges a greater profit to be put upon them-- Manufactures have generally sold in the Province for three times their cost in England, and the supplies have been drawn chiefly from Australia--Men to produce articles for export more wanted than men of the mercantile classes--On whom the high prices of goods ultimately fall--It is injudicious to send large ventures of merchandize to young Colonies--The Bank accommodation restricted to bills drawn through mercantile firms--The advantages to a Farmer of payments in kind--There has always been sufficient money in the Province to obviate recourse to "the Truck system" --Rates of interest, and why they range high--The high price of stores induces families to take as much goods as possible with them; but the expense of taking them to where they reside is not always considered--On the postal communication, the Panama route desired............105
ON FARMING FOR A PROFIT IN NEW ZEALAND.
The details of the Garden and Farm are given in the Almanacks of the different Provinces--Old Colonists do not advise Capitalists to farm Land--The difference between treating timbered Land and level untimbered Land--The application of Contract Work instead of yearly service--Advantages of Machinery--Rotation of Crops inapplicable--Observations on breaking up the waste grassy Lands of the Canterbury Plains--A notice on Ploughs--The adaptation of the artificial Grasses to New Zealand--A description of the Soil of the Canterbury Plains, and modes of choosing a good section for
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Agriculture--Hints to small Farmers--Application of the Land of the Plains to farms of a few hundred acres, laid in artificial Pastures, for Sheep or Cattle--Notice of dividing a Capital to be invested in different ways--A comparison with Australian Farming--What products are advised to be grown for export............124
ON "SQUATTING" FOR PASTORAL PURPOSES.
Terms used in the system--Insecurity of Tenure the objection to the system--The value of its Products counterbalances the expenses of Carriage--The continuance of the Native Claims in the Northern Island has prevented the development of the system there--Further details on the Economy of the system--It is avoided, notwithstanding the profit it offers, on account of the rougher life it entails, by some persons--Comparison of the system of Australia with that in New Zealand---At the commencement of a Colony the Price of Stock is always high; after a few years it falls, and the price of the Right to a Pasture equals in value the Stock it will maintain-- A New-comer is advised not immediately to start a Station far inland--A notice of Prices and the Capital required for the occupation--Details of commencing and general management of a Station --The prospect of improving the Feed upon a Run--The number of Sheep generally obtained upon a Station before the Owner leaves it in charge of a Manager--Rates at which Sheep are kept upon Terms--The values that Runs on the Canterbury Plains have already obtained--How the Scab disease is cured--The economy of a Cattle Station--Mode of breaking-in Heifers for milking-- Notes on the Produce obtained, and prospects of selling it--A mode of beginning a Dairy Station, requiring little labour--Notes on the price of Cattle.............146
EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYED.
The marked change in the manners of Workmen induces men of education to inquire into the origin of the relations that subsist in the United Kingdom between the Employers and Employed-- Philosophers have taken interest in tracing the changes in the laws
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of the Kingdom from the time of Serfdom--It takes time for a Nation to adapt itself to these changes--The effect of these changes in producing various classes of Workmen--The crowded condition of the Labour Market in the United Kingdom occasions trouble to those dismissed from employment; but it is not so in a Colony, where Workmen almost regulate their own Wages and Hours--Mode of proceeding for a steady Labourer to become an independent Yeoman--A notice of Sailors as Workmen in a young Colony-- They are accustomed to run away from their ships on arrival in a Colony where Wages are high--The local Market in a Colony fluctuates greatly; it is therefore necessary for Workmen generally to take a turn at different Trades--The necessity of addressing Workmen in a proper manner in a young Colony, where they number strong upon the Electoral Roll--An improvement in their condition sometimes acts for the time injuriously upon them-- Their generally improved circumstances in the United Kingdom noticed, compared with that of a Foreign Empire which has retained Serfdom..........175
THE POLITICAL IMPORT OF CERTAIN IDEAS PREVAILING AMONG PERSONS LIVING ON FIXED INCOMES, CONTRASTED WITH THAT OF THOSE LIVING BY TRADING OR PRODUCING OCCUPATIONS.
The necessity of considering these contrasts--Objections to study Political Economy, and the answer to them--The diminished proportion of the Agricultural Population noticed--Some pressure is generally required to induce people to emigrate, but, when undertaken, there is disinclination to settle again in the United Kingdom --Some wants of the Gentry considered, and the opening the Canterbury Colony presents for making up the incomes they require--People cannot live in the gay world and bring up a large Family without they possess Private property--Colonial life inculcates self-reliance--The horror of Colonists at a return to the ideas of Feudal Times, and connecting Monasticism and Asceticism with Christianity in a Protestant country--How persons retired from a Profession often lose the money they have saved and invested to insure a fixed income--Some disadvantages experienced, by young
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persons who have not been brought up hardily, on first entering upon the world--The political system of Representation in the British Isles considered as differing from that of New Zealand, where Political Demonstrations are regarded with more alarm-- Gentry find they have much of Civil Law to learn, when commencing business in a Colony, and lose much of the regard they formerly entertained for appearances..............197
SOME OF THE TROUBLES THAT HAVE BEEN EXPERIENCED IN THE CANTERBURY COLONY.
Two schemes proposed for the carriage of Goods from Port Lyttelton to the Plains; one by a road not yet completed, and another by a steamer, which is now at work--The custom of the Banks restricting advances to Mercantile Firms, rather a surprise to the Agricultural interest--How afterwards altered--The fluctuating price of Grain very annoying to Farmers--Merchants charge 10 per cent, upon accounts, if not paid quarterly--Two unpleasant occurrences, in consequence of confusion in business, related--A Local Court installed to take cognizance of Debts up to £100. --Troubles in dividing Partnerships--Mistakes made between Friends at the starting of the Canterbury Settlement--The necessity of maintaining a public spirit in it--The readiness of the Colonists to act as police, and the comparative absence of crime, allows a very small Police Force to be maintained--The absence of Beggars-- On the troubles individuals feel in adopting a new line of life, and the difficulty of effecting changes in the practice of any profession or public office in a country--The troubles the Canterbury Colony have had to undergo at starting, are considered light to what other Colonies in its vicinity have undergone...........224
Self-Government was not obtained in New Zealand without a struggle --The presence of a large warlike Native Population was supposed to furnish grounds for deferring the boon--The Natives were con-
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ciliated by the arts of Peace, viz., giving good wages or their labour, and also trading with them--The relative numbers of the two Races by the Census of 1857--The Financial Debate in the General Assembly--The result is that a Loan of half-a-million of money is obtained on security of the Land Fund, with the guarantee of the Imperial Government, to be paid off in thirty years--A Steam Service contracted for--Opinions in the Colony on the position of Elected Superintendent -- A source whence future political parties may arise--The Scarcity of Labour in the Canterbury Province explained, with the provisions made to meet it--A Bet made that the Exports of the Province in 1861, her twelfth year, will amount to £500,000. --This is compared with the exports of South Australia and the Victorian Colony--Agricultural capabilities of the Canterbury Province, and her Census of 1857-- Probable future Legislation in favour of the Pastoral Interest-- The Canterbury and Otago schemes for obtaining the emigration of labourers compared--A topic of complaint with the Colonists of the Northern Island, against those formerly administering their government............248
Page 25 line 26, for to slavishly copy, read closely to copy.
Page 37 line 10, for hero, read subject.
Page 57 line 89, for commencing, &c., read which were at first required for commencing the ordinary business of the Colony.
Page 93 line 12, for transverse read traverse.
Page 96 line 6, for employment, read some employment.
Page 111 line 30, for no less than, read as well as.
Page 141 line 6, for to manure, read manuring.