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The object of the following book is to supply intending emigrants with the information requisite to enable them to effect their purpose certainly and economically, and at the same time to give them such an outline of the colony to which they are proceeding, as may reasonably assure them as to their future prospects when arrived at that colony. There are books without number descriptive of all our colonies, but the perusal of the generality of these administers rather to the gratification of curiosity than to the real requirements of the intending colonist; viz., How he should set about emigrating. This knowledge is his first want, and without this he is often undecided as to what course he shall adopt; or, to his serious cost, becomes involved in an expenditure of time and means, the latter especially, which would prove a small capital to him if saved for the purposes of his future career as a colonist.
My qualifications for this object are, a pretty long experience in the colonies of the South Pacific, and, what is more to the emigrant's purpose, a still longer experience in despatching emigrants from the mother country. The following remarks are chiefly confined to New Zealand, that being the colony with which I am most conversant; but those remarks which are
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intended to afford information to the emigrant relative to his own shipment, are applicable to all southern emigration, as is the advice volunteered for his consideration relative to his individual conduct as a colonist.
The emigrant must not, therefore, expect picturesque descriptions of scenery, though New Zealand, beyond most other countries, abounds in picturesque beauty; nor must he look for those narratives of personal adventure with which it is the fashion to season colonial books: wherever such are given, it will be with the object of giving the reader some idea of native peculiarities or customs. These matters are extraneous, and, though amusing, as giving scope to a considerable amount of imagination both as regards the writer and the reader, will here altogether be lost sight of. It is merely necessary to remind the intending emigrant of the present day, that he will have no adventures to encounter. The way has been paved for him, and the first difficulties of the colony surmounted. The forest has already, in a great degree, given way to the corn-field; and the cannibal has become also, to a great degree, the civilized man and the Christian--in name, if not in reality; and even this is an important step forward.
The intention of this little work is to awaken the middle and labouring classes of this country to a sense of their own position with respect to the future, as regards this country, and, at the same time, to point out to them the way to escape from that future, whilst they have either small capital or strength to labour left. There is no apparent way whereby to escape from impending evil, but by emigrating. This must become a system--not an accident: a system, not only of men ceasing to be useless in their own country from want, --not of intention, but of opportunity to be useful, --but also of converting themselves into the future employers of those they leave behind. "One colonist," says Sir Josiah Child, "employs four of the mother country." Not that the emigrant needs to make this a point of conscience; but such will be its effect. He himself will become comparatively independent, instead of being a burden;
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and those he leaves behind will benefit in a double sense by his removal: he and his family, though in a distant part of the empire, will ascend in the social scale; whilst he will be a means of preventing many of those whom he leaves at home from sinking. These objects are worthy of deep consideration.
Things in England cannot much longer continue as they have been: somebody must move off. The question, therefore, becomes--Who will go? The prudent man will reply, "I will, whilst I have something left: if I wait, I shall have nothing wherewith to emigrate." Reason as we may, this is the true mode of looking at the matter. We have before us a choice of evils: a remodification of society by a redistribution of society into different parts of the empire, or a convulsion of society, which will go far to overthrow all posterity. As the lamented Charles Buller has said, but in more eloquent language, "We shall not cease to be Britons because we remove from one part of the empire where we are too thick, to another where we are too thin."
It, therefore, behoves every one to ask himself the question --"Am I in the way?" If the querent feel that he is so, let him make up his mind to go. If he feel that he can surmount all difficulties, by all means let him stay. Every man is the best judge of his own capabilities; and by his own judgment let him stand or fall.
G. B. E.
AUSTRALIAN GAZETTE OFFICE,
London, May 1853.
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WHY SHOULD PEOPLE EMIGRATE?
Children a fortune in a colony--Middle class emigration--Small capitalists --Small capital of no use at home--Reluctance to emigrate--Previous education the best capital for emigrants...........page.1
THE ENDS TO BE OBTAINED BY EMIGRATION.
No sudden fortunes to be looked for by emigration to an industrial colony-- A colonist's success rests with himself--Struggles at home for a living-- Labour the most valuable commodity in a colony--Advantages of the Southern Colonies--The emigrant's mission..........page.9
THE CLIMATE OF NEW ZEALAND, AND THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE GENERALLY.
Mean temperature--Mildness of southern climates--Continental climates-- Diseases--Seasons--Fruits, vegetables--Winds--Meteorology.............page.17
OUTLINE SKETCH OF NEW ZEALAND.
Geographical features--Middle Island--North Island--Character of soil--Mountains--General aspect ......page.34
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First colonists--French attempt--Harbours of Auckland--Rivers--The town --Streets--Public buildings--Story of Makatu--Natural scenery--Suburbs --Timber--Soil--Society--Dress--Amusements -- Servants--Prices--Friendship with the Natives-- Religious and Educational Establishments ..........page.43
Geological sketches of the province of New Ulster--Secondary formations--Tertiary and recent deposits--Metalliferous deposits, mineral veins, &c-- localities of minerals and metals......page.68
Harbour of Port Nicholson--Natural scenery--Petoni--Rural districts--Population--Stock--Manufactures--Schools and churches--Statistics-- Imports and exports--Whale fishing--Description of Wellington--Extract from a recent letter--Overland journey from Auckland to Port Nicholson--Kupanga--Mount Edgecumbe-- Mineral Springs of Roturua-- Tongariro ...........page.89
THE VALLEY Or THE WAIRARAPA.
Description of the valley--The Ruamahunga--Sheep and cattle breeding--Climate--Vegetation--Management of stock--Grapes--Shrubs--Fruits-- New Zealand flax........page.112
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NELSON AND THE WAIRAU.
Blind Bay--Massacre Bay--Country surrounding Nelson--Roads--Climate-- Population--The natives--The Wairau--Port Underwood--Newton Bay-Queen Charlotte's Sound--Milton Bay--The Pelorus--Mr. Ward's letters --Farming estimates, &c........page.134.
The Taranaki district--Formation of the Plymouth Company--Productiveness of the settlement--Want of a harbour--Society of New Plymouth--Population--Institutions--High price of land--Mineral treasures--Recent letter--The natives--Crops--Prices........page.167
Foundation of the Otago settlement--Progress--Pastures--Site of New Edinburgh--Surrounding country--Otago harbour--The River Clutha--Climate--Soil--Pastures--Products--Land and water communication--Coal--The natives........page.178
Plan of the Canterbury Association--Probable progress of Canterbury--The Wakefield system--Evils of absenteeism--High price of land--The "self-supporting system"--Site of the settlement--Port Cooper--Society at Canterbury--Advice as to purchasing land........page.195
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HINTS PREVIOUS TO THE VOYAGE.
Best time for sailing--Provisions--Cabin furniture--Tools--Agricultural implements--Punctuality in sailing--Remitting money--Wooden houses for emigrants--Situation of a dwelling--Ventilation............page.211
Advice in outfitting--Choice of clothing--Lists of necessary articles-- Trunks--Bedding........page.221
FIRST STEPS IN THE COLONY.
Conduct on the voyage--Choice of occupation--Cultivation of the soil-- Small farms--Agricultural labourers--Sheep and cattle farming--Squatting--Wages--Economical living--Useless expenditure...........page.233
AGRICULTURE AND LAND-CLEARING.
Remarks by a backwoodsman--Experimental agriculture--Modes of clearing land--Canadian method--Combination of labour...............page.241
THE AUCKLAND GOLD FIELDS.
Discovery of gold--Rev. Mr. Clarke's opinion--Rich specimen--Government regulations--Visit of the Lieutenant-Governor--Payments to natives-- Progress of the diggings--Gold at Arataonga--Committee's report--Lieut.-Governor's, report........page.245