1913 - Nihoniho, T. Narrative of the Fighting on the East Coast - Narrative of the Fighting on the East Coast, 1865-1871, p 28-46

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  1913 - Nihoniho, T. Narrative of the Fighting on the East Coast - Narrative of the Fighting on the East Coast, 1865-1871, p 28-46
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TUTA NIHONIHO, of the Ao-wera hapu (subtribe) Ngati-Porou Rifles, was born at Whare-ponga on the 30th October, 1850. His father was Henare Nihoniho, and his mother Heni Noho-waka, both members of Te Ao-wera, a division of the Ngati-Porou Tribe, of the East Coast.

In the year 1860, Tuta Nihoniho entered the mission-school of Bishop Williams, at Waerenga-a-hika, Poverty Bay, and in the year 1861 his father (Henare Nihoniho) also entered that establishment, in order to be trained as a minister of the Church of England.

In the year 1865 the Rev. Mr. Volckner, a minister of the Church of England at Opotiki, was murdered by Kereopa te Rau and Hauhau people of Taranaki and other places, the eyes of the Rev. Volckner being swallowed by Kereopa te Rau, from which act he derived his title of Kereopa-kai-whatu, or Kereopa the Eye-eater.

In the month of June of the year 1865 all subtribes of Ngati-Porou, as also other people of the East Coast, were assembled at the Popoti pa, situated at Mata-hiia, Waiapu district, partaking of the feast connected with the ceremonial opening of St. Michael's (Mikaera), the church of Henare Nihoniho and his subtribe of Te Ao-wera. They were thus eating, drinking, and enjoying themselves when Mohi Turei appeared upon the scene and made this announcement: "0 Ngati-Porou! The Hauhau who murdered Volckner have entered the bounds of Ngati-Porou, and are inducing the many divisions of Ngati-Porou to turn to their gods Riki and Rura."

The people assembled at Popoti then arranged that Henare Nihoniho and his subtribe of Te Ao-wera should go and expel the Hauhau, and also fetch the guns and ammunition provided by the Government for the loyal Natives, which possibly had been landed at Te Awanui. One Minie rifle (?) had been sent by the Government to Henare, also a flag that was named Hikurangi. 1 The numbers of this party that so went amounted to forty-nine, and their guns were five. They believed that the guns had arrived at Te Awa-nui, hence they did not take more with them---that is, more flintlocks.

When the party arrived at Te Awa-nui, the guns had not yet arrived, and, on the same evening, a messenger arrived to report that

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the Hauhau and loyal Natives had come into collision at Te Poroporo. The forty-nine of Te Ao-wera marched that night, and at dawn on Sunday the Hauhau were attacked at Manga-one. This was on the 20th June, 1865. The loyal Natives had retired, so the forty-nine fought 150 Hauhau, all of whom possessed guns, while the former had but five. These charged with taiaha and meremere (Native weapons); the others charged with guns. Henare Nihoniho had his rifle and thirty cartridges for it. Even so they opposed each other and fought, while the forty-nine were bitten by the guns, and many of their taiaha and mere were chipped and shattered by bullets. Henare Nihoniho fell together with his elders, nine being killed and fifteen wounded. Four Hauhau were slain outright, and nine wounded. Though Te Ao-wera fell before the biting of the guns, yet they saved the bodies of their dead.

Rapata Wahawaha was engaged in that fight, but he was under the command of his relative Henare Nihoniho at that time.

Now, this was the cause of all the fights at Waiapu, Te Kawakawa, Makeronia, 2 Toko-maru, Uawa, Turanga, Te Kopani, and Wai-kare Moana. In the year 1868 the fights connected with Te Kooti commenced on the East Coast.

When Henare Nihoniho was wounded by the gun-fire--and he received two wounds--just prior to his death, he handed his Government rifle to his elder relative, Te Teira Piki-uha, saying, "0, sir! My gun. Take it to my son Tuta Nihoniho, even that when I am dead my gun may be saved as a means whereby to avenge my death in the future." Te Teira at once started with the rifle, and, after four days' cautious travelling through the bush, he appeared within the district of Te Ao-wera, and delivered the gun to Tuta, who carried it in all the engagements which are described below.

After the above fight Te Ao-wera and Rua-taupare No. 2 3 assembled at Tuparoa, and the Natives who had taken the Government side erected Tikitiki as a fighting pa (fortified place), while the Hauhau built Puke-maire as a pa for themselves, the two pa being about one and a half miles apart. The Government side marched from Tikitiki and fired on Puke-maire; when charged by the garrison of Puke-maire they retreated. The Hauhau of Puke-maire charged out in two divisions, one of which was directed against the Government Natives, the other against Tikitiki. The garrison of Tikitiki were outside their fort at the time, very few were within; hence the pa fell and many were slain, while numbers of women and children were captured. Those who escaped fled to Te Hatepe, the pa of Te Mokena

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Kohere and his clan. It was on this day that Tuta Nihoniho and his subclan of Te Ao-wera arrived at Te Hatepe, forty of them having come from Tuparoa. At that time, also, the wounded from Manga-one were lying at Te Hatepe.

After the fall of Tikitiki, Te Ao-wera and Rua-taupare No. 2 occupied Te Hatepe, their numbers amounting to 185, while there were thirty of Te Mokena's people. Hotene Porou-rangi was the only officer of Rua-taupare No. 2 and Te Ao-wera at that time, but on account of a disagreement that arose between Hotene and Tuta Nihoniho, together with the latter's elders, while they were on guard duty at night, the "officership" of Hotene over Te Ao-wera was brought to an end, and he retained that position only in regard to his own clan Rua-taupare No. 2. 4

Te Ao-wera now bestirred themselves to select an officer, inasmuch as Tuta and his nearly-related elders of the Ao-wera were but young folk at the time. In numbers the party amounted to eighty-five, their mature senior being Rapata Wahawaha, although Rapata was not of the Ao-wera clan, he and his young relative Tuta Nihoniho being alike members of a certain clan known as Rakai-roa. It was on this account that Tuta lost no time in saying to Te Ao-wera, "Let my senior, Rapata Wahawaha, be our officer, he being a matured adult."

Inasmuch as Rapata Wahawaha was now elected as the officer commanding Te Ao-wera, Tuta Nihoniho and that clan now loyally supported him in all the fights herein to be related, even unto his attaining his majority.

After this Te Hatepe was attacked by the Hauhau forces of Pakairomiromi and Puke-maire. The Hauhau commenced firing on the pa in the morning, the garrison returning the fire until nightfall, when the Hauhau party retired bearing off their dead and wounded, whose blood and brains lay before the pa.

One week after the above incident news arrived that Tuparoa would ere long be attacked by the Hauhau forces, whereupon Te Ao-wera and Rua-taupare No. 2 returned to Tuparoa, fifty of them remaining at Te Hatepe as allies for Mokena's men and the Europeans. It was at this time that James Fraser and his company of a hundred soldiers arrived.

Those (of Te Ao-wera) who returned to Tuparoa were there three days when they advanced to Wai-o-matatini, and after that Te Horo, the latter place being a village. There were 215 men at Te Horo when the Hauhau of Puke-maire advanced to attack them, the enemy being observed some miles away crossing the Waiapu River.

At the same time that the Hauhau of Puke-maire were seen, the voices of guns were heard from Tikapa, a pa belonging to Government Natives which was being assaulted by the Hauhau of Pakairomiromi.

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Eighty soldiers were now despatched from Te Horo to assist the garrison of Tikapa, while 135 soldiers remained at Te Horo to lie in wait for the Hauhau of Puke-maire. When the party of eighty arrived at Tikapa they found that its defenders had left the pa, which was in possession of the Hauhau, whereupon the pa was invested by the eighty and the survivors of the Ngati-Puwai, the people to whom the place belonged, even until nightfall.

When the Hauhau of Puke-maire advanced to attack Te Horo the force at that place left the village and retired to Ma-kotukutuku, an affluent of the Horo Stream, a little distance off, dropping articles of clothing and other items as they went. They concealed themselves by the creek and awaited the arrival of the enemy, who, finding the village deserted, followed up the trail of the retiring force. On seeing the discarded garments, &c, they pushed quickly on, thinking that the Government party were flying in confusion. At Ma-kotukutuku they received a volley from the ambush that convinced them of their error in trusting to appearances. These Hauhau field, leaving their dead on the field.

In the night the 135 men at Te Horo marched to the assistance of the eighty who were investing Tikapa, and just before dawn the pa was attacked, but the Hauhau had deserted it in the night, some time before the assault, and only their dead were found in the place.

Four days afterwards the Government Natives attacked Pa-kai-romiromi, one of the big Hauhau fortified places, and the European troops joined in the attack. This pa fell, and many Hauhau were slain, but very few of the Government side, while a large number of Hauhau were taken prisoners.

After the above, Puke-maire the biggest pa of the Hauhau party, was attacked. There were six thousand (?) persons in it---men, women, and children. 5 This pa did not fall, but many on both sides were shot, after which the attacking force returned to Wai-o-matatini and Te Hatepe.

Puke-maire was attacked a second time, from early morn until nightfall, while heavy rain fell, and the men were wet to the skin. In the latter part of the afternoon the flanking angle at the south end of the pa was taken, and the Hauhau dead it contained were dragged outside and placed in a heap. The pa did not fall on account of the strength of its earthworks, and the way in which fire could be concentrated on the only place at which it could be entered from the flanking angle. The heavy rain was also a deterring force. Many men were killed on both sides, while others were wounded.

Two days after the above attack Puke-maire was again assaulted, when it was found that the Hauhau had retired to Te Kawakawa and Hungahungatoroa. They were at once pursued by 270 of Te Ao-wera

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and Rua-taupare No. 2, and thirty Europeans under Captain Biggs-- thus 300 men pursued the Hauhau by way of Pakiaka-nui, for by that route the Hauhau party had retreated to Te Kawakawa. The above pursuing party then went straight across country, while Te Mokena Kohere and his clan Ngati-Puwai, with a force of Europeans, 700 in all, marched by the circuitous coast track. Before dawn the 300 were on the move from Wai-o-Matatini, and attacked Te Kawakawa in the afternoon, when the Hauhau were defeated, some being captured, but the majority fled to Hungahungatoroa, which was the large pa. Before dawn the next day the force started and came on the Hauhau party at Kotare--that is, at the Karaka-tuwhero Stream. The two parties fought at that place, and the Hauhau were defeated, the survivors retreating to Hungahungatoroa. The pursuers now rapidly advanced and attacked the pa of Hungahungatoroa, where the enemy inside their huts suffered severely from the gun-fire because none of the earthwork defences had been completed. As the sun was descending a messenger from Te Mokena arrived with a proposal to Rapata and Biggs that a demand should be sent to the occupants of the pa for them to surrender themselves to the authority of the Queen, which demand was acceded to by the Hauhau, who handed in 948 flintlock guns and their spears, taiaha, meremere, patu, and toki--that is, all their man-slaying implements. The prisoners here amounted to five thousand. (?) 6 The Taranaki and Whakatohea section of the Hauhau escaped to the forest, declining to surrender lest they might be punished for having murdered the Rev. Volckner. The oath of allegiance to the Queen was administered to the prisoners. This was the end of fighting within the boundaries of Ngati-Porou. (A party of Te Whakatohea, and also some members of other tribes, including Mehaka Toko-pounamu of Tuhoe, had assisted the Hauhau party of Ngati-Porou in their various engagements.)

When the fighting was going on at Puke-maire the Hauhau folk of Rua-taupare No. 1 at Toko-maru, and the Hau-iti at Uawa, came to assist the Hauhau of Puke-maire, that being the reason why Te Ao-wera and Rua-taupare No. 2 carried the war to Toko-maru and Uawa. A fight occurred at Tuatini, and on the evening of the same day the pa of Puke-papa fell 7 many being slain and captured, though the bulk escaped to Uawa--that is, to Tahutahu-po, the pa of Hau-iti and Ngati-Ira. This place also fell, and many Hauhau were slain, wounded, and captured, albeit the majority of Rua-taupare No. 1 (of Hau-iti) and Ngati-Ira fled to Turanga--that is, to Waerenga-

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a-hika; but few of the Government side were killed or wounded. On the following day the Hauhau were again defeated in a fight at Pakura and the escapees fled also to Waerenga-a-hika.

In December, 1865, a force of Te Ao-wera, Rua-taupare No. 2, and Ngati-Porou followed up Rua-taupare No. 1, Hau-iti, and Ngati-Ira, all the enemy who had withdrawn having assembled at Waerenga-a-hika, the pa of Mahaki (Te Aitanga-a-Mahaki) and Nga-Potiki (tribes of Poverty Bay).

Waerenga-a-hika was now attacked by Ngati-Porou, the Government clans of Turanga. and Europeans. When the attack had continued for three days an assault was made on the Government troops by Rongo-whakaata, Ngati-Maru (of Te Arai), Te Whanau-a-kai. Ngati-Kahungunu, Tamatea, and other clans, on a Sunday morning. This force had arrived from the Puke-amio pa at Pa-tutahi, and were not a part of the Hauhau force in the Waerenga-a-hika pa. They divided into three columns to make the attack, and the two forces came to close quarters, with the result that the Hauhau were defeated with great loss. The Hauhau within the pa remained there as lookers-on at the fighting and the defeat of their friends beneath the shining sun.

When this attack was made the trenches were occupied by Europeans only. The Ngati-Porou chiefs had told their men not to join in the firing that day on account of it being Sunday, but to let the Europeans alone man the trenches. Hence, when the enemy charged the trenches, the Natives were lying in their huts or elsewhere, some sleeping, and many of them with no clothing on. At the first volley they rushed out and ran to the trenches, some of them naked and some clad in shirts only, and joined with the Europeans in repelling the assault. Tuta's garb as he reached the trench consisted of a shirt. The enemy had advanced to the low earthwork, and were engaged in a hand-to-hand fight across it with the defenders. A Hauhau struck a blow with his taiaha at the man next to Tuta, who parried the blow with his gun. The taiaha glanced off the gun-barrel and struck Tuta on the hand breaking one of the bones thereof. This caused him to drop his gun, but he picked it up with the other hand and made shift to drive the bayonet through the body of that Hauhau until the point protruded from the back of the man.

On the following Wednesday the Hauhau force in the Waerenga-a-hika pa surrendered and took the oath of allegiance to the Queen. Six hundred (?) 8 of them were deported to Whare-kauri (Chatham Isles) as prisoners.

It was after the above that Te Ao-wera, Rua-taupare No. 2, and Ngati-Kahungunu (of Te Wairoa) attacked the enemy at Te Kopani (in the Wai-kare-taheke Valley), and on that field were defeated Ngati-Kahungunu. Rongo-whakaata, Tamatea, Ngati-Kohatu, Tuhoe,

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and other Hauhau people. The pa at Te One-poto (Wai-kare Moana) also fell (it was situated on or near the site of Herrick's redoubt of later years). Many of the Government side were slain and wounded, but many more of the Hauhau fell and many were captured, while Te Tuatini, the leading chief of the Hauhau was killed.

[The Native force that was attacked by the Hauhau at Te Kopani was marching on Wai-kare Moana in order to attack the rebel pa situated on its shores, near to Te One-poto. Scouts sent out had seen flags flying at that pa, and had fallen back on the main body. On reaching Te Kopani the force marched across the flat, following the track which passed up a small gully between two low hills. An advance party of ten Natives was ahead and was passing up the gully. As they did so they fired into the fern on either side of the gully, as a hurahura kokoti (ambuscade unmasking), in case any of the enemy should be concealed therein. Just then this small party was fired at by a large number of the enemy, who had thrown up earthworks on the small hills on either side of the gully, the same being concealed by the dense growth of fern. Several of the advance party were killed, and the main body advanced and commenced to fire on the Hauhau. Forty men were sent round to the left to make a flank attack, and these captured the rifle-pits on the left side of the gully, killing many of the enemy, the survivors joining their friends on the other hill. From the captured hill a cross-fire was opened on the other hill, and the fern covering it was set fire to; thus the Hauhau were compelled to fly, having lost many men, as the main body of the contingent swept up the gully. The Hauhau did not retreat by the track to their lake pa, but fled into the fern, scrub, and bush on either side of it. The victors marched straight on the lake and surprised the pa, capturing about thirty men, the bulk of the enemy having been in the ambuscade at Te Kopani, which had been laid when the Hauhau scouts had detected the advance from Te Wa-roa. Tuatini was captured at the lake pa, and was at first spared, but afterwards shot.

Tuta explains that Rapata ordered the fern to be burned, and it was not known that the Hauhau had rifle pits until after the fire had swept over the hills, when the Hauhau reoccupied the pits, and nothing but their heads and shoulders could be seen when they fired. Then the flank attack was delivered, which compelled the enemy to retire.]

The Government forces now returned to their homes, and this was the end of the fighting conducted by Te Ao-wera, Rua-taupare No. 2, Ngati-Porou, and other loyal clans, in order to avenge the shed blood of the Rev. Volckner, minister and servant of the Most High, who had been murdered at Opotiki, and his eyes swallowed, by Kereopa and the Hauhau folk. The fighting would have been confined to those tribes that took part in the murder of Mr. Volckner, but assistance extended to those murderous tribes by certain other tribes caused

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the fighting to spread to the homes of every tribe, clan, and person. In all these actions spoken of above, Hotene Porou-rangi ranked above Rapata Wahawaha.

At the time that the Hauhau of Waerenga-a-hika were conveyed to Whare-kauri, Te Kooti Rikirangi was wrongfully accused by a certain Native, on account of feelings of jealousy towards his own wife, whom Te Kooti wished to take for himself; hence that Native related a concocted tale to Biggs and Wilson, the European officers, and to the Native chiefs. He stated that he had seen Te Kooti Rikirangi giving gun-caps to the Hauhau of Waerenga-a-hika during the fighting. Why did not the European officers and Native chiefs inquire as to the truth of that statement, in order to ascertain its truth or otherwise? This occurred on the very day that the Hauhau were taken on board the steamer. The European officers and Native chiefs seized Te Kooti and flung him like a dog into a boat taking Hauhau out to the steamer. Te Kooti asked, "For what reason am I put in the boat with the Hauhau? I am not a Hauhau!" But what cared Biggs, and Wilson, and Paratene Turangi, and other Native chiefs? All they said to Te Kooti was, "Go on to the boat; go on to the boat." This was the cause of the disturbance raised by Te Kooti in the year 1868--the not inquiring into the charge against him. If it had been proved correct it would have been right to send him with the Hauhau to Whare-kauri; or, if the charge had been proved to be false, for what reason should he have been sent to Whare-kauri? However, Te Kooti was despatched with the Hauhau to Whare-kauri in the year 1866.

In the year 1868 Te Kooti and the other Hauhau escaped from Whare-kauri on a three-masted vessel that had carried stores there for the Hauhau prisoners, while Te Kooti and his people captured the guns of the armed guard placed over the Hauhau; there were, perhaps, twenty-five guns. Six hundred (?) 9 Hauhau thus escaped and landed at Whare-ongaonga, where they allowed the crew of the vessel to take her away.

When the Government side heard of these occurrences they attacked Te Kooti at Whare-ongaonga, where some of his men, women, and children were shot. Te Kooti fled to Papara-tu, to which place he was pursued by the Government forces and fired upon, losing more men. He then fled to Te Konake, and was attacked there, whereupon he fled to Puke-tapu, where the Hauhau erected a pa. 10 They were again attacked by the Government force of Natives and Europeans, one thousand (?) 11 strong, in the Ruakituri Valley, where the Government force was defeated, losing guns and ammunition (?). Thus the

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Hauhau acquired guns, the result being the Turanga (Poverty Bay) massacre. For the space of one day and one night was Turanga put to sleep, even from its source down to the great ocean. Biggs and Wilson were slain by Te Kooti's orders. Paratene Turangi was captured, and Te Kooti said to him, "Greetings, my father who said, 'Go on to the boat; go on the boat.' Son, you go on to the axe." Whereupon Paratene Turangi was cut down with a hatchet and killed --all on account of Te Kooti having been sent to Whare-kauri. Thus Turanga fell, and the men, women, and children of the Government side were taken as captives by Te Kooti, to Ma-karetu and Nga-tapa, to the forest country. There were upwards of two thousand (?) of these captives.

After this, 300 of Ngati-Kahungunu of Napier, seventy of Ngai-Tahu-po, sixty of Rongo-whakaata, forty of Hau-iti, and thirty of Ngati-Porou--in all 500 Maori, besides the Europeans--pursued the enemy. On arriving at Ma-karetu the Government forces came up to the Hauhau, and a fight commenced. The Government force was surrounded by the Hauhau on a hill, where they threw up earthworks whereby to shelter themselves. The tracks by which the pack-horses brought rations and ammunition to the soldiers of the Government side were seized by Te Kooti, who captured 200 (?) pack-saddles with supplies of biscuit, tea, sugar, and twenty-one casks of powder, whilst sixty (?) troopers who were guarding the pack train were killed (?) 12. Hence there was no food or ammunition for the force surrounded by the Hauhau; they were obliged to eat their horses. But enough of this.

Te Ao-wera and Rua-taupare No. 2, under Hotene Porou-rangi and Rapata Wahawaha, numbering 175, were at Whata-roa, inland of Te Wai-roa, together with 126 of Ngati-Kahungunu of Te Wai-roa -- in all, 301 men. They had gone to attack Te Kooti and Nama, 13 on account of Karaitiana and other friendlies having been murdered at Whata-roa by Nama and Te Kooti. 14 As this party proceeded to Whata-roa, Te Kooti passed out on his way to Turanga. In a week a messenger reached the party that had gone to Whata-roa, and reported thus, "Turanga is no more! All have been swept off into eternity by Te Kooti. Nought remains save the flowing waters of Kopututea 15 and Wai-paoa. Man is lost; desolate is the land for all time."

And then all members of the party sank down upon the earth. Their guns fell from their nerveless hands. Their hearts became as water poured out upon the earth. No human voice was heard during the

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whole of that day and the following night. The next morning that party of Ngati-Porou and Ngati-Kahungunu started from Te Kapu, and slept that night at Opou-iti. On the morrow they slept at Te Reinga, the next night at Wai-hau, the next at Tapa-toho, and then came out to Turanga and slept at Pa-tutahi. They took the track leading to Ma-karetu--to the men of the Government side who were surrounded by Te Kooti--camping at night at Te Karaka; on the following night at Whare-kopae, where they heard the voices of guns in the distance. On that night they despatched a reliable man to convey a message to the party surrounded by the Hauhau, as follows: "We will attack Te Kooti's lines in the rear to-morrow. As soon as you see us, cease firing. Let me do the fighting, you remain within your defences and look on, keeping a good look out for our Queen's flags. 16

On the next morning the force was astir before daybreak, and advanced to the rear of Te Kooti's earthworks under cover of adjacent hills. Before the party was seen by Te Kooti's men it had seized the first three lines of earthworks. The Hauhau now all assembled within their central defence, where Nama (of Ngati-kahungunu), Te Kooti's chief officer, was stationed with 300 picked men. But what was that to the men of Te Ao-wera and Rua-taupare, for the hearts of these men were dried up within them, and the blood of their hearts was dark, even from the time of the fall of Turanga at the hands of Te Kooti; swift were their feet on the march, ceaseless were the voices of the guns and the voices of men.

Ere long the main pa fell, and no survivor escaped, 17 Nama and his men were slain at that time. Great numbers of Hauhau were slain, and thus the beleaguered party was rescued. But Te Kooti, with the bulk of his people--men, women, children, and captives-- had removed to Nga-tapa, the principal fortified pa.

When Nama was slain his body was roasted by the relatives of Karaitiana and others who had been murdered at Whata-roa. As the body roasted on the fire these men stuck sticks into it, which caused fat to exude from the body and run into the fire, where it blazed up; then these sticks were used to light their pipes with. Had not Ngati-Porou and Ngati-Kahungunu of Heretaunga been present, then the body of Nama would have been eaten like that of a sheep by Ngati-Kahungunu of Te Wai-roa. Now, this was the cause of the defeat experienced by the attacking party at the first assault of Nga-tapa-- that is, the maltreating of the body of Nama. (The lighting of their pipes with sticks that had been prodded into the body of Nama was deemed an act of cannibalism, hence the gods punished them with the reverse at Nga-tapa.)

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After two nights had been passed at Ma-karetu the two bodies of friendly Natives joined forces, making 800 men, and advanced against Nga-tapa. Thirty-four men, consisting of Tuta and his relatives of Te Ao-wera, acted, as scouts in front of the main body, and approached within about a chain of the pa, at a place where the bush had been felled, while the main body remained within the forest, where they rested, many of them going to sleep.

After the party of scouts had waited for some time for the main body to come up, they were observed and fired upon by a look-out man of Te Kooti's party. At this first discharge the main body was so startled, the men being asleep, that they ran away, leaving the scouts in their position near the pa. When the Hauhau saw the force running away, they opened fire on them from their defences, while the thirty-four of Te Ao-wera fired at the pa. This act was the salvation of the main body from Te Kooti, whose men had to turn their attention to the small force, so that the main body did not suffer in their flight. Hotene fled with the body of fugitives. They heard the sound of the guns of Te Ao-wera and the Hauhau as they came into conflict, and the voices of the Te Ao-wera shouting, --

Charge! O the Ao-wera! Charge! Charge!
Attack them, O To Ao-wera! Attack! Attack!
Fire, O To Ao-wera! Fire! Fire!

The object of these cries being that those of Te Ao-wera who were among the fleeing mob might hear and return to assist their clansmen who were assailing the pa. Some of the fleeing Ao-wera heard the war cries and returned, thus bringing up the numbers of Te Ao-wera attacking the pa to forty-seven, who stuck to it from morn until nightfall. In the evening two of the earthworks of the pa were taken, 18 and the Hauhau dead dragged out and put in a heap, while heavy rain descended until water flowed into the skin of man. Hunger was another vexation, for food, tents, and clothing were at Ma-karetu, whither the fugitives of the Government force had fled. The attacking party kindled fires in the trenches whereat to dry their clothing and guns, so that the guns might be dry even though men's bodies were wet. 19 Six of this party were killed, and nine wounded.

Rapata and Te Ao-wera fought on until the morning, and on to noon, waiting for Te Hotene to bring back the people who had run away, but waited in vain. At noon, Te Ao-wera retired with their wounded, having buried their dead in the bottom of the trenches, over which places they made fires, lest the bodies be discovered by the Hauhau. Even so, Te Ao-wera retired, and were not pursued by the Hauhau.

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It was on account of their behaviour in this affair that Rapata Wahawaha was raised to the rank of major, and that Te Hotene lost standing. From these circumstances originated a song that was acted and sung by the women of the east coast, as follows:--

O all ye people who crouched within rifle pits!
As Te Ao-wera attacked as one man;
O, sir! Rapata, let your voice be raised
To extol the fame of Te Ao-wera.

So the men now returned to their homeland, as Rapata had said that he would return to Tuparoa (to raise more men) ere he came back to attack Nga-tapa. Thus the force returned to Turanga-nui, followed by Te Kooti and his thirty mounted men, who lay in ambush at Te Ahi-pakura, a track entering one end of the bush of Pipi-whakao in its course from Mata-whero to Te Arai. Many persons--Native, European, and half-castes--were slain by Te Kooti at that place. 20 Of three scouts sent out by Ngai-Tahu-po, two were caught and one escaped, though closely pursued. He was fired upon, and the shots were heard by Ngai-Tahu-po, who advanced and thus rescued the scout. Ngai-Tahu-po fired upon Te Kooti, who was, however, well sheltered within the forest, for when Ngati-Porou joined Ngai-Tahu-po shots were heard at Puke-amio (which the enemy had reached), where Colonel Whitmore had tried to surround the enemy with eighty mounted men. Some of the Europeans were killed, 21 and some guns were captured by the Hauhau. When the party of Ngati-Porou and Ngai-Tahu-po arrived at Puke-amio, Te Kooti and his mounted men were far on the forest road to Nga-tapa, without having lost a man.

Ngati-Porou returned to Tuparoa, and when they came back Nga-tapa was attacked for the second time. Four hundred of Ngati-Porou took part in the assault, as also a hundred Arawa, fifty of the Hau-iti, seventy of Ngai-Tahu-po, with Ihaka Whanga, and ninety of Rongo-Whakaata: in all. 710 Natives and 1,000 (?) Europeans, the whole force thus numbering 1,710. (?) So Nga-tapa was assaulted, the fighting continuing for nine days, when the place fell, being abandoned during the night, the occupants descending the cliff by means of a rope. The garrison left their dead in the pa, as also the friendly Natives captured at the time of the massacre at Turanga (Poverty Bay). The Hauhau were pursued in the forest, many being slain and captured. Te Kooti and his people fled to the Tuhoe (Ure-wera) district.

After this Te Kooti attacked settlements at Uawa, and, on being pursued by Government forces, again fled to the Tuhoe district.

After this Te Kooti was chased by Ngati-Porou and Whanga-nui in the Tuhoe country, where Whanga-nui came across him at Tauwhare-

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manuka (on the Tauranga River), where an action took place. 22 Te Kooti then went to Wai-o-weka--that is, to Marae-tai --a pa belonging to the Whakatohea and other Hauhau people. The Whanga-nui force went to Ohiwa and Opotiki. to wait for Ngati-Porou. When the latter arrived at Ohiwa, Whanga-nui marched up the Otara River, so as to cut across country and get in rear of Marae-tai, while Ngati-Porou entered the Waio-weka River and reached Marae-tai in a three days' march. There, at a narrow pass, Hauhau sentries were posted, preventing any advance. Ngati-Porou then fell back down stream, and fifty men clambered over the ranges and through the forest, advancing warily to gain the place occupied by the Hauhau look-out men. Meanwhile the main body of Ngati-Porou remained by the river. When the party of fifty came opposite the Hauhau look-out men, they fired upon them, killing some, while others escaped into the forest; thus the pass was opened for the passage of the main body. So the main body now advanced, the voices of guns and men being now heard. The pa was taken at the first charge, Te Kooti and others escaping. Many of the enemy were slain, and many captured, the only satisfaction obtained by the Hauhau being the wounding of one man. The Hauhau fugitives fled up the Wai-o-weka to Te Tahora, at which place the force of Whanga-nui was lurking about to catch the escapees from Marae-tai. Many Hauhau were slain, and many captured by Whanga-nui, whereupon Te Kooti again fled, and Ngati-Porou and Whanga-nui returned to their homes.

After this it was reported that Te Kooti was at Wai-kare Moana, whereupon Ngati-Porou, Ngati-Kahungunu of Te Wai-roa, NgatiRakai-paaka, and some Europeans went and occupied Te One-poto, at Wai-kare Moana, where they constructed boats to enable them to search the inlets of the lake for Te Kooti. As he was not there, the force returned home.

After this, a party of Ngati-Pahau-wera made an expedition to Tuku-rangi, and, during its absence, Te Kooti and his force passed through to Mohaka. Te Kooti spent a day in slaughtering the people of Mohaka, numbers of Ngati-Pahau-wera being killed at various places in the open. On the following day one of the local pa fell to the enemy, by means of a treacherous peacemaking on their part. The other pa escaped this fate, and when the Ngati-Pahau-wera force returned from Tuku-rangi it attacked the enemy, when Te Kooti retreated by way of Te Putere to Wai-kare Moana.

A force of Ngati-Porou, Te Ao-wera. and Rua-taupare No. 2 was now organized, numbering 300. On arriving at Turanga, the force was divided, 150 of Te Ao-wera under Major Rapata going by way of Mohaka to follow Te Kooti as far as the Tuhoe district, and 150 of. Rua-taupare, under Captain Porter and Captain Hotene, going by Maungapohatu to the Tuhoe district.

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Te Ao-wera marched by Mohaka to Wai-kare Moana, where they caught Ngai-Tara-paroa and Ngati-Kohatu. 23 The force came out at Tikitiki, one of the pa of Tuhoe. At that time the Government had concluded a peace with Tuhoe. The force crossed the lake to Te One-poto, and marched by way of Wai-kare-iti and Wai-maha to Anini, whence they made for the Tuhoe district. The supplies of the force being exhausted, they lived upon fern-root, hinau and tawa berries for three months as they toiled through forests never before trodden by human feet. On arriving at Tauranga (head of the river termed Wai-mana by Europeans) they saw, in a Tuhoe potato-ground the cartridge-shells of Captain Porter's force (at Opokere), and found the Hauhau dead buried in the potato-field. The force moved on to Taura-wharona, to Tauaki, and Te Kakari, where Captain Porter and his party were. The two forces now combined, and marched to Rua-tahuna, to seek Kereopa-kai-whatu throughout all parts of the Tuhoe district, as the Government had offered £5,000 for the capture of Te Kooti, and £1,000 for Kereopa Kai-whatu.

Ngati-Porou built a pa at Tatahoata (at Kiritahi, on the right-hand bank of the Mana-o-rongo Stream), Rua-tahuna district., naming it Kohi-marama, on account of the many months they had been traversing the forests in search of Te Kooti, and of their suffering from hunger, whereby some of Ngati-Porou perished in the bush.

When the pa was completed, parties of Ngati-Porou were sent out in search of Te Kooti and Kereopa. Kereopa was captured at Tuapuku (at Ohaua-te-rangi), one of the large Tuhoe pa. Te Kooti fled to Wai-kato--that is, to Te Kuiti--to dwell among the "King" Natives.

Kereopa having been captured, seventy of the force were selected to convey him to Napier, the principal officers being Major Rapata, Captain Porter, and Captain Hotene, while Lieutenant Tuta Nihoniho and Lieutenant Watene Ketua were detailed to guard Kereopa on the march and in camp--one being on either side of him continually while marching or sleeping--besides the ordinary guard over Kereopa, which was constantly on duty day and night, in camp or on the march. (Besides these two officers watching in the prisoner's tent at night, a guard was mounted at the front of the tent outside, and another in the rear.) 24

On arriving at Te Wai-roa, forty of the escort were there left, while they conducted Kereopa to Napier on the steamer. Arrived at Napier. Kereopa was handed over to the gaol police, and the £1,000 for the capture of Kereopa was paid over. Thus was fulfilled the remark in the song concerning Kereopa-- "It was Kereopa who ate Volckner: (for which) ere long you shall be lacerated."

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The escort returned to the force still at Kohi-marama. and now Ngati-Porou returned to their own land, Te Kooti having settled permanently at Te Kuiti, until finally pardoned by the Government. And now. here is the conclusion of the troubles on the East Coast, and the weapons rest in the house.

In after days Tuta Nihoniho was appointed captain of the Ngati-Porou Rifles, and the Queen sent him a sword of honour in remembrance and recognition of the bravery and loyalty to the Queen, throughout all the fighting herein described, of Tuta Nihoniho and his clan of Te Ao-wera. On that sword are inscribed the words, "The Ao-wera Clan, Ngati-Porou Rifles."

The origin of this clan-name of Te Ao-wera was a warrior ancestor of former times, a single line genealogy from whom is given below:--

[Names from the whakapapa: Te Ao-wera, Tu-te-rangi-pakuu, Manu-kai-po, Ta-mokai, Takanga-i-waho, Koro-kainga-tua, Kai-rakau. Te Au-iti, Kopare-huia, Te Rangi-ka-matau, Hiku-rangi, Te Ina-puku, Henare Nihoniho, Heeni Noho-waka, Tuta Nihoniho, Hariata, Timi Kara, Rongo-te-hengia.]

No advantage would be gained by any further following up of this subject. This is simply to show that the name of Te Ao-wera originated in that of a famed warrior of olden times. When Tu-teuruhina was treacherously slain by Ngati-Ira at Manga-raataa, Ngati-Ira were attacked by Te Ao-wera, by Te Atau and his young relatives at Te Rau-whakapua, at Tahuna-hakeke, at Makomako, at Te Whakaiho-puku, and at Titi-kura; in which fights Ngati-Ira were defeated, and their lands at Pou-turu, Puke-kura, Pua-te-roku, Parae-roa, Whakamaru-tuna, Pae-kawa, Kotore-paia, Rangi-kohua, Te Ngaere, Aniwaniwa, and other places were seized and retained unto this day. His son, Tute-rangi-pakuu, took part in those engagements.

Ta-mokai was a famed warrior in his fighting with Tupu-kai, Paakaa and Ure, when he seized Wai-tahaia; as also in his war with Tohi-te-ururangi and the people of the north, when Puputa was captured, and a huata (spear) lunged at Ta-mokai missed him and its point stuck in a kauere tree.

Koro-kainga-tua was also a warrior. When Tieki-kainga was slain by a party of Te Whanau-a-Apanui at Papa-o-kaumatua -- he and also his children being killed -- Koro-kainga-tua, who was the

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elder brother of Tieki-kainga, was followed, by the enemy and overtaken at Wai-ngata, where the two parties fought, Te Whanau-a-Apanui being defeated with heavy loss. The scene of this fight was given the name of Huri-ki-taha-wai (overflow banks) because the stream was so filled with bodies of the dead that the waters thereof overflowed the banks. Te Roro-o-te-rangi, the chief of the force of Te Whanau-a-Apanui, was slain by Te Au-iti.

Coming to Rau-aruhe-roa, we note another scene of Koro-kainga-tua's fighting against Te Whanau-a-Apanui.

Te Rangi-ka-matau achieved fame by his acting against Te Whanau-a-Apanui at the time when Ngati-Porou were defeated, at Whare-kura. He and his younger brothers, Kautete and Pou-ra-mua, were pursued by a number of the enemy, but they killed their pursuers; and they, with their clan of Te Ao-wera, also took part in the avenging of the defeat at Whare-kura by Ngati-Porou, Ngati-Kahungunu, and. other clans. This was Te Kaha-nui-a-tiki, and, as Jesus Christ had arrived at this time, the bodies of the dead were not eaten.

Te Ina-puku was a woman, and a courageous one; it was she who rallied Te Whanau-a-Rakai-roa by shouting the war cry 25 at Te Awa-rua, when Te Whanau-a-Rua-taupare No. 1, of Tokomaru, avenged the death of Pou-ra-mua, who had been treacherously slain by Te Whanau-a-Rakai-roa at Omaru-mangamanga. This woman accompanied many war-expeditions--to Te Pourewa at Uawa and to Te Kaha-nui-a-tiki.

Heeni Noho-waka was also a courageous woman who assisted in avenging the death of her husband, Henare Nihoniho, who was killed by the Hauhau at Manga-one in the year 1865. In the two attacks on Puke-maire she took part with her clan, Te Ao-wera, when fighting the Hauhau. When going into action she wore two cartridge-belts and carried a single-barrel percussion-lock gun, termed a hakimana or tiakimana. She was also with the force of Te Ao-wera and Ruataupare No. 2 that pursued the Hauhau of Puke-maire to Te Kawakawa and Hungahungatoroa, and when the Hauhau and Government forces came into conflict on the field of Kotare, at the Karaka-tuwhero Stream, she was just behind her son, Tuta Nihoniho, firing at the enemy, and ever crying amid the roar of the guns, "Charge! O Te Ao-wera! Charge! Charge!" A bullet just missed her and struck Peta Rirerire, who was just behind her, killing him. Te Ao-wera heard her encouraging cries amid the sound of the guns, and all rushed headlong at the Hauhau, who fell before them under the shining sun. This woman joined many of the expeditions of Te Ao-wera to the wars. She was in the second attack on Nga-tapa, when that place was taken, where she shouted the same war-cry that she did at Karaka-tuwhero. By this time the Hauhau had come to recognize her voice in giving that cry, and thus knew that the

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Ao-wera were attacking them; hence they fled in haste in order to save themselves. This woman held similar views to those of her son, Tuta Nihoniho -- namely, to hand the body over to the clutches of death, a feeling prompted by the affection of the saddened heart of Heeni for her husband and of Tuta for his father, who had fallen by the hand of the enemy; therefore life was not prized by these survivors. Enough on this point.

Te Manu-kai was a capable chieftainess who held all the mana of the lands of her ancestor of Te Ao-wera, and she was the woman of highest rank in that clan.

Takanga-i-waho was a warrior chief who escaped the fate of his father Kokere, brother-in-law of Ta-mokai, when killed by a force of Apa-nui. It was Takanga-i-waho and his cousin Koro-kainga-tua who avenged this death at Rau-aruhe-roa, and so equalized matters.

Te Kai-rakau was a warrior, one of those who narrowly escaped being slain by Nga-puhi at Tau-ki-Hikurangi. The clan was saved by the bravery of Kai-rakau. who was himself slain.

Te Kopare-huia gained distinction in the fighting of Te Whanau-a-Rua-taupare No. 1 against Te Ao-wera and Te Aitanga-a-mate at Wai-piro, on account of Tawhaki. Rua-taupare No. 2 were defeated by Te Ao-wera, but those people were related to each other. Rua-taupare fled to Te Wai-kari, but returned, and Te Ao-wera and Te Aitanga-a-mate were defeated that time.

Hikurangi was a man whose courage saved him from the party of Hou-taketake at Wetea, inland of Wai-tahaia, for all the persons of the camp of Te Ao-wera at Wetea--some thirty, who were planting potatoes--were slain, being attacked by a force of Ngati-Ira, Hau-iti, and Rua-taupare No. 1, under Hou-taketake. Hikurangi was chased, but he killed four of his pursuers and escaped from his enemies. Afterwards the disaster was avenged, Ngati-Ira and Hau-iti being defeated, while Tautoru. the chief of those clans, was captured by Hikurangi and eaten alive, 26 in order to lighten the hearts of the relatives of those slain at Wetea. Ngati-Porou and Hikurangi went to take part in defeating the force under Mauri that fell before the tribes of Turanga at Turi-haua, but, on their arrival, Mauri had already been defeated.

Hikurangi and Te Ao-wera, thirty of them, were surrounded by a force of two hundred Ngati-Porou at Te Pakira during a quarrel over food. The two hundred fired upon the thirty of Te Ao-wera, but when the latter and Hikurangi turned upon them, the two hundred were defeated, a number of them being slain and captured. The majority escaped by flying to the forest, though their guns were captured.

Hikurangi also joined the force that fought at Toka-a-kuku, and took part in the fighting with the Hauhau, being one of the party of eighty that went to the assistance of Tikapa. He was also in the two

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attacks on Puke-maire, though an old man, being about eighty years old at that time.

Henare Nihoniho was in but one fight, in which he was killed. He was forty years of age at the time of his death, but, indeed, death is ever the particular garment of the warrior (otira, ko tenei taonga ko te mate he tino kakahu no tenei hanga no te toa).

Here endeth the explanatory items regarding the name of Te Ao-wera. Te Ao-wera had many famed warriors as descendants who are not mentioned in this account. But the East Coast people well know this clan to be a courageous and dashing people--not afflicted with fears, doubts, or any weaknesses in battle--who do not retreat, though the result be the death of all on the field, but rather let them all lie there together as a subject for talk by the enemy before the world.

The remarks on the signs of Tu-ka-riri and Tu-ka-nguha (god of war) have not been included in this chronicle, but will be written in another, under the title of "Uenuku," for the perusal of Maori youths, that they may be learned in such things in case they come to bear arms at some future time. Let them not forget their ancestor Uenuku, the god of their forefathers when they crossed the Great Ocean of Kiwa before us.

In the above account two things have been omitted--the numbers of Hauhau and of Government forces slain, and the names of those slain, lest they distress the descendants thereof.

In the year 1897 Captain Tuta Nihoniho was selected by the Government as officer to command the Maori Contingent of New Zealand at the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria, but, as Tuta was suffering from illness at the time, he was unable to go, hence Tunui-a-rangi was appointed to take his place.

In the year 1899 the war between the Boers and the English commenced, when Captain Tuta Nihoniho sent a petition to Wi Pere, member for the East Coast, containing a request to the Parliament of New Zealand that a message be sent to the Government of England offering the services of Tuta Nihoniho and five hundred Native troops as comrades in arms for the English troops on the field of war, as a spectacle for other nations. However, as a rule had been made that dark-skinned people should not be allowed to take part in the war, that petition was not acceded to.

But, indeed, the wisest course for the Government of New Zealand to pursue is one of watchfulness -- namely, to train all the Maori youths of New Zealand to bear arms until they are thoroughly competent, inasmuch as it is not known when evil days may come upon the Island: so that when such a state of things comes to pass we may be prepared for it, and the Native youths and their relatives --that is, the European youths born in New Zealand, and termed natives--may go forth together, confident in their knowledge of how to act before an enemy coming hither to seize their beautiful island of New Zealand.

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Some details of the chronicle herein contained may have been missed or misplaced; and he who detects the same can make the necessary corrections. If no fault be found with it, let no disparagement thereof be made in after-days, for it is late in the day to write of these matters, which occurred in 1865 and continued to 1870. From that time to this year of 1912 lies a long interval of forty-two years.

As Tuta Nihoniho has handed over the sword known as Te Ao-wera for the Government to preserve in the Museum at Wellington, it was on this account that a request was made for the above narrative.

The war-songs sung by Te Ao-wera and Rua-taupare No. 2, when performing the war-dance, are here given: -- The signal to rise--

Aue--e--e--e! O arise!

The performers bound to their feet, the gun-butts are darted upwards, the dance begins.

Aue--e--e---e! Taranaki is bested,
Wai-kato is bemired and Tauranga powerless.
Your tongue was outthrust in the days of your useless blustering.
Now are ye bemired in the treacherous soil---pou--a--a.


I persist! I persist! I persist!
Against Kereopa Kai-whatu;
Against my karaka ripening in the summer sun.
The obstructing Government is alert,
A swerve inward--au--au!
Open outward--au--au!
That treachery may flee afar beyond the hills,
To turn and gaze at us. A--e! A--e! A--a!

In this effusion Kereopa is compared to a karaka berry gradually ripening; when fully ripe it was plucked and eaten---i.e., he was caught and hung.

1   Prior to this time, many of Ngati-Porou were disaffected (tarahaehae); hence those Natives who were loyal to the Government had asked the latter to supply them with arms and ammunition, as a collision was feared or expected.
2   Makeronia (a Biblical name) was a pa of Te Hou-ka-mau, a loyal Native, at Mata-kawa.
3   The clans known as Rua-taupare are descended from two ancestors of that name. They were divided during the war--one division, termed No. 1 in this narrative, joined the Hauhau party; the other, called No. 2 herein, fought on the Government side. No. 1 belonged to Toko-maru, and No. 2 to Tuparoa.
4   Hotene and a few others had obtained liquor, and were noisy while on night duty; hence the disagreement.
5   It is stated in Gudgeon's "Reminiscences of the War in New Zealand" that Puke-maire contained about 500 fighting-men.
6   The number of prisoners is given in Gudgeon's work as 500. Tuta's estimate is an absurd one.
7   As the friendlies were on the march they met a party of Hauhau from Pukepapa at Tuatini, and fired on them, killing some. The fire was returned, and one friendly Native wounded. The enemy then fell back on Puke-papa, an earthwork pa at Toko-maru, which was attacked and taken the same day, the friendlies losing one man killed and three wounded. The attacking force also lost one man at Tahutahu-po, which was also an earthwork pa.
8   Much exaggerated.
9   Those numbers are a great exaggeration. There were about 200 (or upwards) Hauhau prisoners at the Chathams; Colonel Porter says 280.
10   The Hauhau force really gained the advantage in these affairs.
11   The numbers given are often much exaggerated: 130 Europeans and sixty Natives made this attack.
12   Provisions and ammunition were so captured, but no persons were killed.
13   Nama was a chief of Ngati-Kahungunu.
14   Karaitiana, Te Roto-a-tara, and four others were murdered while asleep.
15   Name of lower part of the Wai-paoa River, from Te Arai to the sea, that, prior to 1841, flowed nearly parallel to the beach for some distance ere entering the sea at Awa-puni.
16   The Native contingent carried four flags for use on such occasions, so as to be recognized by friends.
17   The usual and recognized exaggeration of Maori narrative.
18   The earthwork first taken was undermined, bayonets and sticks being used in this work. Some spades were found in the captured trenches, which were afterwards useful.
19   When their guns got wet they dried them at the fires, loaded and fired a few rounds, and then dried them again, and so on.
20   In Gudgeon's "Reminiscences," it is stated that two Europeans and one Native were killed here.
21   Only one man killed.
22   Te Kooti was not present at this affair.
23   These people were found living at Wairau Moana, principally at Marau-nui.
24   During this journey, says Major Large, Kereopa kept saying, "Kore rawa nei oka hara; kore rawa, kore rawa." (I have committed no crime; no, none whatever).
25   Nana i tapa te whana -- a curious expression. She ordered the charge.
26   He was tied, his body slashed with stone knives, and the flowing blood drunk.

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