UENUKU, OR KAHUKURA (THE RAINBOW GOD OF WAR): BEING ADVICE TO YOUNG SOLDIERS WHEN GOING INTO ACTION.
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UENUKU, OR KAHUKURA (THE RAINBOW GOD OF WAR): BEING ADVICE TO YOUNG SOLDIERS WHEN GOING INTO ACTION.
BY TUTA NIHONIHO.
THIS chronicle is intended for the perusal, study, and consideration of Native youths in the future time, for the time may come when they will be trained in the paths of war. Therefore, o ye Maori youths, should you take part in the wars of the future, be careful lest ye forget your ancestor Uenuku, the god of your forefathers, by whose help they crossed the Great Ocean of Kiwa that lies before us.
The first item for consideration as an omen is in regard, to the direction of affairs and the appearances or manifestations of man in the daytime, also the conduct of affairs and dreams during the night. For the Furthest One has said that wisdom is uttered by the voice of each day, and that each night declareth knowledge.
Ere you go forth to fight display your legs to your women, young folk, and old men in what is termed a war-dance. Your women will never fail to observe the omens of the dance--the correctness of attitudes or mistakes committed. When your women are seen by you advancing with distorted faces by the side of your column, or columns, the rising of Tu-te-ihiihi, of Tu-te-wanawana (the war god), you then know that your legs will assail the stars in the heavens and the earth mother below (1). But should you commit errors and not deport yourself correctly, then assuredly you will not see your women dancing and grimacing, because apprehension has seized them, for from them comes the blood of the performing men that is to be borne into the fray and poured forth upon the land. So then you are aware that an error has been made in your dancing, therefore be cautious--it is a malignant demon (the devil to pay)--wait a while and see if the evil omen does not pass by; or look carefully at your ancestor Uenuku, who will urge you on or restrain you. Should he be seen by you standing in the form of a bow over the track behind you as you face your enemy, go on, for that is the time when your enemy will be delivered into your hand by the god. March swiftly, even though rain or snow assail you; go on, that you may lay hold of your enemy. But if your ancestor be arched in front of you to block your advance, do not by any means disregard him, but retire. If, however, you still have a strong desire to advance, be sure not to enter within his arched form, but turn to your left and proceed in a circuitous manner, taking two or three days to make such a detour, before you turn to
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advance in the direction of your enemy. Be your eyes steadfast to observe all the manifestations of your ancestor to yourself either by day or night; his name being Tu-Korako 1 at night, and Kahukura in the daytime. Should he again block your passage, then you must absolutely return. If his bow appears before you and you advance and enter it. then misfortune awaits you beyond him. He is just showing himself to you, for he is the abiding covenant (2) between the god and man.
The second token to be studied is this: to carefully view the hiko (distant lightning), besides the uira and the kanapu (3), for the hiko betokens the blood of chiefs who are to fall in battle, or be drowned, or burnt to death, or die a natural death; hence it will be well to explain as to the field of battle. If the two sides are about equal for the coming fray, and the hiko lights upon the field, examine it clearly. If the lightning is in the region of your enemy, or on the great ranges in his vicinity, and the source from which it emanated is on the right hand, then you know that you yourself sent that lightning as a sympathetic greeting for the high caste blood; your enemies will soon fall beneath the shining sun.
But if the lightning is on the side toward you, or over your great ranges or sacred places, remember that you will fall before your enemy; therefore reflect and be wary: follow not the precepts of the ignorant, but rather those of the thoughtful; rearrange your affairs and postpone your attack, for you have chanced upon evil days.
The third sign to be considered: Study carefully the flashings of lightning and the gleaming of the horizon, and list carefully to the sound of the thunder, whereby you will be able to detect the lucky sounds and the ominous ones, the hoarse rumbling sound, the sharp crackling sound, or the low continued muttering (4). If the thunder commences to sound above you and rumbles towards the region of your enemies, you know that it is your thunder directed by you. If the thunder gives forth a crackling sound, it is urging the hasty completion of all matters agreed upon or arranged for. If its sound, however, is a loud booming or crashing, that counsels delay in the carrying-out of arranged plans. Or if it is merely the low rumbling sound, then you know that the Most High is carefully directing the conclusion of affairs, and the result may be good or evil; therefore be diligent in detecting the meaning of this sound--that of the good omen and that of the bad. If the sound of the thunder be propitious, then all will go well; if ominous, then misfortune is indicated, whether in regard to war, or omens, or the year, or a season. James says, "All good gifts come from above; all things really suitable emanate
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from the parent of enlightenment, who is changeless and casts no shadow."
The flashing of the uira and kanapu is equivalent in meaning to that of the hiko--if the glare be red. (vivid), it betokens death on the battlefield; if pale, a natural death.
The fourth subject for investigation is this: Study carefully the subject of twitchings (convulsive starts, as of muscles of the limbs and body). If your arm or arms, your leg or legs, or your head be jerked or thrown outwards from the body, you at once call out to your companions, "0 friends! I have had a tamaki." Whereupon they will inquire, "In which direction?" You may reply, "Towards the mountain yonder." Then your companions will remark. "Our enemy is at that place." Now, after such an occurrence, wait quietly to see if your tamaki will make a return manifestation. If the hand or hands clutch, or the leg or legs, or head of that person, or of one of his companions, is jerked somewhat gently inwards, that is a good omen: the tamaki is repressed, and such an occurrence is termed a hau korero (the enemy is talking about you and discussing plans to attack you).
Now, if you have an outward tamaki (start), which is afterwards returned in a somewhat violent manner, whether by the arm or arms, leg or legs, or by the head jerking inwards from the direction in which the first convulsive start was directed, then the person experiencing such will cry, "O friends! my tamaki has returned in a vigorous manner, impelled by the brow of man." Be cautious, at dawn or later the enemy will attack you.
There are many different manifestations of the takiri: a vigorous one is a tamaki; if the body heaves upwards it is a hotu; if one dreams of the throwing of some object (such as a spear) and it developes into a takiri, such an incident is termed a tuhi. 2 If you dream that you throw an object, and have a takiri at the time, that is termed a maka, and it foretokens that you will soon go to the place you dreamed of as having been at when you threw the object. There are a number of takiri and taha kapakapa (the latter expression is applied to a twitching of the muscles of the side, or thigh, or shoulder) that affect man. These signs do not appear at random: it is only the prompting of Tu-ka-riri and Tu-ka-nguha (god of war) that causes such manifestations. But, however, my sons, in your first campaign you will acquire knowledge concerning the taha kapakapa, which may affect your left side or your right, as also in regard to your takiri: by experience shall you learn the meaning of these things as they affect you in the days that lie before. With some persons the left side is the lucky one, with others it is the right side that is lucky. Therefore it is meet that the persons who have the takiri and taha kapakapa should explain the correctness and truth of such things.
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Fifth subject for consideration: When you go to the wars, on the day you start from your home, abide firmly by the following items: First, let food for the journey be carefully cooked: if it turns out to be thoroughly cooked, it is a good omen; if undercooked, it is unlucky, an evil omen: think it over, consider the matter. Secondly, be discreet in your behaviour, be not irascible or prone to murmur, interfere not with others, or speak harshly to them. Have nothing to do with any undesirable or evil act, lest such afflict you when in action. Sufficient for you be tractability and a comely demeanour, also obedience to all directions in regard to the fighting, a cleaving of the heart to God that he may assist and protect you in the time of trouble.
When you are marching in a body to war, do not march in solid column (better to move in open order, and not in the foolish manner adopted by European troops), but have scouts out ahead and in the rear. And let the scouts in front have two kiore out ahead of them to search the forest, and gullies, and rocks for your enemies. See that those kiore do not keep together, but let one be five or six chains in advance of the other, lest both of the kiore (rats) be captured (5). Because those kiore are persons who have been handed over to death (i. e., have been assigned most dangerous duty) they were separated, so that if one of them be captured the other escapes to convey the news to the toro (scouts) behind and to the main body. Or, if one of them escapes capture, is fired on by the enemy and slain, the shots will be heard by the scouts behind and by the main body, who will then know that the enemy is before them, and will warily approach the scene of the firing. Then, again, if there are no scouts out advancing in front of the main body, but the advance is simply that of a column, possibly your enemy has arranged ambuscades for you among hills, or forests, or gullies, or canyons, while you, advancing in ignorance thereof, will learn of them only by the sound of the guns; thus, when the knowledge is acquired, you are all prone on the earth under the biting of the bullets.
The uplifted voice (war-cry) is an important item in fighting. However loud the roar of the guns, let the shouting voice be heard, "Charge! O [mentioning here the name of the clan or tribe] Charge! Charge!" Whereupon your enemy will break, retire, fly. Likewise, the clan or tribe whose name is thus shouted out--both sinews and bodies will be braced to rush recklessly toward that calling voice-- sustained by sympathy and a like mind that all should fall together on the field rather than be defeated or than disregard the cry, to remain hereafter a subject for the discourse of the enemy before the world.
Bullets may be avoided. If the act of firing is seen, then a swift turning is one mode of avoiding the bullet; to duck down is another; to jump upward another. It is well to have your eyes fixed on the
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muzzle of the gun of your opponent at the moment the flame and smoke appear, the very commencement of the firing; that is the moment to avoid the shot, turn swiftly, and the ball passes by. Remember also at the time when you are firing, and if your enemy is in a pa, or such cover as bush or rocks, it is a good thing for you to heap up earth, or stones, or timber as a breastwork for yourself, to ward off the bullets of your enemy, also to serve as a rest for your guns when firing at the enemy. Be sure to remember to study the wind at such a time, and if it is blowing from your left point the muzzle of your gun to the right side of your enemy (as he faces you), then the thrust of the wind will about bring the bullet of your gun in line with your enemy. If the fight is going on under hills, observe the wind, and if the wind is blowing downwards from the ranges line the muzzle of your gun on the head of your enemy, the wind will depress the bullet so as to strike him in the breast or stomach. Should the fight occur among hills, and the wind is an eddying-upward one, then aim between the thighs of your enemy; the upward wind, combined with the lifting force of the powder, will force the bullet upward so as to strike him in the stomach, breast, or head. In close combat, of course, there is no need to observe the above advice, for at such a time Rangi and Papa (the heavens and earth) have come together, and man partakes of his food of blood on the field of war. Hence the adage which says, "He puta taua ki te tane, he whanau tama ki te wahine" ("Fighting with man and childbirth with women)," meaning that a battle is the most dangerous, painful, and strenuous experience endured by man, as childbirth is the same among women. Bear in mind that the kahawai is the fish compared with woman (6); also that a woman's voice is one that has much power, and commands much sympathy in time of battle. For if a woman assumes the function of uttering the war-cries and calls to action, then the enemy will not be able to resist the charge, as it was a woman who gave the word of command to attack, for, of a verity, women are as a cliff over which men leap to death (7).
Again, if a peace is concluded in time of war by men, it will not bo a firm or lasting one. It is termed a male peace, and stands for treachery, deceit, trouble. But if women assume the function of making peace, that is known as a female peace, and it will be a firm, durable one. Enough on this point.
Now let us return to the subject of your firing at your enemy from your breastworks or your pa; be careful to watch the gun-fire of hidden enemies --snipers. Therefore, when you fire, do not stop to look at the place you fired at, because the smoke of your gun was being waited for when it appeared, and a return fire from concealed men will quickly be directed against the spot you fired from; so that, if you watch the place you fired at, you may be reached by bullets from those hidden guns, or you may be chanced upon by some of them. It is desirable, as soon as you have fired, to quickly
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duck your head down below your breastwork, and, when the smoke of your gun has quite cleared away, then you may look carefully out in the direction of your enemy (8).
The sixth item for consideration: Carefully examine all gunshot wounds received by men, whether fatal or not, and whether received by men of your own side or by those of the enemy. If it is seen that most of such wounds are in the stomach or legs, that is a sign that the fight is waning; but if many men have been struck in the chest or head, then the fight is waxing and will not soon be concluded. Likewise, as you and your enemy are fighting, and you observe your wounded or dead falling, if they fall with their heads in the direction of your enemy, that is a good omen for you, for the death of your dead will hereafter be avenged; but if they fall with their heads towards your side, then it is a bad lookout. Be thoughtful, lest your enemy get the best of you ere long.
Seventh subject for consideration: Remember to be careful when you are advancing to attack your enemy, and capture a person of the enemy's side on the track or in the forest, to slay that person or persons --to actually kill him. Do not spare; him as a captive for yourself, lest evil come upon you --the evil of the "suspended weapon" (9); for, indeed, that is not a proper time to spare a person as a captive. You have not yet got so much the best of your enemy that prisoner-taking should be a right procedure. Ponder the remark of your ancestor, the prophet Isaiah, who said, "Let not the man going forth to battle rejoice as doth he who is loosening his belt."
There is another sign to be observed, which is that of a star assailing the moon. If the star so attacking (approaching) the moon is on the side toward you, and on your right, you know that star to be yours--to-morrow your enemy will be in your hands; but if that star is on your enemy's side of the moon, on his right hand and your left, you at once know it to be your opponents star: hence be wary.
There is another item to be thought of--the manawa rangi and the kohoka (celestial heart and spit) (10). If the base of the spit is on the side towards you, and the heart on the side towards your enemy, you know that the spit is yours and that you will soon so impale the hearts of your enemies on the spit of mother earth, or earthly (real) spit; but if the heart is on your side and the spit on your enemy's side, you thereby know that tribulations beset you: therefore be very careful in your arrangements--wait a while and see if the evil influence does not pass by.
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Here is another important item to be studied by the mind-- that is, dreams at night or in the daytime. Dreams sometimes come true, and at other times speak falsely. This applies to the dreams of priestly adepts and common persons, of wise men and fools: they are sometimes true and sometimes false. Therefore, rely upon such persons whose dreams have proved reliable in the past, and upon those accustomed to such manifestations. It is such persons as those who have a right to be styled "seers." Like unto the dream of the Syrian heard by Gideon and his officer, which dream was a true one, as also was its interpretation. The dreams of the Maori are much the same. There have been many Maori seers: there was Te Rangi-tauatia, a seer of Ngati-Porou; foreseen by him were two curious forms of speech, one of which was the expression "mara," and the other a noisy hissing speech; and when, a hundred years later, Nga-puhi invaded the East Coast, that expression was heard, it being called out at Hautu-pakoke, the home of Te Rangi-tauatia, who had died long before--that is, being called out in this manner: "E mara! E mara! I aua hohoro; ka tona koe" (O mara! Hasten or you will be fired upon). Again, Nga-puhi called out at the Kokai pa, "E mara! E mara! Whakarewa to papatu kia watea he rerenga mo to kokiri " (0 mara! Raise your parapet-planks so as to have a space to fire through). 3 The prophecy in regard to the hissing speech also came true in aftertimes, for now you hear the European's speech, hissing and noisy, and it will endure (in time to come the Maori will acquire this hissing tongue and lose his own). We will cease on this subject.
We will return and say a few more words of enlightenment in regard to the war-dance. If you have no women or old men to criticize your dancing, then select some persons who are becoming elderly to act in that capacity at the time when the first challenge spear is cast at you--that is, at your kneeling column. Let the rising of the column be briskly executed, then await the casting of the second spear. When that has passed by, watch for the final spear (of the challengers), and, as it reaches you, commence your dance, after which you kneel at the place pointed out for that purpose. You will please yourself as to whether or not you retire backwards, and, on acquiring a certain interval, again move forward to kneel once more at the spot you retired from. After this procedure come the war-songs or haka.
The following are the evil omens or unlucky occurrences, known as korapa, in performing the war-dance:--
1. The falling of some of the men whilst running.
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2. The breaking of the column into small parties, the front and rear portions being separated by intervals of space, and the centre scattered.
3. When, in chanting the war-song or haka, the singers do not keep time, or some are out of tune, or some other error is committed.
4. When, in standing up to make a speech, a man turns the wrong way, or makes an error in repeating a song, a charm, or other such item.
When you have your column on the ground, and your friends have another, your men will critically watch his, and his will watch yours. But when your column is rushing forward, and your friend's column is rushing towards you in your contest, do not run on the left side of your friend (of the opposing column), but see that your column passes by his right side 4 and his party passes on your right side. If your two columns are performing these evolutions, and your own column is running forward in the direction of the enemy, then let your ally's column wheel in behind your column (11), and, when properly lined up (ranks dressed, hoahoa), advance at a trot and perform the war-dance, and halt and kneel at the spot selected for that purpose. Albeit your two columns are now as one, they present no scattered appearance. If the front, rear, and middle be not separated, the men keep time in running, in halting and kneeling, in rising to perform the dance, and no one falls during the movements, you know thereby that on the morrow your enemy will be squeaking in your hand like a rat.
There is another small detail to be noted: If when a war-party advances and is possibly nearing the enemy in his fort, or in open country, the warriors may rise to perform a war-dance 5 in order to ascertain the state of the courage of the party and the probability of success, and a certain number of the party chances to be lethargic or sleepy, and happens to commit a ridiculous action, be careful that he is not laughed at, for it betokens the voices of the enemy's women and children wailing in your hand at dawn of day. 6
There are yet other explanations and directions in regard to war, but although we have many here written, and there are a great many not included herein, yet the mainstay of all these items that have been quoted is faith in God, as remarked in the forty-sixth psalm of David: You, o children, are acquainted with the many writings in the Scriptures referring to Him. For he is the commencement, the middle, and the end of all performances in the heavens above, the earth beneath, and the waters under the earth. Therefore fix your thoughts firmly on God, that he may protect you among the deeds of the battlefield,
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besides relying on your ancestor Uenuku, who is a go-between between God and man.
Let us now cease these tales, which may serve as traditions for Maori youths, for white folks will not believe them. Still, I have seen all these signs in the fighting with the Hauhau, from the year 1865 to 1867, and the fights with Te Kooti Rikirangi, from 1868 to 1870.
All these things were taught me by the old men of the Ao-wera clan and the main tribe of Ngati-Porou, but the bulk of such matters I am unable to write. Well, if any errors are contained herein, put the blame on me.
The war-songs, haka, and watch-songs, and other Maori items I have not written in this account; indeed, the watch-songs would be of no benefit in the gun-fighting of the present time. But the haka may still be employed, and if any mistake is made in singing these songs, or the war-song, such is an evil omen. Here, indeed, is the Ngati-Porou haka sung in war-time; if wrongly rendered, misfortune follows; if correctly performed, then the sun is shining beyond the clouds of war. [See haka in original.]
This was the haka (song) of Taki-o-te-rangi and Ngati-Porou at the fight at Toka-a-kuku. On account of the correct rendering of this song, Ngati-Porou were saved from Te Whanau-a-Apanui. Whenever Te Ao-wera and Ngati-Porou were ready to lift the war-trail, this song was sung during the war-dance: if correctly rendered, it was a good omen; if otherwise, a bad omen. It was also sung before the march to Manga-one, where Henare Nihoniho and others were slain; sung at Popoti, and incorrectly so; hence the old men rose to prevent Henare and his party marching on Friday, 18th June, 1865, though, as they were going to fetch the guns of the Government for the Queen Natives, the party was allowed to proceed unarmed to Te Awa-nui, where the guns were to be landed. The party started on Saturday, the 19th June, and reached Te Awa-nui; in the evening a messenger arrived to tell them to go to Manga-one, because fighting had taken place between the Hauhau and the Queen Natives, so they marched gunless that night, and, as Sunday dawned, the party came into conflict with the Hauhau force. Henare Nihoniho and his party fell at Manga-one on Sunday, 20th June, 1865, and the warning of the misrendered song at Popoti was fulfilled. I was among the council of old men listening to their detaining speeches and their lamentation. They already knew that misfortune loomed near, and they were right. But the bulk of the people wished Henare and his clan to be allowed to go to fetch the guns, and advance to expel the Hauhau lest they enter the Ngati-Porou bounds.
However, I cannot give an account of all the omens that were fulfilled during the late war, but all these mentioned herein are genuine items --I have seen them all truthfully verified. It was because I carefully attended to all the omens in this screed, as explained by the old men, that I was successful in bearing arms. I was born at
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Whare-ponga on the 30th October, 1850, and bore arms in warfare from 1865 to 1870. I was appointed Captain of the Ao-wera, under my elder, Major Ropata. On account of courage and loyalty on my part, the Queen sent me a sword as a token of honour, which is now preserved in the Museum at Wellington for the inspection of my descendants. The inscription on that sword, which was engraved in England, is, "The Ao-wera Clan, Ngatiporou Rifles."
(1.) Your waewae (legs) will assail or overcome the stars and the earth. A curious expression meaning: On account of the correct deportment of those performing the war-dance (tutu waewae or tutu ngarahu), and the absence of any evil omens caused by errors of movement, &c, while dancing, victory is assured, the unattainable (by ordinary means) shall be attained. The stars in the heavens-- not to be reached by human legs--are mentioned in a paraphrastic manner as equivalent to a numerous or brave enemy of the genus homo on earth. Neither can be conquered under ordinary circumstances, but the performance of the war-dance with absolute correctness and lack of all bad omens will mean that the gods are on your side, and that all things are attainable by you--heaven and earth are at your feet.
"Display your legs to your women"--i. e., strip and perform the war-dance.
(2.) "Te kawenata mau tonu." The writer here makes use of the English word "covenant," whereas he might have employed a Maori word that would have served much better. He means "the changeless sign," or token.
(3.) Hiko, distant lightning seen flashing in space or darting from a mountain range in one bright flash or a blaze of lightning; kanapu, gleaming electric light at the horizon or on a range, giving two or three flashes in succession; uira, ordinary forked lightning.
The hiko is a token that, ere long, a chief will die. The place or direction from which the light flashes is termed the rua o te hiko, or the pu o te hiko. Compare the terms kotua, rua koha, and rua kanapu, used by some tribes. It is the uira that destroys man or tree, the hiko never does so. When the latter was seen, the old men would inquire, "Where is the rua of the hiko?" One would answer, "At such a place." Then the old folk would say, "Alas! A desolate land," and they would wail over the misfortune so soon to afflict the district foredoomed to disaster.
(4.) The writer gives three descriptive or onomatopoeic names for thunder, as follows: Whatitiri tangi pohutu, hoarse or crashing thunder, the sound of which seems to fill space; whatitiri tangi pakee, thunder giving a sharp, crackling sound; ngaruru mai rangi, low continued muttering or rumbling sound, seemingly afar off. In
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addition to such expressions as these, there were concrete special names for divers kinds of thunderstorms, and these are so used as to give the impression that each form of thunder was personified by the Maori.
(5.) Scouts. --When a war force was marching in dangerous country a party of about ten men was sent ahead to act as scouts. Two men of this party kept well ahead as feelers; they were termed kiore. One would range the bush or scrub on either side of the track, some distance apart, and one would be in advance of the other as they advanced, so that if one was killed or captured the other might have a chance to escape and warn his friends. He would fall back on the secondary scouts (toro), who would be advancing singly and care-fully in advance of the main body. In some cases these scouts would then make a stand against the enemy until their main body came to their assistance; or they might lie in ambush for the enemy pursuing the escaping kiore.
(6.) "He ika toto nui: He kahawai ki te moana, he wahine ki uta" (much-blooded fish are the kahawai in the ocean and woman on land) is an old saying. They are both sources of much blood.
(7.) "He pari hoki e rere ai ki te Po nga wahine no nga tane": If their women are captured, or in danger, men will fight with reckless bravery to rescue them against great odds. They flow, like water, down to Hades over the cliff represented by their wives, mothers, and daughters.
(8.) Whakamoke. --The modus operandi is as follows: One of a concealed force fires at the enemy and dodges down, while his companions hold their fire. The enemy then fire at the smoke of the above shot, whereupon those who hold their fire shoot at the smoke of the enemy's guns, or at their heads if visible. Briefly put, the meaning of whakamoke in gun-fights is "to conceal oneself and fire at the smoke of the enemy's guns." In other cases it may imply lying-in-wait, &c
(9.) Patu whakairi (the suspended weapon): A figurative expression. If you raise your weapon to slay, then by all means let it descend. Do not keep it suspended-- i.e., spare the person's life; it is extremely unlucky to do so. If you start into fight, do it properly. To commit eccentric or Quixotic acts is to court disaster.
(10.) Manawa rangi: This name is applied to a poke ao, a clump or patch of cloud of a reddish or red and green hue. The kohoka (spit) is a name applied to a narrow strip or bank of cloud pointing toward or attached by one end to the manawa rangi. The whole is compared to a heart transfixed on a spit. It is a cloud heart on a cloud spit, which is compared to the kohoka o Papa-tuanuku, the spit of mother earth, and a token that a human heart will ere long be spitted and roasted.
(11.) This movement is not, perhaps, clearly put in the original MS. Is is a form of counter-marching with two bodies of men. The
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two columns meet each other and pass, running with uplifted guns and with short, restricted stride, and uttering curious sounds. Just as the returning column clears the rear of the advancing column it wheels into the rear of the latter in a right-about wheel, thus forming one solid column facing to the proper front. The whole force now advances as one column to the halting-place, performs a combined war-dance, and then tau hi raro, or kneel down. 7 This solid column is known as a kawau maaro or poupou tahi. The neck of the kawau (cormorant) is stretched for flight; ere long the flight will commence.
It may be noted that in the original the author uses the objectionable English word sentry (heteri) to denote a scout--a wrong application of the term. Toro and tutei are Native names for a scout; kai-mataara, a watchman, as in a fort; putaanga, a sentry or look-out stationed by a track where it enters forest or brush from open country.
JOHN MACKAY, Government Printer. Wellington. --1913.