1843 - Dieffenbach, Ernest. Travels in New Zealand [Vol.II] [Capper reprint, 1974] - Chapter X: Fauna of New Zealand

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  1843 - Dieffenbach, Ernest. Travels in New Zealand [Vol.II] [Capper reprint, 1974] - Chapter X: Fauna of New Zealand
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Notes on the MATERIALS at present existing towards a FAUNA of nEW ZEALAND, by JOHN EDWARD GRAY, F.R.S., Keeper of the Zoological Collections in the British Museum.

Nothing was known of the Natural Productions of New Zealand until Captain Cook's first voyage, in which he was accompanied by Mr. (afterwards Sir Joseph) Banks, Dr. Solander, and Mr. Sydney Parkinson, an artist of considerable merit, who was employed by Sir Joseph Banks to draw the specimens of animals and plants which were discovered during the voyage. The notes and drawings made by these gentlemen during this voyage contain many species found by them in the various parts of New Zealand at which the expedition touched.

Captain Cook, in his second voyage, was accompanied by John Reinhold Forster and his son George Forster. The latter of these gentlemen made drawings of a considerable number of animals observed during the voyage, many of them having been discovered in New Zealand.

The drawings made by Sydney Parkinson and George Forster, together with the manuscript notes of Dr. Solander, are with the Banksian Collection of Plants in the British Museum, and form part of the very extensive and magnificent collection of Natural History Drawings belonging to that institution.

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Dr. Solander described the specimens as they were collected, consequently his notes are in geographical order; and one of the parts of his manuscript, entitled Pisces Australiae, contains descriptions of 41 species of fish which he had observed on the coast of New Zealand.

The notes made by the Forsters, father and son, are now in the Library of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Berlin, and are in the course of publication entire by that body; the notes relative to the fish were printed in J.G. Schneider's "Systema Ichthyologiae, Iconibus 110 Illustratum. Berol., 1801."

These drawings, having been ever since the return of the travellers accessible to scientific persons of all countries, have been the means of making the animals discovered during these voyages well known to naturalists, and have become the authority on which numerous species have been described. A few of them, as the poe bird of New Zealand, were published in the plates attached to Captain Cook's Voyages.

The late venerable Dr. Latham, when engaged on his Synopsis of Birds, examined them, and described most of the species of birds they contained, and engraved a few of the figures; and these species have been taken up by Gmelin and others. Kuhl, in his 'Monograph of the Species of Procellaria,' founded most of his new species on these figures.

They afford the ichthyologist the only certain means of identifying the species derived by Schneider from Forster's Notes. Cuvier had them and the notes copied to assist him in composing his 'History of Fish;' and, last year, Dr. Richardson consulted both collections, and compared them together, and from this comparison presented to the British Association a 'Report of the Ichthyology of New Zealand,' to which he added a few new species from other sources, an abstract of which he has kindly furnished for this Appendix.

A considerable number of specimens were brought home by the naturalists of these expeditions. Some found their way into the Leverian Museum, but these have been scattered; and the greater number, doubtless, from the length

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of time which has passed, and the imperfect method of preservation then used, have now perished. A few specimens of the fish, preserved in spirits, are in the collection of the British Museum, and a few birds and fish similarly preserved are in the collection of the College of Surgeons; but these have generally so lost their colour that they are of comparatively little use, except to point out any minute organic character that may have escaped the eye of the artist.

The collection of shells appears to have been numerous. Many of them remained in the hands of the late Mr. Humphreys, and were distributed a few years ago at the sale of his stock. This clever conchologist also notices many of them in his Catalogue of the Duchess of Portland's Collection, and in the Catalogue of the Calonne Collection. Martyn, the most beautiful conchological artist of his time, published three volumes of engraved imitations of his drawings, consisting almost entirely of the South Sea shells discovered by these expeditions; and his figures were copied by Chemnitz into his large and more extensively known work, and have been thus introduced into the scientific catalogues. Many of the species of Martyn's figures are from New Zealand.

The insects collected during these voyages were described from the specimens in the Banksian Cabinet by Fabricius, when he visited England, and are published in his different works.

From the time of Cook's voyages until within these last, few years there appear to have been no collections received from that country, with one exception; for, in 1812 or 1813, Captain Barclay, of the ship Providence, brought home a bird which Dr. Shaw, in the last volume of the 'Naturalist's Miscellany,' described under the name of the Southern Apteryx, or Apteryx Australis. Many persons regarded this figure and description with doubt, but the specimen described by Dr. Shaw having at length found its way into the collection of the Earl of Derby, that liberal nobleman allowed it to be re-stuffed, and a second account of this bird appeared in the Transactions of the Zoological Society. Since that period several specimens have been received in London, and are known as the Kiwi of the natives.

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Three of the recent French voyages of discovery have touched at New Zealand: M. Duperrey, in La Coquille, in 1824; M. Dumont D'Urville, in the Astrolabe, in 1827; and M. La Place, in La Favorite, in 1831.

In the year 1832, MM. Quoy and Gaimard, in their accounts of the animals collected during M. Dumont D'Urville's voyage round the world in the Astrolabe, described several birds and fish, many shells and soft animals, which they had observed and collected during their visit to New Zealand; but, unfortunately, several of the species described by these naturalists are the same as those that had before been described under other names by the naturalists who had consulted and used the collections resulting from Cook's Voyages, which is to be regretted, as causing a confusion in the nomenclature.

In 1835, on the return of the Rev. William Yate, he brought with him twenty-nine species of marine shells, among which were ten species which had not been before observed by either the naturalists who accompanied Captain Cook or M. D'Urville; and these were described by me in the Appendix to Mr. Yate's account of New Zealand. Since that period Mr. Busby has brought home two land helices, which I described in the 'Annals of Natural History.'

The French whalers who visit these islands are constantly sending zoological specimens to Paris. Some of the birds so collected have been described in Guerin's Revue de l'Zoologique, in the 'Annales des Sciences Naturelles;' Compt-rendue in the Academie des Sciences of Paris; and by M. Dubois, in the 'Bulletin des Sciences de Bruxelles.'

Within the last two or three years several collections of animals, especially birds, have been received in London; and from some brought by Dr. Dieffenbach, Mr. Gould has described a few in his magnificent work on the Birds of Australia.

Generally speaking, many of the birds and most of the fish known to inhabit New Zealand by the voyages of Cook and D'Urville, are as yet known only by figures and descriptions to the scientific collectors of England. Except an Apteryx Australis from the Earl of Derby, sixteen species

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of birds received from Miss Rebecca Stone, twenty-nine species of shells received from Mr. Yate, about the same number from Mr. Busby, five species of reptiles, three species of fish, a few insects and Crustacea, and fifty-eight species of shells brought home by Dr. Dieffenbach, and described in this appendix, we have no specimens from this country in the British Museum collection--the National Collection of the mother country, which should be the richest in the natural curiosities of its different colonies.

From these materials, assisted by my friend Dr. Richardson, and my assistants in the British Museum, Mr. G. R. Gray, Mr. E Doubleday, and Mr. Adam White, the following list of species has been compiled; and to render it more complete, the descriptions of any new species that have occurred to us have been added.


British Museum, 15th August, 1842.

N B. Since the above was written the British Museum has received a collection of shells presented by Dr. Stanger, the preserver of the remnant of the African expedition, a collection of insects and shells from Dr. Sinclair, thirty-eight specimens of birds collected by Dr. Dieffenbach, presented by the Directors of the New Zealand Company, together with three other species offish collected by Dr. Dieffenbach, which had been sent to the College of Surgeons, but have been transferred to the Museum by Mr. Owen.

I. --List of Mammalia hitherto recorded as found in New Zealand, by John Edward Gray, F.R.S., &c.

The physiognomy of the natives has been figured by the various navigators who have visited the Island, and more lately by Quoy and Gaimard. --Voy. Astrolab. t.1, f.1,2. Homo sapiens, var. Novae Zelandiae.

As yet no terrestrial beast, except bats, has been found wild in these Islands, nor do any appear to be known to the natives.


1. Vespertilio tuberculatus. G. Forster. Icon, ined., n.1 Yellowish brown; ears small, rounded.

Inhab. Dusky Bay, New Zealand. G. Forster.

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"The Pekapeka, or Bats, and various small batlets, are very common in the Island, but none of the Vampire species. (Pteropus? or Glossophaga?) They are among the smallest of the Australian species."--Polack, i.304. I am not aware that any of these animals have reached Europe; they would be interesting, and doubtless new. "There is, apparently, only one species; probably the one figured by Forster."--Dieffenbach.

The following Marine Mammalia are recorded as found there by Polack and others; but, as I have seen no specimen of any of them, I am not able to verify the accuracy of the systematic names applied to them.


2. The Bottle-nose Seal. --Polack, N.Z. ii.316. Macrorhinus leoninus: Phoca leonina, Linn.; P. proboscidea, Peron and Lesueur, Voy. Terres Aust. ii.34, t.32; Sea Lion. Anson, Voy.
Inhab. Uwoua, 1836. --Polack.

3. Sea Lion and Lioness. --Polack. N.Z. ii.316. Forster, Cook's Voy. iv. 71 t. Otaria jubata, Desm. Mam., 248. O. Leonina, Peron, Voy. O. Pernettyi, Lesson. Phoca jubata, Schreb. 300, t.83 B., from Pernetty, Voy. ii.47, t. 10.
Inhab. Southern Islands. Islets to the south-west of Island of Victoria.
I saw a skin of one which was caught on the west coast of the middle island. --Dieffenbach.

4. Sea Bear. --Polack, N.Z. 317- Arctocephalus Ursinus, F.Cuvier. Phoca Ursina, Linn. I.N. i.55. Bursina potius volans. Forster. Icon ined., n.2. Otaria Ursina, Desm. Ursina marina, Steller, Nov. Com. Petrop., ii.331, t.15; cop. Schreb., t.82.
Inhab. New Zealand, Dusky Bay. --G. Forster.
Young. --Black, beneath rather browner, fins black.
Seals are "called by the general name of Karavake Kekino by the natives."--Polack.
From 6 feet to 10 feet in length.
"The Fin-Seal of commerce (probably; A. Ursinus) was formerly hunted in great numbers, especially on the western coast

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of the middle island of New Zealand, in Stewart's Island, and Chatham Islands. Now, owing to this exterminating warfare, only straggling individuals are met with, and the animal may be said to have deserted the country. Sealers assured me that there was no difference between the Otaria Falklandica and that of New Zealand, which, however, seems to be very doubtful. Kekino is their native name."--Dieffenbach.


5. New Zealand Dolphin. --Delphinus Zelandiae, Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., i. t.28, f.1,2.
Inhab. Cook's Straits. --Dieffenbach.

6. Grampus, or Killer. --Polack, N.Z. ii.407. Delphinus Orca?


7. Sperm Whale. --Polack, N.Z. ii.323; ii.408. Physeter Macrocephalus.
Inhab. New Zealand. --Para Paraua, natives; Tohora, Dieffenbach.
Varies in colour--white, black, ochreous, dingy red, and mottled.

8. Humpback, or Gibbosa. --Polack, N.Z. ii.404. Balaena gibbosa?
Inhab. New Zealand? Gregarious.

9. Physalis, or Fin-Back. --Polack, N.Z. i. 323; ii.405.
Balaena Physalus? Inhab. New Zealand?

10. Pike-headed Balaena. --Polack, N.Z. ii.405. Balaena Boops? Linn. Inhab. New Zealand?

11. Musculus, or Large-lipped Whale. --Polack, N.Z.i. 323; ii.406. Balaenopterus musculus.
Inhab. New Zealand. Common.

12. Tohora, or Right Whale. --Polack, N.Z. i. 323; ii. 401. Balaena Antipodum, Gray, N. S. t.1. B. Mysticetus, Polack; Cuv. Oss. Foss. 368, t.25,? bones. B. Australis, Desmoulins?

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Inhab. New Zealand. Tuku peru of the natives. -- Dieffenbach.
The body smooth, short, thick; the gape very large, arched, suddenly bent down at the angle; the blower on the back part of the head, a little before a perpendicular line from the eye; the ends of the upper and lower jaw with a roundish rough protuberance; length of the body 60 feet; length of the head to the angle of the gape 9 feet; of the flippers, or fins, 3 1/2 feet; breadth between fins on the abdomen 8 feet 2 inches.
The above short description of this species is taken from a very good drawing made from the actual admeasurement of the specimen. This drawing has been carefully reduced by squaring in the accompanying plate; and, as the proportions differ considerably from the figure usually given of the Northern Whalebone Whale, I have been induced to regard it as a new species.

Polack records two other Whales, as--

13. The Mungu Nue, or Black Physeter, Polack, i. 323, which is the same as the Pike-headed Whale of the Appendix.

14. The Razor-back, Polack, ii. 407. "Back remarkably serrated, and the mouth very much pointed like to the Porpoise."

Besides these quadrupeds there are mentioned--

15. The New Holland Dog. --Canis familiaris Australis, Desm.; Canis Dingo, Blumenb.

Said to have been introduced from Australia, but according to Polack, i. 320, "It has been an inhabitant some two or three centuries." It would be interesting to institute an accurate comparison between these animals and an Australian specimen. The adults are called Kararake, and the young Kuri, by the natives.

"The dog of the natives is not the Australian dingo, but a much smaller variety, resembling the jackal, and of a dirty yellowish colour. It is now rarely met with, as almost the whole race of the island has become a mongrel breed. A native dog of New Zealand is not a sufficiently powerful animal to do harm to domestic sheep, but it is different with the introduced and mongrel dogs, mostly bull-terriers or bloodhounds, which are savage pig-dogs, although with men they are great cowards. In want of better sport they hunt young birds, and to this cause the scarcity of many indigenous birds must be ascribed. The natives also call the dog sometimes " Pero" (Spanish): they have a tradition that

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their ancestors brought the dog with them when they first peopled New Zealand. Is it not probable, from the Spanish name, that the dog was brought to them by navigators of that nation before the time of Tasman?"--Dieffenbach.

15. The Rat. --Mus Rattus, Linn.?
"Called Kiore by the natives; said to have been introduced at an early period by European vessels."--Polack. It would be interesting to see whether it is the European, the Indian, or the New Holland rat that has been introduced, or if there may not be more than one kind.
"There exists a frugiferous native rat, called Kiore maori (indigenous rat) by the natives, which they distinguish from the English rat (not the Norway rat), which is introduced, and called Kiore Pakea (strange rat). On the former they fed very largely in former times; but it has now become so scarce, owing to the extermination carried on against it by the European rat, that I could never obtain one. A few, however, are still found in the interior, viz. at Roturua, where they have been seen by the Rev. Mr. Chapman, who described them as being much smaller than the Norway rat. The natives never eat the latter. It is a favourite theme with them to speculate on their own extermination by the Europeans, in the same manner as the English rat has exterminated their indigenous rat."--Dieffenbach.

16. The Mouse. --Mus Musculus, Linn.?
"The common domestic mouse of Europe has also been introduced."--Dieffenbach.

Besides these the Colonists have purposely introduced-- The common Cat. --Felis Domestica; called Picheki by the natives. Polack. Dieffenbach.
"The cat often runs wild, and is another cause of the extermination of indigenous animals. It is remarkable to observe that these wild cats soon resume the streaky grey colour of the common wild cat."--Dieffenbach.

The Pig---Sus Scropha, Linn.; called Puorka by the natives. Poaka, Dieffenbach.
The Horse. --Equus caballus, Linn.
The Ass. --Asinus vulgaris.
The Sheep. --Ovis aries, Linn.; but they are much hunted down by the native dog.
The Ox. ---Bos Taurus, Linn.

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List of the Birds hitherto recorded as found in NEW ZEALAND, CHATHAM, and AUCKLAND ISLANDS, with their Synonyma, by GEORGE ROBERT GRAY, Esq.


1. Falco harpe. Forst. Icon. ined. t.36; juv., t.37. Falco Novae Zealandiae, Gm. Lath., Ind. Orn., i. 28.??
Kahu of natives? Yate, Polack, Dieffenbach. Queen Charlotte's Sound and Dusky Bay. Forst.

2. Falco brunnea. Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1837. --
Synop. of Austr. Birds, pt. iii. Falco harpe, Forst. Icon. ined. t.38. Falco Australis, Homb. et Jacq. Ann. des Sci. Nat. 1841, p. 312.
Kauaua of the natives. Yate, Polack, Dieffenbach. Kariarea of the natives of Queen Charlotte's Sound. Forst.


3. Athene Novae Seelandiae. --Strix fulva, Forst. Icon. ined. t.39. Vieill. Ency. Meth. 1291. Strix Novae Seelandiae, Gmel. Syst. Nat. 296, sp. 38: Lath. Ind. Orn. i. 65, Strix Zealandica, Quoy et Gaim. Voy. de l'Astrol. Zool. i. 168, pl 2, f.1.
Herooroo of the natives of Queen Charlotte's Sound. Forst. Eou Hou of the natives of Tasman Bay. Quoy et Gaim. Kou Kou of the natives. Yate. Kao Koa of the natives. Polack. Ruru ruru. Dieffenbach.


Mr. Polack refers the following native names of Riroriro, Piripiri, Toutouwai, Tuturiwatu, as species of "swallows." These names are also mentioned by Mr. Yate, but not as belonging to this or any other family, except the last, which he says is a plover.


4. Halcyon vagans. --Alcedo cyanea. Forst. Icon. ined. t. 59. Alcedo sacra, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i. 453: Lath.

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Ind. Orn. 251, var. "d et e. Halcyon sanctus? Vig. et Horsf. Linn. TV. xv. 206. Alcedo vagans, Less. Voy. de Ia Coq., Zool., 694: id. Man. d'Orn., ii.89. Ghotarre of the natives of Dusky Bay. Forst. Koto-retare of the natives. Yate. Kotaritari of the natives. Polack, Dieffenbach. Kotare popo of the natives. Lesson.
M. Lesson also refers to another species under the native name of Poukeko.


5. Neomorpha Gouldii. G. R. Gray, List of Genera of Birds, p. 15. Neomorpha acutirostris et crassirostris. Gould, Syn. Austr. Birds: Birds of Australia. pt, pl
Huia, Yate. Uia of the natives. Polack, Dieffenbach.


6. Prosthemadera Novae Seelandiae. Strickl. Ann. of Zool.; G. R. Gray, List of Genera of Birds, p. 20. Certhia cincinnata. Forst. Icon, ined., t.61. Merops Novae Seelandiae. Gmel. Syst. Nat., i. 464. Merops cincinnata. Lath. Ind. Orn., i. 275. Sturnus crispicollis. Daud. Elem. d'Orn. Meliphaga concinnata. Temm. Men., lxxxvii. Philemon concinnatus. Vieill. Ency. Meth., 613. Anthochaera. Vig. et Horsf. Linn. Trans, xv., 323. Le Cravate frisee. Levaill. Ois. d'Afr., pl. 92.
Poe, or Toi of the natives of Queen Charlotte's Sound. Forst. Toui of the natives. Less. Tui of the natives. Dieffenbach.

7. Ptilotis cincta. -- Meliphaga cincta. Dubus, Bull. Acad. Sc. Brux, 1839. pl.i. p.295.
Kotihe of the natives. Yate. Ihi of the natives of Taranaki. --Dieffenbach.

8. Anthornis melanura, G. R. Gray, List of Genera of Birds, p. 20. Certhia olivacea. Forst. Icon, ined., t.62. Certhia melanura. Spawn. Mus. Carl., t.5. Certhia sannio. Gmel. Syst. Nat. i. 471: Lath. Ind.

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Orn., 735. Philedon Dumerilii. Less. Voy. de Ia Coq. Zool., 644, pl. xxi. Anthomyza coeruleocephala. Sw. Class, of Birds, ii.327. Philedon sannio. Less. Compl. Buff., ix. 165.
He-ghobarra of the natives of Queen Charlotte's Sound. Forst. Koho-i-mako of the natives. Less. Koho-rimako of the natives. Yate. Korimaku of the natives of the Northern Island, and Mako mako of the natives of the Southern Islands. Dieffenbach.

9. Anthornis melanocephala.
Yellowish olive; head steel black, with a tinge of the same colour on the neck; wings and central tail-feathers brown, margined with yellowish olive, the outer feather brown, and the second, third, and fourth feathers on each side blackish brown, margined with steel black; vent pale yellow. Total length 11 1/4 inches; wings, 4 1/4 inches; tarsi, 1 1/2 inch: bill, 13 lines. Chatham's Islands. --Dieffenbach.


10. Acanthisitta citrina. G. R. Gray, List of Genera of Birds, App., p. 6. Motacilla citrinella. Forst. Icon, ined., t.164. Motacilla citrina. Gmel. Syst. Nat., 979. Sylvia citrina. Lath. Ind. Ora., ii.529.

11. Acanthisitta tenuirostris. Lafr. Mag. de Zool., 1841. Acanthiza tenuirostris. Lafr. Rev. Zool., 1841, 242.
Piwauwau of the natives, a bird confined to the upper regions of the hills. Dieffenbach.

12. Acanthisitta punctata. G. R. Gray, List of Genera of Birds, App., p. 6. Sitta punctata. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. de l'Astrol., i. 221, pl. 18, f.1: Less. Compl. Buff., ix. 133.

13. Acanthisitta longipes. G. R. Gray, List of Genera of Birds, App. p. 6. Motacilla. Forst. Icon, ined., t.165. Motacilla longipes. Gmel. Syst. Nat., 979. Sylvia longipes. Lath. Ind. Orn., ii.529.
E teetee tee pomou of the natives of Dusky Bay. Forst.
The bird, with the native name of Didadido, given by M. Lesson, may probably prove a species of this genus.

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14. Mohoua ochrocephala. G. R. Gray; List of Genera of Birds, p. 25. Muscicapa chloris. Forst. Icon, ined., t.157. Muscicapa ochrocephala. Gmel. Syst. Nat., 944: Lath. Ind. Orn., ii.479. Certhia heteroclites. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. de l'Astrol. Zool., i. 223, pl. 17, f.1. Orthonyx icterocephalus. Lafr. Rev. Zool., 1839. Orthonyx heteroclitus. Lafr. Mag. de Zool., 1840,pl. 8. Mohoua------. Less. Compl. Buff, ix. 139.
Mohoua houa of the natives of Tasman Bay. Quoy et Gaim. Popokatea, natives of Cook's Straits. Dieffenbach.


15. Sphenaeacus? punctatus. G. R. Gray, List of Genera of Birds, p. 27. Synallaxis punctata. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. de l'Astrol., i. 255, pl. 18, f.3; Less. Compl. Buff., ix. 122.
Mata of the natives of Tasman Bay. Quoy et Gaim. Matata of Yate, Polack, and Dieffenbach.
Lives in the Typha swamps and amongst fern. Its flight is very short and heavy. --Dieffenbach.

16. Acanthiza igata. --Curruca igata. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. de l'Astrol., Zool., i. 201, pl. 2, f.2.
Igata of the natives of Tasman Bay. Quoy et Gaim.

17. Certhiparus senilis. Lafr., Rev. Zool. Parus senilis. Dubus, Bull. Acad. Sc. Brux; 1839, 297.

18. Certhiparus Novae Seelandiae. Lafr., Rev. Zool. Parus urostigma, Forst. Icon. ined. t.166. Parus Novae Seelandiae, Gmel. Syst. Nat., 1013; Lath. Ind. Ora., 571.
Toe Toe of the natives of Dusky Bay. Forst.

19. Certhiparus maculicaudus. --Parus Zelandicus, Quoy et Gaim. Voy. de l'Astrol., Zool., i. 210, pl. ii.f.3. Less., Compl. Buff, viii. 318.
Momohoua of the natives of Tasman Bay. Quoy et Gaim. Riro Riro of the natives of the Northern Islands. Dieffenbach.
Mr. Yate speaks of two birds under the native names of Tata-

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riki, Tataiato, which may be species of this genus Certhiparus: the latter is also mentioned by Mr. Polack.


20. Turnagra crassirostris. G. R. Gray, List of Genera of Birds, 2 edit., p. 38. --Forst. Icon. ined. t.145. Turdus crassirostris. Gmel., Syst. Nat., 815. Lath. Ind. Orn. Tanagra macularia, Quoy et Gaim. Voy. de l'Astrol, Zool. i. 186: pl. 7, f.1. Keropia crassirostris. G. R. Gray, List of Genera of Birds, 1 edit. Turnagra. ------Less. Compl. Buff, viii. 216.
Golobieo of the natives of Dusky Bay, or Queen Charlotte's Sound. Forst. Pio Pio of the natives of Queen Charlotte's Sound. Dieffenbach. Keropia et Koko Eou of the natives of Tasman Bay. Quoy et Gaim.


21. Rhipidura flabellifera. -- Muscicapa ventilabrum. Forst., Icon, ined., t.155. Muscicapa flabellifera. Gmel., Syst. Nat., 943. Lath. Ind. Orn. Muscipeta flabellifera. Temm., Man. d'Orn.
Diggowagh wagh of the natives of Dusky Bay. Forst. Piwaka-waka of the natives. Polack, Dieffenbach. Pi-oua-ka-oua-ka of the natives. Less.

22. Rhipidura macrocephala---Swains. Nat. Libr. Flyc. p. 122. Parus macrocephalus. Gmel., Syst. Nat., 1013. Lath., Ind. Orn., 571. --Hist. of Birds, i. p. 110.

23. Rhipidura melanura.
Dark olivaceous brown; head and neck greyish black with a supercilious spot on each side white; tail black. Total length 6 1/2 inches; bill 1/2 inch.; tail 4 inches; tarsi 10 lines. Inhabits Cook's Straits. Dieffenbach.

24. Miro albifrons. G. R. Gray, List of Genera of Birds, p. 43. Turdus ochrotarsus. Forst., Icon, ined., t.148. Turdus albifrons. Gmel., Syst. Nat. 822. Lath., Ind. Orn., 354.

25. Miro longipes. Less., Tr. d'Orn., 389. Muscicapa longipes. Garnot's Voy. de Ia Coq.; Zool., 594, pl. 19, f.1. Less., Comp. Buff., viii. 373.

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Gha toitoi of the natives of Dusky Bay. Forst. Miro miro of the natives. Garnot.

26. Miro Forsterorum. --Turdus minutus. Forst., Icon. ined., t.149.
Deep-shining black, with the breast and abdomen pale yellow; deeper on the former. The base of the secondaries of some of the quills, and of the outer tail-feathers, also a small spot on the forehead, white. Bill and tarsi black, with the toes pale. The female is represented by Forster as brown, in the place of the black of the male, otherwise the sexes are alike. Total length 5 3/4 inches; bill 7 lines; wings 1 1/2 inch; tarsi 1 inch.
Mirro mirro of the natives of Queen Charlotte's Sound. Forst. Pirangirangi of the natives of Queen Charlotte's Sound. Dieffenbach.

27. Miro Dieffenbachii.
This species is very like the preceding, but is altogether of a smaller size, and the colour on the chest is darker, with the base of the lower mandible pale. Found on the Chatham Islands.

28. Miro toitoi. --Muscipeta toitoi. Gam., Voy. de la Coq., Zool., pl. 15, f.3. Less., Man. d'Orn., p. 188, ed. Compl. Buff., viii. 383.
Nirungiru of the natives. Polack. Ngirungiru of the natives. Yate, Dieffenbach. To-i-toe of the natives. Less.


29. Callaeas cinerea. Lath., Ind. Orn., i. 149. G. R.Gray, List of Genera of Birds, p. 51. --Forst., Icon, ined., t.52. Callaeus. Forst., Ench., p. 35. Glaucopis cinerea. Gmel., Syst. Nat., i. 363. Swains. Class, of Bird. ii.p.267- Quoy et Gaim., Voy. de l'Astrol., pl. 15.
Kokako of the natives. -- New Zealand crow.; Yate. Dieffenbach. Kakako of the natives. Polack.


30. Aplonis Zelandicus. --Lamprotornis Zelandicus. Quoy et Gaim., Zool., i. 190; pl. 9, f.1. Less., Compl. Buff., ix. 73.

31. Aplonis obscurus. --Lamprotornis obscurus. Dubus Bull. Acad. Sc. Brux., 1839, 297.

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32. Aplonis australis. --Turdus australis. Sparm., Mus. Carl., pl. 69. Lath. Ind. Orn. i. 338.

33. Creadion carunculatus. G. R. Gray, List of Genera of Birds, p. 54. --Font., Icon, ined., t.144. Sturnus carunculatus. Gmel., Syst. Nat., 805. Lath., Ind. On., 324. Wagl., Syst. Av., sp. 6. Creadion pharoides. Vieill, Ency. Meth. Icterus rufusater et Novae Zealandiae. Less, et Garn., Zool. de la Coq., pl. 23, f.1. Xanthornus carunculatus. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. de l'Astrol. Zool., i. 212; pl. 12, f.4, 5. Philesturnus. --J. Geoffr., Ann. du Mus.; Less., Compl. Buff., ix. 51. Oxystomus carunculatus. Swain., Class, of Birds, ii.p. 270.
Tieke of the natives of Tasman Bay. Quoy and Gaim. Tiaka or Purourou of the natives. Yate. Tira-oua-ke of the natives. Less. Tierawaki, Cook's Straits. Dieffenbach.


34. ------------------? Fringilla albicilla. Less., Voy. de la Coq., Zool., 662. To-i-to-i of the natives of New Zealand. Less.

35. Alauda Novae Seelandiae. Gmel, Syst. Nat., 799.Lath., Ind. Orn., ii.497. Alauda littorea. Forst., Icon. ined.. t.143.
Kogoo aroure of the natives of Queen Charlotte's Sound. Forst. Kataitai of the natives of Cook's Straits. Dieffenbach.
A "Ground Lark" is given under the name of Pihoihoi, by Mr. Yate; Piohiohi, by Mr. Polack; Pi-o-oie, by M. Lesson, which may prove to be the above species. Mr. Polack also mentions a lark-like bird, of a black colour, under the native name of Purourou, which I do not think belongs to this genus.


36. Platycercus Novae Seelandiae. Wagl. Monogr. Psitt. --Forst., Icon. ined. t.46. Psittacus pacificus, var. B. Gmel., Syst. Nat., 329; var. e. Lath., Ind. Orn.,

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i. 104. Psittacus Novae Seelandiae. Sparm. (non Gmel.), Mus. Carl., t.28.
Kakariki of the natives. Dieffenbach. Powaitere of the natives. Yate. Po-e-tere of the natives. Less. Very common in the Chatham Islands. --Dieffenbach.

37. Platycercus Auriceps. Vigors, Zool. Journ., 1825, p. 331, pl. suppl. ii. Psittacus Pacificus, var. S.; Lath. Ind. Orn., i. 104. Psittacus Auriceps. Kuhl, Monogr. Psitt., 46, sp. 69. Conurus Auriceps. Kuhl, Monogr. Psitt. New Zealand. Wagl.
"Never seen by me in New Zealand."--Dieffenbach.

38. Trichoglossus Aurifrons. Wagl. Monogr. Psittae Psittacus (Lathamus) Aurifrons. Less. Cent. Zoo)., pl. 18.
"Also called Kakariki."--

39. Nestor Meridionalis. -- Psittacus Hypopolius. Forst. Icon, ined., t.50. Psittacus Meridionalis. Gmel. Syst. Nat., i. 333. Psittacus Nestor. Lath. Ind. Orn., i. 110. Psittacus Australis. Shaw, Mus. Lev., pl. 87. Nestor hypopolius. Wagl. Monogr. Psitt.,: G. R. Grays List of Genera of Birds, p. 68.
Kaka of the natives. Yate, Dieffenbach.


40. Eudynamys taitensis. -- Cuculus fasciatus. Forst. Icon, ined., t.56. Cuculus taitensis. Sparrm. Mus. Carl, t.32; Lath. Ind. Orn., i. 209; Vieill. Ency. Meth., 1329. Cuculus taitius. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 412. Eudynamys------Less. Tr. d'Orn., 32.
Kohaperoa of the natives. Yate. "Koheperoa," from a specimen. Miss Stone. Kohapiroa. Polack? Koekoia of the natives. Dieffenbach.

41. Chrysococcyx lucidus. --Cuculus nitens. Forst. Icon. ined., t.57. Cuculus lucidus. Gmel. Syst. Nat., i. 421; Lath. Ind. Orn., i. 215; Vieill. Nouv. Diet. Hist. Natr., viii. 233; Ency. Meth., 1335. Chalcites------Less. Tr. d'Orn., 153.

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Poopoo arouro of the natives. Forst. Pipiwawaroa of the natives. Yate, Dieffenbach.
"Both these birds are migratory, appearing near the coasts in the month of December. The latter is known to lay its eggs in the nests of smaller birds, especially in that of the fantail flycatcher."--Dieffenbach.
"To this family probably belongs the bird called Kakapo by the natives, and to judge from some tail-feathers of a green metallic lustre, which I obtained in the interior, the bird may be a Centropus. It has become so rare, that it has never been seen by any of the missionaries, nor by the natives for many years past. Its destruction is owing to the introduction of cats and dogs. The bird used to perch on the lower branches of trees, according to the accounts of the natives, who caught it by the glare of a torch during the night."--Dieffenbach.


42. Carpophaga Novae Seelandiae. --Columba argetraea. Forst. Icon, ined., t.137- Columba Novae Seelandiae. Gmel. Syst. Nat., 773; Less. Compl. Buff., viii. 107. Columba Zeelandica. Lath. Ind. Orn., ii.603. Columba spadicea. Lath. Ind. Orn. Suppl. lx.; Less. Compl. Buff., viii. 85. Columba spadicea leucophaea. Homb. et Jacq. Ann. des Sci. N at., 1841.
Hagarreroo of the natives of Dusky Bay. Forst. Koukoupa of the natives. Kukupa of the natives. Yate.
Kuku and Kukupa of the natives. Dieffenbach.

43. Carpophaga-------------------?
Columba aenea, var. B. --Lath. Ind. Orn., ii.602.

44. ----------------?
Columba brunnea. --Lath. Ind. Orn., ii 603; Less. Compl. Buff., viii. 109.
"I doubt the existence in New Zealand of more than one species of pigeon, the Columba argetraea of Forster. Very slight varieties in plumage exist, but not sufficient to constitute species."--Dieffenbach.

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45. Coturnix Novae Zealandiae. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. de l'Astrol., Zool., i. 242, pl. 24, f.1; Less. Compl. Buff., vii. 459.
"Seen by me once in the northern island, but is very scarce."-- Dieffenbach.


46. Apteryx Australis. Shaw, Nat. Misc., pl. 1057, 1058; Trans. Zool. Soc.; Gould's Birds of Australia, pl. Dromiceius Novae Zealandiae. Less. Man., ii.210.
Kiwi or Kiwikiwi of the natives. -- Less., Dieffenbach.
"Its eggs are laid at the root of trees."--Miss Stone.
"To this order probably belongs a bird, now extinct, called Moa (or Movie) by the natives. The evidences are, a bone very little fossilized, which was brought from New Zealand by Mr. Rule to Mr. Gray, and by him sent to Professor Richard Owen. (Proc. Zol. Soc., 1839. 169.) I possess drawings of similar bones, and of what may possibly be a claw, which are in the collection of the Rev. Richard Taylor in Waimate. They are found on the east coast of the northern island of New Zealand, and are brought down by rivulets from a neighbouring mountain called Hikorangi."--Dieffenbach.


47. Charadrius xanthocheilus, Wagl. Syst. Av. sp. 36. Jard. and Selby's Illustr. of Orn., pl. 85.
Tuturiwhatu of the natives. Miss Stone. Takahikaki of the natives. Yate. Tuturuata of natives of Cook's Straits. Dieffenbach.

48. Charadrius obscurus. Gmel. Syst. Nat., 686; Lath. Ind. Orn., ii.747; Wagl. Syst. Nat., sp. 35. Charadrius glareola. Forst. Icon. ined., t.122.
Ha-poho-era of the natives of Dusky Bay. Forst. Tuturiwatu of the natives, Yate.
To this order may also be referred two other birds spoken of by Mr. Yate under the names of Pukunui, Pututo.

49. Hiaticula Novae Seelandiae. --Charadrius torquatulus.Forst. Icon, ined., t.121. Charadrius Novae See-

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landiae. Gmel. Syst. Nat., 684. Charadrius Novas Zealandiae. Lath. Ind., ii.745.
Doodooroo-attoo of. the natives of Queen Charlotte's Sound. Forst.

50. Anarynchus frontalis. -- Quoy et Gaim. Voy. de l'Astrol., Zool., i 252, pl. 31, f.2; Less. Compl. Buff., ix. 427.

51. Haematopus picatus, Vigors's King's Voy. Coast of Austr, ii.420. Haematopus Australasianus. Gould, Desc, of New Sp. of Austr. Birds, p. 6.
Scarcely different from this species, and very common in New Zealand.
Toria of the natives. Dieffenbach.


52. Botaurus melanotus. --Ardea (Botaurus) Australis. Cuv.; Less. Tr. d. Orn., 572?
Blackish brown on the back, with some of the feathers and wings reticulated with yellowish white; head, neck, quills, secondaries and tail dirty brown; sides of head, throat, and streaks down some of the feathers and beneath the body yellowish white, the two latter with blackish-brown streaks, more or less perfect, down several of the feathers. Young, blackish brown, reticulated all over with yellowish white, like the common bittern.
Total length, 2 feet 2 inch.; bill, 3 1/4 inch.; wings, 12 1/4; tarsi, 3 3/4.
Matuku of the natives. From a specimen found on the Hokianga River. Miss R. Stone. Dieffenbach. Matuku urepo of the natives, or Crane of Yate. Also found on the Murray, South Australia. Mr. Fortnum.

53. Herodias Matook. --Ardea jugularis. Forst., Icon. ined., t.114; Wagl, Syst. Av., sp. 18. Ardea caerulea, var. y. Gmel. Syst. Nat., 631. Ardea matook. Vieill. N. Diet. Hist. Nat, xiv. 416; id., Ency. Meth., 1118.
Matook of the natives of Queen Charlotte's Sound. Forst. Matou cou of the natives. Less.


54. Himantopus Novae Zealandica. Gould, Proc. Zool.

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Soc, 1841; Birds of Austr., pl. Himantopus melas (?.) Homb, et Jacq. Ann. des Sci. Nat., 1841, 320.
Tutumata of the natives of Port Nicholson Dieffenbach.


55. Ocydromus Australis. Strickl. Ann. Nat. Hist.;G. R. Gray, List of Genera of Birds, p. 91. Forst. Icon, ined., t.126. Rallus Australis. Sparrm. Mus. Carl., t.14; Lath. Ind. Orn., ii.756; Vieill. Ency. Meth., 1067. Rallus troglodytes. Gmel. Syst. Nat., 713. Ocydromus. Wagl.
Weka or Weka-weka of the natives of Cook's Strait, Wood-hen of the Settlers. Dieffenbach.

56. Rallus assimilis.
The pectoral buff band on the breast, and rufous colour of the cheeks and on the sides of the neck, are much less prominent than on the Australian specimens, otherwise these birds are very similar.
Konini of the natives of Cook's Strait. Dieffenbach. Katatai of the natives. Yate and Miss Stone.

57. Rallus Dieffenbachii.
Back olive brown, irregularly banded with buff and black; breast and lower posterior part of the neck and breast rufous yellow, banded transversely with black; quills, scapulars, under-tail coverts, deep rufous banded with black; lower part of chest, abdomen, sides, and jugulum, black banded with white; top, hind part of the head, cheek, and a streak below the eye, olive-brown, the two last tinged with rufous; a band from the nostril to the middle above the eye white, the continuation of this band behind the eye and throat grey, but white beneath the bill; tail dark brown with longitudinal streaks of deep rufous near the base. Total length 12 3/4 inches, bill l 1/2, wing 5, tail 3 1/2, tarsi 1 1/2.
Moeriki of the natives of Chatham Islands. Dieffenbach.

58. Porphyrio melanotus, Temm. Man. d'Orn, ii.701. Pukeko of the natives. -- Yate, Dieffenbach.

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59. Casarca variegata. --Anas cheneros. Forst. Icon. ined. t.67. Anas variegata. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 505. Lath. Ind. Orn., ii.836. Bernicla variegata. Steph. Shaw, Zool., xii. 59. Casarca castanea. Eyton, Monogr. Anat, 108 pi.
Pooa dugghie dugghie of the natives of Dusky Bay. Forst. Putangi tangi of the natives of Cook's Strait; Paradise Duck of the settlers. Dieffenbach.

60. Apas superciliosa, Gmel., Syst. Nat., 537; Lath., Ind. Orn. ii.852; Eyton's Anat., 139; Steph. Shaw, Zool., xii. 109. Anas leucophrys. Forst. Icon, ined., t.77.
He-Parrera of the natives of Dusky Bay and Queen Charlotte's Sound. Forst. Parera of the natives. Yate. Dieffenbach.

61. Malacorynchus Forsterorum, Wagl., Isis, 1832, p. 1235. Anas malacorynchus. Forst., Icon, ined., t.74; Gmel., Syst. Nat., ii.526; Lath., Ind. Orn., ii.862. Rhynchaspis malacorynchos. Steph.. Shaw, Zool., xii. 123. Mergus Australis. Homb, et Jacq. Ann. des Sci. Nat., 1841.
He-weego of the natives of Dusky Bay. Forst.

62. Spatula rhynchotis--Rhynchaspis rhynchotis, Steph. Shaw. Zool., xii. 123. Eyton, Monogr. Anat. 133. Anas rhynchotis, Lath. Ind. Orn. Suppl. 70. New Zealand and Chatham Island. Dieffenbach.

63. Faligula Novae Zealandiae. Steph., Shaw, Zool., xii. 210. Anas atricilla. Forst., Icon, ined., t.79. Anas Novae Zealandiae. Gmel., Syst. Nat., 541; Lath., Ind. Orn., ii.870.
He-patek of the natives of Dusky Bay. Forst.


64. Podiceps (Poliocephelus) rufopectus.
Back ochreous black, with the feathers slightly margined with white, top of head and back of neck black, the shafts of former somewhat prolonged, and light fulvous; cheeks and throat ash;

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lower part of neck, before, and breast, deep rufous; beneath the body white, tinged with rufous; vent plombious; quills brownish black, secondaries white-margined, and tips brownish black; bill black; legs lead-colour. Total length 12 1/4 in.; bill, l 1/4 in.; wings, 4 3/4 in.; tarsi, 1 1/4 in.
New Zealand. Dr. A. Sinclair.


65. Spheniscus minor. Temm., Man. d'Orn., p. cxiii. Aptenodytes minor. G. Forst. Icon, ined., t.84, 85; J. R. Forst., Comm. Gotten., iii. 147; Gmel., Syst. Nat., 558; Lath., Ind. Orn., ii.881. Chrysocoma minor. Steph., Shaw's Zool., xiii. 61. Catarrhactes minor. Cuv., Reg. An., 551.
Korora of the natives. Forst. Dieffenbach.
Lays two white eggs in the crevices of rocks and holes near the sea-shore. --Dieffenbach.

66. Eudyptes antipodes. --Catarrhactes antipodes. Homb. et Jacq.. Ann. des Sci. Nat., 1841.
Auckland's Island.
M. Lesson refers to a species of this family under the native name of Ho-i-ho.


67. Pelecanoides urinatrix, Cuv. Procellaria tridactyla. Forst., Icon, ined., t.88. Procellaria urinatrix. Gmel., Syst. Nat,, 560; Lath., Ind. Orn. 327. Haladroma urinatrix. Illig. Prod. 274; Steph., Shaw, Zool., xiii. 257. Puffinuria Garnotii. Less., Voy. de Ia Coq., Zool.. 730, pl. 46.
Teetee of the natives of Queen Charlotte's Sound. Forst.

68. Puffinus aequinoctialis. Steph., Shaw, Zool., xiii. 229.Procellaria aequinoctialis. Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 213 Lath., Ind. Orn., ii.821.

69. Procellaria gigantea, Gmel. Syst. Nat., 563. Lath. Ind. Orn., ii.820.
Cook's Straits. Dieffenbach.

70. Procellaria Cookii. Procellaria velox. Banks, Icon. ined., t.16?
Grey above, with the apex of each feather narrowly margined.

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as well as their bases, white; oblong spot below each eye; wing-coverts, secondaries, and quills brownish black, with the basal portion of the inner webs of the two last, white; the front, cheeks, under wing-coverts, and the whole of the under part, white. Bill black; tarsi and knee brownish yellow; feet black, with the intermediate webs yellow. Total length 12 1/2 inches: bill, length 1 inch 7 lines, depth in middle, 3 1/2 lines; wings 9 1/4 inches; tarsi 1 inch 2 lines.
The wings project above an inch beyond the tail, like the one represented by Parkinson in the above-mentioned 'Icones,' but the bill is longer and more slender.
Titi of the natives. --Dieffenbach.

71. Prion vittatus, Cuv. Procellaria vittatus. Gmel., Syst. Nat., 560. Procellaria Forsteri. Lath., Ind. Orn., ii.827. Procellaria latirostris. Bonn, Ency. Meth. Pachyptila vittata. Illig., Prod. 274. Pachyptila Forsteri. Steph., Shaw, Zool., xiii. 251.

72. Diomedea exulans, Linn., Lath. Ind. Orn., ii.789.
"Not immediately near the shores, which, however, they also visit, but in the New Zealand seas, exist several kinds of albatrosses, which the natives call Toroa."--Dieffenbach.


73. Lestris antarcticus. Less., Tr. d'Orn., 616; id. Compl. Buff., ix. 511. Lestris cataractes. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. de l'Uranie, pl. 38.

74. Larus fuscus. Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 225. Lath. Ind. Orn. ii.815.

75. Larus scopulinus. Forst., Icon, ined., t.109.
He-Talle of the natives of New Zealand. Forst.
M. Lesson speaks of a species under the native name of Aki-aki.

76. Sterna striata. Gmel. Syst. Nat., 609. Lath. Syn. vi. 358, t.98.


77. Sula australis, Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1840, 177. Pelecanus serrator. Banks, Icon, ined., t. 30.
Tara of the natives of Queen Charlotte's Sound. -- Dieffenbach.

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78. Graucalus carunculatus. Pelecanus carunculatus. Forst., Icon. ined. t.104. Phalacrocorax? carunculatus. Steph., Shaw, Zool. xiii. 94.

79. Graucalus cirrhatus. -- Pelecanus cirrhatus. Gmel., Syst. Nat., 576. Hydrocorax cirrhatus. Vieill., Ency. Meth. Phalacrocorax? cirrhatus. Steph., Shaw's Zool. xiii. 95.

80. Graucalus punctatus. -- Forst-, Icon. ined. t.103. Pelecanus punctatus. Sparrm. Mus. Carl t.10; Gmel., Syst. Nat., 574; Lath., Ind. Orn., 11. Phalacrocorax punctatus. Steph., Shaw, Zool., xiii. 88. Pelecanus naevius. Gmel., Syst. Nat., 575. Phalacrocorax naevius. Cuv., Reg. An., 565. Pa-degga-degga of the Natives of Queen Charlotte's Sound. Forst.
Common in Cook's Strait. They are social birds, and build their nests, many together, on high trees overhanging the rivers and coasts. They lay two white, as large as hen eggs, and feed especially upon the eels and smaller fishes of rivers. --Dieffenbach.

81. Graucalus auritus. --Carbo auritus. Less., Tr. d'Orn.; id. Compl. Buff. ix. 497. Hydrocorax dilophus. Vieill. Gal. des Ois. pl. 275. New Zealand. Less.

82. Graucalus varius. -- Pelecanus pica, Forst., Icon. ined. t.106. Pelecanus varius. Gmel., Syst. Nat., 576. Phalacrocorax varius. Steph., Shaw, Zool, xiii. 92.
M. Lesson mentions a species of this genus under the native name of Ka-oua-ko. "All the species of cormorants are called Kauwau by the natives."--Dieffenbach.

83. Graucalus carboides. --Phalacrocorax carboides, Gould, Desc, of New Sp. of Austr. Birds, p. 7.

84. Graucalus flavirostris. -- Phalacrocorax flavirostris, Gould, Desc, of New Sp. of Austr. Birds, p. 8.

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III. DESCRIPTIONS of the REPTILES and AMPHIBIA hitherto observed in New Zealand, by J. E. GRAY, F.R.S., &c.


1. Tiliqua Zelandica. Harmless Lizard. Polack, N. Z. i. 317.
Pale brown, with irregular small black spots, with a narrow white streak from the nostril over the outer edge of the eyebrow, along the sides of the body and tail, and a narrow black streak below it; sides rather darker, with a few short black-edged white spots; throat and beneath greenish silvery, with a narrow silvery streak from the cheek across the middle of the ears on the side of neck and another down the middle of the front of the fore feet; tail tapering, slender; toes slender; ears deep, round, with a few very obscure rounded scales in front; scales smooth, of the nape obscurely three-grooved.
"Is called Moko-Moko by the natives of Cook's Strait, where it lives amongst fern on the hills, or in the shingle of the sea-coast. The general native name for reptiles is Ngarara."--Dieffenbach.

2. Tiliqua ornata.
Inhab. New Zealand, Cook's Straits. --Dieffenbach.
Pale brown with small black and white dots, sides paler with similar dots, darker above, and separated from the back by an indistinct pale marginal streak; beneath, silvery, varied with the darker edge of the scales; tail thick, tapering, above brown black and white dotted and varied; beneath white; ears deep, round, with a few very obscure round scales in front; scales smooth, thin, with three more or less distinct white streaks.
Like the former, only described from a single specimen in spirits, which may be immature. Other specimens would be desirable.


Genus NAULTINUS. Gray, Brit. Mus., and Zool. Misc, 72.
Toes 5. 5. free, base thick, rather dilated; last joint elongated, thick, compressed, free, clawed; all with entire cross scales beneath. Thumb similar, but the base is shorter. Scales small, granular, subequal above and below. Tail tapering, round, with scales like the body.

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This genus is most nearly allied to Gehyra, but differs from it I in the end of the toes not being compressed. " Amongst fern, and in the forest of the Northern Island. "--Dieffenbach .
* Femoral pores none.

3. Naultinus elegans. Gray, Zool. Misc, 72.
Inhab. "Northern Island, amongst decayed trees, and running about between the fern. Called Kakariki."
Thumb clawless; green, rather paler beneath; streak along the under lip to the ear, two arched stripes on the top of the head, irregular-shaped spots on each side of the back, hind legs, interrupted streak along each side of the body and tail white, with a narrow black edge; tail with a cross series of compressed larger I scales at the base.
"Departed spirits are said to transfer themselves into this and the former species, and the natives regard them therefore with a I certain dread, calling them Atuas Gods." Dieffenbach.
* * Triangular patch of the scales in the front of the vent pierced with a central pore.

4. Naultinus pacificus. --Gray, Zool. Misc., 73. Gecko pacificus. Gray, Brit. Mus. Platydactylus Duvaucelii, Dum. and Bib., Herp. Gen. iii. 312.
Pale brown, marbled, and dotted with darker brown, forming four broad, irregular, unequal confluent bands across the back; a dark streak from the back angle of the eye to the angle of the mouth, and a broad irregular band from the upper part of the back of the eyes to just over the ear. Lower lip with six larger plates on each side the rostral one, the three front largest; the upper lip with a small roundish scale in the middle just above the rostral plate.
Var. 2. Small, with only the two front lateral lower labial plates large.
Inhab. New Zealand, Cook's Straits. --Dr. Dieffenbach. "Islands of the Pacific Ocean."--Mr. S. Stutchbury, 1830.
This species appears to have a more general distribution than the preceding, as we some years ago received a small specimen from Mr. S. Stutchbury, who brought it from one of the islands of the Pacific. It agrees in many points with the P. Duvaucelii of Dumeril, but they describe that species as coming from Bengal.

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5. Naultinus punctatus.
Inhab. New Zealand. --Museum of Haslar Hospital, presented by H. Kelsall, Esq., Surg. R. N.
Thumb clawed, dark green, back with very small scattered black specks the size of a granule; the under side yellow green; length of body 4 inches; tail broken; toes 5. 5.; claws 5. 5. all acute; toes elongate, unequal, short, the lower joints dilated) and furnished with a series of cross plates;; the last joint rather tapering, flat beneath, triangular above, covered with granular scales; belly with a fold of skin on each side. The body, limbs, and tail covered with uniform granular scales, the throat with similar, and the rest of the under side with rather larger granular scales. The head covered with larger flat polygonal scales, forming small shields over the muzzle. The under side of the base of the tail covered with rather large many-sided smooth scales; labial plates regular. The scales in the front of the vent, between the thighs, rather larger, each pierced with a pore, forming together a triangular spot, and there are two series of pores along the under side of each thigh.
The Hemidactylus Oualensis, Dumeril and Bibron, Herp. Gen. iii. 351, t. 28, f. 7, probably belongs to this genus.


Genus HATTERIA. Gray, Zool. Misc. 72.
Head quadrangular, covered with small scales; throat with a cross fold; nape and back with a crest of compressed spines; body covered with small scales, belly and under side of the tail with large squarish keelless flat scales placed in cross series; tail compressed, triangular, covered with small scales, and with a ridge of large compressed spines; legs strong; toes 5. 5., short, strong, cylindrical, slightly webbed at their base, covered above and below with small scales; claws short, blunt. Femoral pores, none. Pre-anal scales small; a few of them are pierced in the centre.

6. Hatteria punctata. Gray, Zool. Misc. 72. Gigantic Lizard, Cook's Voy., 3, I. 153., or Guana. --Polack, N.Z. i. 317.
Inhab. New Zealand.
Olive; sides and limbs with minute white specks; beneath yellowish. The spines of the nuchal and dorsal crests yellow, of the caudal brown; the scales of the back, head, tail, and limbs small,

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granular, nearly uniform; with irregular folds in the skin, which are fringed at the top with a series of rather larger scales. An oblique ridge of larger scales on each side of the base of the tail, and a few shorter longitudinal ridges of rather smaller ones on each side of the upper part of the tail.
There is a young specimen of this species more brightly coloured in the Museum of Haslar Hospital, Gosport.
"I had been apprized of the existence of a large lizard, which the natives called Tuatera, or Narara, with a general name, and of which they were much afraid. But although looking for it at the places where it was said to be found, and offering great rewards for a specimen, it was only a few days before my departure from New Zealand that I obtained one, which had been caught at a small rocky islet called Karewa, which is about two miles from the coast, in the Bay of Plenty, and which had been given by the Rev. W. Stack, in Tauranga, to Dr. Johnson, the colonial surgeon. From all that I could gather about this Tuatera, it appears that it was formerly common in the islands; lived in holes, often in sandhills near the sea-shore; and the natives killed it for food. Owing to this latter cause, and no doubt also to the introduction of pigs, it is now very scarce; and many even of the older residents of the islands have never seen it. The specimen from which the description is taken I had alive, and kept for some time in captivity: it was extremely sluggish, and could be handled without any attempt at resistance or biting."--Dieffenbach.


7. Two-coloured Sea Snake. Pelamys bicolor. Polack, N.Z., i. 318.
Inhab. New Zealand, River Hokianga.
Polack observes, a native showed Captain Cook a drawing of a guana and a snake: he suspects the latter must have been a conger-eel. N.Z., i. 318.
"Neither sea nor land snakes have ever been seen by me. An English captain tried to introduce (!) the common black snake of New South Wales, but it is said that they died, and frustrated his benevolent design."--Dieffenbach.


"On the authority of Mr. Charles Heaphy I state here that a small land tortoise was found near the Wanganui River, in Cook's Strait; the natives never mentioned to me the existence of such an animal."--Dieffenbach.

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Polack, i. 318, mentions "toads and frogs as not uncommon, especially near the mountain districts, but he believes they do not differ from the (species in Europe."
As the species of these animals are very local in their distribution, I have no doubt, when they come to be examined, or specimens of them are sent to Europe for comparison, that they will prove new to science, and different from any hitherto described. "They have never been seen by me."--Dieffenbach.

IV. --List of Fish hitherto detected on the Coasts of NEW ZEALAND, by JOHN RICHARDSON, M. D., Inspector of Hospitals at Haslar; with the description, by J. E. GRAY, Esq., and Dr. RICHARDSON, of the New Species brought home by Dr. Dieffenbach.


1. Serranus lepidopterus. --Butterfly Barber-fish. Richardson, Annals of Natural History, for March, 1842. --(Perca lepidoptera, J. R. Forster, MS. II. 58, apud Bl. Schn., p.302.)

2. Polyprion cernuum. --Wreck-fish, Cherney, or Jewfish. C. and V. 3, p. 24, t. 42. (Sciaena gadoides, Solander MS. Pisces Australiae, p 38. Banks, fig. pict. 2, t. 74. Palo-tera, G. Forster, fig. pict. Bibl. Banks, 2, t. 218. Perca prognathus, J. R. Forster, MS. IV. 19, apud Bl. Schn., p. 301. )

3. Centropristes trutta. --The Kahavai. C. and V. 2, p.54. (Sciaena trutta, G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, t. 210. Perca trutta, J. R. Forster, apud Bl. Schn., p. 542.)
Inhabits Queen Charlotte's Sound.

4. Centropristes mulloides. --(Sciaena mulloides, Banks, fig. pict. 2, t. 68. Sciaena mulloides B. (sapidissima), G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, t. 211.)
Inhabits Hetrawaii and Queen Charlotte's Sound.

5. Centropristes sapidissimus. --(Mulloides sapidissimus,

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Solander, Pisc. Austr., p. 22. Banks, fig. pict. 2, t. 67.)
Inhabits Tegadoo Bay and Tolaga.

6. Aplodactylus meandratus. --Richardson, Zool. Trans. 3, p. 83. (Sciaena maeandrata, Banks, fig. pict. 2, t. 65. Se. Maeandrites, Solander, Pisc. Austr., p. 2.)
Taken off Cape Kidnappers.

7. Percis colias. --Coaly Percis, C. and V. 3, p. 273. (Labrus macrocephalus, Solander, Pisc. Austr., p. 27. Banks, fig. pict. 2, t. 57. Gadus colias, G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, t. 181. J. R. Forster, MS. II. 36, apud Bl. Schn., p. 54.)
Inhabits Queen Charlotte's Sound.

8. Percis nicthemera. --Black and white Percis. C. and V. 3, p. 274.
An inhabitant of the Bay of Islands, and perhaps not specifically distinct from the preceding.

9. Uranoscopus maculatus. -- Bearded Uranoscope. Richardson, Ann. Nat. Hist, for May, 1842. (Uranoscopus maculosus, Solander, Pisc. Austr., p. 21. U. maculatus, J. R. Forster, apud Bl. Schn., p. 49. G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, t. 176, 177. U. kouripoua, Lesson, Voy. par Duperrey, pi. 18. U. cirrhosus, C. and V. 3, p. 314. U. Forsteri, Id., p. 318.)
Frequents Queen Charlotte's Sound, Tolaga, and the Bay of Islands. "Bedee" is stated to be its native name by Forster, and "Kouripooa" by Lesson.

10. Upeneus vlamingii. --C. and V. 3, p. 452. (Labrus calopthalmus, Solander, Pisc. Austr., p. 35. Banks, fig. pict. 2, t. 46.)
Inhabits Queen Charlotte's Sound.

11. Upeneus porosus. --C. and V. 3, p. 455. Inhabits the rivers.


12. Trigla papilionacea. --The Kumu. 50. (Solander, Pisc. Austr., p.23. Banks, fig. pict 2, t.104.)

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Has been taken in Tolaga Bay, at Oporagee, in the Bay of Islands, and on other parts of the coast.

13. Scorpaena cardinalis. -- Richardson, Annals Nat. Hist, for 1842, p. 212. (Solander, Pisc. Austr., p. 28. Banks, fig. pict. 2, t. 212.)
On the coast of Eahee-no-mauwee.

14. Scorpaena cottoides. -- J. R. Forster, apud Schn., p.196. (G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, t. 190.)
The native name is "Enooheetara."

15. Scorpaena plebeia. --Richardson, Ann. Nat. Hist, for 1842, p. 212. (Solander, Pise Austr., p. 21.)
Inhabits Tolaga Bay.

16. Scorpaena cruenta. --Richardson, Ann. ut supra. (Solander, Pisc. Austr., p. 5.)
Taken off Cape Kidnappers.

17. Sebastes percoides. -- Richardson, Ann. Nat. Hist. for July, 1842, p. 384. (Solander, Pisc. Austr., p. 4. Banks, fig. pict. 2, t. 16.)
Taken at Motuara, in Queen Charlotte's Sound.


18. Cheilodactylus carponemus. --Richardson, Zool. Tr. 3, p. 99. (Sparus carponemus, G. Forster, fig. pict 2, t. 206. Sciaenoides abdominalis. Banks, fig. pict. 2, t. 206.)
Inhabits Matarruhow and Dusky Bay; and also King George's Sound in New Holland, and Port Arthur in Van Diemen's Land.

19. Cheilodactylus macropterus. -- Richardson, Zool. Trans. 3, p. 101. (Sciaena et Sciaenoides abdominalis, Solander, Pisc. Austr., p. 11 et 27. Banks, fig. pict. 2, t. 40. Sciaena macroptera, G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, t. 206. J. R. Forster, MS. II. 54, apud Bl. Schn., p. 342.)
Taken off Cape Kidnappers, in Queen Charlotte's Sound, and in Dusky Bay.

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20. Latris? salmonea. -- Richardson, Zool. Trans. 3, p. 114. (Sciaena salmonea, Banks, fig. pict. 2, t. 66.)
Inhabits Totaeranue Cove, Queen Charlotte's Sound.

21. Latris lineata. --Richardson, Zool. Trans. 3, p. 108. (Sciaena lineata, G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, t. 204. J. R. Forster, MS. II. 52, apud Bl. Schn., p. 342.)
This fish was taken by Cook's crew in Dusky Bay, and named by them "Yellow Tail." It is very like the much-prized Trumpeter of Van Diemen's Land.

22. Latris ciliaris. -- Richardson, Zool. Trans. 3, p. 115. (Sciaena ciliaris, G. Forster, 2, t. 205, and 2, t. 209. J. R. Forster, II. 55, apud Bl. Schn., p. 311.)
This fish is named "Moghee" by the natives of Dusky Bay. It is also an inhabitant of Queen Charlotte's Sound.


23. Pagrus guttulatus. --C. and V. 6, p. 160.
An inhabitant of the mouths of rivers.

24. Pagrus micropterus. --C. and V. 6, p. 163.
Inhabits the estuary of the River Thames, N. Zealand.

25. Pagrus latus. -- Richardson, Ann. Nat. Hist, for 1842, p. 392. (Sciaena lata, Solander, Pisc. Austr., p. 25. Sciaena aurata, G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, t. 208. J. R. Forster, MS., apud Bl. Schn., p. 266.)
Taken in the sea between Owhooragi and Opooragi, and also in Queen Charlotte's Sound. In the latter locality its native name is "Ghooparee."


26. Scomber loo. ---C. and V. 8., p. 52.? (Scomber scombrus, Solander, Pisc. Austr., p. 31.)
Solander observed this mackerel in Queen Charlotte's Sound. Its identity with the Scomber loo is not perfectly established.

27. Thyrsites atun, var. altivelis. -- Richardson, Zool. Tr., 3, p. 119. (Scomber splendens, Solander, Pisc. Austr., p. 37. Scomber dentex, G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, t. 216. Scomber dentatus, J. R. Forster, MS. II. 58, apud Bl. Schneid.)

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This fish is named "Maga" by the natives of Queen Charlotte's Sound, where it was seen by the Forsters. Solander first saw it in Murderer's Bay.

28. Gempylus Solandri, C. and V. 8, p. 216. (Scomber macropthalmus, Solander, Pisc. Austr., p. 40. Banks, fig. pict. 2, t. 91.)
Frequents the coasts of Eaheenomauwee.

29. Histiophorus---------?
"Sword-fish" are mentioned in Polack's account of New Zealand. The species is not ascertained, but it is perhaps the indicus.

30. Naucrates ---------?
"Pilot-fish" are also mentioned by the same writer.

31. Chorinemus forsteri. --(Scomber maculatus, G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, t. 228. J. R. Forster, MS. II. 120, apud Bl. Schn., p. 26.)
This fish is named "Milinjidne" by the natives of Port Essington on the north coast of New Holland. It is probably the same species with the Chorinemus commersonianus of the "Histoire des Poissons."

32. Trachurus novae-zelandiae, C. and V, 9, p. 26.
An inhabitant of the seas of New Zealand and of Shark Bay, New Holland.

33. Trachurus? clupeoides. --(Scomber clupeoides, Solander, Pisc. Austr., p. 31.)
Inhabits Dusky Bay.

34. Caranx lutescens. -- (Scomber lutescens, Solander, Pisc. Austr., p. 38.)
Inhabits Queen Charlotte's Sound.

35. Caranx sinus-obscuri --(Scomber trachurus, varietas, G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, t. 223. C. and V. 9, p. 20.)
Frequents Dusky Bay.

36. Caranx platinoides. --(Scomber platinoides, Solander, Pisc. Austr., p. 13.)
Frequents Tolaga Bay.

37. Seriola cultrata. --(Sciaena cultrata, G. Forster, fig.

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pict. 2, 212. J. R. Forster, MS. IV. 9, apud Bl. Schn., p. 344.)
Discovered at Norfolk Island by the Forsters.

38. Capros australis. --Richardson, Zool. Tr., 3.
This is probably the Dory mentioned by Polack.


39. Acanthurus triostegus. --Bl. Schn. p. 215. (Harpurus fasciatus, J. R. Forster, apud Schn. Teuthis australis. Gray. King's Voy. Austral. Append, 435.)
Inhabits the seas of the Mauritius, New Zealand, New Holland, and Polynesia.


40. Mugil forsteri. --C. and V. xi. p. 141. (Mugil albula? G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, t. 239.)
Polack says that mullets are named by the natives "Kanai," but we do not know whether this be the species he means or not.


41. Clinus littoreus, C. and V. xi. p. 389. (Blennius littoreus, G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, t. 184. J. R. Forster, MS. II. 42, apud Bl. Schn., p. 177.)
Named "Kogop" by the natives of Queen Charlotte's Sound.

42. Acanthoclinus fuscus. --Jenyns, Zool, of Beagle, pi. 18, f. 2.
Found by Mr. Darwin in the Bay of Islands. The preceding species is thought by Mr. Jenyns to be probably likewise a member of this group.

43. Christiceps australis. --C. and V. xi. p. 102.
Inhabits the rivers of New Zealand and Van Diemen's Land.

44. Tripterygion nigripinne. -
Inhabits rivers.

-C. and V. xi. p. 413.

45. Tripterygion varium. --C. and V. xi. p. 414, (Blennius varius, G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, 1. 185. J. R. Forster, MS. II. 43, apud Bl. Schn., p. 178.)

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Named "Kekogop" by the natives of Queen Charlotte's Sound.

46. Tripterygion forsteri. --C. and V. xi. p. 415. (Blennius tripinnis, J. R. Forster, MS. II. 41, apud Bl. Schn. p. 174.)

47- Tripterygion fenestratum. --C. and V. xi. p. 416. (Blennius fenestratus, G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, t. 186. J. R. Forster, MS. II. 39, apud Bl. Schn., p. 173.)
Inhabits the fresh-water rivulets of Dusky Bay, and is named by the natives " Hetarooa. "

48. Tripterygion capito. --Jenyns, Zool, of the Beagle, pl. 19, f. 1.
Crawls over the tidal rocks in the Bay of Islands.

49. Eleotris gobioides. --C. and V. xii. p. 247.

50. Eleotris radiata. --C. and V. xii. p. 250.
Taken in the mouth of the river Thames.

50*. Eleotris basalis. --Gray, Zool. Misc, 73.
Inhabits the River Thames, New Zealand. --Dr. Dieffenbach.
"Brown, in spirits, minutely darker speckled; fins darker, blackish; the pectoral fin with a broad yellow basal band; head blackish; tail rounded; first dorsal 7, hinder 10 rayed; ventral 5 rayed."--Gray.

51. Haemerocaetes acanthorhynchus. -- C. and V. xii. p. 311. (Callionymus acanthorhynchus, G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, t. 175. J. R. Forster, II. 30, apud BL Schn., p. 41. C. monopterygius, Bl. Schn. 1. c. L'Hemerocet acanthorhynque, C. and V., 12, p. 311.)
The Forsters, father and son, described and figured a specimen of this fish, which was thrown up in a storm on the beach of Queen Charlotte's Sound. It had not come in the way of collectors since that time, until Dr. Dieffenbach procured a specimen in Wangaroa Bay, Chatham Island, which he sent to the College of Surgeons, and he also possesses a coloured sketch of the recent fish. Through the kindness of Professor Owen, I have had an opportunity of examining the specimen, and of drawing up the subjoined

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description. Though Cuvier knew the fish only from the drawing and notes of the Forsters, and there are some important omissions and obscure passages in the latter, as published by Schneider, he appears to have assigned a correct place to it in the system; for it seems to be most nearly allied to Callionymus, which is the genus to which it was assigned by Forster. The New Zealand name of this fish is written "Kogohooe" by G. Forster, and "Kohikoi" by Dr. Dieffenbach.
Form elongated, with the width at the gill-covers, where it is greatest, exceeding the height; from thence the head is depressed, and slopes gradually to the snout, which shows a widely lanceolate tip when seen from above, and a thin edge when viewed in profile. The top of the head is flatly convex laterally, and the same depressed-rounded form extends on the upper surface, from the occiput to the dorsal, but with an acute though not elevated mesial line. At the beginning of the dorsal the height and thickness of the body are nearly equal, and from thence it diminishes gradually in both dimensions to the slender base of the caudal fin. The sides are quite flat, and the back and belly are rounded, with a groove for the reception of the dorsal and anal. The head forms somewhat less than a fifth part of the total length, caudal included, and its height at the eyes is about equal to one-third of its own length. The large oval orbits, being placed very near to each other on the lateral slope of the head, have a vertical and slightly outward aspect. A thickening of the integument on the upper half of the eyeball forms what Forster calls "a semilunar nictitating membrane." The upper margins of the orbits are smooth and slightly raised, and flank a narrow linear mesial depression. The preorbitar large and triangular, with its apex, pointing forward, has a smooth even edge, with some low smooth ridges radiating forward on its surface. An exterior membrane, free beneath, stretches across the snout from one preorbitar to the other, as in Callionymus, and is the part to which Forster alludes when he says "labium superius duplex, apice semilunato spinis duabus." The fore edge of the membrane is slightly lunate, the tips of the crescent being formed by the acute subulate points of the maxillaries, which are the spines of Forster. The limb of the maxillary widens to its end, which is truncated, and can be retracted entirely beneath the edge of the preorbitar and of the scaly margin of the cheek at the angle of the mouth: its end shows when the jaws are extended. The intermaxillaries form the entire upper lip, and their limbs, covered by the ordinary integument, play beneath the preotbitar membrane, and are pro-

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tractile, though in a less degree than in Callionymus, and without giving a downward inclination to the mouth. Indeed, the structure of the jaws generally is much like that which exists in the genus just mentioned. The gape is pretty large, and extends nearly as far back as the anterior edge of the orbit. The under-jaw is rather more acute than the upper one, and a very little shorter; it is bordered by a thin membranous lip, which widens towards the angle of the mouth, and folds back when the orifice is shut. The nostrils are situated a short way before the eye, and just above the upper edge of the preorbitar. The posterior opening is small and oval, and may be easily mistaken for one of the pores which are scattered over the neighbouring scaleless parts: the anterior opening is contiguous to it, and scarcely to be discerned, being almost hidden by a minute membranous point. A small cluster of pores between the anterior angles of the orbits may have been mistaken by Forster for the nostrils. His expression is, "nares inter oculos, contigua." The upper and lower jaws, branchiostegous membranes, preorbitars, disks of the preopercula, and narrow space between the eyes, are covered with scaleless membrane, dotted irregularly with minute pores. A double row of these pores exists on the middle of each limb of the lower jaw; moderately large scales cover the cheek close to the orbits, and run forward even a little farther than the angle of the mouth. The scales of the operculum and suboperculum are somewhat larger, and completely conceal the junction of the two bones. The inter-operculum is equally scaly, but being slightly narrower its extent is readily perceived. The disk of the preoperculum has a deeply lunate form, and is augmented by a very thin scaleless membranous border. No vestige of any spinous process exists on its rounded edge. The whole gill-cover has an obtuse semi-oval form; and its thin, flexible, rounded edge projects far over the gill-opening, and fits so closely to the pectoral region as to conceal the opening, though it is very large, and runs forward to the root of the tongue. The gill-covers, being scaly to their extreme edges, blend imperceptibly with the scales at the base of the pectoral fins, giving no indication of the existence of the aperture till the flap is raised; but on each side of the nape the opening, which runs forward there, gapes somewhat like the valve of a mya. All this is faithfully represented in George Forster's figure; but there is an ambiguity in J. R. Forster's notes, which has led Cuvier to think that the branchial aperture was restricted to a tubular opening, as in Callionymus. The passage is opercula sguamosa, calcari

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simplice: apertura branchialis, supera subovata, tubulosa." The spur to which he alludes can only be the projecting rounded gill-flap, which, from the opening running along its upper edge on the side of the nape, shows in profile like the obtuse spur of a violet. The latter clause of the passage is also intelligible if the adverb supera be the word that was written by Forster. The branchiostegous membrane is not broad, but when expanded it assumes, from the tightness of its margin, somewhat of the swelling form common among the gobioids and cottoids. When the mouth is closed, the acute inner edges of the limbs of the lower jaw, coming in contact with each other, overlie and completely conceal the gill-membrane, and its attachment to the isthmus.

The intermaxillaries are furnished round the entire border of the mouth with a narrow band of short recurved teeth. The rounded articular heads of the maxillaries project into the roof of the mouth, and are lined by soft unarmed integuments. The chevron of the vomer, lying contiguous to them behind, is smooth and depressed on the mesial line, but forms a small minutely-toothed button on each side, close to the anterior points of the palate-bones. Forster describes this part of the structure by the phrase "palatum papillosum, denticulalum." He also says of the jaws "denies minuti," which must have been overlooked by the authors of the 'Histoire des Poissons' when they wrote-- "Mais sur les dents des machoires Forster garde le silence." The tongue is narrow and strap-shaped, free beneath for a great part of its length, and smooth on the surface. The pharyngeals are armed with short hair-like teeth; and the long, slender branchial arches are set with round tubercles, which are fringed with a few minute teeth.

The scales are moderately large, of a semi-oval form, and truncated at the base by a waving line, which produces a very shallow middle lobe. There are about 13 nearly parallel furrows on the base, and the outer edge of the scale is thin and membranous: its structure is cycloid. The lateral line is straight, and is composed of 48 scales, which are rather smaller and more lobed than the others. A short mucous tube perforates the disk of each of these scales, and rises above its surface. Behind the pectorals there are three rows of scales above the lateral line, and five below it. The scales terminate at the base of the caudal in a lanceolate point-on each side of the fin.

Rays: Br. 7--7; D. 41; A. 39; C. 12 2/2; P. 20; V. 1/5.
The pectorals have an oval form, their central rays being the

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longest, and the others diminishing gradually to the uppermost and undermost, which are short. All the rays are forked at the tips; and a triangular patch of small scales covers the base of the central ones. The elliptical and rather acute ventrals are attached nearly half their own length before the pectorals. Their short, slender spine has a flexible tip. The other five rays are forked, the fourth being the most so, as well as the stoutest and longest. The flat, scaly space between the bases of the ventrals exceeds them in breadth. The tips of these fins when laid back go a little beyond the middle of the pectorals, and just touch the first anal ray. The dorsal, commencing over the first third of the pectorals, extends to near the caudal fin: its fourth ray stands over the anus. Two or three of the anterior rays are graduated, the next portion of the fin is nearly even, and about one-quarter higher than the depth of the body. The posterior quarter of the fin is also graduated, and the last ray has only one-third of the length of the tallest one. All the rays are jointed, tapering, and flexible; and, with the exception of two thin middle ones, which are faintly forked, they are all simple. The membrane of this, as of all the other fins, is transparent and delicate, and disappears so readily when handled, that its original extent cannot be ascertained in the specimen. The figures represent it as being nearly as deep as the rays, and showing a notch behind each of their tips. The anal is similar to the dorsal in shape and structure, but is one-third less in height. Its first spine stands on the verge of the anus, and is distinctly jointed. The central rays are rather more evidently forked at the tips than the corresponding dorsal ones. Both fins, when laid back in their respective furrows, lie with all their rays turned to the same side, as is usual with the blennies, and not alternately to Tight and left, like the spinous rays of most acanthopterygii. The caudal fin is composed of 8 forked rays, 2 simple graduated ones above and below, and 2 short incumbent basal ones. The first upper-forked one is the largest, and forms an acute projecting tip to the otherwise rounded fin. Dr. Dieffenbach's figure corresponds, in this respect, with the specimen, so that the fin has not been mutilated since the drawing was made. But Forster gives a slightly cres-centic terminal edge to the caudal. The length of the part of the tail which is intercepted between the caudal and the two other vertical fins is about equal to its height. The anal papilla is small, and does not project beyond the orifice.

In Dr. Dieffenbach's sketch the general colour of the head,

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body, and caudal fin is wax-yellow or siskin-green, becoming brighter towards the under surface. Four flaxflower-blue streaks descend from behind forward, obliquely over the nape, gill-covers, and cheek: there are some blue tints about the jaws, and two rows of blotches of the same colour run along the sides to the tail. The tip of the caudal is blackish. The base and upper edge of the dorsal have the greenish tint of the body; the middle part is alternately bluish and rose-coloured, with a row of irregular darker red spots. The anal is rose-coloured, with a purple margin, and the pectorals and ventrals are entirely rose-coloured.

DIMENSIONS.................................................In. Lin.

Length from tip of upper lip, when retracted, to ex-
tremity of caudal-fin.......................... . . 8 2

Do........... do............. to base of caudal-fin. . . 7 0

Do........... do........... to beginning of anal.. . . .2 3 1/2

Do........... do........... to beginning of dorsal. . . .1 11 1/2

Do........... do........... to pectorals............ . . 1 9 1/2

Do........... do........... to ventrals.............. . .1 5

Do........... do........... to edge of gill-flap... . . .1 9

Do........... do. ..........to anterior angle of eye. . . 0 7 1/2

Diameter of the eye, lengthwise ........................ .0 4 1/2

Greatest height of the dorsal (11th to 15th ray). ....... . 0 10 1/2

Height of first dorsal ray ..... .......... .......... . . 0 7

Do. of last do........... .......................... . . . 0 3 1/2

Do. of middle anal rays................................... 0 7

Length of dorsal fin.................................... . 4 6 1/4

Do. of anal fin. ........................................ . 4 5

Do. of space between dorsal or anal and caudal .......... . 0 2 1/2

Do. of ventrals ...... .......... .......... .......... . . 0 11

Do. of pectorals................ .......... .......... . . . 1 2

Do. of caudal....... ......... .......... .......... . . . . 1 2

Height of body at anus............... .......... .......... . 0 9

Thickness of do........ ......... .......... .......... . . . 0 8

Width at gill-covers...... ......... .......... .......... . . 0 9 1/2

Do. of space between the orbits.... ......... .......... ... . 0 2

The dimensions of Forster's specimen are nearly the same with the above.

Thrown up by a storm in Queen Charlotte's Sound, and termed by the natives "Kogohooee." At Wangaroa

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Bay, Chatham Island, called "Kohikoi."--Dr. Dieffenbach, whose specimen is now in the British Museum.


52. Labrus poecilopleura. --C and V. xiii. p. 95.
M. Lesson ascertained that the native name of this fish is "Pare quiriquri."

53. Julis? rubiginosus. --(Sparus rubiginosus, Banks, fig. pict. 2, t. 38. Solander, Pisc. Austr., p. 7.)
Taken off Cape Kidnappers.

54. Julis notatus. -- (Sparus notatus, Solander, Pisc. Austr., p. 16. Banks, fig. pict. 2, t. 37.)

55. Julis miles. --(Labrus coccineus, J. R. Forster, apud Schn. Labrus miles, Bl. Schn., p. 264.)
Named the "Soldier" by the seamen who accompanied Cook on his second voyage.

56. Julis celidotus. --(Labrus celidotus, J. R. Forster, apud Bl. Schn., p. 265.)

57- Julis? prasiophthalmus. --(Sparus prasiophthalmus, Solander, Pisc. Austr., p. 5.)

58. Odax pullus. --C. and V. 14, p. 304. (Scarus pullus, G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, t. 202. J. R. Forster, MS. IV. 17, apud Bl. Schn., p. 208.)
Named "Mararee" by the inhabitants of Queen Charlotte's Sound.

59. Odax vittatus. -- (Coregonoides vittatus, Solander, Pisc. Austr., pp. 1-39. Callyodon coregonoides, Banks, fig. pict. 2, t. 44.)
Inhabits the sea at Mataruhow.


60. Leuciscus (Ptycholepis) salmoneus. --(Mugil lavaretoides, Solander, p. 15.? Mugil salmoneus, G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, t. 237. J. R. Forster, MS. II. iv. 14, apud Bl. Schn., p. 121.)
Inhabits Tolaga.

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61. Galaxias alepidotus. -- Cuv., Reg. An. 2, p. 283 (Esox alepidotus, G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, t. 235. J. R. Forster, MS. II. 62, apud Bl. Schn., p. 395.) Named by the natives of Dusky Bay "He-para," and by Cook's sailors "Rock-trout."

62. Hemiramphus marginatus. Lacepede. (Cuv., Reg. An., ii., p. 286.)
One of the fish sent by Dr. Dieffenbach to the College of Surgeons (now in the British Museum) is a hemiramphus. Its scales have in a great measure perished, as very often occurs when fish of this genus are put up in weak spirit, but the specimen is otherwise in pretty good condition. I have referred it to the marginatus of Lacepede (v. vii., 2), though, in the absence of good figures or authentic examples, I do so with doubt. I had received two specimens of the same fish from Port Arthur, Van Diemen's Land, before I saw Dr. Dieffenbach's collection. The table of dimensions will suffice to give an idea of the proportions of the fish.

Its form is the usual one of the elongated hemiramphi: the depth of the body is almost uniform from the nape to the anus, which is remote from the head. The thickness is but little less than the height, but the form becomes more compressed at the origin of the dorsal and anal fins, which are opposite to each other. The height also slopes rapidly down there into the trunk of the tail, which is short and rather slender. The back is broadish and rounded, and, the scales having dropped off, shows longitudinal lines, marking the course of the large muscles of the back. There is a bright silvery band along the side, and the lateral line following the curve of the belly near its edge can still be traced. The scaly triangular upper jaw, as usual in the genus, is capable of being elevated by a hinge-like joint, without the slightest power of extension. The lower jaw, resembling the bill of snipe, is bordered by a thin lip, whose width is equal to half that of the lower jaw itself. This lip folds back, and when raised permits a row of 15 or 16 round pores to be seen on the basal half of the jaw. The orifice of the mouth corresponds exactly with the semi-lanceolate form of the upper jaw, and it is armed entirely round its border by a narrow, crowded band of short linear, tricuspid teeth. The cusps are slightly divergent, and the central one of each tooth is rather the largest. In a second species from Port Arthur, which has a

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more slender and scarcely bordered lower jaw, the lateral cusps of the teeth are very minute; and in a nearly similar species from the China seas the teeth are more thinly set, and the lateral cusps are so indistinctly seen through a common lens, that the teeth appear simply subulate. The tongue is fixed nearly to the top, and is fleshy, with a concave smooth disk and slightly raised membranous margin.

Rays: Br.; D. 16; A. 18; C. 16 4/4; P. 12; V. 7.
The pectoral is acute, the rays lengthening gradually from the lowest to the uppermost, which is simple but articulated. The others are forked at the tops. The articulations in the first rays of the dorsal and anal are obscure. The fork of the caudal scarcely extends to half its depth; the lower lobe, as usual in the genus, is the largest. The ventrals, small and approximate, are placed behind the middle of the total length of the fish.

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63. Galaxius fasciatus. --Gray, Zool. Misc., 73.
Inhabits the River Thames, New Zealand. --Dr. Dieffenbach.
"The body brown, with nearly regular narrow cross bands on each side."
"This species resembles, in its form and proportions, Esox alepidotus, Forster, Icon, ined., Brit. Mus., No. 235: but that figure represents his species as olive-green; the back, head, bases of the dorsal fins, and the side of the body marked with unequal, moderate-sized, irregular-shaped, yellow spots: some of the spots are lunate, and one on each side, over the pectoral fin, is ring-shaped, with a central eye; while all the specimens brought home by Dr. Dieffenbach, both the adult and young, are marked with similar cross bands. "--Gray.

64. Sairis scombroides. -- (Esox scombroides, Solander, Pisc. Austr., p. 40. Esox saurus, G. Forster, fig. pict. 2. t. 233. J. R. Forster, MS. II. 65, apud Bl. Schn., p. 394.)
Inhabits Dusky Bay and the sea between New Zealand and New Holland. It is named "He-eeya" by the aborigines.

65. Exocetus subpellucens. --(Esox subpellucens, Solander, Pisc. Austr., p. 14.)
This is a bearded species.

66, 67. Exocetus exiliens et volitans. --Auct.
Both these forms of flying-fish are stated by voyagers to be inhabitants of the Australian and New Zealand seas, but we have seen neither specimens nor figures of them from New Zealand.


68. Clupea lata. --Solander, Pisc. Austr., p. 17.
Inhabits Tolaga Bay.
We do not know to which of the subdivisions of the Linnaean genus Clupea it properly belongs. Megalops is an Australian form.


69. Lota baccha. --Cuv., Reg. An. 2, p. 334. (Gadus rubiginosus, Solander, Pisc. Austr., p. 49. Gadus

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bacchus, G. Forster, 2, t. 180. J. R. Forster, MS. II. 34, apud Bl. Schn., p. 53.)
Inhabits Murderer's Bay. It is probably the "haddock" of the settlers: its native name in Queen Charlotte's Sound is "Ehogoa."

70. Lota rhacina. -- (Gadus rhacinus, G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, 1. 179. J. R. Forster, MS. IV. 16, apud Bl. Schn., p. 56.)
Bears the name of "Ahdoroo" among the natives of Queen Charlotte's Sound.

71. Brosmius venustus. --(Blennius venustus, Parkinson, fig. pict. 2, t. 5.)
An inhabitant of Totaeranue, or Shipcove in Queen Charlotte's Sound. It is most probably the "hake" of the settlers.

Polack mentions " cod-fish, " bearing the native name of "Wapuka," but we do not know the fish he alludes to The "polach" he speaks of are, perhaps, the young of the Percis colias, the adult of which are known to the settlers as the "cole-fish."


72. Platessa? {Rhombus?) scapha. --(Pleuronectes scapha, G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, t. 193. J. R. Forster, MS. II. 46, apud Bl. Schn., p. 163.)
Named by the natives of Queen Charlotte's Sound "Mahoa."

73. Rhombus plebeius. --Solander, Pisc. Austr., p. 12. Glib bonnet-fleuk.

Rh. plebeius, olivaceus, immaculatus; dentibus Solearum scopulae-formibus, unilateralibus; squamis parvis laevibus, linea, laterali recta; pinna caudae truncata sub-rhomboidali: pinnis aliis esquamosis.
Rad. Br. 7--7; D. 60; A. 45; C. 12 5/5; P. 11--11; V. 6.
A single specimen of this fish was sent by Dr. Dieffenbach to the College of Surgeons (now in the British Museum). Solander has the following brief notice of a fish of this family in his 'Pisces Australiae:'--"Pleuronectes plebeius, saepe pedalis. Latus dextrum e cinereo pallide olivaceum: latus sinistrum albicans. Iris e cinereo, argentea: pupilla nigra. Habitat Tolaga." As this passage

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agrees with Dr. Dieffenbach's specimen, and no figure was executed of Solander's fish, no mistake can arise from appropriating, as we have done, the specific appellation plebeius to the fish described below. The Pleuronectes scapha (G. Forster, t. 193; J. R. Forster apud Schn., p. 163) of Queen Charlotte's Sound has larger scales, the lateral line arched over the pectoral, a rounded caudal fin, and twice as many rays in the dorsal and anal as plebeius.

The form of plebeius, excluding the vertical fins, is an oval whose smaller axis rather exceeds half the longitudinal one; but the entire fish has a somewhat rhomboidal form, owing to the [dorsal and anal rays increasing in length towards the middles of the fins. The naked trunk of the tail forms one-ninth of the length of the fish, caudal excluded. This fin is truncated by two lines meeting in an exceedingly obtuse angle at the tip of the central ray. The head forms a sixth of the entire length, caudal included. The mouth is rather small, and its sides are but slightly unequal. The right or coloured side is flatter, and rather smaller, land is quite toothless, as in the soles. The other, or under side, is convex, and is armed on both jaws with a band of short, dense, brush-like teeth; those on the lower jaw being somewhat taller than the intermaxillary ones. There are no teeth on the roof of the mouth. The knob of the vomer and the articular heads of the maxillaries form smooth rounded projections within the mouth. The tips of the maxillaries project, as is usual, under the integuments of the snout. The jaws form the apex of the head, the under one ascending when the mouth is shut, but projecting farther than the upper one when it is depressed. The eyes, placed on the right side, are near each other, their orbits being separated merely by a smooth, rounded, narrow, and slightly curved ridge, which may be traced by the finger through inequalities in the bone over the hind part of the head, nearly to the angle of the gill-opening. The upper eye is about one-third part of the length of its orbit farther back than the under one. The posterior opening of the nostrils is a small hole with thin edges: the anterior one is still more minute, with tubular lips. The nostrils are smaller and more approximated on the under side than on the upper one. All the parts before the eye, the under jaw, isthmus, gill-membranes, and ridge between the orbits, are scale-less; there are a few scattered deeply-imbedded scales on the disk of the preoperculum; the rest of the head is scaly, the scales on the under side being smaller and softer, but distributed as on the coloured side. The disk of the preoperculum alone is more con-

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spicuously smooth on the inferior side, which is destitute of the downiness exhibited by many of the soles. The lateral line is quite straight, and runs to the extreme end of the caudal. The scales are deeply imbedded in the skin of the body, adhere strongly, and are smooth to the touch, whether the finger be drawn backwards or forwards; their form varies with their position, being oval, obliquely rounded, or partially truncated; all have a narrow rhomboidal tip covered with a thick spotted epidermis. Under a microscope of high power many clear lines or furrows can be seen radiating from behind the rhomboidal tip to the posterior edge of the scale, separated by fine ridges, which appear transversely jointed or corrugated, and as if composed of minute oblong crowded or tiled plates. A few of the same kind of plates can be perceived irregularly scattered on the tip of the scale when deprived of its epidermis. Neither teeth nor crena-tures can be detected on the edge of the scale. Scaly fillets exist between the caudal rays. The other fins are scaleless.

The branchiostegous membrane is supported by seven rays on each, side, the lower ray being very small and turned from the others towards the mesial line. The pectorals are rounded, and contain eleven rays. The under fin is rather smaller than the upper one, but has as many rays. The dorsal commences a little before the nostrils, and almost at the end of the snout; but the jaws project beyond it. Its rays, sixty in number, gradually increase in height towards the middle of the fin, and decrease again towards its end, the last rays being very short. The three first rays have free, tapering, thread-like tips, with the membrane between them deeply notched. The anal is shaped like the dorsal, except that the tips of its first rays do not project so far beyond the membrane. It contains forty-five rays. The ventral is situated in the same plane with the anal, and their membranes are continuous, the position of the anus alone showing where the one terminates and the other begins. If the fin be regarded as two ventrals combined, there are but three rays in each, and the three first resemble the corresponding dorsal rays, and have deeply-notched membranes. The pelvis forms a projecting horn, three-quarters of an inch long, separated from the os hyoides by a notch.


Length from end of snout to extremity of caudal fin . . .10 8 1/2 Do......... do.......... to beginning of ditto . . . . . 8 9

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Greatest vertical height of body.... . 4 9 1/2

Do........ do..... of body and fins. . 6 11

Length from end of snout to gill-opening . . 1 9

Ditto do. to angle of upper orbit . . . . 0 8

Distance between the orbits...... . . . . 0 2

Height of tail between the vertical fins... 1 0 Length of ditto....... . . . . . . . . . . 0 6

Thickness of body...... . . . . . . . . . 0 7

Axis of orbits....... . . . . . . . . . 0 6 1/2

Small diameter of do. . . . . . . . . . 0 5

Height of central dorsal or anal rays . . 1 2

Length of caudal...... . . . . . . . . . 1 11 1/2

Inhabits Tolaga Bay.
Polack mentions flat-fish, which are intermediate between the flounder and the sole, and are named "pitiki" by the natives.


74. Lepadogaster pinnulatus. --J. R. Forster, MS. IV., 15, apud Bl. Schn., p. 2. (Cyclopterus pinnulatus, G. Forster, fig. pict, 2, t. 248.)
Haunts stony beaches and the mouths of rivulets in Queen Charlotte's Sound. It is named " moyeadoo " by the natives.

75. Gobiesox littoreus. --Cuv. Reg. An. 2, p. 345. (Cyclopterus littoreus, J. R. Forster, MS. II. 27- apud BL Schn., p. 199.)
Inhabits stony beaches.


76. Echeneis naucrates, L.


77. Anguilla Dieffenbachii. -- Gray, Zool. Misc., 73.
Inhabits the River Thames, New Zealand. --Dr. Dieffenbach.
" Upper jaw shortest; teeth small, in several series, velvet like; head short, conical; upper jaw rather the shortest: brown, in spirits, with small, differently placed, short black lines: face with 3 pores on each side just above the upper lip, and 4 pores in a short arched line just above the tubular nostrils; chin with a

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series of 7 pores on each side near the edge, becoming wider apart behind; lateral line formed of rather distant tubular pores, the line is slightly bent upon the pectoral; the dorsal commencing a little distance before the vent. Length 15, head to pectoral If, length of dorsal 10, of anal 8 3/4 inches. "--Gray.

78. Ophidium blacodes. ---G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, t. 174. (Bl. Schn., p. 285. Cuv. Reg. An. 2, p. 359.)
Named "ekokh" by the natives. Lurks at the bottom of the sea in stony places. The natives spear it and prize it as an article of food.


79. Hippocampus abdominalis. -- Lesson, Mem. de la Soc. d'Hist. Nat. iv. p. 411, Septr., 1818. (Voy. du Duperrey, Zool., p. 125.)
There are several other members of this genus in those seas.


80. Tetraodon hamiltoni, sp. nov.
There is a specimen in the Museum at Haslar.

81. Monacanthus scaber. -- J. R. Forster, MS. II. 72., apud Bl. Schn., 477. (G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, t. 247.)
Known among the aborigines of Queen Charlotte's Sound by the name of "baddeek."


82. Callorhynchus antarcticus. --Lacepede, 1, xii. (Chimaera callorhynchus, Solander, Pisc. Austr., p. 18.)
Inhabits Murderer's Bay, and other parts of the coast. It is the "erhe-perhepe" of the natives, and the "elephant-fish" of the English settlers.


83. Scyllium? lima. ---Muller und Henle, Plagiostomen, p. 26. (Squalus lima. Banks, fig. pict. 1, pl. 53. Sq. Isabelle, Lac. i. 225.)

Frequents the coast of AEaheenomauwee.

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84. Carcharias (Prionodon) melanopterus. --Muller und Henle, Plagiostomen, p. 43. (Carcharias melanopterus, Quoy and Gaimard, Freyc, pl. 43.)
Common in the New Zealand and Australian seas.

85. Carcharias (Prionodon) maoo. --Muller und Henle, Plagiostomen, p. 44. (Squalus Carcharias, Banks, fig. pict. 1, t. 51.)
Inhabits the seas of Polynesia, and coasts of AEahee-nomauwee.


86. Acanthias maculatus, --(Squalus maculatus, Parkinson, fig. pict. 1, t. 52.)
Frequents the coast of AEaheenomauwee.


87. Rhinobatus (Syrrhina) Banksii. --Muller und Henle, p. 150 et 123. (Raia rostrata. Banks, fig. pict. 1, P. 45.)

88. Trygonorhina fasciata. --Muller und Henle, Plag. p. 124. (Raia fasciata, Banks, fig. pict. 1, t. 47.)

Family RAIAE.

89. Raia nasuta. --Banks, fig. pict. 1, t. 44.
Inhabits Totaeranue.


90. Taeniura lymma. --Muller und Henle, Plagiostomen,

p. 171. (Trygon halgani. Lesson, Duper. Voy. t. Trygon ornata, Gray, Illustr. Ind. Zool., t.
Inhabits the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Polynesian and Australian seas.


91. Myliobatis nieuhofii. ---Muller und Henle, Plagiostomen, p. 177. (Raia macrocephala. Banks, fig. pict, 1, t. 48.)

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92. Heptatrema dombeyii. --Lacepede, Cuv. Reg. An. 2, p. 405. (Petromyzon cirrhatus, G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, t. 251, Bl. Schn. 532.)
Inhabits Dusky Bay.

The preceding list is extracted from a Report on the Ichthyology of New Zealand, read at the Manchester Meeting of the British Association, and which will appear in the annual volume of that Body. To this has been added the description of the new species brought home by Dr. Dieffenbach.

IV. --CATALOGUE of the SPECIES of MOLLUSCA and their Shells, which have hitherto been recorded as found at NEW ZEALAND, with the Description of some lately discovered Species, by J. E. GRAY, F. R. S., &c

Like the shells found in the other parts of the southern ocean, many of them are of a larger size and brighter colour than the species found in the same latitude in the seas of the northern hemisphere, and this is particularly the case with the terrestrial groups; some of them belong to genera which are only found in the warmer part of the northern half of the world. The genus Struthiolaria is peculiar to New Zealand. It is probable that some of the species which are inserted in this list, on the authority of Favanne, Chemnitz, and other of the older authors, may be found to have been placed in it erroneously; for before attention was paid to the geographical distribution of animals, persons were not so attentive to the particular habitats of the species, and many of these shells must have passed through several dealers' hands before they reached their describers. I have marked the more doubtful with an asterisk.


1. Strombus Troglodytes.
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair.

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2. Ranella Argus. Lam. --Var., whorls transversely plicated, sub-nodose.
Inhabits New Zealand; Manukao, and Cook's Straits. Dr. Dieffenbach.

3. Triton variegatum, Lam. Murex Tritonis, Linn.
Inhabits New Zealand; W. Coast of N. Island, near Cape Maria Van Diemen. Dr. Dieffenbach.

4. Triton leucostomum.
Inhabits New Zealand; Cook's Straits. Dr. Dieffenbach.

5. Triton Spengleri. Murex Spengleri. Chemn., xi. 117, t. 191, f. 1839-40.
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Stanger.

6. Murex Zelandicus. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., ii. 529, t. 36, f. 5-7.
Inhabits Cook's Straits. Quoy. B. M.

7. Murex octogonus. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., ii. 531, t. 36, f. 8, 9.
Inhabits Bay of Islands. Quoy.

8. Murex foliatus. Gmelin, 3329. M. purpura alata. Chemn. x., t. 169, f. 1538-39. Wood, Cat, f. 13. Purpura foliata. Martyn, U. C, ii. 66.
Inhabits New Zealand. Humphreys. King George's Sound. Martyn.

9. Murex Lyratus. Gmelin, 3531. M. Glomus cereus. Chemn. x., t. 169, f, 1634. Buccinum lyratum. Martyn, U. C, ii., t. 43.
Inhabits New Zealand, King George's Bay. --Martyn.

10. Pollia linea. --Buccinum linea. Martyn, V. C, t. 48. Murex lineatus. Chemn., x., 278, t. 164, f. 1572. Murex lineatus. Dilwyn, Cat., 105.
Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn.
Fusus lineatus, Quoy et Gaim., t. 34, f. 78, --is perhaps only a slender variety of this species.

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11. Pollia lineolata. Bucc lineolatum, Quoy et Gaim. Voy., Astrol, ii. 419, t. 30, f, 14-16.
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Stanger. B. M.
The throat is grooved. Called Onareroa.

12. Pleurotoma rosea. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol.,, ii. 314, t. 35, f, 10, 11.

13. Fusus nodosus. --Bucc. nodosum. Martyn, U. C. t. 5. Murex raphanus. Chemn. x., f. 1558. Fusus raphanus. Lam. viii. 128; Encycl. Method., t. 435, f. 1. Bucc raphanus. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. ii., 428, t. 31, f. 5, 6.
Inhabits New Zealand. Quoy et Gaim. Cook's Straits.

14. Fusus dilatatus. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, ii. 498, t. 34, f. 15, 16.
Inhabits Bay of Islands. Quoy.

15. Fusus Zealandicus. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, ii. 500, t. 34, f. 4, 5.
Inhabits Tasman's Bay.

16. Fusus Stangeri.
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Stanger.
Shell small, ovate, fusiform; brown, regularly and closely centrically striated; spire acute, rather shorter than the body whorls; the upper whorl with 2, and the body whorl 1; with 8 continued distant spiral ribs, --the hinder ones farthest apart, and most raised; the mouth dark brown; the canal short, open; axis 3/4 of an inch.
Like Murex Lyratus in miniature.

17. Fusus caudatus. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, ii. 503, t. 34, f. 20, 21.
Inhabits New Zealand.

18. Fusus vittatus. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, ii. 504, t. 34, f. 18, 19.
Inhabits Bay of Islands.

19. Fusus duodecimus.
Shell ovate, fusiform, pale yellow, longitudinal, costate, spire conical, acute, whorle rather rounded, last whorle about half the length of the shell, with twelve concentric rounded ribs, and a

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central white band, with some spiral ridges in front, crossing the varices, and closer over the short open canal. Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair.

*20. Conus fuscatus. Born. Mus. 147; Chemn. ii. t. 62, f. 692-3; Encyc. Meth., t. 319, f. 3. Conus impe-rialis, B, Gmelin.
Inhabits New Zealand. Favanne. Other authors say this species comes from India and Madagascar.

*21. Conus hyaena, Brug. Chemn., xi., 1. 181, f. 1750-51. Enc Meth., t. 327, f. 5 and 7.
Inhabits New Zealand. Favanne.

*22. Conus fulmineus. Gmelin, Martini, ii., t. 58, f. 644. Conus fulgurans. Lam., H. N., Brug., E. M., t. 3376. Conus Spectrum. 2. Gmelin.
Inhabits New Zealand. Favanne.

*23. Conus distans. Solander's MSS., Brug., E. M., 634, t. 321, f. 11. Conus mennonitarum. Chemn., x., 24, t. 138, f. 1281.
Inhabits New Zealand. Brug. South Sea and Nicobar. Chemn.

*24. Conns informis. Brug., E. M., t. 337, f- 8. Conus spectrum Sumatrae. Chemn., x., 91, t. 144, a, f. g, and h. Var. B. Conus rudis. Chemn., x., t. 144, a. f, e, f.
Inhabits New Zealand. Favanne. American Ocean. Brug.

25. Conus eques. Brug. Enc. Meth. t. 335, p. 9.
Inhabits New Zealand. Favanne.

26. Struthiolaria vermis. Bucc. vermis. Martyn, U. C, t. 53. Strath, crenulata. Lam. viii. 148. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, ii., 430, t. 31, f. 7 and 9. Murex australis. Gmelin, Spengler, Naturfoscher, xvii., t. 2, f, c, and d.
Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn, 1784. Tasman's Bay; called Takai. Quoy.

27. Struthiolaria papillosa. Bucc. papillosum. Martyn, U. C, t. 54. Murex stramineus. Gmel. 3542.

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Wood's Cat., f. 62. M. Pes. struthio--Cameli. Chemnitz, x., t. 160, f. 1520-21. Spengler, Na turf., xvii., 24, t. 2, f. A and B. S. Nodulosa. Lam. S. Strami-nea. Sow., Gen.
Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn, 1784. West coast N. Island. Dieffenbach.
They live in the sand like the olives, and have an exceedingly small operculum. The shell, before the mouth is formed, is very brittle; they are then usually longitudinally banded with purple.

28. Struthiolaria scutulata. Bucc. scutulatum. Martyn, U. C, t. 55. Wood's Cat., f. 81. Struth. oblita. Sow., Chemn., and Vig. 21, f. C. and D.
Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn.


29. Buccinum melo. Lesson. Rev. Zool., 1840, 355.
Inhabits New Zealand. Lesson.

30. Buccinum Triton. Lesson. Rev. Zool., 1841, 37.
Inhabits New Zealand. Lesson.
Is this distinct from Fusus Nodosus?

31. Purpura. Bucc. striatum. Martyn, U. C, t. 41.
Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn.
Perhaps only a young specimen of the next species.

32. Purpura succincta. Lam. Bucc. succinctum. Martyn, U. C, t. 45. Bucc. orbita. Chemn., x., 199, t.154, f. 1471-72. Wood's Cat., f. 75.
Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn.
Purpura emarginata, Desh., Mag. Zool., 1841, t. 25, appears to be only a monstrosity of this species, with a notch in the outer lip.
Grows to a large size; the axis 4 1/2 inches long, and 1 1/2 in diameter. Dr. Stang r.

33. Purpura textilosa. Lam. viii., 242. Enc. Meth., t. 398, f. 4-6. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., ii., 552, t. 37, f. 1, 3.
Inhabits New Zealand. Passe des Francais. Quoy.
A variety of the former, most probably.

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34. Purpura scobina. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., ii., 567, t. 38, f. 12, 13.
Inhabits New Zealand. Passe des Francais. Quoy.

*35. Purpura crassilabrum. Lesson, Rev. Zool., 1842, 103.
Inhabits New Zealand? Lesson.

36. Purpura Novae Zelandiae. Lesson, Rev. Zool., 1841, 355.
Inhabits New Zealand.

37. Purpura tesselata. Lesson. Rev. Zool., 1840, 356.
Inhabits New Zealand.

38. Purpura rugosa. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., ii., 569, t. 38, f. 19-21.
Inhabits New Zealand. Quoy.

39. Purpura lacunosa. Bucc. striatum. Martyn, U. C, t. 7. Bucc. orbita. Var. Dillw., ii. 618. Bucc orbita lacunosa. Chemn., x., 200, t. 154, f. 1473. Bucc. lacunosum. Brug.
Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn.
Perhaps only a slender variety of B. succincta.

40. Purpura maculosa. Bucc maculosum. Martyn, V. C, t. 8. Bucc testudineum. Chemn., x., f. 1454. Lam. 265. Quoy et Gaim., 415, t. 30, f. 8-13.
Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn.

41. Purpura albo marginata. Desh., Mag. Zool., 1841, t. 44.
Inhabits New Zealand. M. Deshayes.

42. Purpura haustrum. Lam. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., t. 37, f. 4-8. Bucc. haustrum. Martyn, U. C, t. 9. Bucc hauritorium. Chemn., x, f. 1449-50. Bucc haustorium. Gmel.
Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn.

43. Purpura lamellosa. Bucc. lamellosum. Gmel. Wood's Cat., f. 60. Bucc plicatum. Martyn, U. C, ii. t. 44. Bucc. compositum. Chemn., x., 179. Vign.,

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21, f. A, B. Bucc. crispatum. Chemn., xi., 84, t. 187, f. 1802-3. Murex crispatum. Lam. 174.
Inhabits New Zealand, King George's Sound. Chemn.Martyn. Coast of Columbia.

44. Purpura turgida. Bucc. turgidum. Gmel., 3490. Chemn., x., t. 154, f. 1475-76. Bucc. turgitum. Gmel., Dillwyn, ii. 621. Bucc. maculatum. Martyn, U. C, ii. t. 49. Bucc. auspersum. Brug., E. M. 265. Chemn., x., 20], t. 154, f. 1475-76.
Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn.
We have three distinct varieties: --
Var. 1. Whorls regular, spire acute. 1
2. The hinder part of the body whorl swollen, ventricose.
3. The hinder part of the body whorl impressed, and rather irregular.

45. Purpura catarracta. Bucc. catarracta. Chemn., x., 188, t. 152, f. 1455,
Inhabits New Zealand. Chemn. Cape of Good Hope. Humphreys.

46. Purpura {ricinula) rodostoma. Lesson, Rev. Zool, 1840, 355.
Inhabits New Zealand. Lesson.

47. Monoceros calcar. Bucc. calcar. Martyn, U. C, t. 90. Monoc. imbricatus. Lam.
Inhabits New Zealand.

48. Monoceros tessellata. Lesson, Rev. Zool., 1840, 356.
Inhabits New Zealand. Lesson.

49. Dolium variegatum. Lam.?
Inhabits New Zealand; Cape Maria Van Diemen. Dr. Dieffenbach.

50. Terebra spicatus. Limax spicatus. Martyn, U. C. t. 121, f.
Inhabits New Zealand Martyn.

51. Bullia Martina. Limax fuscus. Martyn, V. C, t. 121, f. 2.

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52. Bullia? fuscus. Limax fuscus. Martyn, U. C, t. 121, f. 3.

53. Oliva erythrostoma. Lam.
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Stanger.

54. Ancillaria albisulcata. Sow. Spec. Conch. 1, t. 1, f. 14-19. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol, iii. 19, t. 49, f. 5-12.
Inhabits New Zealand; Cook's Straits. Quoy.

55. Ancillaria Australis. Sow. Spec. Conch. 1, f. 44, 47. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol, iii. 20, t. 49, f. 13-17.
Inhabits River Thames.


56. Voluta arabica. Gmelin. Bucc. arabicum. Martyn, U. C, t. 52. Vol. pacifica. Solander. Lam. viii. 344. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol, ii. 625, t. 44, f. 6. Vol. insularis. Solander. Variety small, slender, Voluta gracilis, Swainson.
Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn, 1784. Cook's Straits, and Harbour of Manukao. Dieffenbach.
These shells are often eroded, green, and worm-eaten while on the living animal. The variety is very small and slender.

*57. Voluta magnifica. Chemn., xi. t. 174, 175.
Inhabits New Zealand. Chemn. New Holland, New-Caledonia.

58. Voluta fusus. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol, ii. 627, t. 44, f. 7, 8.
Inhabits Tasman's Bay.

*59. Mitra aurantiaca. Lam., Desh., Mag. Zool., 1832. t. 6.
Inhabits New Zealand. Desh.


*60. Cypraea aurora. Solander. Portl. Cat. 10. Chem. xi. 34, t. 180, f. 1737-38. C. aurantium. Martyn, V. C. ii. t. 59. Lam.

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Inhabits New Zealand. Chemn. Otaheite. Solander. Friendly Islands. Martyn.
I believe that Chemnitz is wrong in his habitat.

61. Cypraea Caput. serpentis. Linn.*
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair.

62. Cypraea Arabica, var. maculata. C. maculata. Barnes.
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair.


63. Imperator heliotropium. Trochus heliotropium. Martyn, U. C. t. 30. Tr. Imperials. Lam. viii. 10. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol, iii. 224, t. 61, f. 1-4. Tr. Solaris imperialis. Chemn., v. t. 173, f. 1714-15. Wood, Cat. f. 68. Imp. aureolatus. De Montf. ii. 199. Turbo echinatus, var. Gmel.
Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn.

64. Imperator Cookii. Trochus Cookii. Gmel., 3582. Wood's Cat., f. 42. Lam., vii. 17. Tr. Cooksianus. Chemn., v., f. 1540-51. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., iii., 224, t. 60, f. 19-23. Tr. sulcatus. Martyn, U. C, t. --. Turbo sulcatus. Gmel., 3592.
Inhabits New Zealand, Tasman's Bay. Chemn.

*65. Imperator inequalis. Trochus inequalis. Gmel, 3582. Martyn, U. C, t. 31. Tr. gibberosus. Dillw., Chemn., x., 287. Fig., 23, f. A, B.
Inhabits New Zealand. Favanne. Friendly Islands. Martyn.

66. Turbo granosus. Trochus granosus. Martyn, U. C, t. 37.
Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn. Cook's Straits. Dr. Dieffenbach.

67. Turbo stramineus. Helix stramineus. Martyn, U. C, t. 7 l. Turbo torquatus. Gmel, Chemn., x., 293. Vig., 24, f A. A. Lam., 40.
Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn.

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68. Turbo smaragdus. Lam., viii., 45. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., iii., 219, t. 60, f. 6-8. Wood's Cat., f. 22. Helix smaragdus. Martyn, U. C, t. 73, 74.
Inhabits New Zealand, Tory Channel, in Cook's Straits. Dieffenbach.

69. Turbo argyrostomus. Gmel., Chemn., v., 1. 165, f. 1562- 63. Trochus atramentarius. Callone.
Inhabits New Zealand. Favanne.

70. Turbo Lagonkairii. Delphinula Lagonkairii. Desh., Mag. Zool., 1839, t. 6.
Inhabits New Zealand. M. Deshayes.
* Phasianella bulimoides. Buccinum Australe, Gmel., was formerly said to be a fresh-water shell from New Zealand.


*71. Ziziphinus canaliculatus. Trochus canaliculatus. Martyn, U. C, t. 32. Trochus dolarius. Chemn., x., f. 1579-80. Wood's Cat., f. 96.
Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn. California. Capt. Belcher, R. N.

*72. Ziziphinus annulatus. Trochus annulatus. Martyn, U. C, t. 33. Troch. virgineus. Chemn., x., f. 1581-82. Wood's Cat., f. 98. Troch. caelatus, B. Gmel.
Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn. California. Capt. Belcher, R. N.

73. Ziziphinus Cunninghami. Gray, Griffith, A. K. t.
Inhab. New Zealand. Allan Cunningham, F. L. S. &c.

74 Ziziphinus tigris. Trochus tigris. Martyn, U. C, t. 75. Troch. diaphanus. Lam. vii., 45. Quoy et Gaim., hi., 255, t. 64, f. 1-5. Troch. granatum. Gmel, 3584. Chemn., v., t. 170, f. 1654-55.

Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn.

75. Ziziphinus selectus. Trochus selectus. Chemn., xi., f. 1896-97. Wood's Cat., f. 101.
Inhabits New Zealand. Chemn.
May be the young of the former.

76. Ziziphinus punctulatus. Trochus punctulatus. Mar-

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tyn, U. C, t. 36. Troch. punctulatus. Gmel. Troch. diaphanus. Gmel. Troch. asper. Chemn., v. 26, t. 161, f. 1520-21. Spengler, Naturf., ix., 152, t. 5, f. 2.
Inhabits New Zealand. B. M.

77. Troch. (gibbium) sanguineus, n. s.
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Stanger.
Shell top-shaped; white, with rows of numerous blood-red spots; whorls flattened, the last obscurely keeled; the front rather convex, with sharp-edged, low, spiral ridges.

78. Rotella lineolata.
Inhabits New Zealand, Kawia, W. Coast of N. Island. Dr. Dieffenbach.

79. Monodonta angulatum. Trochus angulatus. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., iii., 259, t. 64, f. 16-20.
Inhabits Bay of Islands.

80. Monodonta reticularis. Gray. Yate's New Zealand, App. Trochus reticularis. Gray; Wood. Cat,, Sup. f. 21. Troch. Zelandicus. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol, iii. 257, t. 64, f. 12-15.
Inhabits Race of the Astrolabe; Cook's Straits. Dr. Dieffenbach.

81. Monodonta tricarinata. Lam. Trochus asper. Chemn. v., t. 166, f. 1582.
Inhabits New Zealand. Favanne.

82. Monodonta subrostrata. Gray; Yate's New Zealand, App.
Inhabits East Coast. Yate.
Shell conical, suborbicular, solid, black, with close wavy longitudinal yellow lines; spire short, whorls 5; last large, rounded, hinder part with 3 to 6 spiral keels; axis imperforated, throat smooth and silvery.

83. Polyodonta elegans. Gray; Yate's New Zealand, App. Trochus tiaratus. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., iii., 256, t. 64, f. 6, 11.
Inhabits East Coast. Yate. Race of the Astrolabe. Quoy. Cook's Straits. Dr. Dieffenbach.

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Shell conical, white, purple dotted; whorls flat, with an elevated upper edge, and 6 or 7 spiral rows of beads; base flat, closely beaded, and purple dotted; umbilicus conical, deep, smooth, opake, white.

84. Polydonta tuberculata. n. s.
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Dieffenbach.
Shell conical, rather produced, whitish; whorls flat, with 4 series of large rounded tubercles; the front of the last whorl flat, with rather close spiral ridges, the inner ones the largest, and the outer ones very small; umbilicus conical, with three spiral ridges; opake, white.

85. Elenchus Iris. Humph. Cal. Cat. 25, n. 434. Limacon opalus. Martyn, U. C, t. 24. Trochus Iris. Gmel. 3580; Chemn., v., f. 1522-23. Turbo smarag-dus. Gmel., 112. Cantharidus Iris. Montf., ii.
Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn. Cook's Straits. Dr. Dieffenbach.

86. Elenchus purpuratus. Limax purpuratus. Martyn, U. C, t. 68, f. 2.
Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn. Bay of Islands. Dieffenbach.

87. Elenchus elegans. Trochus elegans. Gmel., 3581. Zorn. Naturf., vii., 167, t. 2, f. D 1 and D2.
Inhabits New Zealand. Chemn.


88. Haliotis Iris. Martyn, U. C, t. 61. Wood, Cat., f. 13; Chemn., x., f. 1612-13.
Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn. Cook's Straits. Dieffenbach. East coast, abundant. Dr. Sinclair.
"The foot black when alive. The 'mutton-fish' of the colonists; eaten boiled, but very tough. Pieces of the shell are used as bait to fish-hooks."--Dr. Sinclair.

89. Haliotis Virginia. Chemn. x., 314, t. 166, f. 1607-8.
Inhabits New Zealand. Chemn.

*90. Haliotis Australis. Gmelin. H. rugosoplicata. Chemn., x.. f. 1604-5.
Inhabits New Zealand, New Holland. Chemn.

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91. Emarginula striatula. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., iii., 332, t. 68, f. 21, 22.
Inhabits New Zealand.

92. Emarginula fissurata. Patella fissurata. Humph. Conch. 20, t. 4, f. 3. Chemn., xi., 188, 1. 197, f. 19. 29, 30.
Inhabits New Zealand. Favanne.

93. Tugali elegans.
Inhab. New Zealand, Great Barrier Island. Dr. Sinclair.
Shell oblong, white with close radiating stria, and cancellated by a concentric ridge, which forms arched ribs across the striae.
Nearly allied to Emarginula Parmaphoroides of Quoy, 342, t. 68, f. 15, 16, from New Holland, which appears also to belong to this genus.
In this genus the shell is oblong, narrower in front, and radiately striated, the apex conical, subposterior recurved, the margin of the shell deeply crenulated with a broad sinuosity in front, and no notch. It appears to be intermediable between Parmaphorius and Emarginula; it has the front lobe of former, and the conical shape and radiated subcancellated surface of the latter.


94. Lottia fragilis. Patelloida fragilis. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., iii., 351, t. 71, f. 28-30; Chemn.: t. 197, f. 1921.
Inhabits New Zealand. Quoy.

95. Lottia pileopsis. Patelloida pileopsis. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., iii., 359, t. 71- f. 25-27.
Inhabits New Zealand. Quoy.


96. Nerita nigra. Quoy et Gaim.
Inhabits New Zealand. Quoy. Manukao, N. Island, W. coast. Dr. Dieffenbach.

Nerita bidens (from Favanne, t. 10, f. R, lower) is said to be found in New Zealand.

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97. Janthina exigua. Lam. Sow. Gen. f.
Inhabits New Zealand. Coast of Taranaki N. Island. Dr. Dieffenbach.


98. Natica Zelandica. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., ii. 237, t. 66, f. 11, 12.
Inhabits New Zealand. E. coast, N. Island. Dr. Dieffenbach.
The operculum is shelly, rather concave externally. Mr. Bidwell


99. Cerithium bicarinata.
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Stanger. Bay of Islands. Dr. Sinclair.
Shell turreted, brown; whorls rather convex, strongly spirally striated, and indistinctly transversely plicated; the body whorl, with two ridges on its outer edge, separated by a concave groove; mouth ovate, with a short canal in front.

100. Cerithium australis.
Inhab. New Zealand, Bay of Islands. Dr. Sinclair.
Shell ovate, rather turreted, black, slightly longitudinal plicated, whorles nearly flat, with two distant spiral grooves on the hinder half. The front of the last one with two distinct prominent spiral ridges, the hinder rather in front of the back edge of the inner lip, and the anterior one round the canal; mouth ovate, inner lip with a distinct ridge behind; canal short, open.

101. Amnicola antipodanum.
Inhabits New Zealand, in fresh water.
Shell ovate, acute, subperforated (generally covered with a brown earthy coat); whorls rather rounded, mouth ovate, axis 3 lines; operculum horny and subspiral: variety, spire rather longer, whorls more rounded.
This species is like Paludina nigra of Quoy and Gaimard, but the operculum is more spiral. Quoy described the operculum as concentric, but figured it subspiral. Paludina ventricosa of Quoy is evidently a Nematura.

102 Amnicola? Zelandiae.
Inhabits New Zealand, in fresh-water ditches.

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Shell ovate, turreted, imperforated, pellucid greenish, generally covered with a brown earthy coat; whorls convex; mouth roundish ovate, rather reflexed; operculum horny, subspiral; axis 1/4 of an inch. Like the former, but smaller and more tapering.

103. Littorina coccinea. -- Limax coccinea. Martyn, U. C, t 68, f. 1.
Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn.

104. Littorina Diemenensis. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., ii. 479, t. 33, f. 8-11.
Inhabits New Zealand. Quoy. Dr. Sinclair. With a white band in front of the mouth.

105. Littorina cincta. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., ii., 481, t. 30, f. 20, 21.
Inhabits New Zealand.

106. Turritella rosea. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., ii., 136, t. 55, f. 24-26.
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Stanger. Mangonui, E. coast, N. Island. Dr. Dieffenbach.


107. Vermetus cariniferus. Gray.
Inhabits New Zealand, Parengarenga, N. Cape, N. Island. Dr. Dieffenbach.
Shell thick, irregularly twisted, opake white, with a high compressed wavy-keel along the upper edge; mouth orbicular, with a tooth above it, formed by the keel. Operculum orbicular, horny.

108. Vermetus Zelandicus. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., iii., 293, t. 67, f. 16. 17.
Inhabits Bay of Islands,

109. Vermetus roseus. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., iii., 300, t. 67, f. 20-24.
Inhabits River Thames.


110. Crepidula costata. Sow.,, f. 3. Deshayes. Quoy et Gaim., Voy Astrol,, t. 72, f. 10-12.
Inhabits Bay of Islands, East coast of the N. Island Dr. Dieffenbach. Great Barrier Island. Dr. Sinclair.

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Are very difficult to be taken from the stones entire. They are found on stones in deep water. Bidwell. This species is very variable in its shape, according to the form of the body to which it is attached. It is usually convex, with a deep cavity beneath, but it is often quite flat above, and the septum is raised above the margin of the cavity beneath; and lastly, the two ends of the shell are often bent towards each other below. The ribs are almost always present, as is also the dark colour, but sometimes the shell is quite white.

111. Crepidula contorta. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., iii. 418, t. 72, f. 15, 16.
Inhabits Bay of Islands.
Always white and smooth; differs greatly in external form and the depth of the cavity.

112. Calyptraea dilatata. Sow., Gen., f.. Crepidula maculata. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., iii., 422, t. 72. f. 6-9.
Inhabits New Zealand. Yate. Bay of Islands. Dieffenbach Great Barrier Island. Dr. Sinclair.
The normal form of the shell is to have a round outline beneath, but in the smaller specimens, which have grown in a confined space, the front of the aperture is often produced, and the right side so contracted that the shell assumes an elongated shape like a Crepidula, from which it is chiefly to be distinguished by a small cavity on the axis, near the angle of the inner lip, and its more acute spire.


113. Bulla Quoyii. Gray, n. s. Bulla striata. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., ii., 354, t. 26, f. 8, 9.
Inhabits New Zealand. Quoy. Stanger.
Shell ovate, smooth, marbled with purplish-grey and white dots; spire perforated.
Like Bulla striata, Lam, but quite distinct.

114. Bulla Australia. Gray. King's Voy. N. H. Quoy et Gaim., t. 26, f. 38, 39.
Inhabits New Zealand. Yate.

115. Bulla Zelandiae. Gray, n. s.
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Dieffenbach.
Shell ovate, subglobose, imperforated, thin, pellucid, very slightly

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concentrically striated, covered with a very thin greenish perio-straca, the inner lip rather spread over the pillar in front, smooth. Very like B. hydates of England in size, but rather more ventricose.


116. Carinaria Australis. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., ii., 394, t. 29, f. 9-16.
Inhabits sea between New Holland and New Zealand.


117. Argonauta nodosa. Solander. A. tuberculata. Shaw. A. oryzata. Musgrave.
Inhabits Great Barrier Island. Dr. Dieffenbach.


118. Doris carinata. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., ii., 254, t. 16, f. 10-14.
Inhabits New Zealand. River Thames.


119. Eolidia longicauda. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., ii., 288, t. 21, f. 19, 20.
Inhabits New Zealand, Cook's Straits.


120. Patella denticulata. Martyn, U. C, t. 65.
Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn.

121. Patella radians. Gmel., 3720. Chemn., x., 329, t. 168, f. 1618. Patella argentea. Quoy et Gaim, Voy. Astrol., iii., 345, t. 70, f. 16, 17.
Inhabits New Zealand.

122. Patella stellularia. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol., iii., 347, t. 70, f. 18-21.
Inhabits New Zealand. B. M.

123. Patella inconspicua. Gray, n. s.
Inhab. New Zealand.
Shell conical, oblong, with about 20 radiating ribs, the apex erect, disk white, rather greenish under the tip, length 1 1/2 inch.

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124. P. stellifera. Gmel. P. stellate seu stellifera. Chemn. x. 329, t. 168, f. 1607.
Inhab. New Zealand and Friendly Islands.

125. P. margaritaria. Chemn. xi., t. 197, f. 1914-15. P. ornata. Delwyn, 1029.
Inhab. New Zealand. Chemn.

126. Patella Cochlear. Born Mus. 420, 1. 18, f. 3. P. caudata. Mus. Lever. 242.
Inhab. New Zealand, Favanne. Cape of Good Hope.

127. Patella nodosa. Hombrom et Jacquenot, Comp. Rend., 1841, 221.
Inhab. New Zealand.

128. Patella stermus. Hombrom, 1. c.
Inhab. New Zealand.

129. Patella radiatilis. Hombrom, 1. c.
Inhab. New Zealand.

These three species are only indicated, and not described.


130. Acanthopleura nobilis.
Inhab. New Zealand.
Mantle rugose, rough, with scattered long tapering brown bristles; valves brown, convex, evenly rounded, with very minute dots like shagreen, the lateral area slightly marked with 3 or 4 indistinct rays; inside white; length. 3 inches.

131. Acanthopleura aculeatus. Chiton aculeatus. Gmel.? Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, iii. 373, t. 74, f. 1-5.
Inhab. New Zealand.

32. Acanthopleura longicymba. Chiton longicymba. Blainv. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, iii. 390, t. 75, f. 1-6.
Inhab. New Zealand, Bay of Islands, and Great Barrier Island. Dr. Sinclair.

133. Acanthopleura undulatus. Chiton undulatus. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, iii. 393, t. 75, f. 19-24.
Inhab. Bay of Islands, Great Barrier Island, and Van Diemen's Land. Dr. Sinclair.

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134. Chiton canaliculatus. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, iii. 394, t. 75, f. 37-42.
Inhab. Tasman's Bay, New Zealand. Dr. Stanger.

135. Chiton pellis-serpentis. Quoy et Gaim., iii. 381, t. 74, f. 17-22.
Inhab. New Zealand, Bay of Islands, and Great Barrier Island. Dr. Sinclair.

136. Chiton viridis. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, iii. 383, t. 74, f. 23-28.
Inhab. New Zealand. Quoy. Bay of Islands and Great
Barrier Island, on shells, &c. Dr. Sinclair. Variety pale reddish brown. Variety green brown, rayed.

137. Amicula monticularis. Chiton monticularis. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol., iii., 406, t. 73, f. 30-36.
Inhabits New Zealand, Bay of Tasman; called Karimon. Quoy.

138. Acanthochaetes biramosus. Chiton biramosus. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, iii. 378, t. 74, f. 12-16.
Inhab. New Zealand.

139. Acanthochaetes violaceus. Chiton violaceus. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., iii., 403, t. 73, f. 15-20.
Inhab. New Zealand, Bay of Islands, and Great Barrier Island. Dr. Sinclair.

140. Chitonellus Zelandicus. Chiton Zelandicus. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., iii., 400, t. 73, f. 5-8.
Inhab. New Zealand.


141. Limax bitentaculatus. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol. ii., 149, t. 13, f. 1-3.
Inhabits New Zealand, Tasman's Bay.

142. Helix Busbyi. Gray, Ann. Nat Hist., vi., 1841, 317-
Inhabits New Zealand. Mr. Busby.
Shell depressed, subdiscoidal, largely umbilicated, opake white, covered with a very thick dark-green smooth periostraca, which is inflexed over the lips. The spire flattened, rather rugose, outer whorl smooth, depressed, rounded; the mouth large, bent down towards the axis.

It is much like H. Cunninghami, of New Holland, in form and

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size, but is very peculiar, on account of the thickness and colour of the periostraca.

143. Helix Dunniae. Gray, Ann. Nat. Hist., vi., 1841, 317.
Inhabits New Zealand. Mr. Busby.
Shell depressed, large, umbilicated, pale-brown, outer whorl rather angular, smooth.

144. Helix (carocolla) Zelandiae.
Inhab. New Zealand.
Shell rather depressed, top-shaped, perforated, pale horn-coloured, pellucid, varied with reddish-brown dots, and finely concentrically striated; spire convex, whorl scarcely raised, the outer one with a short ridge-like keel, front rounded, convex, umbilicus deep, narrow perstome, thin.

*145. Helix cornu. Chemn. xi., f. 2051-52. Helix vesicalis. Lam.
Of the Cape; has been said to come from New Zealand.

*146. Achatina sultana. Helix sultana. Wood, Cat. f. 75.
Of S. America; has been said to come from New Zealand.

147. Bulimus antipodarum
Inhab. Kaitaia, New Zealand. Dr. Dieffenbach.
Shell oblong, imperforated, smooth, pale-brown, covered with a pale-brown, rather opake periostraca, varied with darker streaks, especially near the suture; apex reddish, bluntly rounded, whorls slightly convex, mouth
Described from a young specimen with only four whorls, and an unformed mouth, which has an axis 1 inch long, and the last whorl is 1 inch in diameter. It is very like in character to the Bulimus fulgetans, Brod., from the Philippine Islands.

148. Bulimus fibratus. Helix aurantia. Ferusac, Prod. 47. Perry, t. 29, f. 1. Bulimus bovinus. Brug. Limax fibratus. Martyn, Chemn. ix. 1. 121, f. 1039-40. Vo-luta australis. Diellwyn. Auricula aurisbovina. Lam.
Inhab. Cape Maria Van Dieman. New Zealand. Dr.Dieffenbach.
Two dead washed specimens, with the outer lip thickened internally, and broadly sinuated.


149. Onchidium patelloide. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, ii. 212, t. 15, f. 21-23.
Inhab. New Zealand, Tasman's Bay.

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150. Onchidium nigricans. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, ii. 214, t. 15, f. 24-26.
Inhab. New Zealand, "Anse de 1'Astrolabe."


151. Amphibola avellana. Helix avellana. Gmel. 3640. Wood, Cat. f. 46. Chemn. v. f. 1919-20. Ampullaria avellana. Lam. vi. Ampullacera avellana. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, ii. 176, t. 15, f. 1-8.
Inhab. New Zealand. Sunk in the sand.
Eaten by the natives. Quoy, ii., 199.
They live on mud-flats where mangroves grow, and in such-like places. One specimen had the whorls nearly on a plane, and the ridges very much raised.


152. Siphonaria australis. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, ii. 329, t. 25, f. 32-34.
Inhab. New Zealand, Cook's Straits.

153. Siphonaria Zelandica. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, ii. 344, t. 25, f. 17, 18.
Inhab. New Zealand. Quoy.

154. Siphonaria scutellum. Desk. Mag. Zool., 1841, t. 35.
Inhab. Chatham Island. M. Desh.


155. Physa variabilis. Gray.
Inhab. rivers with Amnicola antipodarum.
Shell ovate, spire conical, apex often eroded, whorls ventri-cose, swollen, and often flattened and keeled behind. The young shells have an acute spire.
These shells vary so much in appearance, that if I had not received them all in one parcel, as if from the same locality, I should be inclined to have regarded them as different species. They vary not only in size from 3/4 to 1/4 of an inch, with the same number of whorls, but also in the hinder part of the last whorl being rounded and in others flattened and edged with a distinct keel; in the height of the spire, which is generally about two-thirds the length of the mouth, and in others scarcely raised half that height; and, lastly, some, instead of being short and swollen, as is their general character, are elongated and tapering.

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156. Arthemis subrosea, Gray. Yate's New Zealand, App. Inhab. New Zealand, East Coast. Yate.
Shell orbicular, rather convex, opake-white, rosy-purple on the umbones, with close, regular, minute, concentric grooves, crossed by a few very obscure radiating striae, lunule short, cordate, inside white, disk opake. Var. Lunule rather smaller.
Live sunk 9 inches in the sand, and are only to be got at springtides. They are not common, and only to be procured by industry.

157. Arthemis Australis. Venus Australis. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, iii. 528, t. 84, f. 11-12.
Inhabits New Zealand. Quoy.

158. Dosina Zelandica. Gray. Yate's New Zealand, App.
Inhab. East Coast. Yate.
Shell ovate-cordate, ventricose, solid, brown, with close, regular, slightly elevated concentric laminae, which are higher at each end; lunule large, ovate-cordate, inside dead-white; hinge margin moderate; binder slope simple, without any flat shelving space on the left valve
Very like D. rugosa, but the ridges are thinner, closer, the shell more oblong, the hinge margin thinner, and the lunule much longer and narrower in proportion.
The Dosinae have a small anterior additional tooth on the hinge margin. Lamarck refers them to Venus; they are intermediate between Venus and Cytherea.

159. Dosina oblonga.
Inhabits New Zealand; between stones in mud, or rather gravel.
Shell oblong, cordate, white with a few red rays near the umbo; very slightly radiantly striated, with numerous narrow, close, rather regular, high rounded edged concentric ridges, which are rather more laminar at each end; lunule cordate.
The edge is very finely crenulated, and the folds on the front side of the shell are rather crenulated by the radiated striae, but all the rest of the shell is nearly smooth; the inside is white; the anterior lateral tooth is distinct but small. Varies in being rather more attenuated and produced behind.

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160. Venus Yateii. Gray. Yate's New Zealand, App.
Inhab. East Coast. Yate.
Shell ovate, rather truncated behind, solid, brown, with rather distant, thin, concentric laminae, which are higher behind and before, and waved; hinder slope depressed, lozenge-shaped; lunule laminar. Like V. plicata, but rather shorter; concentric plates higher, waved, and torn on the edge.

161. Venus Dieffenbachii. Gray.
Inhabits New Zealand.
Shell trigonal, cordate, solid, thick, white; umbones brown, with broad radiating ribs and distinct, erect, sharp-edged concentric ridges; the front side with close concentric sharp-edged ridges; the hinder side smooth, with indistinct broad radiating ribs; the hinder slide flattened; the lunule cordate; the disk of young shell and the hinder edge and hinge of the adult shells purple.
The younger shell is sometimes more oblong, being produced behind.

162. Venus Stutchburii. Gray. Wood's Cat. Supp. f.. Venus Costata. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, iii. 521, t. 84, f. 1-2.
Inhabits New Zealand. Quoy. B. M.

163. Venus Zelandica. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, iii. 522, t. 84, f. 5-6.
Inhabits New Zealand. Quoy. B. M.

164. Venus crassa. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, iii. 523, t. 84, f. 7-8.
Inhabits New Zealand. Quoy. B. M.

165. Venus intermedia. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, iii. 526, t. 84, f. 9-10.
Inhabits New Zealand. Quoy. B. M.

166. Venerupis reflexa. Inhab. Rocks, New Zealand.
Shell oblong, very irregular; rounded in front and truncated behind; surface with thin sharp-edged, reflexed, concentric ridges, which are highest and most bent over and back at the hinder edge, and they generally have two or three lower concentric ridges between them; hinge teeth, 3. 3; inside yellowish, hinder half blackish purple, with a yellow edge.

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Are sometimes oblong, elongate, and regular, but are generally distorted; the regular ones are rarely white within, and their teeth are always more oblique and leas prominent than in the distorted specimens.

167. Venus Mesodesma. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, iii., 532, t. 84, f. 17-18.
Inhabits New Zealand.
This shell varies in the degrees of its convexity, and the regularity and height of the concentric ridges.

168. Venus violacea. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, iii., 533, t. 84, f. 19-20.
Inhabits New Zealand.

*169. Venus plumbea. Gmel., 3280. Crassatella incrassata, Lam.
A Paris fossil; was figured by Chemnitz as coming from New Zealand.


170. Mactra discors. Gray, Mag. N. H., i., 371.
Inhabits New Zealand, West Coast, N. Island. Dr.Dieffenbach.

171. Spisula ovata. Gray, n. s.
Inhabits New Zealand, West Coast, N. Island. Dr. Dieffenbach.
Shell ovate, ventricose, inequilateral, thin, slightly concentrically wrinkled; rounded in front, rather attenuated, and produced behind; white, covered with a thin pale brown periostraca, much produced beyond the edge behind; inside yellow; lateral teeth short, very high and subtriangular.

172. Spisula elongata. Gray. Mag. N. H., i., 271. Mactra elongata. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, iii., 518, t. 83, f. 1-2.
Inhabits New Zealand. Quoy.

173. Lutraria acinaces. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, iii., 545, t. 83, f. 5-6.
Inhabits New Zealand. Quoy.

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174. Mesodesma Chemnitzii. Desh., Enc. Meth, ii., 443. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, iii., 504, t. 82, f. 9-11. Mya Novae Zelandiae. Chemn, vi., t. 3, f. 19-20. Paphies roissyana. Lesson, Voy. Coq. ii, 424, t. 15, f. 4. Mya Australis. Gmel., 3221. Mactra Australis. Wood's Cat., f. 24. Machaena ovata, and M. subtriangulata. Leach, MSS., Brit. Mus.
Inhabits New Zealand. Chemn. Tasman's Bay. Quoy.
Called Pipae by the natives, who eat them as food. They are very abundant at the Bay of Islands, in brackish water. Dr. Sinclair. --Everywhere. Dr. Dieffenbach

175. Mesodesma ventricosa. Gray, n. s.
Inhabits New Zealand, North Shore, Cook's Straits. Dr. Dieffenbach.
Shell ovate, wedge-shaped, truncated behind, thin, ventricose, opake-white, smooth, slightly concentrically striated; covered with a thin, nearly transparent, horn-coloured periostraca, edge thin. The lateral teeth short, smooth, compressed, close to the cartilage pit, the front one of the left valve the largest. The syphonal inflection does not reach to quite the centre of the disk.
Like the American cuneiform species, but shorter, higher, thinner, and more ventricose, and the teeth different.

176. Mesodesma subtriangulata. Erycina subtriangulata. Gray. Ann. Phil.
Inhabits New Zealand, West Coast, N. Island. Dr. Dieffenbach.


177. Hiatella Minuta. Solen minutus. Linn. Lam. Hiatella arctica. Lam. Donax rhomboides. Poli. Saxicava rhomboides. Desh.
Inhabits New Zealand.
I can see no character by which I can separate the two New Zealand specimens I have seen from the English specimens. It appears to differ from S. Australis, Lam.


178. Cardium pulchellum. Gray, n.s.

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Inhabits New Zealand, East Coast, N. Island. Dr. Dieffenbach.
Shell subcordate, rather ventricose, thin, rosy white, varied with red; hinge, margin, and two centrical rays bright, with numerous, 60 or 65 narrow, rather nodulose ribs, hinder slope slightly flattened; inside white, varied with bright red. Described from a single valve; probably young.


179. Psamnobia Stangeri. Gray, n. s.
Inhab. New Zealand.
Shell oblong, solid, rounded in front, and rather obliquely truncated behind; greyish, with purple rays, slightly concentrically striated, more deeply in front, inner surface and fulcrum of hinge purple; teeth large.
Very like P. vespestina in appearance; the hinder slope of both valves are equally smooth, the syphonal inflection reaches to some distance before the umbo.
The younger shells are covered with a smooth brown periostraca and are generally deeper purple within, and redder externally; some are orange, and others whitish within.
Named in honour of my friend Dr. Stanger, who kindly presented these and other New Zealand specimens to the Museum, and who is well known for the arduous duties that devolved on him during the return of the expedition of the African Society.
I have seen this shell named B. Tongana, Quoy, but it is much higher than his figure.

180. Psammotia nitida.
Inhab. New Zealand.
Shell oval, oblong, thin, pellucid, porous, rounded in front and rather tapering behind, covered with a hard polished horn-coloured periostraca; inner surface purplish white, or purple; hinge teeth small.
This shell is allied to Psammotia flavicans, Lam. (which is also Sanguinolaria livida and P. alba, Lam. }, but is not so high nor produced below, and is thinner, and the syphonal inflection is not quite so much produced towards the front edge.

181. Psammobia lineolata. Gray. Yate's New Zealand, App. P. livida. Lam. 17?
Inhab. East Coast. Yate.
Shell oblong, transverse, compressed, obliquely truncated be-

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hind, purplish rosy, with rather darker concentric belts, and very thin anastomosing, radiating lines.

182. Tellina alba. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, iii. 500, t. 81, f. 1-3.
Inhab. Tasman's Bay.

183. Tellina lactea. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, iii. 501, t. 81, f. 14-16.

Inhab. Tasman's Bay. Quoy. Waingaroa, N. Island. Dr. Dieffenbach.
This shell, often rosy externally and yellow within, and covered with a pale brown periostraca; it differs considerably in the height, width, and convexity of the specimens.
There are two distinct varieties from different parts of the island: one short, high, and swollen in front, like Quoy's figure; the other comparatively longer, and more compressed
"They live among stones about low-water mark, and at least as far as three fathoms deep.
"The animal is very small, and has a small foot. The tubes are 6 or 8 inches long, reaching to the surface of the sand. They lie horizontally in the sand with the left or flattest valves beneath."-- Dr. Stanger.


184. Barnia similis. Gray. Pholas similis, Gray. Yate's New Zealand, App.
Inhab. East Coast. Yate.
Shell oblong, rather elongate, acute in front, tapering behind, with rather close concentric laminae; the anterior part with rather close and radiating grooves; hinge margin reflexed, simple beneath; dorsal plate single, elongate, acute in front, truncated behind; very like Pholas parvus, but larger, broader, and more acute in front.

185. Talona tridens. Gray.
Inhab. New Zealand, in limestone. Bidwell.
Shell ovate, with a deep central groove; the front half with closed, waved, concentric ridges; the hinder half with distant regular concentric grooves. The front gape large, broad, ovate, at length closed up; the two hinder processes forming together a cup about as long as broad, each furnished with a submarginal and central rib.

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This genus, which is characterized by having the abductor muscles enclosed in a shelly case formed by the reflexed edge of the valve, furnished at its hinder end with two small additional valves, has the faculty of closing its anterior opening, and of forming a cup-shape process for the protection of its tubes at its hinder end when it arrived at its full growth. Other species are found in England, as Talma papyracea; in Africa, as T. clausa; and I have seen another from South America.

186. Teredo ?
Inhab. New Zealand. Dr. Stanger.
This species forms, at distances in its tube, close imperfect septa, pierced with a large central, simple, oblong hole, surrounded by a reflexed edge; the tube is thin, of a prismatic crystalline texture. I have not seen the valves or pallettes.


187. Panopea Zelandica. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, iii. 547, t. 83, f. 7-9.
Inhab. New Zealand. Quoy. Yate.


188. Panopea Solandri. Gray, n. s.
Inhab. New Zealand, Turanga. Dr. Dieffenbach.
Shell oblong, ventricose, rounded in front, rather narrower and truncated behind, smooth, white.
Very like the European P. Aldrovandi, but smaller and more contracted behind; much more ventricose than the P. Zelandiae.
Named in honour of Dr. Solander, who accompanied Captain James Cook in his expedition, and who did much to illustrate the natural history of New Zealand and other parts of the world.

189. Myadora striata. Pandora striata. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, iii. 537, t. 83, f. 10.
Inhab. New Zealand.
The periostraca is beautifully marked, thin, transparent, and covered with many series of small oblong scales, divided into groups by the radiating lines; it is reflexed into the edge of the mantles within the edge of the valves.
"It is extremely difficult to separate the valves of these shells. The foot is small and square when contracted."--Bidwell.

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190. Corbula Zelandica. Quay et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, iii. 511, t. 85, f. 12-14.
Inhab. River Thames.


191. Solenomya australis. Lam. ?
Inhab. New Zealand, Tauranga, Bay of Plenty. Dr. Dieffenbach. Common, Bidwell.
Shell oblong, brown, paler rayed, rounded in front, and rather more truncated behind; periostraca dark brown, much produced.
This species is very like the one found in the Mediterranean; but it appears rather shorter, higher, and more ventricose.
Length 1 2/12 in., height 7/12 in.; periostraca extends beyond the margin of the shell for 3 or 4 lines.
"The foot is very curious: it is divided at the end and fringed; when the animal puts it forth, which it can do to full two-thirds of its own length, it opens and turns back like an umbrella or mushroom anchor; it serves for the purpose of taking a greater hold than would be permitted to the common sort of foot.
"They live at the verge of the extreme low-water, and below, in greasy mud about 6 inches beneath the surface, and are in all sorts of positions." Bidwell.


192. Venericardia. Quoy. Venericardia australis. Quoy et Gaim.; ii. 480, t. 78, f. 11-14.
Inhab. New Zealand. Quoy. Turanga, Dr. Dieffenbach. B. M.
Ovate, with 22 rounded nodulose ribs; inside rosy, the hinder part brown.


193. Lucina Zelandica. Gray. Yate's New Zealand, App.
Inhab. East Coast. Yate.
Shell suborbicular, rather compressed, rather solid, opake white, smooth, very slightly concentrically striated, and covered with a thin, smooth periostraca. Like L. lactea, but more compressed and opake. Ligament linear, external, marginal.

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194. Lucina divaricata. Lam. 27. Tellina divaricata. Linn.
Inhab. New Zealand.
"They live about a spade deep (10 inches) in the sand on the coast, and are not common." Bidwell.
This is one of the generally-spread species of Mollusca, being found on the shores of Europe, India, Africa, America, and Australia.


195. Unio Menziesii. Gray, n. s.
Inhab. New Zealand. Rivers in the N. Island and Lake Taupo. Dr. Dieffenbach.
Shell oblong, high, compressed, thin, obliquely truncated behind; covered with a thin olive periostraca, and much excoriated near the umbo. The hinder lateral teeth elongated, only elevated on their hinder extremity, where they are crowded; the inner anterior tooth of the right valve large, thick, ovate, rugose; the rest small, compressed; the disk of the shell brown, varied.
Var. --Shell elongate, lower, rather produced, and rounder behind; the hinder part of the posterior lateral teeth straight
Named in honour of the late Mr. Archibald Menzies, F. L. S., who accompanied Captain Vancouver, as surgeon, in his expedition.

196. Unio Aucklandica.
Inhab. New Zealand, Bay of Islands, and Auckland, in the Bay of Amabrusa. Dr. Sinclair.
Shell oblong and rather thick, rounded in front, and rather obliquely truncated behind, covered with a thick olive periostraca; umbo black, decorticated, cardinal teeth low, blunt, oblique, hinder lateral teeth laminar, far off; the inner surface pearly, purplish near the umbo, greenish on the hinder edge.
The inner surface of the shell (dead ones?) is often so exfoliated that scarcely any thing but the periostraca remains, so that the shells can be bent about in any direction when wet.


197. Pectunculus laticostatus Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, iii. 466, t, 77, f. 4-6. Pectunculus ovatus. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, iii. 467, t. 77, f. 1-3.
Inhab. New Zealand.
Regular when young, becoming thicker, higher, and more or less

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truncated on, the hinder side. Hence they have been considered as two species by Quoy and Gaimard.

198. Pectunculus.
Dr. Sinclair has brought me a series of specimens of another species of this genus, found in a fossil state near East Cape, in company with a Cardium? a Nucula, an Ostrea, and three species of Univalves: two of them are probably Fusi, and the other is quite a new form to any I have hitherto seen.
"It has been stated that fossil shells are not found in the islands." Dr. Sinclair.

199. Nucula australis. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. iii. 471, t. 78, f. 5-10.
Inhab. New Zealand.


200. Mytilus canaliculatus. Martyn, U. C. t. 78. Wood, Cat. f. 47. Mytilus latus. Chemn, viii. 167, t. 84, f 747. Dillwyn, R. S., 311. M. durus. Solander.
Inhab. New Zealand. Martyn. Cook's Straits. Dr. Dieffenbach.
This species, like the common Mytilus of the English sea, appears to vary in size, form, and thickness of the shell, according to the locality in which it happens to be placed.
The one variety is elongated, white within, with a purplish tint on the submarginal muscular impression; and the younger specimens are thin, and covered with a thin periostraca: but this variety sometimes grows to a large size, as, for example, to 7 inches in length, and 3 inches in width. The periostraca of these specimens is blackish, and bright verditer green on the edge.
The second variety is thicker, more solid, much broader, and rounded. The valves are covered with a dark-olive periostraca, paler on the ventral side, purplish brown, and pearly near the hinder muscular scar. Some specimens of this variety have the hinder edge of the valves purplish black.
Inhab. the North of the Thames and East Cape, New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair.
It differs from M. smaragdus of China in the young shells being more ventricose, thinner, and rayed with brown.

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201. Mytilus polyodontes. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, iii. 462, t. 78, f. 15, 16.
Inhabits New Zealand.

202. Modiola albicosta. Lam.?
Inhab. New Zealand, Cook's Straits. Dr. Dieffenbach; and Van Diemen's Land. R. Gunn, Esq.

203. Modiola securis. Lam. ?
Inhab. New Zealand. Dr. Dieffenbach.
Only a single small valve has yet been sent.

204. Lithodomus truncatus.
Inhab. New Zealand, in stones. Dr. Stanger.
Shell oblong, subcylindrical, thin, short, and roundly truncated in front, contracted in the middle, and rather produced and tapering behind, covered with a dark brown periostraca; umbones rather prominent, inflexed; inner side purplish, rather pearly.
Easily known by the truncated appearance of the front end and the prominence of the umbo. The hinder half of the shell is covered with a coat formed of green regular laminae, perhaps algae. Common in the Greywakke rocks on the East Coast. Dieffenbach.

205. Modiolarca impacta. Mytilus cor. Martyn, U. C t. 77. Myt. impactus. Hermann, Naturf, xviii. 147, t. 3, f. 5-8, xix. 183. Wood, Cat. 59, f. 40. M. discors. Australis. Chemn, viii. f. 768. Modiola discor, Lam. vi. p. 16 Myt. lanatus. Calonne. Cat. 43.
Inhab. New Zealand. Dr. Solander. Bay of Islands. Dr. Sinclair. East Cape. Dr. Dieffenbach.


206. Pinna Zelandica. Gray. Yate's New Zealand, App. Gmel. 3166. Wood, Cat. 60, f. 10. P. adusta. Gmel.?
Inhab. East Coast. Yate. Bay of Islands. Dr. Dieffenbach.
Shell triangular, elongate, blackish; inside purplish pearly; valves convex, with rather close longitudinal ribs, armed with close, short, semi-cylindrical, hollow spines. Differs from P. squamosa, in being smaller, black, and in the end being more truncate. It may be Pinna adusta, Chemn, viii. 237, t. 91, f. 182. P. exusta, Gmelin, said to come from New Zealand, by Humphreys, and Manilla, by Chemnitz.

[Image of page 260]


The gigantic mussels, Cook, Third Voy. ii., Polack, i. 324, are probably Pinna, as they have the habit he describes.


207. Pecten Zelandiae. Gray, n. s.
Inhab. New Zealand.
Shell with numerous (about 40) close unequal sharp-edged squamose ribs; purplish; the ears unequal, with radiate scaly ribs. The valves subequal; the right most convex.
Like P. varius, but the ribs are more numerous.

208. Pecten laticostatus. Gray. Yate's New Zealand, App.
Inhab. East Coast. Yate. Bay of Islands. Dieffenbach.
Shell inequivalve, with 16-18 radiating ribs, purplish white; right valve convex, ribs smooth, the larger one depressed with one or two interrupted longitudinal grooves; left valve rather concave, smoothish, purple brown, and purple near the umbo; the ribs distant, narrow.
"Taken with a landing-net from the bottom of the bays. The flavour is very excellent, and the oculiform tentacles are extremely like eyes.
"It is impossible to get the scallops perfect; the edges are so thin, that they generally break " Bidwell.

209. Lima linguatula. Lam. vi. 157. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, iii. 453, t. 76, f. 11, 12.
Inhab. New Zealand. Quoy et Gaim.


210. Ostraea 1
Inhab. New Zealand, Waitamata, East Coast of N. Island. Dr. Dieffenbach. B. M.
A solid plicated species; not in sufficiently good state to describe.

211. Ostraea ?
Inhab. New Zealand. Dr Sinclair.
A small species, much like 0. edulis, scarcely to be distinguished. The two species are most abundant; they cover the shores everywhere from East Cape northward. "The one like O. Edulis are better flavoured than the cock-combs." Dr. Sinclair.


212. Anomia Zelandica. Gray, n. s.
Inhab. New Zealand, on the inside of mussel-shells.

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The shell suborbicular, whitish, smooth, with distant radiating ridges near the edge; internally dark green; the notch in the lower valve large, ovate, triangular; the plug thin, shelly, near the apex, and formed of parallel horny lamellae for the greater part of its length.
The animal has the power of absorbing the surface of the shell to which it is attached before it enlarges the size of the plug. The plug is evidently only a modification of the kind of laminal beard formed by the end of the foot of the arcs, for, like it, it is formed of numerous parallel, erect, longitudinal, horny laminae, placed side by side, extending from the apex to the margin, and it is on these plates that the calcareous matter is deposited when the attachment assumes its shelly substance. The same structure is to be observed in the plugs of the European Anomia Ephippium.
"The specimen was taken up with the dredges affixed to a piece of Mytilus. While alive the animal kept opening and shutting its upper valves, with a snap just like the Pectens. Rare." Bidwell.


213. Terebratula recurva. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, iii. 554, t. 85, f. 10, 11.

214. Terebratula sanguinea. Leach. Zool. Miscel. 76, t. 33. Lam, vi. 247. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. iii. 556, t. 85, f. 6, 7. T. Zelandica, Desh. Mag. Zool. 1841, t. 42. Anomia sanguinea. Solander's MS. Calonne, Cat. 45; not Chemn. A cruenta. Dillwyn, R. S., 295.
Inhab. New Zealand. Humphreys. Tasman's Bay. Quoy. Turanga, East Coast of N. Island. Dieffenbach.

215. Terebratula lenticular is. Desh. Mag. Zool., 1841, t. 41.
Inhab. New Zealand. Desh.
Perhaps only a smaller variety of the former.


216. Octopus cordiformis. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. ii. 87, t. 6, f. 3.
Inhab. New Zealand, Bay of Tasman. Quoy.


217. The Sepia, or Cuttlefish, forms an article of native food. Polack, i. 326.

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218. Spirula fragilis. Lam. Syst. Nautilus Spirula. Linn.
Inhab. New Zealand, West Coast of N. Island. Dr. Dieffenbach.

219. Venus intermedia.
"Called 'Pepa'by the natives; they are extremely abundant, and are eaten as food by the natives. The name appears generic for this edible bivalve." Dr. Sinclair.
"East Coast; much eaten by the natives; called Pipi." Dr. Dieffenbach.

220. Nanina? Kivi.
Inhab. New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair.
Shell top-shaped, imperforate, thin, white; spire subconic, blunt, whorls slightly raised, strongly concentrically striated with short, irregular, oblique, purple brown cross streaks; last whorl rounded; front rounded, white, smooth; mouth broad, lunate, with the outer lip slightly reflected over the axis. Diameter 5/12 of an inch, axis 4/12 of an inch.

221. Nanina Mariae.
Inhab. New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair.
Shell trochiform, slightly perforated, pale brown, with oblique, close, transverse bands; spire short, conic; whorls nearly flat, sharply keeled, front convex.
The brown bands are sometimes crossed, leaving small square, pale spots, especially on the front side of the last whorl.
Differs from N. Zelandiae in being more depressed and strongly keeled, and in the axis being very narrow.
N. Zelandiae is pale brown, the whorls have opake white, wavy, cross bands near the suture.

222. Acanthochoetes Hookeri.
Inhab. New Zealand, Great Barrier Island, Bay of Islands; and Van Diemen's Land. Dr. Sinclair.
Valves half ovate, covered with crowded flat-topped granules, gray and green striped; the central ridge olive, smoother. The interior valve evenly granulated, without any ridges. The mantales hirsute, the tufts of spines large and green.
This species is most like Acanthochoetes fasciculatus of the English coast; it differs from A. violaceus in the size of the tuft, and

[Image of page 263]


the front valve not being rayed. I have dedicated this to my young friend Dr. Joseph Hooker, the assistant-surgeon to H. M. S. Erebus, in whose company Dr. Sinclair collected it.

223. Chiton Sinclairi.
Inhabits New Zealand, Great Barrier Island. Dr. Sinclair.
Pale brown, polished, the terminal valves with many, and the lateral area with few indistinct broad nodulose ridges, the central area polished, with pale longitudinal streaks, and with a few short, deep, irregular longitudinal grooves on the hinder edge of the sides.
This species is very like C. pellis serpentis, but is polished, and the central plates are smooth, except at the outer angles.
I have dedicated it to my friend Dr. Sinclair, of the Royal Navy, who, during the passing of the list through the press, has presented to the British Museum a series of shells from New Zealand, which were collected during his stay in those islands in company with Capt. James Ross, of the Antarctic expedition.

224. Zonites coma.
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair.
Shell depressed, largely umbilicated, pale brown, whorls rounded, with close, sharp-edged, elevated, concentric ridges; spire nearly flat, with broad brown, concentric bands, umbilicus conical, showing the whorls; mouth rather small, peristoma thin; diameter 3 lines.

225. Melanopsis trifasciatus.
Inhab. New Zealand, Bay of Islands, Waitanga Falls.
Shell ovate, thin, dark olive; spire short, conical, about one-third the length of the body whorl; the last whorl with three equidistant chestnut bands; the callosity of the inner lip yellow.


226. Salpa costata. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Uranie, 504, t. 73, f. 2. Voy. Astrol, iii. 570, t. 86, f. 1-5.

227. Salpa infundibuliformis. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Uranie, 508. t. 7, f. 13. Voy. Astrol, iii. 587, t. 89, 6, 7.

228. Ascidia erythrostoma. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. iii. 609, t. 91, f. 4, 5.
Inhab. River Thames.

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229. Ascidia janthinoctoma. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. iii 610, t. 91, f. 6, 7.
Inhab. River Thames.

230. Ascidia caerulea. Quoy et Gaim.. Voy. Astrol, iii. 611, t. 91. f. 8, 9.
Inhab. Bay of Islands.

231. Botryllus racemosum. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. iii. 620, t. 92. f. 7, 8.
Inhab. River Thames.


"Medusae, or marine gelatine, is thrown in animated masses on the rocky shores."--Polack, i. 309-325.

232. Stephanomia imbricata. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. iv. 71, t. 3, f. 13-15.
Inhab. New Zealand.

233. Actinia viridula. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, iv. 161, t. 13, f. 15-21.
Inhab. Sea between New Zealand and Friendly Islands.

234. Actinia striata. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, iv. 164.
Inhab. Bay of Islands.

235. Turbinolia rubra. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, iv. 188, t. 14, f. 5-9.
Inhab. Cook's Straits.

236. Dendrophyllia rubeola. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol, iv. 197, t. 15, f. 12-15.
Inhab. River Thames.

237. Alcyonium aurantium. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. iv. 277, t. 22, f. 16-18.
Inhab. River Thames.

238. Pennatulae, or Sea Pen. Polack, i. 327.

239. Echini, or Sea Hedge-hogs. Polack, i. 326.

240. Echinarachnius Zelandiae. Gray, n. s.
Inhab. Western Coast, Northern Island, New Zealand. Dr. Dieffenbach.

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Body depressed, with a slightly elevated centre, with the inter-ambulacral area rather more depressed, the ambulacral and inter-ambulacral area nearly equal, the ambulacra not converging together at the end.

List of the ANNULOSE ANIMALS hitherto recorded as found in NEW ZEALAND, with the Descriptions of some New Species by Messrs. ADAM WHITE and EDWARD DOUBLEDAY, Assistants in the Zoological Department of the British Museum.


1. Paramithrax Gaimardii. M. Edwards. Hist. Nat. des Crust., i., p. 325. Inhabits New Zealand. M. Edwards.

2. Chlorodius eudorus. M. Edw., 1. c i., p. 402. Cancer eudora. Herbst. iii., pl. 51, f. 3.
Inhabits New Zealand. M. Edwards.

3. Portunus catharus. White, n. s.
Inhabits New Zealand. Collection of the British Museum. Dr. Andrew Sinclair, R. N.
This species comes near P. marmoreus, Leach (Malac. Pod. Brit. Tab viii, f. 1, 3), differing from the European species in being wider, in having 4 teeth in front of the carapace, the intermediate pair close together. There are 5 teeth on the sides of the carapace, and 1 tooth on the outer part of the sinus over the eye. The carapace is very smooth, has two impressed lines converging behind, and widest m front. The colour of the carapace is brownish yellow, spotted with minute brown dots; the dots forming a lunated line between the impressions on back the most distinct; the penultimate joint of the tail the largest and narrowed in front. Breadth of carapace of a male specimen, 1 inch 2 lines. Length 10 1/2 lines.
"Common Crab." Polack (New Zealand, i., p. 326) speaks of this as inhabiting New Zealand.

4. Grapsus strigilatus. White. In Gray's Zool. Misc., 1842, p. 78.
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Dieffenbach.
Carapace with the front part depressed, horizontal, and occupy-

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ing more than half its breadth in front, measuring from spine to spine; lateral margins in front with three teeth; many striae on the sides; hands large, swollen; sides very smooth; upper edge with a few wart-like excrescences. --Colour: sides of carapace red, slightly mottled with yellow; in front and on the back black, with large yellow marks; legs reddish, tinged with blue. A species in form, &c. agreeing with G. varius.

5. Cyclograpsus sexdentatus. M. Edw., 1. c. ii., p. 79.
Inhabits New Zealand. M. Edw.

6. Plagusia clavimana. Lafr. Desm. Consid., p. 127. M. Edw., 1. c. ii., p. 92. "Cancer planissimus. Herbst. pl. 59, fig. 3." Var. pl. serripes. Lam. Seba, t. iii., pl. 19, fig. 21.
Inhabits New Zealand. M. Edw. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair, R. N.

7. Leucosia? orbiculus. Cancer orbiculus. Fahr. Ent. Syst. 402, 13. Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr.

8. Pagurus cristatus. AI. Edw., 1. c ii., p. 218. Edw., Ann. des Se Nat., ser. 2, vi., p. "269.
Inhabits New Zealand. M. Edw. Brit. Museum Dr. Sinclair.

9. Pagurus pilosus. M. Edw., 1. c. ii., p. 233. Ann. Sc. Nat., Ti., p. 282, pl. 14, f. 1.
Inhabits New Zealand. M. Edw.

10. Porcellana elongata. M. Edw., 1. c. ii., p. 251.
Inhabits New Zealand. M. Edw.

11. Palinurus? sp. "Lobster, or Sea Cray-fish." Cook. "Cancer homarus, L." Forster, Voy., i. p. 144. "Kohuda, or cray-fish," Kohura. Dieffenbach. Polack, i. p. 326.
" The highest luxury which the sea afforded us was the lobster, or sea cray-fish, which are probably the same that, in the account of Lord Anson's Voyage, are said to have been found at the island of Juan Fernandez, except that, although large, they are not quite equal in size. They differ from ours in England in several particulars: they have a greater number of prickles on their backs, and they are red when first taken out of the water. These we

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also bought everywhere to the northward, in great quantities, of the natives, who catch them by diving near the shore, and finding out where they lie with their feet."--Hawkesworth, Voyage of Lieut. Cook, iii., p. 440, and vol. ii., pp. 325 and 328.
Captain Cook called a place where he and his party partook of these cray-fish " Luncheon Cove " i., p. 78 (London edition, 1777).

12. Paranephrops planifrons. White, in Gray's Zool. Miscell., p. 79.

Inhabits New Zealand, R. Thames. Dr. Dieffenbach.
The eyes are large, as in Nephrops: the sides of the second thoracic segment, in the middle in front, with a spine, as in Potamobius, and a shorter one beneath it: the lamellar appendage of the outer antennae extends considerably beyond the thickened basal joints of these antennae, and on the inside is nearly straight, and margined with longish hairs: the first two joints of the outer "foot-jaws" are spined within: the sides of the abdominal segments are not nearly so acutely angulated as in Nephrops: the middle plate of the tail is of one piece, as in Nephrops, and has the spine removed further back from the much-rounded extremity: the first pair of legs is rather more slender than in Nephrops; the claws inside are nearly straight, and furnished with moderate-sized teeth; the hands are but slightly grooved, and have a few rows of spines, largest on the inside: the second pair of legs is the shortest of the four hind pair (while in Nephrops the fifth are so), the second are the longest, the fourth and fifth being nearly equal in length.
This species, from the River Thames in New Zealand, connects the two genera Potamobius and Nephrops, in having the habit of the former, and combining the characters of both.
The carapace of this species is almost cylindrical; the beak reaches beyond the pedicel of the inner pair of antennae, is straight, broad, flattened, and somewhat hollowed out above; the sides have three teeth; at the base to the side are two teeth, one placed before the other; at the base of the beak, in the middle, there is a slight longitudinal abbreviated ridge; the sides of the carapace, outside the outer jaw-feet, have many short bent spines; the abdominal segments are smooth above; the caudal appendages are finely striated at the end, and tinged with pinkish-red; the thorax covered with minute hairs; the abdomen is of a yellowish, somewhat mottled colour; each segment behind with a very narrow

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edge of pink. Length of largest specimen, 3 inches 8 lines, from the end of the tail to the end of the beak; length of smallest 2 inches 8 lines.

13. Hippolyte spinifrons. M. Edw., 1. c. ii., p. 377.
Inhabits New Zealand. M. Edw.

14. Palaemon Quoranus, M. Edw., 1. c. ii. p. 393.
Inhabits New Zealand. M. Edw.
"Shrimps. "
The quantities of shrimps and their families are unbounded. Polack, i., 326.

15. Talitrus brevicornis. M. Edw., 1. c. iii., p. 15.
Inhabits New Zealand. M. Edw.

16. Orchestia Quoyana. M. Edw., 1. c. iii., p. 19.
Inhabits New Zealand- M. Edw.

17. Cilonera MacLeayi, Leach?
This, or an allied species, was found by Dr. Sinclair on the New Zealand coast. Dr. Leach's specimen exists in the British Museum Collection, but whether he described it or not I have not been able to ascertain. It will come after the genus Olencira of Leach (Diet, des Sc. Nat. xii., p. 350).

18. AEga seu Sphaeroma? Oniscus imbricatus. Fahr., Syst. Ent. 296. 2.
Inhabits New Zealand. Fahr.

19. Sphaeroma armata. M. Edw. 1. c. iii., p. 210.
Inhabits N. Zealand. M. Edw.

20. Dinemoura affinis. M. Edw., 1. c iii., p. 465, pl. 38, f. 15-18.
Inhabits New Zealand. M. Edw.

*20. Cypris Novae Zelandiae. Baird. MSS. "Shell ovate, elongated, both extremities of the same size; somewhat turgid, and slightly sinuated in centre of anterior margin; white, smooth and shining, perfectly free from hairs. Approaches Cyp. detecta of Muller, but differs in the shell not being flat, as in that, but turgid or rounded, being less sinuated on anterior margin, and more rounded on dorsal surface. The shell does not appear to be transparent." Baird.
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Stanger.

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21. Anatifa spinosa. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., iii., 629, t. 93, f. 17.
Inhabits New Zealand.

22. Anatifa elongata. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., iii., 635, t. 93, f. 6.
Inhabits Bay of Islands.

23. Anatifa tubulosa. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., iii., 643, t. 93, f. 5.
Inhabits New Zealand.

24. Lepas balaenaris. Gmelin. Chemn, viii., t. 99, f. 845-6. Balanus circulus. Mus. Genev.
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Dieffenbach.

25. Tubicinella trachealis. Lepas trachealis. Shaw, N. Miscel. xvii., t. 726. L. tracheaeformis. Wood. Conch. 31, t. 10, f. 1-3. Tubicinella major et T. minus. Lam., Ann. Mus. H. N., vi. 461, t. 30, f. 1-2.
Inhabits the Skin of Whales. New Zealand.

26. Elminius plicatus. Gray, n. s.
Inhabits New Zealand. Mr. Yate and Dr. Dieffenbach.
"Valves yellow, strongly plicated and folded, especially at the base; opercular valves thick.
The apical part of the valves are generally much worn; like E. Kingii, the valves are solid and not cellular. When young the valves of these shells are purplish white and low. There is another species of this genus found on the Concholepas, which is folded below like this, but purple and depressed." E. Peruviana. Gray.

27. Coma depressa. Gray.
Inhabits New Zealand, on Haliotis Iris, Bay of Islands. Dr. Sinclair

28. Balanus. ------?
Inhabits New Zealand, on Mytilus smaragdus.

29. Balanus. ------?
Inhabits New Zealand.

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30. Scolopendra rubriceps, [?]. Newport. MSS.
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Dieffenbach.
" Head, labium, and mandibles very dark red; body blackish brown, somewhat flattened; very much narrowed in the anterior, but dilated in the posterior segments. Antennae and legs reddish olive. Posterior pair of legs, on the under surface, with 7 spines arranged in two oblique lines, and 3 spines on the internal superior margin. Length 4 3/4 inches." Newport.
Polack (i. p. 322) speaks of a species of "innocuous" centipede as occurring in New Zealand.

31. Spirotreptus antipodarum. Newport. MSS.
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair.
"Brown, with the head smooth, and deeply excavated at the sides behind the antennae; first segment with the sides triangular, subacute without plica; anterior portion of each segment sub-striated diagonally, and mottled with orange; posterior portion almost smooth, with very faint longitudinal striae. Preanal scale short, rounded."
"These specimens are in their immature state, and have but 35 segments to the body, the adult number being about 50, and the length of the individual from 1 1/2 to 2 inches. "G. Newport.


A spider in New Zealand (at Mawi) is named pouwerewere. Walckenaer, Apt ii., p. 519.

32. Mygale antipodiana. Walck. Apt. i., p. 230.
Inhabits New Zealand. Walck.

33. Segestria saeva. Walck. Apt. i, p. 269.
Inhabits New Zealand. Walck.

34. Lycosa nautica. Walck. Apt. i., 340.
Inhabits N. Zealand. Walck.
"Aranea viatica--the wandering spider." Polack speaks of this being met with continually in New Zealand (i. p. 321). It may be some species of the genus Lycosa.

35. Dolomedes mirificus. Walck. Apt. i., 355.
Inhabits New Zealand. Walck.

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36. Attus abbreviatus. Walck. Apt. i., p. 477.
Inhabits New Zealand. Walck.

37. Attus Cookii. Walck. Apt. i. 5 p. 478.
Inhabits New Zealand. Walck.

38. Tegenaria Australensis. Walck. Apt. ii., p. 12.
Inhabits New Zealand. Walck.

39. Epeira antipodiana. Walck. Apt. ii., p. 93. Epeire plumipede. Lat?-., Hist. Nat. des Ins., t. vii., p. 275, No. 86.
Inhabits New Zealand. Walck.

40. Epeira crassa. Walck. Apt. ii., p. 127.
Inhabits New Zealand. Walck.

41. Epeira verrucosa. Walck. Apt. i., p. 135.
Inhabits New Zealand. Walck.

42. Tetragnatha (Deinagnatha) Dandridgei. White, n. s.
Inhabits New Zealand. Brit. Mus. Dr. Sinclair, R. N.
Brownish yellow, hooks of chelicera and ends of the legs darker; eyes black (in one specimen pink). The chelicera are longer than the cephalothorax, narrowest at the base, with five spines at the end, the three on the upper side larger than the lest; inner edge with two rows of small teeth, the under row containing more than the upper; the claw is very long and curved at the base, the tip also is slightly bent. Eyes eight, placed on two slightly-lunated parallel lines, the two middle eyes of anterior line nearer each other than they are to the side eyes; they are placed on the sides and the base of a slight projection. Maxillae long, sinuated on the outer margin, dilated at the ends, which are abrupt and very slightly rounded on the angles; palpi, with the second joint very long, the third thickest at the end, and shorter than the fourth, which is hairy and considerably thickened at the end; the globular process in the male near the base of fifth joint, much as in Dolomedes mirabilis (Clerck, Aran. Suec. tab. 5, fig. 4), only much more complicated. Mentum rounded at the end, with an impressed line near the margin going round it: there is a slight impressed line down the middle. Cephalothorax of a longish oval figure, narrowed in front, depressed, with two deep impressions about the middle Legs long, first pair the longest, the fourth

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apparently longer than the second, the third very short. Length of a shrivelled-up male from end of body to end of chelicera 6 lines.
I have named this spider after one, many of whose draw ings and descriptions seem to me to have been copied by Eleazar Albin, in his 'Natural History of Spiders,' published in 1736. Bradley, in his 'Philosophical Account of the Works of Nature' (1721), refers to "the curious Mr. Dandridge, of Moorfields," as having "observed and delineated" "a hundred and forty different kinds" of spiders "in England alone" (pp. 130 and 131). The Baron Walckenaer, in his elaborate list of arachnologists (Apteres, i., pp. 24-29), has not included Dandridge, though, had he been aware of his labours, he would doubtless have given him a distinguished place amongst his "Apteristes iconographes, descripteurs et collecteurs." I have formed a new subgenus for this spider, which, with the Tetragnatha (Anetognatha) bicolor of Tasmania (Annals and Mag. of Nat. Hist., vii., p. 475), will form two sections of this family.

"Aranea calycina."
Mr. Polack (New Zealand, i, p. 321) says that in New Zealand "the innumerable spider-webs (aranea calycina) have the resemblance, when the morning sun shines on them, loaded with the dew of the preceding night, of so many hyads or watery stars."

"Spiders are found in vast abundance amongst the fern." Yate, p. 73.

"Scorpion," "small and harmless."
Inhabits New Zealand (under bark of trees). Polack, i., p. 321.



43. Cicindela tuberculata. Fabr., Syst. Ent. 225. Oliv. 11, t. 3, f. 28.
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr.
Mr. Charles Darwin and Dr. A. Sinclair also found specimens there which they presented to the British Museum collection.

44. Cicindela Douei, Chenu. Guerin. Mag. de Zool. 1840, pl. 45.
Inhabits New Zealand. Chenu.

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45. Cymindis Dieffenbachii. White. C. australis. Hombron and Jacquinot, (nee Dej.) D'Urv. Voy. au Pole Sud, Ins. pl. 1, f. 7.
Inhabits Otago. Messrs. Hombron and Jacquinot.

16. Lebia binotata. Hombron and Jacquinot. D'Urv. Voy. au Pole Sud, Ins. pl. 1, f. 8.
Inhabits Akaroa. Messrs. Hombron and Jacquinot.

47. Heterodactylus Nebrioides. Guerin, Rev. Zool. Cuv., 1841, p. 214.
Inhabits Auckland Islands. Guerin.

48. Promecoderus Lottini. Brulle, Hist. Nat. des Insectes, iv., p. 450.
Inhabits New Zealand.
Mr. Waterhouse regards this as "a true species" of Mr G. R. Gray's genus Cnemacanthus. Charlesworth's Mag. of Nat. Hist., 1840, p. 355.

49. Anchomenus atratus. Hombron and Jacquinot. D'Urv. Voy. au Pole Sud, Ins., pl. 1, f. 15.
Inhabits New Zealand. Messrs. Hombron and Jacquinot.

50. Feronia (Platysma?) australasiae. Guerin, Rev. Zool. Cuv., 1841, p. 120.
Inhabits New Zealand (Bay of Islands), Portotago. Guerin. British Museum.

51. Feronia (Platysma?) subaenea. Guerin, Rev. Zool. Cuv. 1841, p. 122.
Inhabits New Zealand (Portotago).

52. Oopterus clivinoides. Guerin, Rev. Zool. Cuv., 1841, p. 123.
Inhabits Auckland Islands (Guerin).

53. Staphylinus oculatus. Fabr., Syst. Ent. 265, 4. Oliv., t. 11, f. 19. Boisd., Voy. Astrol, ii., 54, t. 9, f. 1. Erichs., Staphyl., p. 352.
Inhabits New Zealand. Boisd.

54. Micronyx chlorophyllus. Boisd. Voy. Astrol, ii. 189. Rutele chlorophylle, t. 6, f. 18.
Inhabits New Zealand. Boisd.

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55. Stethaspis suturalis. {Fahr.) Hope. Coleopt. Manual, i., pp. 104, 404. Melolontha suturalis. Fahr., Syst. Ent. 34. 12.
Inhabits New Zealand. Fahr.

56. Cheiroplatys truncatus. (Fahr.) Kirby. Hope. Coleopt. Manual, i., p. 29 and 84. Scarabaeus truncatus. Fahr., Syst. Ent. 6-12.
Inhabits New Zealand. Fahr.

57. Pyronota festiva. {Fabr.) Boisd. ii., 214. Melolontha festiva. Fabr., Syst. Ent. 36, 23; Oliv. i. t. 5, f. 48. Calonota festiva. Hope, Col. Man. i., p. 40. Var. Melolontha laeta. Fabr. Syst. Ent. 36, 24. Oliv., i. t. 6, f. 56. Pyr. laeta. Boisd. ii., 214. Calonota laeta. Hope. Col. Man. i., p. 41 and 107.
Inhabits New Zealand. Fahr. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair found this species abundantly at the Bay of Islands, but did not bring the variety. The Rev. F. Hope has given the generic characters in a much more detailed manner than Dr. Bois-duval, who merely indicates the genus. Boisduval's name, however, is, I believe, prior to that given by Mr. Hope.

58. Opatrum Iaevigatum. Fabr., Ent. Syst. i. 89. 5.
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr.

59. Opilus violaceus. Fabr. Klug. Abhandl., Berlin, 1840. p. 391. Notoxus violaceus. Fabr., Syst. EI. i., 297, 2.
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr.

60. Notoxus porcatus, Fabr.
Inhabits New Zealand Hope, Col. Man. iii., p. 137.

61. Dryops lineata. Fabr., Syst. EI. ii., 68, 4. Lagria lineata. Fabr., Syst. Ent. 124. 3. Nacerdes sp.? Stev. Dej.
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. Brit. Museum. Dr. Sinclair.

62. Pseud-helops tuberculatus. Guerin, Rev. Zool. Cuv. 1841, p. 125.
Inhabits Auckland Islands.

63. Brentus barbicornis. Fabr. Oliv. Curculio barbi-cornis. Fabr., Syst. Ent. 134. 41. Ent. v., t. 1, f. 5, t. 2, f. 5. Schoenh. I, p. 353; and v., p. 578.
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. British Museum.

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Dr. Sinclair, in company with Dr. Joseph Hooker, found a specimen of this species in a chink between the bark and wood of the Cowrie (Damara Australis): it is now in the British Museum collection.

64. Brentus assimilis. Fahr. Oliv. Ent. v., p. 433, pl. 2, f. 6. Curculio assimilis. Fahr. Syst. Ent. 134. 42. Schoenh. i., p. 356.
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr.

65. Brentus cylindricornis. Fabr. Schoenh. i., p. 368.
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr.

66. Rhadinosomus acuminatus. Schoenh., Cure vi., p. 473. Leptosomus acuminatus. Schoenh., Cure. ii. p. 169. Waterhouse, Trans. Ent. Soc. ii, pl. 17, f. 2, pp. 192, 193. Curculio acuminatus. Fabr., Syst. Ent. 152. 132.
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. British Museum.

67. -------------------. Rhynchaenus bidens. Fabr., Syst. El. ii. 457, 96. Curculio bidens, Fabr., Syst. Ent. 136. 51. Oliv. Coleopt, pl. x., f. 113.
Inhabits New Zealand.

68. Cryptorhynchns? bituberculatus. Curculio bituberculatus. Fabr., Ent. Syst, ii., 414. 90.
Inhabits New Zealand.

69. Cryptorhynchns? modestus. Curculio modestus. Fabr., Ent. Syst. ii. 453. 250.
Inhabits New Zealand.

70. Psepholax sulcatus. White, n. g., n. s.
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair.
Beak short, perpendicularly bent down, wide, somewhat dilated at the end, near which arise the antennae. Antennae spring from the end of a deep groove, twelve-jointed; first joint as long as the next seven taken together, the tip nearly, if not quite, reaching the eye, very smooth, and gradually thickened to the end; the second joint minute; the five preceding the club somewhat moni-liform; club large, oval, pointed at the end, (of four joints?) covered with minute hairs. Eyes roundish, of an ovate-elliptical form. Thorax behind nearly as wide as the elytra at base; elytra widest a little behind the base. Legs rather stout. Femora thick-

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ened, those of the first pair with the margin sinuated, bulging into a broad blunt tooth; tibiae of second pair with a strong tooth near the end.
This little Curculionideous genus comes, I believe, near Gronops and Aterpus of the scientific Schoenherr (Gen. et Spec. Curc. ii., pars 1, pp. 250--252).
The species is of a deep pitchy brownish black; the thorax above with three distinct brownish ashy lines; the lateral ones broadest and somewhat irregular. These lines are formed by distinct coloured scales. The elytra are ribbed, each having, at least, six raised ribs, two of which meet at the end; some of them have erect scales along the irregular edge; between each is a line of impressed points. The sides of the elytra, at the broadest part, are especially hairy. The legs are punctate, and, like the under surface of the body, have brownish ashy hairs, longest on the posterior part of the tibiae and tarsi. Length about four lines.

71. Aterpus? or Hipporhinus? Curculio tridens. Fahr.
Inhabits New Zealand.

72. Eurhamphus fasciculatus. Shuck., Ent. Mag. v., p. 506, pl. 18.
Inhabits New Zealand. Shuckard.

73. Nitidula abbreviata. Fahr., Syst. EI. i., 348. 5.
Inhabits New Zealand.

74. Apate minutus. Fabr., Syst. Ent. 54. 4.
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr.

75. Dermestes carnivores. Fabr., Syst. Ent. 55. 2.
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr.

76. Dermestes navalis. Fabr., Syst. Ent. 56. Q.
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr.

77. Pristoderus scaber. {Fabr.) Hope, Col. Man., iii., p. 181, and p. 81. Dermestes scaber. Fabr. Syst. Ent. 57. 16.
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr.

78. Dermestes limbatus. Fabr., Ent. Syst. Eleuth. i., 318. 36.
Inhabits New Zealand.

79. Prionoplus (Prionus. auct.) reticularis. White, n. s.
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair.
Pitchy brown; the margins of the abdominal segments beneath

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paler; the elytra margined, and of a lighter colour, with three longitudinal veins springing from the base, and connected together by yellowish nervures, forming irregular reticulations, not corresponding on each elytron; the elytra have a short spine at the end close to the suture. The head, thorax, and general surface of the elytra are irregularly punctured and vermiculated.

The thorax is short, transverse, not nearly so wide as the elytra, and covered with many short woolly-like hairs, which give it a brownish hue, and seems to have a longer tuft on each side behind; the sides have a strongish spine about the middle, which spine is angulated at the base.

The femora have two spines at the end, and the tibiae have three spines, two shorter on the inside at the end, and a longer one on the outside.

The face between the antennae is hollowed out; the shortish strong angulated mandibles are punctured on the outside; the trophi are prominent, and somewhat clubbed at the end. The eyes are large, and are separated both above and beneath by a rather narrow division. The antennae are somewhat more than three-quarters the length of the insect; the first joint is strong, short, and thickest at the end; the second is very small, and somewhat cup-shaped; the next eight have a spine at the end of each, the third being the longest joint of the antennas, and the others gradually shorter; the terminal joint is bluntish at the end; the last joints are somewhat flattened. The sides of the scutellum are nearly parallel, the end abruptly rounded, and down the middle there is a smoothish ridge. The elytra are longish, rounded at the end, and narrowest there; the margin is slightly turned up. Length 1 inch 6 lines; greatest breadth of elytra about 6 1/2 lines.

This Prionus forms a section or subgenus distinct from Sceleo-cantha and Toxeutes of Newman (Annals and Magazine of Nat. Hist., v, pp. 14, 15), the latter founded on the Australian Prionus arcuatus, Fab.; it differs essentially from Malloderes Dupont (Guerin, Mag. de Zool., 1835, pl. 125) and Aulacopus, Serville (Annales de la Soc. Entom., 1832, pp. 144, 145), of the characters of the species of which it partly partakes.

80. Callichroma (Calliprason) Sinclairi. White, n. s.
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair.
Above of a grass green, beneath silvery-grey, with silky scales or hairs; the abdomen is reddish-brown where seen through the

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silvery-grey. Legs, antennae, and cibarial organs reddish; parts about the mouth with grey hairs. Head and thorax above darker than the elytra, in some places inclined to blackish. Elytra strongly margined; margin yellowish brown, upper surface minutely punctured, with three rather indistinct longitudinal ridges. Length 4 1/2 lines.

Head behind the eyes not wider than the thorax. Eyes very large, prominent, very slightly (if at all) notched near the insertion of the antennae. Antennae eleven-jointed; first joint longest, dilated at the end; second minute; third, fourth, and fifth the most slender; third and fourth knobbed at the end; the fifth gradually, and the terminal joints slightly, dilated. Thorax longer than broad, narrowed in front and behind. Sides with a short spine behind the middle. Legs long, slender. Femora clavate. Elytra long, gradually growing narrower towards the end, which is simple.

I have placed this delicately pretty little longicorn beetle in a new subgenus, which in the system seems to me to come near the genus Promeces of Serville: it is larger than the Encyclops pallipes, Newman (Entomological Magazine, v. p. 392), to which North American species, discovered by Mr. Edward Doubleday, it has some resemblance at first sight. I have named it in compliment to Dr. Andrew Sinclair, surgeon, R. N., who found the insect in New Zealand, and presented it, with many other New Zealand Annulosa, to the British Museum. This insect (like Encyclops) seems to be one of the links connecting the Ceram-bicidae with the Lepturidae, a family by no means abundant out of America, Europe, and Africa.

81. Phoracantha dorsalis. {MacLeay.) Newm. Annals of Nat. Hist., v. p. 19. Stenochorus dorsalis. MacLeay. Appendix to King's Survey, ii., p. 451, sp. 85.
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair.

82. Coptomma variegatum. (Fabr.) Newm. Tmesisternus variegatus. Boisd. Guer. Callidium variegatum. Fabr. Oliv., t. 5, f. 58. Coptomma vitticolle. Newm., Ann. Nat. Hist., v. p. 18.
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. British Museum. Drs. Dieffenbach and Sinclair.

83. Coptomma sulcatum. (Fabr.) Callidium sulcatum.

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Fabr., Syst. Ent., 189. 11. Tmesisternus, sp. Latr. Guer. Voy. Coquille, letter-press, ii., p. 130.
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr.

84. Coptomma lineatum. Fabr. Callidium lineatum. Fabr., Syst. Ent. 189. 10. Tmesisternus. sp. Latr. Guer. Voy. Coquille, ii., p. 130.
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr.

85. Lamia heteromorpha. Boisd., Voy. Astrol, ii., 505.
Inhabits New Zealand.

86. Lamia crista. Fabr., Syst. Ent., 170. 3.
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr.

87. Xyloteles griseus. (Fabr.) Newm., Entomologist, No. 12. Saperda grisea. Fabr., Syst. Ent. 186. 9.
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. British Museum. Drs. Dieffenbach and Sinclair.

88. Xyloteles lynceus. (Fabr.) Newm., Entomologist, No. 12. Saperda lyncea. Fabr., Syst. Ent. 185. 8.
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr.

89. Saperda tristis. Fabr., Syst. Ent. 186. 11.
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr.

90. Saperda villosa. Fabr., Syst. Eleuth, ii., 320, 13. Saperda hirta. Fabr., (olim.) Syst. Ent. 184. 4.
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr.

91. Clytus minutus. Fabr. Callidium minutum. Fabr., Syst. Ent. 192. 23.
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr.

92. Phaedon brunneum? (Fabr.) Colaspis. Fabr. Hope. Coleopt. Man. iii., p. 97. Chrysomela brunnea. Fabr., Ent. Syst. Eleuth, i., 439. 104. Donov., Ins. New Holland, pl. xx.
Inhabits New Zealand. Donov.


93. Blatta Americana.
Inhabits New Zealand. (Introduced by the whale-ships. -- Polack, i., p. 320.)

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94. Locust grasshopper. Yate's New Zealand, p. 72. Polack, i., p. 319.
Inhabits New Zealand.
Dr. Sinclair has brought from New Zealand two or three species of Locustidae.

95. Mantis.
Dr. Sinclair brought the egg-case of a species of Mantis from New Zealand.

96. Deinacrida (Anostostoma, G. R. Gray). Heteracantha. White in Gray's Zool. Misc., 1842, 78.
Inhabits New Zealand. Drs. Dieffenbach and Sinclair.
Hind legs nearly twice the length of the insect; tibiae quadrangular, broadest behind, the edges armed with spines coming out alternately; spines very strong and sharp: body brown, beneath yellow: head punctured on the vertex: antennae at least 2 1/2 times the length of the insect: thorax punctured, with some small smoothish spaces in the middle; the lateral margins somewhat thickened. The head is not nearly so broad nor so large as in Anostostoma; the mandibles much shorter; the labial palpi have the terminal joint swollen at the end; when dry it is slightly compressed from shrinking; the maxillary palpi are very long; the three last joints cylindrical, the last longest, gradually clubbed at the end.

The length of the specimen brought by Dr. Dieffenbach, measuring from the forehead to the end of the abdomen, exclusive of appendages, is 2 inches; from the end of the tarsus of hind leg to end of antenna stretched out this specimen measures at least 12 1/2 inches. The specimen may be in the larva state. The prae-sternum, as in Anostostoma, with two spines, approximating in the middle; meso-and meta-sternum deeply grooved behind, with a strong tooth on the sides behind.

Dr. Andrew Sinclair, since my short description was published in the second part of Mr. Gray's Zoological Miscellany, has brought from New Zealand a specimen of this species, which, with its hind legs and antennae stretched out, is at least 14 inches long; its head and body, exclusive of appendages, being 2 1/2 inches. The specimen is a female; its ovipositor is rather more than an inch long; is slightly bent upwards, and compressed through the greater part of its length, the 2 cultelli, forming its principal part, being somewhat angular at the base. Nearly the whole insect is of an ochry-yellow colour, the end of the ovipositor, and the ex-

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treme rip of the spines on the legs being brown; the margins of the abdominal segments are of a lighter colour; the transversely-ridged and rough-surfaced femora have many light-coloured streaks. The greater portion of the dorsal part of the thorax is somewhat ferruginous. This specimen was found by itself on the Marsh Pine in Waiheke, in the Firth of Thames. Five other specimens of smaller size Dr. Sinclair found congregated under the bark of trees. The Deinacrida, according to the Maouries, generally keeps high up on the trunk, which the natives are afraid to climb, as the insect, especially the dark-headed, long-jawed male, bites severely.

The fore tibiae have no spine in the middle in front, and the head is much smaller than in Mr. George Gray's Anostostoma, of which it may, however, be a species merely.

Kikararu. Polack.
Inhabits New Zealand (Spear-grass). Polack, i., p. 329.
"The most disgusting insect in nature." Polack. It is impossible to say to what order this insect is to be referred.


Libellula? Dragon-fly.
Inhabits New Zealand. Yate, p. 373.
Dr. Sinclair brought five species of Dragon-flies from New Zealand: two of these are Agrionideous; the largest is described below.

97. Petalura Carovei. White, n. s.
Inhabits New Zealand. (Auckland.) British Museum. Dr. Sinclair.
Dilated anal appendages, somewhat rounded at the end; anterior margins of wings dark brown; the tips, especially of second pair, are slightly tinged with dusky. The yellow-coloured plagae on the thorax are wide, and more distinct than in P. gigantea, Leach. Total length from 4 inches 5 lines, to 4 inches 8 lines.
In the type of this genus, established by Dr. Leach in the Zoological Miscellany, ii., p. 96, tab. 95, the anal appendages are notched or sinuated near the end within, and the anterior edge of both wings is varied with white; the forehead is wider, and the frontal ridge somewhat different; the femora are dark, while in this they are ferruginous.
Those who have read 'The Story without an End,' translated

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by Sarah Austin from the German of F.W. Carove, and illustrated so beautifully by W. Harvey, will know why I have given the above name to this fine large Dragon-fly.

Two species found by Dr. Sinclair in New Zealand.


98. Ichneumon lotatorius. Fabr., Syst. Ent. 330. 16.
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr.

99. Ichneumon solicitorius. Fabr. 1. c. 332. 30.
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr.
Dr. Sinclair found this species there also; his specimens are in the British Museum collection.

100. Ichneumon decoratorius. Fabr. Syst. Ent. 333. 32.
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr.
Formica? Black ant. Polack, i., p. 320.
Inhabits New Zealand. Polack. Cook also speaks of Ants.

101. Ophion? Ichneumon luteus (L). Fabr., Syst. Ent. 341. 75.
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr.

102. Sphex fugax. Fabr., Syst. Ent. 350. 27.
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr.


103. Cicada Zelandica. Boisd., Voy. Astrol, ii., 611, t. 10, f. 6.
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum.

104. Cicada cingulata. Tettigonia cingulata. Fabr., S. Ent., 680. 9.
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. (British Museum.)
Dr. Sinclair found this "very noisy" species at Auckland in a marshy spot, where the Phormium tenax abounds. This may be one of the "scorpion flies with whose chirping the woods resound," referred to in Cook's 'Third Voyage,' i., p. 153 (2nd edit).

105. Cicada cruentata. Tettigonia cruentata. Fabr., S. Ent., 680. 10.
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr.

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106. Cicada muta. Tettigonia muta. Fabr., S. Ent., 681. 17.
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair.


107. Forest Bugs. Yate, p. 73.
Inhabit New Zealand.
Dr. Sinclair brought a green-coloured Pentatoma, allied to P. prasina.

108. Reduvius (Pirates) ephippiger. White, n. s.
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair.
Black, with reddish-yellow legs and antennae, and an ochraceous patch on the inner edge of each hemelytron near the base. Length, 9 lines.

109. Kutu. Polack, I, p. 320. "Pediculus humanus." Polack, I, p. 320.
Inhabits New Zealand.


110. Lycaena Edna. Doubleday, n. s.
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair.
Exp. Alar., 1 une. 2-4 lin.
Male with the wings above bright copper-colour; nervures slightly, the outer margins very distinctly bordered with black. Anterior wings with two rounded black dots before the middle; a larger quadrate one on the false nervure, cloning the discoidal cell, midway between which and the outer margin is a curved series of 5 or 6 rather obsolete black dots. Near to the outer margin is a more distinct row of black dots, occasionally slightly confounded, especially near the apex, with the border itself. Posterior wings, with a discoidal lunule, and a waved maculiform band beyond, of a dusky hue; and towards the anal angle three marginal black dots. Cilia fulvous. Beneath, the anterior wings have the disc of a paler fulvous; the base, anterior, and outer margins dull yellow; the discoidal spots and the first macular band very distinct; and three rather large spots of the same colour at the anal angle. Posterior wings ochreous yellow, with two small black dots near the base, and 5 or 6 similar ones near the outer margin; the disc, with fuscous markings, in the same situation as those on the upper surface.

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Female with all the wings dusky at the base; anterior with the discoidal spots more distinct than in the male; the first series of dots united together so as to form a distinct curved band, the second almost entirely confounded with the border. Posterior wings with the discoidal spot very distinct. Beyond the middle are two macular bands, the second more or less confounded with the border. The under surface, especially of the posterior wings, is more obscure than in the male, and the markings less distinct.

111. Hamadryas Zoilus. Boisd, Voy. Astrol., 91. Nymph. Nais. Guerin., Voy. Coq. t.. Pap. Zoilus. Fabr., Ent. Syst, iii., 128.
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr.

112. Vanessa Gonerilla. Boisd., Voy. Astrol., 122. Papilio Gonerilla, Fabr., Syst. Ent., 498. 237. Don., Ins. Ind.
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr.

113. Vanessa (Itea.) Fabr. Boisd., Voy. Astrol, 122. Papilio Itea. Fabr., Syst. Ent., 498. 238. Don. Ins. Ind.
Inhabits New Zealand and New Holland. Boisd. Sphinx?
"The caterpillars feed on Convolvulus batatas. The Sphaeria Robertii, Hooker, is found parasitical on this caterpillar, which only occurs at the roots of the rata-tree (Metrosideros robusta)." --Dieffenbach.

114. Hepialus virescens. Doubleday.
Inhabits Waitemata, New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Dieffenbach.
Anterior wings triangular, very. slightly falcate, pale greenish, marked with numerous darker clouds, giving them a tessellated appearance. Beyond the middle is a duplex, transverse fascia, greenish exteriorly, pallid internally; the outer margin and the costa at the base being of the latter colour; posterior wings greenish; thorax pallid, greenish anteriorly; abdomen greenish.

115. Leptosoma annulatum. Boisd., Voy. Astrol., 197.
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair.

116. Heliothis Peltigera. Ochs.
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair.
The specimens brought home by Dr. Sinclair appear to be

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identical with the European species; they are however in rather faded condition: perhaps, if more perfect specimens be obtained, some slight distinction may be detected.

117. Plusia eriosoma. Doubleday, n. s.
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair.
Exp. Alar., 1 unc. 10 lin.
Anterior wings purplish-ash, glossed with copper in various places, especially towards the outer margin. Across the middle of the wing is a broad brown bar, less distinct on the costa than on the inner margin, bounded externally by a very indistinct, waved, fuscous striga, and internally by a bright silvery line extending obliquely from the inner margin to the median nervure, upon which, a little beyond this line, is a V-shaped silvery mark, followed by an oval silvery spot. Near the apex, in certain lights, there is an appearance of an oblique dusky striga approximating to, but not connected with, a similar striga ascending from the anal angle. Posterior wings fuscous. Abdomen, with the extremity and the sides beyond the middle clothed with long fulvescent hairs.

118. Aspilates? subochraria. Doubleday, n. s.
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair.
Exp. Alar., 1 unc. 1-2 lin.
Anterior wings ochraceous; the costa, a very faint striga near the base, a broad transverse fascia beyond the middle and parallel with the outer margin, brown; the space between this and the margin tinged with light brown, darker on the margin itself. Disc with a small rounded black dot. Posterior wings pale ochraceous, immaculate. Below, the anterior wings of the male have the disc fuscous, the margins ochraceous, the posterior one darker than above, and irrorated with brownish scales, almost condensed into transverse bands. The female is ochraceous, with a common transverse striga and a distinct spot. Male with the pectinations of the antennae very short. Antennae of the female simple.

119. Cidaria rosearia. Doubleday, n. s.
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair.
Exp. Alar., 1 une.
Anterior wings pale brown, tinged with rosy purple, fuscescent at the base; this portion bounded by a waved fuscous striga. Before the middle is a waved transverse fuscous band, and a similar but broader one beyond the middle; both less defined near the margins of the wing, appearing composed of three coalescing strigae.

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Beyond these are a few scattered blackish dots, chiefly on the nervures and outer margin, and in some individuals there is a slight fuscous cloud near the apex. Disc with a small black crescent. Posterior wings pale, with au indistinct transverse striga across the disc.

120. Cidaria? cinerearia. Doubleday, n. s.
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair.
Exp. Alar., 9 lin.
Anterior wings acuminate, very slightly falcate, pale brownish-ash, with numerous fuscous strigae, mostly very slender, but occasionally uniting to form transverse bands, of which one, not very distinct, is situated near the base, another a little before, and a third a little beyond the middle, these two being very distinct near the costa, but almost obliterated near the inner margin. Near the outer margin, which is rather darker than the groundcolour of the wing, is a slender much-waved whitish striga, and near the middle of the costa is a minute white dot. Posterior ashy-white, rather shining, with numerous indistinct fuscous strigae. Antenna, of the male emitting from their lower surface two stout pectinations of unequal length, closely approximating at their origin, clothed with a delicate silky pubescence; at the base and apex these pectinations are very short. Palpi rather long.
This interesting little species will undoubtedly some day be found to constitute a genus distinct from that in which I have provisionally placed it, but only having seen one sex of it I was unwilling to attempt to characterise it generically.

121. Acidalia pulchraria. Doubleday, n. s.
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair.
Exp. Alar., 11 lin.
Anterior wings elongate, trigonate, posterior subquadrate; all pale greenish-white, marked beyond the middle with five common transverse strigae, composed of faint lunulated dots. The posterior wings have a faint indication of two or three strigae near the base, and a small greenish discoidal dot.

122. Ptychopoda? rubraria. Doubleday, n. s.
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair.
Exp. Alar., 9-10 lin.
All the wings pale brownish, irrorated with fuscous, the posterior slightly tinged with reddish, the outer margins with a series of small black dots. Anterior wings with a slender much-waved

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striga near the base, a second similar striga near the middle, on which is placed a distinct black dot; a broad indented fascia near the margin, followed by a series of oval or rounded spots, all fuscous. Posterior wings with a slender-waved striga near the middle, two approximating ones beyond the middle, and a row of oval or rounded spots near the outer margin, all fuscous. Antennae of the male strongly pectinated; of the female simple, annulated with black and white. First and second pair of legs in the male very long, the anterior tibiae simple; those of the second pair of legs furnished with two spurs at the apex; posterior legs short, stout, compressed, furnished with the usual tuft of hair; claw wanting. Female with all the legs elongate; posterior tibiae with one long and one short spur at their extremity; tarsi long.

123. Ptychopoda rubropunctaria. Doubleday, n. s.
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair.
Exp. Alar., 9-10 lin.
All the wings brownish white, with numerous delicate very much waved transverse darker strigae; a small red dot beyond the middle towards the anal angle, and a marginal series of minute black dots. There are also three series of more or less distinct minute black dots, one near the base, one just before the middle, the third a little beyond the middle of the anterior wings; the second and third being continued on to the posterior wings.

124. Diasemia grammalis. Doubleday, n. s.
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair.
Exp. Alar., 7-8 lin.
Anterior wings rufous brown, the rufous colour predominating near the base; inner margin with a black dash at the base, and before the middle a black triangular blotch, preceded and followed by a whitish patch. Beyond the middle is a transverse white line, not quite reaching the inner margin, where it bounds externally a second triangular black blotch. Posterior wings rufous brown, more or less irrorated with fuscous, with two irregular transverse whitish strigae, between which is a black patch. Cilia of all the wings varied with black and white. Antennae black. Legs elongate, rufous.

125. Margaritia flavidalis. Doubleday, n. s.
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair. i,
Exp. Alar., 8-9 lin.
All the wings ochraceous, the outer margins with a series of minute dots. Anterior wings with a faint striga near the base, a

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still fainter one near the middle, and a more distinct much-waved one near the outer margin, and two discoidal stigmatiform spots fuscous. Posterior wings with a discoidal spot, preceded towards the anterior margin by a smaller one, a transverse striga beyond the middle, and the anal angle fuscous.

126. Margaritia quadralis. Doubleday, n. s.
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair.
Exp. Alar., 10 lin.
Anterior wings fuscous, clouded with ochraceous, especially at the base and along the costa; a paler ochraceous spot near the middle, not far from the costa. Towards the outer margin is a waved, slender, fuscous striga. Posterior wings fuscous; darkest at the anal angle.

127. Margaritia polygonalis. Treits?
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair.
The only specimen of this species brought by Dr. Sinclair being much rubbed, I cannot be positive of its identity with the European polygonalis.

128. Margaritia? cordalis. Doubleday, n. s.
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair.
Exp. Alar., 1 une, 1 lin.
Anterior wings subdiaphanous, very pale straw-colour, slightly irrorated with fuscous and rufous; the base, a heart-shaped spot before the middle; a quadrate one on the costa beyond the middle, and the apex rufescent: the apical spot edged internally with fuscous. Costa towards the apex, and the outer margin marked with fuscous dots. Posterior wings subdiaphanous, with three fuscous spots; one towards the middle of the anterior margin, a second below it near the hinder margin, a third near the apex. Outer margin dotted with fuscous. Legs pale, dotted with fuscous.

129. Crambus ramosellus. Doubleday, n. s.
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair.
Exp. Alar., 1 une.
Anterior wings acuminate, brown, with a longitudinal silvery stria branching before and again after the middle, edged below from the base nearly to outer margin with a black line broken for a short space beyond the middle. Near the apex is a curved series of six or seven minute black dots, and on the margin itself

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a similar series. Cilia, except at the apex, fuscous. Posterior wings fuscous, immaculate.

130. Crambus flexuosellus. Doubleday, n. s.
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair.
Exp. Alar., 10 lin.
Anterior wings brown, marked a little below the costa with a slightly-waved silvery vitta, scarcely attaining the outer margin, which it only touches just below the apex, at which point the cilia are silvery. On the disc, immediately below this vitta, are two or three small brown spots; and on the outer margin, also below the vitta, are four brown dots. Cilia, except near the apex, fuscous. Posterior wings fuscous.

131. Crambus vittellus. Doubleday, n. s.
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair.
Exp. Alar., 10-12 lin.
Anterior wings acuminate, brown, divided longitudinally by a silvery vitta extending from the base to the middle of the outer margin. Outer margin very delicately edged with black; this colour extending slightly along one or two of the lower nervures. Costa beyond the middle rather pale. Posterior wings, and cilia of all the wings, fuscous.
This species seems to vary a little; one specimen, which I believe to be only a variety, has the costa beyond the middle silvery-white. It is even possible that the preceding species may ultimately prove only a variety of this.

132. Argyrosetia stilbella. Doubleday, n. s.
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair.
Exp. Alar., 1 lin.
Anterior wings silvery-white, slightly tinted with yellow along the inner margin, marked with a longitudinal brown vitta extending quite from the base to the apex, occupying about one-third the width of the wing. The costa, except the middle, slenderly edged with black, emitting near the apex an oblique line to the central fascia. Cilia at the apex long, silvery-white, tipped with brown. Posterior wings fuscous.
In addition to the species of Lepidoptera described above, I may record the existence of the genera Phycita, Aphelia, Anacampsis, Depressaria, and, I believe, Eudorea; but unfortunately the specimens brought by Dr. Sinclair are not sufficiently perfect to admit of their being described with the necessary minuteness.

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Simulium? Namu, or sand-fly. Polack, New Zeal., p. 319.
Inhabits New Zealand.
Most numerous on the beach and by the sides of creeks and rivers. -- Yate, New Zealand, p. 72.
To some insect, of a genus allied to Simulium, is to be referred the New Zealand sand-fly alluded to in the following passage: -- "A sort of little crane-flies (tipula alis incumbentibus) became remarkably troublesome during the bad weather. They were numerous in the skirts of the woods, not half so large as gnats or musketoes, and our sailors called them sand-flies. Their sting was extremely painful.....All, however, were not equally affected."--Forster, Voyage, i., pp. 135, 136.
"The most mischievous animals (at Dusky Bay) are the small black sand-flies, which are very numerous, and so troublesome, that they exceed everything of the kind I ever met with: wherever they bite they cause a swelling, and such an intolerable itching that it is not possible to refrain from scratching, which at last brings on ulcers like the small-pox."--Cook, Voyage in Resolution and Adventure, i., p. 99.

Culex? Waiwai-roa, or Mosquito. Polack, 1. c. i., p. 319.
Inhabits New Zealand (swamps). Polack.
"Musketoes abound in the woods, and by the side of streams; but they are only lately imported. According to Cook, these insects were found on his first visit in great abundance in the woods. The natives deny this."--Yate, p. 72.
On Lieutenant Cook's voyage in the Endeavour, these flies are mentioned as follows: --"Of mosquitoes and sand-flies, however, which are justly accounted the curse of every country where they abound, we did not see many: there were, indeed, a few in almost every place where we went on shore, but they gave us so little trouble, that we did not make use of the shades which we had provided for the security of our faces."

133. Thereva bilineata. (Fabr.) Wiedem., Aussereur. Zweifl., Ins. i., p. 229. Bibio bilineata. Fabr. E. Syst., 757. 3.
Inhabits New Zealand.

134. Eristalis trilineatus. (Fabr.) Wiedem., Aussereur.

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Zweifl., Ins. ii., p. 168. Syrphus trilineatus. Fabr., E. Syst., 766. 16.
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr.
Dr. Sinclair brought home a small species closely allied to this, if not the same.

135. Eristalis cingulatus. (Fabr.) Wiedem. 1. c. ii., p. 162. Syrphus cingulatus. Fabr., E. Syst., 767. 23.
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr.

136. Musca (Sarcophoga) laemica. White, n. s.
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair.
Thorax and scutellum black, slightly tinged with hoariness; a few longish stiff hairs scattered over the surface, which is covered with minute hairs. Abdomen above of an obscure metallic green, in some lights yellowish, caused by minute yellow scales and hairs profusely spread over it; beneath it is more yellow, the green Tan ing in some lights. The legs are yellow, with some obscure hairs; the tarsi blackish-brown; wings at base with a yellowish hue; head in general yellow, between the eyes brown, and with two longitudinal lines of stiffish hairs. Length of female 6 lines, of a male 4 3/4. Agrees pretty nearly with the genus Sarcophaga, Meigen., Syst. Beschr. Europ.; Zweif., Ins. v., p. 14, taf. 43, fig. 1-10.
Dr. Sinclair informs me that the Rev. Mr. Taylor, of Waimate, has made beautiful drawings of many of the insects around his station; and, amongst others, has delineated the transformations of this flesh-destroying species. It is to be hoped that this missionary will publish his researches on the natural history of the island. This may be the "gad-fly, or oestrus," referred to by Polack (New Zealand, i., p. 320), as being "a great nuisance at table;" and the "flesh-flies very like those of Europe," mentioned in Hawkesworth's relation of Cook's Voyage of the Endeavour, iii., p. 439.


137. Pulex. Keha, or flea. Polack, 1. c. i., p. 321. Tuiau. Dieffenbach.
Inhabits New Zealand.
The natives say that fleas were introduced by the Europeans, and for that reason call them sometimes "he pakea nohinohi," the little stranger. --Dieffenbach,

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Additional RADIATED ANIMALS and ANNELIDES. By J. E. Gray, Esq.


138. Membranipora pilosa. Johns, Brit. Zooph., t. 24, f. 10, 12.
Inhabits New Zealand, on Fuci. Dr. Sinclair.

139. Menipea cirrata. Ellis, Zooph., t. 4, f. 1.
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair.
Tricellaria of Fleming, and Crissia tricythara, Lamx. Pol. flex., t. 3, f. 1, belongs to this genus, and Menipea hyalaea. Lamx. Pol. flex, is a Catenicella.

140. Acamarchis prismatica.
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair.
Coral reddish brown, with prismatic reflections; the cells two-rowed, elongate; ovarial cell globular, polished white.

141. Selbia Zelandica. Gray. Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair.
The coral of this new genus is frondose, forked, continuous; the cells are ovate, alternating, forming two rows on the upper surface of the frond, and each furnished with a bristle-like fibre; the other surface of the frond has a central ridge, and diverging grooves. It much resembles Cabera and Canda of Lamoroux, both genera very badly described and figured by that author; but it differs from the former in only having two instead of four or six rows of cells, and from Canda in the fibres being free and bristle-like, while in that genus the fibres are thick, and go from branch to branch, forming the coral into a broad netted frond.

142. Halophila Johnstonae. Gray.
Inhabits New Zealand. Rev. W. Yate.
Coral ridged, straight, horn coloured. This genus is peculiar for being horny, and formed of two alternate series of half-ovate coriaceous cells, all placed on one side, and forming a continued linear frond. It differs from Selbia in being destitute of any root-like fibres, and in the cells being farther apart. It more closely resembles Bicellaria, but it differs from that genus in not being calcareous, circinate, nor jointed. Named in honour of Mrs. Johnston.

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143. Elzerina Blainvillii. Lamx. Poi. flex., 123, t. 2, f. 3. Very bad. Blainv., Man. Actin.
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair.
Lamoroux's figure very incorrectly represents this species. The cells are of the wrong shape, and too numerous. It may be described thus: --Coral, horny, flexible, branched, forked, sub-quadrangular, not jointed, formed of four series of ovate convex cells, with an oblong margined mouth, and scattered with flexible root-like fibres.

144. Margaretta cereoides. Gray. Cellaria cereoides. Ellis, Zooph., t. 5, f. 6. C. hirsuta. Lamx., P. F., t. 2, f. 4.
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair.
Frond subcylindrical, cells white, beautifully frosted with small pellucid dots; the axis brown when dry. This coral forms a peculiar genus, which may be thus defined: --Coral subcylindrical, forked, jointed, rather crustaceous, pellucid, formed of four or six series of ovate cells, with a subcylindrical subtubular mouth, and having elongate bristle-like fibres. I can see no difference between the New Zealand specimens and some from the Cape of Good Hope, which I received from Dr. Kraus. It is also said to be found in the European seas.
Salicornaria differs from this genus, in being destitute of fibres, and in the cells being six-sided, with a sunken mouth.


145. Catenicella bicuspis. Gray.
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair.
Coral white, pearly; cells half-ovate, truncated, with a small compressed point on each side; the mouth round.
The coral branched, forked, circinate; each joint formed of a single cell, with the mouths all placed on one side; the joint at the divergence of the forks is formed of two united cells.

146. Emma crystallina. Gray.
Inhabits New Zealand.
The coral of this new genus is circinate, branched, forked, and jointed; the cells are all on one side of the coral, placed together in

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pairs, forming a cordate joint fringed on the side, and separated from each other by a very narrow cylindrical articulation; the coral is glassy, and nearly transparent.


147. Dynamene bispinosa. Gray. Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair.
Coral slender, branched; the cells rather distant, small, in pairs; the tubular mouth, obliquely truncated, ending in two minute spines: vesicule large, ovate, oblong, with a small tooth on each side near the top, near D. operculata,

148. Dynamene abietinoides. Gray.
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair.
Coral slender, branched, branches pinnate, compressed, simple; cells rather close, subopposite, ovate, tubular, mouth denticulated; vesicules large, oblong ovate, with a long process on each side near the mouth.
Like D. abietina, but the vesicule with two long horn-like processes, and the mouth of the cells toothed.

149. Sertularia Johnstoni.
Inhabits New Zealand Dr. Sinclair.
Coral slender, branched; cells small, distant, alternate, tubular short, oblique, with three or four short teeth round the mouth; vesicules rather large, oblong, swollen transversely, wrinkled.
Like Sertularia rugosa, the vesicles resemble the figures (Johnst, Brit. Zooph., t. 8, f. 4, 6) of the cells of that species. May not the true cells have been overlooked?

150. Plumularia Banksii. Gray.
Inhabits Dusky Bay, New Zealand. Sir Joseph Banks.
Stem compound, branched; branchelets simple, opposite, pinnate, unilateral, incurved; cells close, rather crowded, bell-shaped, toothed at the mouth; vesicles------?
Allied to P. myriophyllum (Johnst., Brit. Zooph., 145, t. 29, f. 4 and 8), but more branched.

151. Thuiaria Zelandica.
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair.
Pale brown, erect, branches oppositely pinnate; cells small,

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exactly opposite, triangular, mouth truncated, with a small central tooth.
Differs from Th. articulata (Johnst., Brit. Zooph, f. 3, 4) in the form of the cells. There are no vesicles on my specimens.


152. Tubulipora patellata. Lamx.
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair.


153. Spirorbis Zelandica. Gray.
Inhabits New Zealand, Great Barrier Island, on Patella Hookerii.
Shell reversed, whorls two or three, rapidly enlarging; the last with three spiral ridges, the middle rib most prominent.


154. Spongii Sinclairi. Gray.
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. A. Sinclair.
Branchy; branches cylindrical, forked; apices conical, yellow; surface with branched subcylindrical grooves, in certain spots; ostioles small, numerous.
Var. 1. --Branches elongate, cylindrical, free.
Var. 2. -- Branches short, repeatedly forked, apices often anastomosing.

155. Spongia ramosa. Gray.
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair.
Pale brown, soft, spongy, branchy; branches elongate, subcylindrical, of a very fine uniform texture, with a few small scattered ostioles in a line on each side; fibres horny, very thin.
Var. 1. --Branches moderately elongate, sometimes anastomosing.
Var. 2. ---Branches very long, free.

156. Spongia varia. Gray.
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair.
Pale brown, soft, flexible, branchy; branches elongate, subcylindrical, soft, of a fine texture, with large scattered ostioles; tips of the branches subclavate, sometimes united to one another.
Like the former, but of a larger size, rather looser texture, and with larger ostioles.

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Under Pectunculus, I have referred to some fossil shells which Dr. Sinclair brought with him from the East Cape of the Northern Island: since that notice was printed, Dr. Dieffenbach has shown me some specimens from the same locality, from Parengarenga in the Northern Island, from Kawia and Waingaroa, and from Chatham Island.

The specimens from the East Cape, in addition to the Pectunculi brought by Dr. Sinclair, contain a Natica; some fragments of a large Dentalium; a specimen of Pyrula, like P. Smithii, but smaller; many specimens of a Fusus, and of an Ancillaria with a very callous apex. All these specimens so much resemble in form and condition, and in the character of the matrix, the shells found at Bognor, in Sussex, that they might easily be mistaken for specimens coming from that locality.

The specimens from Chatham Island consist of the two lower valves of a large Ostrea with a very large area, allied to O. gigantea, or 0. expansa, and having the calcareous deposit of the abductor muscle destroyed by fossilization in the same manner as the specimen of O. expansa figured by Mr. Sowerby, t. 238, f. 1, and of several specimens of the convex valve of a vesicular Gryphaea near G. Columba. They appear to belong to the greensand formation.

The specimens from Parenga-renga are in a conglomerate, and all consist of fragments of a species of Turritella, with smooth finely spirally striated flat whorls, the animal of which fills up the cavity of the upper whorl of the shell.

The specimens from Kawia and Waingaroa consist of a very thick ponderous Ostrea, three specimens of Terebratula, a Pecten like P. Japonica, and a Spatangus. They are in a limestone matrix.

Vespertilio tuberculatus, p. 181. --I have just received two specimens of this bat: it is a new genus, differing from Embalonura, Kuhl, and Urocryptus, Temm, in having only two large cutting teeth in the middle of the upper jaw; the fur is close, erect, dark brown, with minute white tips to the hair; the under surface is paler; the face has a series of short, rigid, black bristles round the base of the muzzle, the wings near the body and bones of the limbs are thickened and transversely grooved; the tragus is elongate, subulate. It may be called Mystacina tuberculata. --J. E. Gray.

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