1873 - The Province of Canterbury, New Zealand: Information for Intending Emigrants. - [Text], p 4-52

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  1873 - The Province of Canterbury, New Zealand: Information for Intending Emigrants. - [Text], p 4-52
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THE discovery of New Zealand was made by Tasman in 1642, and the coasts were surveyed by Captain Cook in 1769. Potatoes and other vegetables were first introduced by Cook, and the pigs placed by him on the island have left descendants, which are found in a wild state in the back country. From that time till 1814, New Zealand was little visited, except by Europeans engaged in the capture of whales, with which the seas surrounding the islands still abound.

In 1814, the Rev. S. Marsden established a Church Mission in the North Island, and other missions followed. In 1839, the New Zealand Company despatched an expedition to colonise New Zealand, many hundred emigrants accompanying it. The British Government did not at first recognize this enterprise; but soon afterwards, Captain Hobson was sent in command of a man-of-war to take possession of the country for the British Crown. This was done only a short time before the arrival of a French vessel with the same object. In 1840, New Zealand became a British colony.

The islands of New Zealand lie about 1200 miles to the eastward of Australia, between the 33rd and 53rd parallels of

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south latitude, and are known as the North Island, or New Munster; the Middle Island, or New Ulster; and the South, called New Leinster or Stewart's Island.

The colony is divided into eight provinces and one county, viz:--Auckland, Wellington, Taranaki, and Hawke's Bay, in the North Island; and Canterbury, Nelson, Otago, Marlborough, and the County of Westland, in the Middle Island. It is proposed, by a Bill now before the General Assembly, to constitute the latter a province, with similar powers to the existing provinces.

The North Island contains 49,000 square miles; the Middle Island, 72,000; and Stewart's Island, 1800: making together 122,800 square miles, and being greater in area than the whole of the British Isles.

The whole population of New Zealand, according to the last census, in 1871, was 256,167; but these numbers must now be largely increased.

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THE province of Canterbury is situated in the most central part of the Middle Island,--bounded on the north by the province of Nelson; on the west by the Southern Alps, dividing Canterbury from the county of Westland; on the south by the province of Otago; and on the east by the sea. It contains about 8,693,000 acres; of which about 2,500,000 acres form an open plain, having a gentle inclination from the western ranges to the sea, and covered with natural pasturage of an excellent description.

The country is abundantly watered by rivers issuing from the mountains, some of which are navigable at their mouths. On the western borders of the province are the lakes Ohou, Pukaki, Tekapo, Heron, and Coleridge; and on the eastern border, near the sea, are lakes Ellesmere and Forsyth. Canterbury possesses a coast-line of about 200 miles; near the centre of which stands out the bold rocky projection of Banks' Peninsula, thirty miles in length and eighteen in breadth, containing many excellent harbors, and much well-wooded mountainous country. Its highest peak, Mount Herbert, 3,050 feet above the sea, rising boldly from the edge of the great plain, appears from seaward like an island. Much of the level country throughout Canterbury shows signs of having been covered with timber at a comparatively recent period, as roots of large forest trees are constantly met with at short distances below the surface. The plains are everywhere intersected by creeks and old watercourses, which become useful as the outlets for drainage;

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and in many parts of the province water is obtained from artesian wells, at a very moderate depth.

The mountain scenery of Canterbury is very fine. The magnificent southern Alps, bounding the western horizon, and raising their snow-capped summits high, above the plains, culminate in Mount Cook, with an elevation of 13,000 feet. The glacier country, quite equal to anything of the kind in Switzerland, and now only occasionally visited by parties in the summer time, presents a new field of enterprise for members of the Alpine Club.

As early as 1840 a small band of French settlers had established themselves on Banks' Peninsula, under the auspices of a French company. But the British Government having a few days' precedence of the French in their possession of New Zealand, the operations of this company came to a close. These settlers, together with a few whalers and others, scattered about the bays, were the only inhabitants of the country at the time when the first immigrants arrived.

The Canterbury settlement was first started in 1848, by an association in England, composed of men of influential position, who were deeply impressed with the necessity of a thorough reform in the management of the colonies. Their object was to establish a model colony, in which all the elements of a good and right state of society should be perfectly organised and present from the first. Unity of religious creed being deemed essential, the settlement was to be entirely composed of members of the Church of England; religion and the highest class of education were to be amply provided for; and everything was to be ordered and arranged so as to attract men of station and character, and a high class of emigrants generally, to embark their fortunes in the undertaking. The scheme was carried out by men whose hearts were in the work: among whose numbers the names of John Robert Godley and Lord Lyttelton are conspicuous. In their hands the enterprise lost nothing of the high character that was first impressed upon it, although many modifications of the original plan were found desirable, and judiciously carried into effect. The principle of religious exclusiveness was

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necessarily soon abandoned, and the first ideas of the projectors may have been imperfectly realised in other respects; but it is only just to acknowledge the debt of gratitude that Canterbury owes to its founders, as even the measure of success that crowned their efforts is appreciable in the tone and spirit of its people at the present time.

The first party of emigrants, numbering 791, left England on September 7th, 1850, in four ships, and arrived at the port, now called Lyttelton, almost together, in December of the same year. Mr. Godley, the agent of the association, was already in New Zealand, and considerable preparation had been made at the port for the immigrants' reception. When the Canterbury pilgrims (as they were called) first viewed their new country from the summit of the volcanic hills that skirt the seaboard, they saw before them a bare expanse of plains stretching from thirty to sixty miles to the foot of the dividing ranges (the backbone of the country), broken only by a few patches of timber, and with no other sign of civilization than the solitary homestead of the Messrs. Deans, who had settled there some years before. The only approach to the level land was over the mountains, about 1200 feet in height, or round by sea to Sumner, and thence by the Heathcote river to Christchurch, as the chief town was named. Those who can look back from the Canterbury of to-day to the time when they commenced to spread over the country, to bring their new land under the plough and spade, must feel astonishment as well as pride at the really wonderful results that little more than twenty years have produced. Looking over the plains now from the Port hills, the eye is delighted with the beautiful panorama spread out before it. The whole face of nature has been changed. In place of the once bare plains, with nothing to mark the distance or break the monotonous expanse of level grass land, the spectator sees before him a timbered country, with well-grown forest trees, smiling homesteads, well-cultivated fields and cheerful hedgerows stretching far and wide in every direction; here and there a river glistening in the sun, and the City of Christchurch, only six miles distant, almost concealed amidst the trees.

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The early settlers at once set vigorously to work in the colonising spirit that the leaders of the expedition had sought to infuse into the undertaking; and from the very first, success rewarded their efforts. The great difficulty they had to contend with was the transit from the port to the chief town; but it was not long before they conceived the bold idea of boring through the hills, and connecting the plains with the port by a railway. At the time this scheme was first proposed it appeared too vast an undertaking to be entertained for a moment; but, nevertheless, within ten years from the time of the first settlers landing, the railway was commenced; and in six years more it was completed, amidst general rejoicing. The extent of the enterprise may be judged from the fact that it includes a tunnel one-and-three quarter miles in length, passing through volcanic rocks. This was the first railway in New Zealand, and it cost £254,964,--a fact which will serve at once to illustrate the rapid growth of the province, and the energy of its people. It may be well to add that at the time the railway was begun the whole population of Canterbury numbered only 18,000 people.

By constitution, granted to New Zealand in 1853, Canterbury became a province, including within its boundaries not only the area first purchased for the settlement, but the whole country from the east coast to the west; and from the Hurunui river in the north, to the Waitaki in the south. In 1865 gold was discovered on the west coast, and Canterbury suddenly found itself called upon to take measures for the reception and government of a large population, which flocked to the "diggings" from the neighboring colonies, and rapidly spread along the western seaboard of the province. A road was at once formed over the mountains, by which Canterbury has ever since continued to supply the markets of the other side. In 1867, the gold bearing country, from the dividing ranges to the western seaboard, was created a separate county, under the name of Westland.

The population of Canterbury is about 50,000.

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The principal town of Canterbury is Christchurch, situated about 6 1/4 miles from the port. Its area is a square of considerable extent, being rather more than a mile each way, except on one side, where it is bounded by the sinuous course of the river Avon, which passes through the town in various directions, and is bridged at all the principal lines of thoroughfare. Three sides of the town are skirted by the Town Belt, an enclosure planted with trees and shrubs. There are several public squares, in one of which has been erected a fine statue, by Woolner, of the late John Robert Godley, the first leader of the settlement.

At the time the last census was taken, in 1871, Christchurch contained 7,931 inhabitants; but the number must be now very considerably increased, as, in common with the rest of Canterbury, it has made rapid progress during the last two years. It is estimated that in the city alone, no less than 1000 new buildings have been erected in that time: many of them solid structures of brick and stone, of considerable architectural pretension. Indeed, the improvements being made in Christchurch, and in most of the towns of Canterbury, are so numerous and substantial that artizans of different kinds, cannot be obtained to carry them into effect. Amongst the principal buildings in the place, may be mentioned the Government Offices, a Gothic structure, erected at a cost of £30,000. The Council Chamber, built of stone, is one of the finest rooms in the colonics, so far as architectural finish and detail are concerned. The Bank of New Zealand, another stone building, occupies a commanding position in the centre of the city, and near to it are the Bank of New South Wales, Union Bank of Australia, Bank of Australasia, and the National Bank of New Zealand, all handsome buildings of stone or brick, erected at considerable cost. The New

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Zealand Insurance Company's Offices, Trust and Loan Company's Offices, many of the merchants warehouses and other buildings are of the same substantial character. Among churches must first be mentioned a Cathedral, which was commenced some years since, from the design of Sir Gilbert Scott, and is now about to be again proceeded with. There are also St. John's Church, a handsome Gothic building of grey stone, with white stone dressings; St. Michael's, and St. Luke's Churches; the Catholic Church and Convent, of wood; a very large Wesleyan Chapel, of stone, which cost £14,000; besides numerous other chapels of various denominations, including a Jewish Synagogue.

In the early days of the settlement, regard to economy caused most of the buildings to be constructed of wood; but for some time past the principal erections have been carried out in either brick or stone, a municipal regulation requiring that all dividing walls shall be of one or other of these materials.

There is a Theatre, open most of the year; besides the Odd Fellows' Hall, Music Hall and other public rooms. The Town Hall, a large stone building, has been recently destroyed by fire. The Supreme Court is a massive edifice of stone, in the Gothic style, considerable additions to which are now in course of erection. There is a Hospital, containing 67 beds, to which large additions are now being made of concrete construction. The Museum is a large stone building, designed for further extension. It is considered the best in the colony, and is especially remarkable for containing the finest collection of moa skeletons in the world, besides others of the smaller wingless birds of New Zealand.

The town is lighted with gas, and most of the footpaths are paved with asphalte. The supply of water is from artesian wells. The water-bearing stratum is tapped by an iron pipe driven into the ground to a depth of about seventy feet. By this simple means, and at a cost not exceeding £10, a never-failing jet of pure pellucid water may be obtained throughout the greater portion of the plains.

There is a Park, of about 440 acres, reserved on the boundary of the town, and planted with forest trees. Divided from this by the bends of the river Avon, are the Public Gardens

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and Acclimatisation Grounds. It is difficult for anyone, looking at the well-grown trees with which, the gardens and adjacent grounds abound, to realise the fact that so few years have elapsed since these delightful spots, now shaded with the foliage of oak, elm, sycamore, willow, poplar, and every variety of English and Colonial trees, formed part of the bare plains of Canterbury. The really surprising results that have been achieved in this way serve to indicate not only the great fertility of the soil and climate, but also the large spirit in which the pioneers of the settlement carried out their work. It may be here remarked that the growth of trees in Canterbury generally is among the most striking features of the place. The first settlers at once commenced planting largely, and their efforts have been so much favored by Nature that twenty-one years have sufficed to produce forest trees fifty feet and upwards in height.

In another bend of the river, girdled by trees and separated from the Park by a row of willows drooping their foliage in the stream, is Christ's College, with its stone chapel and school, and picturesque residences,--the whole presenting a scene of considerable beauty, whose thoroughly English character is an invariable subject of remark to visitors from other colonies.


Lyttelton, the principal port of the province, and one of the oldest towns, has a population of 2,551. It contains numerous buildings--many being of stone and of a very substantial character. Among these may be named the English, Presbyterian, and Catholic Churches; the banks; the Borough Schools; and some of the merchants' stores and warehouses.

The town is pleasantly situated on the slope of the hills, about five miles from the heads. The harbor accommodation has been improved from time to time, and the Provincial Government is about to spend £150,000 in further improvements. It is easy of access, and may be entered by a stranger without difficulty. On Godley Head, the northern promontory, there is a Lighthouse. The granaries, Railway Station, wharves, &c., are on a scale of considerable magnitude. The

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town is about to be lighted with gas. A little distance from the town is the Orphanage. Branches of the Union Bank of Australia, and the Bank of New Zealand have been established in Lyttelton for a long time.


Kaiapoi, situated on the Waimakariri (a navigable river), was formerly the shipping place for the northern district of Canterbury; but since the opening of the Railway, it has been brought within twenty minutes' journey from Christchurch, and most of the produce is sent by rail. It is the centre of a large farming population, and is a rising towrn, with 868 inhabitants. There are two churches, besides many large stores, a brewery, flax mills, flour mills, and other indications of progress. The land on Kaiapoi Island, a large tract included in a loop of the river, is said to be among the richest for agricultural purposes in Canterbury. The Government are about to erect a large brick school for the district.


Rangiora, six miles further north, on the line of railway, had, at the time of the last census, a population of 763, but has since greatly increased, and is now a rapidly rising place, in consequence of the railway passing through it. Several large and substantial buildings have been recently erected. A tramway is being made to Oxford, a district of great importance, not only on account of its agricultural and pastoral resources, but also because of the timber obtained there.


Akaroa, the principal seaport of Banks' Peninsula, is the oldest town in Canterbury, having been originally established by a French Company in 1840. The harbour is one of the finest in New Zealand, embosomed in hills; and the scenery around is exceedingly beautiful. There is constant steam communication with other parts of New Zealand; and a coach road has recently been made, connecting the town with the plains. The climate is very mild; and in summer Akaroa is a favorite resort of visitors from other parts of Canterbury.

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The country around is well timbered and grassed. The principal business of the place is the supply of timber, fruits, cheese, and dairy produce, to all parts of the colonies.

The numerous bays and harbours of the Peninsula have a scattered population, engaged in the timber trade, dairy-farming and grazing.


Timaru, the principal town of the southern district, is situated on the sea coast, and contains 1418 inhabitants. It is a port at which steamers call on their way north or south, and has considerable trade in wool and grain. The Southern Railway is now in course of construction; and when completed, will place Timaru in immediate communication with the northern portion of the province. There are branches of three banks, whose stone buildings are amongst the finest in the place. The buildings generally are of a substantial character, many of them being of brick and stone, and possessing some architectural pretension. Waterworks are being constructed, for the purpose of supplying the town and irrigating the country. Among the industries in operation, may be mentioned flour mills, a meat-preserving company on a large scale, fellmongeries, breweries, &c.

Timaru is the shipping port for the produce of the south portion of the province. The district, of which it is the centre, contains one third of the area of Canterbury. It differs somewhat from the northern district, in having a greater variety of hill and plain; and being more recently opened up, presents a most favourable field for the agriculturist and sheep farmer.

The other principal towns are Leithfield, Oxford, Woodend, Saltwater Creek, in the north; and Temuka, Waimate, Leeston, Southbridge, and Geraldine, in the south,--all places of considerable importance as the centres of rich agricultural and pastoral districts. It would be impossible to mention, within the limits at our disposal, the numerous other townships scattered throughout the province, many of which are rapidly growing, since the spread of railway communication, and bid fair to outstrip some of the older townships.

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Canterbury is subject to the General Government for New Zealand, which is composed of a Governor, appointed by the Queen as Her Majesty's representative; an Upper House of forty-eight members, called the Legislative Council, nominated by the Governor; and a Lower House of sixty-eight members, called the House of Representatives, elected by the people. The General Assembly meets once in each year at the seat of Government, and deals with all subjects concerning the colony, in which uniformity of action is necessary--as the laws relating to property, administration of justice, customs, postal, and other matters. Canterbury returns twelve members to the House of Representatives.

Besides this, each province has its own local Government, with power to make its own Ordinances and deal with its own revenues, subject to such limits as are indicated above.

The Provincial Council of Canterbury consists of 39 members elected every four years. A property qualification is the basis of the franchise, but it is so low as to include every freeholder and householder. Any person of the age of 21 years, who possesses a freehold estate of the clear value of £50, or a leasehold estate of the clear annual value of £10; and any householder occupying a tenement within the limits of a town of the yearly value of £10, or if without the limits of any town of the yearly value of £5, is entitled to have his name placed on the electoral roll of the district wherein such property is situated, and to vote at the elections of the Superintendent or

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of members of the Provincial Council. And any person on the electoral roll in any district is thereby qualified as a candidate either for the Council or the Superintendency. The same qualification entitles anyone to become a candidate for the House of Representatives, or to vote at elections for the same. The Provincial Council possesses extensive legislative powers, embracing the control of the waste lands of the province, and of the revenues arising from their sale or leasing. It determines annually the appropriations for public works, immigration, education, surveys, police, harbors, and other purposes. Besides which, it has power to make Ordinances on all matters affecting law and order within its own boundaries. The Provincial Government, consisting of a Superintendent chosen by the electors of the whole province, and an Executive Council, administer the Ordinances passed by the Provincial Council, and have the control of the local establishments, as public works, police, &c.

Each of the principal towns has a Municipal Corporation, with a Mayor and Councillors, elected yearly.

In addition to this, the province is divided into thirty-eight Road Board districts, each with an elective Board that has charge of all roads and bridges within its district, and possesses power to levy rates for the purpose of supplementing the Government subsidies which are granted yearly.

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There is a Supreme Court at Christchurch, with a resident Judge, of similar jurisdiction to that of a Puisne Judge in England. Appeal lies to the other Judges of the colony collectively, of whom there are three besides the Chief Justice. There is also a District Court Judge stationed at Timaru, with a lesser jurisdiction. There are five Resident Magistrates in the chief towns of the province, besides a large number of Justices of the Peace, any two of whom can exercise the same jurisdiction as a Magistrate, in small cases. The legal profession generally is well represented in Canterbury, there being more than thirty lawyers. The distinction between barristers and solicitors is not recognised in New Zealand, both branches of the profession practising together and alike.

The system of land transfer has been greatly simplified by an Act of the General Assembly of 1870, providing for the establishment of titles by registration, after a satisfactory examination has been made. When a property has been so brought under the Act, the title is indefeasible and all conveyances, mortgages, releases, and other necessary documents connected with it, are made on printed forms and at very moderate cost, without any more trouble or delay than is customary in the transfer or mortgage of a ship. [See Appendix.] The great advantages which this system of conveyancing possesses over the cumbrous laws that regulate the transfer of property in other places are so obvious as scarcely to require comment. Security, economy, and facility in dealing with property are all provided for under the Land Transfer Act, which may be regarded as one of the most useful measures that has been brought into force in the colony.

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No consideration is of more importance to an emigrant than the climate of the country that is to be his future home. For an English constitution, a temperate bracing climate is almost essential. Of course it is possible to become acclimatised in any country; but often at the sacrifice of health and comfort for years, and sometimes only after surviving a colonial fever, as the result of sudden change to an uncongenial temperature.

The climate of New Zealand has been compared to "the climate of England, with half the cold of the English winter." As the islands of New Zealand have a range of 12 deg. of latitude, there is of course considerable difference between the extremes at North and South. A glance at the map will show that Canterbury is so situated as to be equally removed from the cold of the one or the semi-tropical warmth of the other. The temperature is never very hot or very cold, and in this respect the climate is better adapted to an English constitution and habits than either England itself or perhaps any of its colonies. The number of days in the year on which snow or sleet falls is very small, and snow seldom remains on the ground for any length of time on the plains. Frosts are common in winter, but not severe, and many plants, shrubs, &c., that in England require to be carefully housed during the winter flourish in Canterbury in the open air.

A well-know writer on New Zealand 1 sums up his description of the climate in these words:--"It is a climate favorable alike to the preservation of robust health and to the

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improvement of weak health; a climate most congenial to all pastoral and agricultural pursuits; one in which every English domestic animal thrives and fattens; and one in which every English grain, grass, fruit and flower attains full development and perfection."

In fine weather, there is generally a sea breeze from the N.E., which begins about 10 or 11 o'clock, freshens towards the afternoon, and ceases in the evening. This is the prevailing wind for nine months in the year. In the winter months southerly and south-westerly winds prevail, and it seldom rains from any other quarter. There occurs occasionally in the summer what is known as a nor'-wester--a warm dry wind. The country is not subject to droughts. It is not dry long-enough to make the grass burn, and there is generally sufficient rain during the summer to keep it growing.

The variations of temperature are more sudden than in England, but the difference between the extremes of heat and cold is not so great. The spring may be said to begin in the early part of September, and for six weeks or two months the weather is generally showery like an English April, but warmer. Towards the end of September and throughout October the grass, and indeed everything else, grows rapidly. The weather becomes drier and more settled towards the middle of November and with December summer may be said to commence. The summer lasts from that time till the end of March, and then follow usually six weeks or two months of most enjoyable weather. Nothing can be more delightfully fine. About the middle of May the days become colder, and signs of winter appear. June is more or less wet, with fine days and frosty nights for a week or two together between the rains. July is sometimes the wettest and the most disagreeable month in the year. The early part of August is often no better; but towards the middle of the month it improves, and leads gradually into spring. The seasons vary considerably in different years, but this sketch may be taken as an average view.

A statement of the wind and weather during the year 1872 is given in the Appendix.

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The great natural advantages of Canterbury for agricultural pursuits were fully taken into account by the founders of the settlement, and had much to do in determining their selection of country. Shortly after the first settlers were established, in about 1851, experienced sheep farmers from the Australian colonies arrived in Canterbury, and astonished the agricultural pilgrims by spreading over the back country, which bad till then been regarded by them as comparatively inaccessible and valueless. The fine native grasses, capable of fattening sheep and cattle, were keenly appreciated by the new comers and in a very short time the greater part of the waste lands of the settlement became one vast pasturage, held, however, by license only, and open to purchase by anyone, subject to provisions mentioned elsewhere.

One of the greatest advantages that Canterbury possesses for farming purposes over other countries is the absence of forest and hill country. The farmer has the ground before him ready for the plough, without the ruinous outlay often required in new settlements for clearing the land before anything can be done. Experience has shown that all the shelter needed can be fully provided in a very short time, and at a moderate expense, and the fertility of the soil in nearly every part of the province renders Canterbury admirably adapted for the growth of every description of farm and garden produce.

The quantity of land under cultivation in February 1873 was 318,658 acres. Of this, 112,445 acres were sown with grain; 1883 acres with potatoes; 3184 acres with oats for hay; 10,492 acres with English grass for hay; and 5725 acres in other crops. [See Appendix.]

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The following remarks on farming and grazing in Canterbury have been contributed by practical farmers of many years' experience at home and in the colonies. Their opinions on these subjects are received in the province with much respect, and may be thoroughly relied upon:--

"In consequence of the high price of labor (from 6s. to 7s. a day), the Canterbury farmer is unable to follow the system that prevails in England, but directs his attention to economising labor as much as possible. After having selected the land for his farm, and purchased it from the Crown at £2 an acre, he builds a wooden dwelling-house; fences the land; ploughs it twice, and takes a crop of wheat off it. This, he may reckon, will yield on an average from twenty to thirty bushels per acre, and will be worth 4s. per bushel delivered to the merchant. The quantity of wheat sown is from one and a-half to two bushels per acre; oats and barley a bushel more. He then, after one ploughing, sows oats or barley, but generally the former, as the other is a risky crop; and in the spring sows his grass seed, rolling it in with a Cambridge roller. He may reckon on his oats yielding from forty to fifty bushels to the acre, and this crop on an average is worth, delivered to the purchaser, 2s. 6d. a bushel. Barley may yield from fifteen to fifty bushels per acre, and be worth from 2s. 6d. to 5s. a bushel.

"Having land now laid down in English grass, he devotes his attention to sheep farming, which requires but little outlay for labor. Without artificial feeding, it will carry through the year at least two sheep and their increase to the acre. A good kind of ewe will bring in 15s. a year. The system usually adopted is to have a third of the farm in corn each year, as it is found better to break up the pastures after they have been down four or five years than to allow them to remain permanently in grass. The quantity of seed required is from one and a-half to two bushels of rye grass and white clover, which is obtained from a neighbouring farmer, for about 5s. a bushel. This course is much preferred to buying imported seed, which cannot always be depended on for quality. With the seeds already spoken of, some of the

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following are mixed, according to the quality of the land--say two pounds of cow grass, timothy, cocksfoot, and alsike,

"Occasionally the farmer lays up some of his pastures for seed, which is done in the spring; and the grass is ready to be cut about Christmas. The yield on an average is twenty bushels of saleable seed to the acre. The thrashed hay, if carefully stacked, is very good fodder for cattle or sheep in winter, and is all the better for a little salt being mixed with it when stacked. If he is within a reasonable distance of a market, say ten or twelve miles, wheat and oat straw are worth on the farm about 6s an acre; and thrashed hay from 10s. to 15s. It is impossible to name the best kind of wheat to grow, as it depends so much on the quality of the land; but pearl is a very favourite wheat with the miller, and a very good sort for exporting to England. Little or no red wheat is grown. Peas, beans, chicory, linseed, and sugar beet are grown to great perfection. Sugar beet has been grown to weigh nine pounds per root.

"Of other crops it may be generally stated that anything which will grow in England may be produced here under more advantageous circumstances.

"In the rich low-lying land dairying is carried on to some extent, and the working farmer who has a family to assist him finds it a very profitable undertaking.

"Pig farming will pay in connection with a dairy or a grain farm. The carcase brings from 3d. to 4d. per pound. A large export trade has sprung up with other colonies.

"When Canterbury was first settled, and the business of sheep-farming commenced, the Merino sheep was the breed best adapted for the circumstances of the country, and no one thought of keeping any other kind before the natural pastures were improved by cultivation. Eminently hardy, requiring no careful management, but still thriving and producing wool, the Merino sheep seems to be especially suited to countries where the pasturage is scanty and where scarcity of labor necessitates the choice of animals able to take care of themselves. As soon, however, as portions of the richer lands were cultivated, and sown with English grasses, it was found that

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the heavy English breeds of sheep would have to be used, in order to make the most of the land; as the very qualities which rendered the Merino such a useful animal acted conversely when the sheep were confined to rich pastures. The constant attrition of the hoof, from the animal being so much in motion over thinly grassed country, stimulates the horn-secretive process to such an extent that the hoof becomes overgrown and diseased in a very short time, whenever this wearing-down process ceases. Hence the Merino sheep, when placed upon rich pastures, is remarkably liable to foot-rot--one of the most troublesome diseases to which sheep are subject. It is consequently almost impossible to graze them long on English grasses. Indeed, it may be set down as an axiom, that wherever land will carry more than one sheep to the acre, there are many breeds which may be used more profitably than the Merino. This cause induced a partial change of breed in Canterbury, which has gradually extended, until at the present time nearly the whole of the cultivated grass lands are grazed by long-woolled sheep.

"As might be expected, in a country like Canterbury, peopled by practical farmers from every part of Great Britain, there is much difference of opinion as to the most profitable breed of sheep--Leicesters, Lincolns, Romney Marsh, Cotswold, and South Downs, having each their advocates. The last mentioned breed is universally admitted to be the best mutton sheep; but the demand for the description of wool it produces has fallen off so much, that the breed has been almost abandoned, except by a few of its most ardent admirers. The other breeds are well represented both in number and quality; sheep from the best flocks in England, having been imported, and much attention given to improving the colonial flocks. The pure sheep are still, however, insignificant in number, when compared with the cross-bred produced by the union of pure long-woolled rams with Merino ewes. Every year the runholders sell their surplus ewes in numbers varying according to the size of the flocks, in many cases amounting to several thousands from one station. These are bought by farmers in lots ranging from a hundred upwards, and crossed

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with pure rams. The result is a very valuable sheep, partaking in most instances more of the sire's properties than of the dam's. At the present time a large proportion of the butchers' supply of mutton is drawn from these cross-bred sheep; and the business of producing them has been equally profitable to the community and to the persons engaged in it. The Merino sheep in Canterbury produces a fleece of above five pounds in weight in its unwashed state, and, at present prices, is worth about 4s. in Canterbury. The wethers, when four years old, seldom exceed sixty pounds in weight; and the average cannot be stated at more than fifty pounds. Their value, taking the year round, is about 8s. The cross-breds produce eight pounds of wool, worth about 6s. 8d., and at two years old and under, attain heavier weight than Merino wethers of four years. They are worth in the market 12s. on an average all the year. As the dams are bought in the first instance for from 4s. to 5s., it will be at once apparent how profitable this description of sheep-farming must be, especially when carried on, as is generally the case, by men engaged also as agricultural farmers, who keep the sheep for a portion of the time on their stubbles, which would otherwise be wasted. The value of the rams used may be set down at an average of £5, and this may be considered to be spread over 300 lambs; so that each crossbred, lamb is chargeable with 4d., besides so much of the mother's value as may be lost on re-sale. But this loss in fact seldom occurs, as the ewes are generally fattened after the lambs are weaned, and sold for more than their original cost.

"From the early days of the settlement much attention has been paid to the breeding of cattle, and at the present time in none of the other provinces does the character of the cattle equal that of the Canterbury herds. The shorthorns may be said to be the only breed in the province, and this has proved so well adapted to the circumstances of the country that no benefit would accrue from the introduction of any other. The pasturage seems peculiarly adapted for the production of cheese of first-rate quality, and in consequence Canterbury cheese has a high repute in all the adjacent colonies, where it always commands the largest price. The people have a general liking

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for keeping cattle, and everyone who can command a little grass is sure to have a good milch cow, which is well looked after. The value of milch cows has a wide range, extending from £4 (at which low figure a good milker may sometimes be obtained) to £10 or £12 for cows of superior form and with good characters as milkers. Bullocks fed on grass only, attain a weight of 800 pounds, at three years old, when they are worth about £7 10s. to £8.

"Of course there are all descriptions of horses in Canterbury. The draught horses are generally of good breed and condition. The breed preferred is the Clydesdale, of which many animals of great value, and bred by the best breeders in Scotland, have been imported. Much attention is paid to this class of stock, and no little rivalry exists amongst farmers, their stock being annually exhibited and classed at some of the Agricultural Shows. There are several of these held throughout the province, but the principal one is at Christchurch, in November of each year. The amount to be distributed in prizes in 1873 was between £800 and £900. The Timaru Show comes next in importance, and for Merino sheep is the best Show in New Zealand. Hackneys are not so much used as they were a few years back, the introduction of light American vehicles having induced people to prefer driving to riding. The effect has not been favorable to the breeding of roadsters of a strong, powerful stamp, as light, weedy animals of comparatively little value, answer very well as buggy horses.

"Racing is a favorite pastime with Canterbury people, and at the Christchurch annual races there is a large gathering from all parts of the colony. The quality of the racing is very respectable, comparing favorably with that of any country in the world.

"The value of horses for farm work ranges from £30 to £40, as an average, although many animals change hands at much higher rates. At the same time there are many horses at work on farms not worth more than £20 to £25 in the market. Hacks and buggy horses range from £15 to £30.

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The want of labor stands in the way of every enterprise in Canterbury, and is the only hindrance to the development of its great natural resources. With fertile soil, fine pastures, valuable minerals, and a strong spirit of enterprise amongst its people, yet every undertaking is impeded because there are not sufficient artizans and laborers--farm and domestic servants--to meet the requirements of the place.

Prosperous beyond any former experience since it was a settlement, Canterbury has engaged in public and private works on a scale that nobody would have thought of ten years ago, bold as colonial conceptions usually are. The demand for labor has been so general, that most trades have seized the opportunity to ask and obtain an increase of wages. This advance, it must be understood, is not (as so commonly the case at home) occasioned by the necessity that drives laborers and others to strike for the purpose of obtaining the mere means of living. It must be regarded simply as a result of very prosperous times, and an assertion of the law of supply and demand. The cost of living (as may be judged from the subjoined appendices) is moderate; and the condition of the working classes as contrasted with England is exceedingly favorable. The time of labor has been long fixed at eight hours, but at this busy period some trades have proposed to add a Saturday's half-holiday to the list of their requirements. The prospects of a mechanic or a laborer in Canterbury are, indeed, often better than those of his employer, for some of the wealthiest and most respected men in the place commenced their colonial career, not many years ago, in one or other capacity.

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On the subject of domestic servants the recent work of Mr. Anthony Trollope, who visited Canterbury at the beginning of the present year, may be quoted as an authority. He says:--

"There are no poor or squalid cottages. All round Christchurch there are houses which in the neighbourhood of an English country town would denote an expenditure of £500 to £600 a-year, and which here certainly cannot be maintained at a lesser rate. One great complaint made by the ladies who occupied these houses--the one sorrow indeed of the matrons of New Zealand--arises from the dearth of maidservants. Sometimes no domestic servant can be had at all for love or money, and the mistress of the house with her daughters (if she have any) is constrained to cook the dinner and make the beds. Sometimes, a lass who knows nothing, will consent to come into a house and be taught how to do housework, at a rate of £40 per annum, with a special proviso that she is to be allowed to go out two evenings a week to learn choral singing in the Music Hall. By more than two or three ladies my sympathy was demanded on account of these sufferings. I was asked whether a country must not be in a bad way in which the ordinary comfort of female attendance could not be had when it was wanted. Of course, I sympathised. It is hard upon a pretty young mother with three or four children that she should be left to do everything for herself. But I could not help suggesting that the young woman's view of the case was quite as important as the matron's, and that if it was a bad place for those who wanted to hire maidservants, it must be a very good place for the girls who wanted to be hired. The maidservants' side of the question is quite as important as the mistresses'. The truth is that in such a town as Christchurch, girl of twenty or twenty-three can earn from £30 to £40 a year, and a comfortable home, with no oppressive hard work; and if she be well conducted and of decent appearance, she is sure to get a husband who can keep a house over her head. For such persons New Zealand is a paradise. It is not only that they get so many more of the good things of the world than would ever come in their way in England, but that they

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stand relatively in so much higher a position in reference to the world around them. The very tone in which a maidservant speaks to you in New Zealand, her quiet little joke, her familiar smile, her easy manner, tell you at once that the badge of servitude is not heavy on her. She takes your wages and makes your bed, and hands your plate, but she does not consider herself to be of an order of beings different from your order. Many who have been accustomed to be served all their life may not like this; if so, they had better not live in New Zealand. But if we look at the matter from the maidservant's side, we cannot fail to find that there is much comfort in it.

"I would advise no young lady to go out to any colony either to get a husband or to be a governess, or to win her bread after any so-called lady-like fashion. She may suffer much before she can succeed, or may probably fail altogether. But any well-behaved young woman who now earns £16 as a housemaid in England, would find in New Zealand a much happier home."

In this condition of affairs, the Canterbury Government, possessed of large revenues arising from the great demand for land, has determined not to await the tedious progress of the General Colonial scheme of immigration, but to expend some of its surplus funds in bringing out immigrants for itself. To this end, the Provincial Government instituted a refund of passage money to immigrants on their arrival in the colony, and their system has been lately followed by the Colonial Government.

It may be well to quote here the insufficient number of immigrants brought out during the past year, only remarking that they have been absorbed as fast as they arrived, and that the cry is still for more. From July 1872 to March 1873, 184 1/2 nominated and 789 1/2 assisted immigrants--in all 974--were brought out in seven ships. The mortality on board ship was entirely confined to infants, seven of whom died, while seventeen children were born during the passage to the colony. These facts conclusively prove that with proper management and supervision, the risk attending the journey is reduced to a minimum. The recent establishment of the New Zealand

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Shipping Company, under immediate local control, affords a sufficient guarantee that everything will be done to ensure the comfort and safety of passengers, and to make the voyage as pleasant and easy as possible.

The arrangements made for the conveyance and reception of immigrants are of the most perfect description. All the ships employed in this service are under the provisions of the Passengers Act. The between decks are divided into three compartments, namely, for families, single men, and single women. A separate hatchway is provided from each compartment to the upper deck.

The following is the scale of rations issued weekly to each male and female of twelve years of age, viz.:--

Beef, 24oz.; pork, 16oz.; preserved meat, 16oz.

Suet, 6oz.; butter, 6oz.; biscuit, 42oz.; flour, 56oz.

Rice or oatmeal, 24oz.; peas, 1/2-pint.

Fresh vegetables, 2lb.; preserved do., 1/2 lb.

Carrots, preserved, 8oz.; onions, preserved, 8oz.

Cheese, 6oz.; raisins, 8oz.; tea, 1 1/2oz.

Coffee, roasted, 2oz.; sugar, 16oz.; molasses, 8oz.

Water, 21 quarts; mixed pickles, 1/4 pint; mustard, 1/2oz.

Lime juice, while in the tropics, 6oz.

Salt, 2oz.; pepper, 1/2oz.

Children between one and twelve years of age receive only half rations.

Children between one and four years of age receive preserved meat instead of salt meat every day, and in addition to the articles to which they are entitled by the above scale, a quarter of a pint of preserved milk daily, and every alternate day one egg, and 8oz. of arrowroot or sago weekly. Children, under one year, 3 pints of water daily and if above four months old, half-a-pint of preserved milk daily, and every alternate day one egg; also, 3oz. of preserved soup, 12oz. of biscuit, 4oz. of oatmeal, 4oz. of sago or arrowroot, 8oz. of flour, 4oz. of rice, and 10oz. sugar weekly.

The regulations as to outfit are as follows:--

No one will be allowed to embark with a less quantity of clothing for each person than--For Males: 6 shirts, 6 pair of

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stockings, 2 warm flannel or Guernsey shirts, 2 pair of new shoes, and 2 complete suits strong exterior clothing. For Females: 6 chemises, 2 warm and strong petticoats, 6 pair of stockings, 2 pair of strong shoes, and 2 strong gowns, one of which must be warm.

For Children: 7 shirts or chemises, 4 warm flannel waistcoats, 1 warm cloak or outside coat, 6 pair of stockings, 2 pair of strong shoes, and 2 complete suits of exterior clothing. The clothing need not be new, but must be serviceable.

The General Government regulations for the introduction of Immigrants into New Zealand, on the nomination of persons resident therein, are given below; and are applicable to Canterbury:--

1. Any person resident in the colony, desirous of nominating relatives or friends in Europe for passages to New Zealand, may do so by applying to an Immigration Officer, in the form at foot, copies of which can he obtained at all Immigration and Post Offices.

The persons nominated, if approved by the Immigration Officer and the officer of the Home Agency, will receive free passages to the colony.

2. Every adult emigrant will be required, before embarkation, to pay, unless specially remitted by the Agent-General, 20s. (and children in proportion), for bedding, blankets, and mess utensils.

3. The cost of conveyance to the port (unless the Agent-General agrees to pay it), and to the residence of their friends after arrival in the colony, must be defrayed by the emigrants themselves.

4. All the ships employed in this service will be under the provisions of the Passengers Act.

5. It is to be distinctly understood, that notwithstanding the applications are forwarded to the Agent-General by the Immigration Officers, the Agent-General in London may refuse passages where the intending emigrants are in ill-health, or in any way unfitted, according to his judgment, to emigrate.

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6. The Regulations, issued upon 21st April, 1873, for the payment of bonuses to the nominators upon the arrival of the nominated immigrants, are hereby rescinded; and no certificates for the payment of such bonuses will be given after the date hereof.



I have the honor to state that, in my opinion, the persons named below would be not unwilling to emigrate to New Zealand, and would be desirable colonists.

I have, therefore, to advise that such persons should be communicated with, and invited to emigrate to the colony.

I have, &c.,


Supposed Age

Family [Particulars of family as accurately as possible]

Address [If the recommender does not know the address, he will state where the address can be obtained]

Trade or Occupation

As soon as a ship leaves England with emigrants, the Agent-General transmits to the Government of New Zealand, by overland mail, a list containing the names and occupations of all on board. A summary of this list is published in the Canterbury papers, with a notification that the Immigration Department will receive applications for the various classes of labor that the ship is bringing.

On arrival at Lyttelton, every passenger ship is immediately visited by the Health Officer and Immigration Commissioners. If the health of those on board is satisfactory, the Commissioners proceed at once with the inspection of the ship, and all its arrangements. The passengers are mustered, and full enquiries are made as to the comfort, discipline, and general conduct of all on board during the voyage. The question is put, whether anyone has a complaint to make, either of the quality or quantity of provisions and water during the passage; whether the Surgeon-Superintendent, the Captain and Officers have been kind and attentive; and, generally, whether the passengers have been comfortable and satisfied with their treatment since they left home.

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Every compartment is carefully inspected, including the hospital, surgery, medicine chest, the condensing apparatus, cooking stoves, lavatories, &c., together with the position and space provided for the different classes of immigrants. The provisions are also examined and tested when necessary.

During this inspection, no communication with the shore is permitted. The Commissioners report to the Government on the condition of the vessel and its appointments; and payment of the gratuities to the officers of the ship is either made or withheld, as they may advise. As soon as the inspection is over, the immigrants (with their luggage) are landed at Lyttelton in a special steamer; and they at once proceed by train to the depot at Addington, a distance of about 8 miles. They are there comfortably lodged in large well-ventilated apartments and are treated with every care by the master and matron of the establishment.

Two clear days are allowed for washing and mending clothes, &c.; but those who are going to relatives or friends can leave immediately their friends come for them. The engagements are entered into on the third day.

Careful provision is made for the protection of single women, and no person is admitted into the engagement-room, unless known to the officers of the department to be of good character; or who (if unknown) can produce a certificate from some respectable householder.

Engagements are entered in books kept for that purpose; and an officer from the Immigration Department superintends every engagement.

The current rates of wages are posted in all the compartments of the depot.

The following are the rules and regulations observed in the depot, and in the hiring of immigrants, viz:--

Applications for married couples, single men, and single women, are received at the Immigration Office for some weeks previous to the arrival of an immigrant ship.

Upon the engagement day, due notice of which is given by advertisement, employers attend at the barracks and select according to priority of application.

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It is the duty of the Barrack Master to point out to persons applying for married couples or single men or women those whom he has ascertained to be suitable for the situations, and generally to assist employers and immigrants in making the necessary arrangements.

A list of the class of immigrants available for hire, and the current rate of wages, will be posted in all the compartments of the barracks.

Any employers unknown to the Immigration Officer, may be requested to bring an introduction from a respectable householder.

All agreements are made in writing by employer and servant, and witnessed by the Immigration Officer. The original agreement is kept as a record, a copy being given to the person employed.

Any immigrant who refuses a reasonable offer of service will be required to leave at once. The fact of such refusal must be reported immediately to the Immigration Officer, and by him to the Government.

Immigrants who have accepted service must leave the barracks without delay, and cannot be re-admitted

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Even in the early days of the colony many industries were established for the supply of local requirements, and as the production of various staples has increased, the number of factories has been constantly added to. Attention has been frequently directed of late years to the importance of developing many resources either recently discovered or hitherto but little regarded, as colleries, potteries, &c. The success that has been met with in most cases has encouraged such enterprises, and when labor is more plentiful there can be no doubt that Canterbury will hold an important position as a manufacturing country, from the number and value of its products.

Considerable attention has been given during the last ten years to dressing and preparing the native flax (phormium tenax), and several mills have been established for that purpose in various parts of the province, notably at Ashley Gorge, Leithfield, Kaiapoi, and the Rivers Styx and Halswell. An association was formed in June, 1870, with the object of testing its adaptability for commercial purposes, and their efforts have helped to establish beyond a doubt the great value of the native flax, not only as material for ropes, twine, &c., but also for linen, sheeting, towelling, fine bagging, and even for paper. Shirts made from New Zealand flax are stated to be worn by the officers and men of some of Her Majesty's regiments, and to possess certain advantages over linen shirts, among which may be mentioned for greater durability. The rough fibre is used for stuffing cushions, mattresses, &c. The gum possesses great adhesive qualities, and the value of the flax may be still further developed in this direction. The plant is found in abundance throughout the province, growing wild in swampy places, and its cultivation is attended with little difficulty.

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There are several rope walks in operation, producing excellent descriptions of rope, twine, &c.

Malting and brewing are carried on to a large extent throughout the province. In Christchurch alone, there are no less than seven breweries, and more malt houses, some of which are on an extensive scale. The colonial beer is generally referred to the heavy English ales. The climate is peculiarly suitable for brewing, and the malt produced from barley grown in the province is of excellent quality.

There are more than sixteen flour mills in Canterbury, and their number is constantly increasing. Many of them are worked by water-power, with which the province is abundantly supplied.

The foundries and machine works are numerous. Some of these possess very complete and extensive establishments, capable of turning out all descriptions of machinery. They are constantly employed in the production of agricultural and other implements of a class that compares favorably with the best English manufactures.

Brickmaking is carried on to a large extent. Earthenware drain pipes of good quality are produced at a less rate than the imported article, together with tiles and pottery of various kinds, made from the clay of the Malvern Hills, which has only recently been brought into use. When the railway is completed, this promises to become a very important industry.

An extensive chicory works has been in operation for some years past.

Sawing, planing, and door and window manufactories are carried on in various places.

There are three meat-preserving factories in full operation, as yet scarcely able to keep pace with the increasing demand. The meat is packed in tins, and exported in large quantities to England. The still further development of this important trade may be confidently anticipated, as the climate of Canterbury is much better adapted for the production of potted meats than that of any of the colonies of Australia, which have

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nevertheless, for many years past been successfully engaged in their preparation.

Soap and candle factories, tanneries, bacon-curing factories, fellmongering, and wool-scouring establishments are numerous throughout the province.

Canterbury cheese, butter, and bacon, have been long celebrated, and are important articles of export to all the neighbouring colonies.

The supply of fish to the Canterbury market had been very irregular, being dependant altogether on a few fishermen; but lately a company has been formed to work the fisheries in a more systematic manner, and an important trade bids fair to be established in smoking and preserving the numerous and valuable fish with which the seas around New Zealand are teaming.

Of newspapers, there are eight in Canterbury. The Press, Lyttelton Times, Canterbury Times, Evening Star, Weekly Press, and the Illustrated monthly, are all published in Christchurch.

The Timaru Herald, and the Timaru and Gladstone Gazette, are both good country papers.

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The only native animal in New Zealand, is a rat, which has almost entirely disappeared since the introduction of the Norwegian rat--giving rise to the Maori saying, "As the Maori rat has vanished before the English rat, so will the Maori race be lost in the race of the Pakehas."

There is also a small native lizard, and a species of bat. Of native birds there is a large variety, including many that are valuable as game. These have been protected by law during the breeding season. Among them may be mentioned the grey duck, paradise duck, teal, widgeon, blue mountain duck, pigeons and quail. The last-named bird was formerly plentiful, but is now seldom met with. The kaka, a kind of parrot, the weka or wood hen, and the pukeko or swamp hen, are met with in many parts of the country; together with dottrel, white crane, red bills, heron, tui, and the koromoko or bell bird, many of which are very good eating.

The kiwi, a wingless bird, covered with hair, is found in the western ranges, bearing some resemblance on a small scale to the great extinct apertyx, the moa. The kakapo is a ground parrot, which never uses its wings, but runs on the ground and climbs trees by the aid of its bill and claws.

Of native fish, there are eels, whitebait, smelts, bull-trout, fresh-water herring, and crayfish, all of which are found in abundance throughout the rivers and streams of the province. Flounders of much delicacy of flavor are found in the estuaries.

The variety of saltwater fish on the coast is considerable. Among these may be named trumpeter, moki, hapuka (a kind of cod), kawai, patiki or flounder, mullet, rock cod, bastard

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skate, ling, butter fish, and herring. But decidedly the best flavored fish of them all is the frost or scabbard fish, which is found thrown up on the beaches in frosty weather.

Oysters are met with in some of the bays of the Peninsula but are not abundant. Beds have been laid down at Akaroa, and it is expected in a few years that the supply of oysters from this source will be more than sufficient for the requirements of the province. Crayfish, cockles, mussels, and shrimps are plentiful.

The introduction of animals, birds and fish of other countries has been very successfully carried into effect. Even before the beginning of the settlement, as long as a quarter of a century ago, pheasants were turned out at Port Levy, on Banks' Peninsula, where they have since multiplied to a large extent. Partridges were brought out in one of the first ships, but most of them died in consequence of its going too far south. Other more successful attempts followed, and partridges are now plentiful in some parts of the Peninsula, as well as in the northern parts of the province. Rabbits were long since introduced, and have multiplied rapidly in many places.

But systematic acclimatisation on a large scale may be said to have commenced only about ten years ago, when a society was formed for that purpose. Its operations have been vigorously prosecuted ever since. A large public reserve has been set apart for the grounds of the society, where the necessary ponds, aviaries, and breeding-places have been established. It is a favorite place of resort, being planted as a garden, and made attractive for visitors. English and Chinese pheasants, partridges, larks, Californian and Australian quail, rooks, jackdaws, blackbirds, thrushes, goldfinches, chaffinches, sparrows, starlings, and many other birds have been turned out. The pheasants have increased, very fast and spread over the country. Many of them are frequently seen close to the town in the neighbourhood of the park. Several covies of partridges have been seen in the northern country, and the quail have also thriven and increased.

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Hares have been turned out, and are known to have bred last season. Some of them are frequently noticed in the vicinity of the society's garden, and also in the Riccarton paddocks on the northern line of railway.

The introduction of trout and salmon was attended with much difficulty, but the results have been very satisfactory. The ova of trout were brought out four or five years ago, and the young fish hatched in the society's breeding-ponds have since been distributed throughout the rivers and streams of the country. Some of the old trout have now attained a considerable size, weighing as much as nine pounds. The salmon ova were only imported at the beginning of the present year; but the hatching of a large number has been successfully effected, and the acclimatisation of this valuable fish may now be regarded as an accomplished fact.

At present, pheasant shooting is only permitted on the Peninsula and in the northern parts of the country; but the number of birds is so rapidly increasing, that in a short time it is likely to become general.

The lark, the thrush, and other English song birds are now heard in many parts of the country, reviving home feelings and recollections.

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From the beginning of the settlement education has always received the attention that its importance demands and at present it is not too much to say that Canterbury is as well provided in this respect as any part of the British dominions.

In 1854, the Christchurch College and Grammar School was established, and has always ranked as one of the principal educational institutions of the colony.

Besides this, a large number of public schools connected with religious denominations, as well as private schools of high standing, have contributed to make Canterbury a centre of education among the various provinces of New Zealand.

In 1870, the New Zealand University was constituted by statute of the General Assembly, supported by annual grant from the consolidated funds of the colony. The Canterbury Collegiate Union (instituted by Christ's College and the School of Technical Science, conjointly) is affiliated to it, and receives an annual grant from the University funds. It keeps the terms (three) of the University, and provides for the delivery of lectures in classics, mathematics, geology, mineralogy, paleontology, botany, zoology, chemistry, history, modern languages, English language and literature, and jurisprudence. The fee for each course of lectures is half-a-guinea. Ladies are admitted to all the classes.

The work of the University in Canterbury will be taken up permanently by the Canterbury College, which has recently been incorporated. Applicants for University degrees may marticulate and pass the annual examination without either residence or regular attendance at lectures being required. In 1872-3, the sum of £1000 was appropriated each year by the Council of the University for the establishment of twenty

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scholarships, to be awarded for proficiency in one or more of the following subjects, viz., classics, mathematics, physical sciences, modern language (other than English history) and English literature. In 1872 one scholarship was awarded of the value of £70, and sixteen of the value of £45, tenable for one year. In the beginning of the present year, only three scholarships have been obtained, of the value of £55, tenable for three years. No candidate under the age of fifteen is admitted to the examination, and no scholarship is tenable by any person after arriving at the age of twenty-one years. At the last session of the University Council, held in April 1873, the sum of £1000 was appropriated for the establishment from time to time, of fifty scholarships of the value of £20, for proficiency in the subjects already mentioned. Scholarships on the several (four) subjects may be held conjointly.

The increasing requirements of the province having for some years past engaged the attention of the Provincial Council, an Ordinance was passed in 1871, and afterwards amended, constituting a Board, with power to deal with the whole question of public elementary education, subject to the provisions therein contained. The distribution of public money, appropriated by the Provincial Council for school purposes, rests with the Board, as well as the determination of the amount to be contributed by every Educational District (within certain limits prescribed in the Ordinance) for the erection of school buildings and other kindred purposes. The Superintendent has power to proclaim districts in any portion of the province in which there are not less than 25 children, between the ages of five and thirteen, and also to direct the levying of rates for school buildings, &c., in cases where the owners and occupiers of land and houses have failed to pay the contribution fixed by the Board. In every educational district, a committee is appointed for the management of the local schools. Any child over five years old may attend a district school on payment of fees not exceeding five shillings a quarter; but no fees are charged to any rateable householder in respect of children between the ages of six and thirteen. The committee of any school may set apart one or

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two days a week during which ministers of religion, approved by them, may impact religious instruction to such of the, children as belong to their respective denominations, provided that the parents or guardians of each such child, shall have made written request to that effect.

The system of elementary education imparted, comprises reading, writing, spelling, arithmetic, geography, history (sacred and profane), and English grammar; but no child is compelled to be present at the teaching of history, whose parents or guardians object thereto. Physical training and military drill are provided. The Board has also power to regulate for instruction in other subjects, and to fix fees for the game.

On June 30th, 1873, there were 78 district schools in Canterbury; with 94 male and 82 female teachers, 176 in all; and 3875 male and 3262 female scholars on the books: in all 7132. The money voted by the Provincial Council last session was £74,288, being £17,588 for maintenance, an £56,700 for new buildings.

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There are few countries that offer the same facilities for road and railway making as Canterbury. Engineering difficulties are rarely met with; the bridging of the main rivers being the only expense, beyond the cost of the simplest formation and maintenance.

The first railway in Canterbury--indeed the first in New Zealand, by several years--was, as already mentioned, the line from Christchurch to Lyttelton. This undertaking was begun on 17th July, 1860 and the line was completed and open for traffic on 23rd June, 1867. The tunnel through the hills is 2838 yards in length, and the whole extent of the line is 6 1/4 miles. This was a work of the utmost importance to the province, as until it was done there was no communication between the port and the capital, except by circuitous water carriage. Since its completion, nearly the whole of the exports and imports of Canterbury have been carried on this line.

Railway construction has of late years been very greatly extended, not only in this province, but throughout the whole of New Zealand. At present fifty-five miles of railway have been opened for traffic in Canterbury alone; and the new lines in course of construction, both north and south, are being rapidly pushed forward by the General Government, under the Immigration and Public Works Act, 1870. It is not too much to say that in a few years time, railway communication from one end of the island to the other will be as easy as in the United Kingdom.

From what has been already stated as to the facility of road making, it may readily be conceived, that Canterbury has not been behind-hand in that respect. Roads have been made in every direction through the country, connecting all

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the townships together by main trunk lines, with branches throughout every district. The cost of construction and maintenance being, comparatively speaking, small, new works are constantly in progress. As a consequence, there is no part of Canterbury that cannot be driven over, and all the principal towns are placed in easy communication by means of coach traffic.

The most formidable undertaking by the Provincial Government in the way of road construction, was the West Coast Road, joining both sides of the island together. This was made in 1866, at a cost of £150,000, and is 149 miles in length, carried over mountains 3000 feet in height. The difficulties of construction were so well overcome, that it is now one of the finest roads in the world, as smooth as a gravel path, with a mail coach traversing it twice a week from either side. The scenery through which it passes is very grand, possessing much of the character of the Swiss Alps.

In common with the rest of New Zealand, Canterbury is a net work of telegraph wires, every part of the Northern and Middle Islands being placed in communication, and the two joined together by a cable, which was laid in 1866, across Cooks Straits. The first telegraph constructed in New Zealand was from Christchurch to Lyttelton, in 1862.

The most important bridges that have been built are an iron girder bridge over the Rangitata, erected at a cost of £25,000; and a pile bridge over the Rakaia, a mile in length, which cost £32,000. The Waitaki railway bridge, and many others crossing smaller rivers, are now in course of construction.

The vote taken last session for public works in Canterbury, was between £700,000 and £800,000, appropriated for the construction of harbor works, roads, bridges, railways, and public buildings. This amount does not include railways under construction in the province by the General Government of New Zealand.

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Colonists, as a rule, are fond of holidays, and are as energetic in their pleasures as in their business. A marked characteristic of a colonial holiday is the systematic way in which it is undertaken. There is no nonsense about it, everybody means to enjoy himself, and does so in a very determined manner.

Canterbury is no exception in this respect. There are regattas, sports on the Queen's Birthday, cricket matches, balls, reviews, public entertainments, concerts of all kinds, the theatre, an annual opera season, readings, and a host of other minor amusements. But the great events in this way, are the race meetings--generally two in each year. On these occasions everybody flocks to the racecourse, a piece of beautifully level ground, about five miles from Christchurch, with a grand stand built of stone, and a two mile course, well laid out and kept in good condition. Considerable attention has been given to the importation of racing stock, and the pedigree of some of the Canterbury racers may be traced back with few descents from some of the "bluest" horse blood in England. The "road" on a race day presents a spectacle that would astonish anyone fresh from home and unaware of the go-ahead pace of the colonies, by the number and variety of equipages with which it is crowded. Carriages, Hansom cabs, four-wheelers, stage coaches, spring carts, dog carts, buggies, every variety of turn out--for the good roads of Canterbury encourage driving, and horse-keep is so cheap, that there are few who need be without a horse, especially as it can be turned out in the paddock almost all the year round.

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The principle originally adopted in the disposal of the Waste Lands of Canterbury was that of selling at a high price. This has been maintained ever since, and has proved most beneficial to the province.

In the beginning of the settlement, country land was sold at £3 per acre; but every purchaser of fifty acres received a quarter-acre town section, besides other advantages, which reduced the amount of purchase money to about £2, and on the establishment of the province in 1853, that sum (£2) was fixed as the price per acre for country lands. The following is a digest of the regulations for the sale of land then adopted, and still in force, viz:--

All rural land is open for sale at an uniform price of 40s. per acre. Should the land applied for be held under preemptive right by any runholder, the holder of such right shall have a preference as purchaser within his pre-emption at 40s. per acre. Every section of rural land shall be in one block, and must be of a depth of half a mile. On payment of the purchase money, the Commissioner of Waste Lands gives a "license to occupy," and as soon afterwards as possible, a survey is made, and a crown grant issued.

Sites for town lands are determined by the Superintendent, on the recommendation of the Provincial Council. An upset price is set upon them, and the sections are put up to auction when ordered by the Superintendent, or at the request of any person depositing ten per cent. of the upset price.

The advantages of the land policy adopted in Canterbury are now fully evident. In some other provinces where land has been sold at a nominal rate, or almost given away, the public estate has been entirely absorbed by large purchasers,

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and the revenues are now totally insufficient to meet their requirements. In this province, on the other hand, large portions of waste lands still belong to the Crown, and the demand has become so great, that the Waste Lands Board is actually beset with purchasers; the revenue from this source alone amounting on an average, of the twelvemonths ending June, 1873, to more than £35,000 monthly. The returns for the last six months show a much larger average.

Waste lands, until applied for by a purchaser, may be rented from the Crown for pastoral purposes at an almost nominal rate. All available land, has however, been long since taken up in sheep runs; but anyone wishing to invest in the purchase of this description of property, can generally find opportunities of doing so.

Educational reserves, which are of large extent, and scattered throughout the province, may be rented at from 1s. to 3s. per acre for the first seven years, and for the following seven years, at from 3s. 6d. to 5s.

Opportunities frequently occur for labouring men to obtain the use of fenced land rent free for two years from large landowners, on the sole condition of putting in crops, of which the laborer takes the benefit.

Farms can also be rented on moderate terms, varying of course according to size, position, and other circumstances.

[For particulars of land revenue, &c., see Provincial Treasurer's report in Appendix.]

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The coalfields of Canterbury hitherto examined and partially worked are of very great extent, stretching from the Hurunui River in the north to the Waitaki in the south, and lying at the eastern base of the ranges by which the Canterbury plains are bounded. The greater portion is an excellent brown coal, and can be obtained level free. As soon as the railways are completed, a great quantity of the coal used in the province will be taken from these mines. There are also large coal deposits further inland in the hills, which in years to come will be of great value. Although only a brown coal, the quality is at least equal to that of Austria and Bohemia. The use of similar coal has raised both these countries to a prominent position in manufactures, it being now used on the railways, and for manufacturing purposes, including iron and glass.

Some beds of this coal (but of limited extent only) have been altered to anthracite and black coal. The principal localities where this is found, are on the Motenau and Pareora Rivers.

The quantity is virtually unknown. In one small district there are 9,000,000 tons. [See Dr. Haast's Report, 1870, in Appendix.]

Although none of the precious metals have as yet been found, they may still exist; as on the western side of the hills gold is found in great abundance.

Iron-stone, lime-stone, fire-clay, and quartz-sand for glass making are not only known, but practically in use.

Stone of excellent quality for building purposes, is found throughout the province. In the Port Hills there are several varieties, of which the grey stone from Hoon Hay may be regarded as the strongest and most durable. It is obtained in

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large blocks, and, though hard, may be wrought to a considerable degree of finish. There is also a hard brown stone, very similar in character, but rather more easily worked. At the Halswell, an excellent rubble stone is found, which cleaves with a flat bed, and is much in use. The Heathcote Valley stone is in request for piles of wooden buildings and other kindred purposes. All these stones are quarried within a short distance from Christchurch. On the Lyttelton side of the hills there are other varieties, including tufa and freestone at Governor's Bay, freestone on some of the islands in the port, and a hard volcanic stone of a rich cream color on the Sumner road. Scoria is also found in the hills, varying in color and quality. Some of it is of a durable kind, and suitable for building purposes.

White-rock stone, very similar in color to the Caen stone of Normandy, is met with throughout the province from north to south. There are slight variations of quality in different places; but the general character is the same. It is easily worked, being cut with a saw, or moulded with a plane without difficulty and at little cost. Although so soft when first quarried, it rapidly hardens with exposure, and experience hitherto leads to the belief that it is of a good and lasting nature. The Amuri limestone when burnt, yields a rich lime, which is used throughout Canterbury for building and other purposes. In the neighbourhood of Timaru a description of chalk rock has been discovered, and it is hoped that it may be employed in the manufacture of Portland cement. Granite and marble exist in some parts of Canterbury, but hitherto have not been brought into use.

The growth of native timber is almost entirely confined to a few districts. On the Peninsula there are black, red, and white pine trees, besides totara, and some varieties of birch. Similar timber is found at Oxford. In the hill country of the dividing ranges, birch only is found. Some of these woods are of great value for building and other purposes, and are in much demand.

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In the foregoing pages it has been sought to place the reader in possession of such information as may serve to assist his judgment, without overstating, or adding anything that can possibly mislead.

It will be seen that the condition and prospects of the province at the present time afford good ground for satisfaction, from the colonial point of view and it is gratifying to recall the fact that Canterbury has always steadily advanced, each successive year showing accelerated progress, until it has arrived at the highly prosperous position it now holds among the provinces of New Zealand.

The causes that have led to this may, perhaps, be found partly in the mode of establishing the settlement and dealing with the land; partly in the impetus given to New Zealand generally by the colonial railway system; but chiefly in the great agricultural and pastoral resources of the country.

A reference to the Appendices which follow will show the extent of exports and imports, the revenue and expenditure, rates of wages, prices of provisions, and other necessary statistics. By comparison of the cost of living and wages rates, the advantages that Canterbury offers to laborers, artizans and others as a field for immigration will be at once apparent, and it is therefore unnecessary to add anything to what has been already stated on the subject.

But there are other classes to which Canterbury presents opportunities of settlement that few colonies afford; and for their information it may be well to say something more.

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The farmer who at home is obliged to rent the land he cultivates, may here find a better field, with the additional advantage of being the owner of his own farm, and holding a property of constantly increasing value for the benefit of his children.

The small capitalist of no occupation, whose means are scarcely sufficient to live upon at home, will find excellent opportunities of investment in this province, where he will obtain a higher interest for his money, and live at a proportionately less cost. His family also will benefit by the change, as the chances of placing them advantageously are certainly much greater in the colony than in the mother country. It will be seen too that the provision for education, even of the highest class, is all that can be wished.

Having said this much of those who would do well to come, it is only right to add a word of caution to those who had better stay away. Dissipated young gentlemen, with a disinclination for work, will find Canterbury a very unsuitable place. If they have done badly at home, they are likely to do worse in the colony, removed from the restraining influence of family connexion.

But there is so much to do of every kind, that whatever knowledge or skill a man possesses is sure to meet with a demand; and the honest employment of his time or labor will command the sympathy and respect of his fellow-colonists; for all either are or have been laborers in some manner themselves. In the early days every one did for himself what he found most requisite or profitable at the time. In this way many of the lawyers, merchants, and others, who now hold prominent positions in the province, have been sawyers in the bush, carpenters, or anything that happened to be most needed. Even the clergy set an example by driving their own bullocks, and turning their hands to manual labor.

A marked difference between the home and colonial tone of thought and feeling is to be found in what may be done without losing caste; and this really constitutes the chief distinction between life in England and in the colony. For

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Canterbury is thoroughly English in other respects:--the people, the trees, birds, fish, game, and everything else having been transplanted to the province.

There are few Maoris in Canterbury; three or four settlements of about a dozen families, scattered here and there, comprising the whole number. The warlike tribes of the North have no claim or interest in the Middle Island, and this province is farther removed from the scenes of former warfare than England from the battle fields of Germany.

Canterbury is perfectly free from wild beasts, snakes and reptiles. There is not even a frog to be met with, nor a venomous insect of any kind.

1   "New Zealand, the Britain of the South"--By CHARLES HURSTHOUSE.

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