Australasia, New Zealand.
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CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY
New Orthography of New-Zealand Names.
SINCE the principles of the New-Zealand Language were settled by Professor Lee, in the Grammar of that Dialect compiled by him in the year 1820, a very material change has been made in the Spelling. The old Or-
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thography has hitherto been followed in the Publications of the Society, while the new one is employed by the Missionaries. As that used by them appears to be now, in a considerable degree, settled, it has been judged advisable to introduce it into print. The difference, however, between the two forms of Spelling is so great, that it has been found requisite to insert the following Vocabulary of the terms most frequently occurring in the communications of the Missionaries, to enable our Readers to recognise those heretofore employed under the form in which they now appear.
Old Orthography. New Orthography.
Ahoudee O Gunna.. U'di o Kuna
Ocoolo, Okoora.... Okura
Wyecoto, Whykote. Waikato
Old Spelling. New Spelling.
Ahoodoo-Pa (sepulchre).. U'dupa
Amoko (the tattooing).... Moko
Hippah (Fortification)... E Pa
Koko (a tool)............Koko
Koomeras (sweet potatoes) Kumara
Taboo (to make sacred)... Tapu
Rev. S. Marsden's Sixth Visit to New Zealand.
It has been already stated, that the Rev. Samuel Marsden had paid another visit--his sixth--to New Zealand. It extended from the 8th of March, 1830, when he landed at Paihia, to May the 27th, when he embarked on board the "Prince of Denmark," schooner, on his return to New South-Wales.
On Mr. Marsden's arrival, he found the Tribes in the neighbourhood of the Bay of Islands engaged in hostilities; which, through the blessing of God, he, in conjunction with the Missionaries, was the means of appeasing. The result of this friendly interposition has been, considerably to extend the influence of the Missionaries over the Chiefs in the vicinity of the Missionary Settlements.
During Mr. Marsden's sojourn in New Zealand, he had repeated conferences with the Missionaries on the circumstances of the Mission; which led to the adoption of various mea-
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sures, with a view to adapt the future operations of the Missionaries to its present advanced state, and to the prospects opening before them..
The Despatches before us come down to the 27th of September; and their contents present an encouraging view of the progress of the Mission, though the situation of the Missionaries continues to be one of much peril and difficulty, and which subjects their faith and patience to severe trials. They earnestly solicit a constant interest in the prayers of their friends in this Country.
Before we proceed to detail the most material parts of these Despatches, it may be noted, that to the full particulars of the Mission given at pp. 369-378 of our last Volume, it was inadvertently omitted to prefix the heading "Church Missionary Society;" and that, in consequence, that article is placed, on the last page of the Contents, under the head "Miscellaneous," instead of having been assigned, in its proper place, to the Society.
Pacification of the Native Tribes
Various particulars relative to the successful exertions of Mr. Marsden and the Missionaries to terminate hostilities among the Native Tribes are given in the part of our last Volume just referred to: the following notices relative to that event, extracted from Mr. Marsden's Journal, lately received, will, however, be read with interest.
March 8, 1830 --Soon after I had landed, some of the Chiefs came and informed me what had taken place, and what was likely to happen; requesting that I, with the Rev. H. Williams, would, early the next morning, visit the Camps of Rewirewi and Ururoa, the two contending Chiefs, and see if any thing could be done to bring about a reconciliation before their different friends arrived; stating, that no time was to be lost, to accomplish this purpose.
March 10 --This morning, as soon as the day dawned, a Chief, named Temorenga, knocked at my bed-room window, and said that he wished to see me directly: he had just arrived from Taiamai, with his Tribe. I immediately arose; and Mr. W. Williams went with me, to speak to him. He had brought his Tribe to join the people at Kauakaua, to support Rewirewi. Temorenga had lived with me, at Parramatta, some years before: he was very glad to see me; and observed, that the New Zealanders would not attend to the good advice which he and I had formerly given them, when I was with them. He had been my constant companion, when I went to the River Thames, the Bay of Plenty, and the west side of New Zealand: he was always much attached to me; and is a man of great consequence amongst his countrymen. I urged him to use his influence, with the contending parties, for peace; and he promised he would.
After we had urged all the arguments we could, to bring about a reconciliation, we walked over the ground where the battle had been fought, and where the remains of some of the bodies of the slain were lying unconsumed on the fires. The air was extremely offensive, and the sight most disgusting: we could not but bitterly lament these dreadful effects of sin, and the baneful influence which the Prince of Darkness has over the minds of these poor Heathens: we then took our departure, with the hope that peace would be made.
March 13 --In the last interview we had with Ururoa's party, we pressed upon them to bring the negotiations for peace to an end; saying, that we were tired with visiting both parties without their coming to any final determination. They replied, that we must not be tired, but must act with firmness, and continue to go backwards and forwards until the difference should be settled; for they could not make peace themselves.
March 15 --This day has been very stormy and wet. We could not visit the fighting Natives at their Camps, and therefore spent the day, in a great measure, in conversation on the evils of war, with such Chiefs as were at our Station; using what arguments we could to induce them to lay aside their destructive habits: telling them, that to kill one another was the greatest cruelty, as well as folly; that they ought to save every New Zealander's life they could, for the protection of themselves and their Country; that the time might come when a Foreign Enemy would visit them; and that, when they wanted protection, they would have no man to protect them. They heard us with attention, admitting the justice of
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our observations; and I have no doubt but that they will reflect upon them, as they appeared forcibly struck. The Chiefs at Paihia wished us to keep up a constant communication with both parties, in order to make peace, though the weather was so wet and stormy.
March 17, 1830 --Early this morning, Tohitapu, a Chief, called at my window, and said the army was moving from the Island of Moturoa, and he wished me to get up. I arose immediately, and was informed that thirty-six canoes had been counted passing between the Main and the Island. I saw a long string of war-canoes proceeding, in a line, across the Bay. We launched our boats, and went to meet them; and were rejoiced to find that they were directing their course to the point agreed on the preceding evening. When we came up with them, we found that they had left their women and children upon the island; and that they were all fighting-men, well armed, and ready for action at a moment's notice. I counted more than forty men in one war-canoe. They stopped when we came up with them, and we held a consultation relative to our future operations. We were anxious that the two main bodies should not come within gun-shot of each other, for fear of consequences. It was agreed that three Chiefs should accompany us, as Commissioners, to Rewirewi's Camp; and that their party should take their station on the east side of the harbour, upon a high hill, opposite to Rewirewi's camp--in sight of it, but at such a distance that they could do no injury.
When these matters were settled, the three Commissioners accompanied us in a small canoe, which they paddled themselves. The fighting-men ran up to the top of the hill, naked, like so many furies; firing their muskets every moment, until they got to the station fixed on. Here they remained, constantly discharging their muskets, in the sight of the enemy. When we approached near the shore, the Commissioners brought their canoes between our two boats, and in that position we approached the beach: they told us, that if they were killed, we must be given up as a sacrifice for their lives; but we were under little apprehension of danger, from our repeated communications with both parties: and as both parties placed the utmost confidence in us, we were fully persuaded that the Commissioners would be cordially received. As soon as the canoe touched the shore, they immediately jumped out, without speaking a word to any person, and ran with the utmost speed to the place where the Chiefs were assembled: we followed as fast as we could. It was not easy to make our way through the crowds of Natives that pressed upon us on every side: at length we joined the assembly. One of the Commissioners, known by the name of Captain Campbell, and who is a very great Priest among them, having sat for a short time in silence, stood up and addressed the Chiefs. After saying a few words relative to his own party, informing them that the sun was beginning to shine on them and that their prospects were brightening, he sang a song, or a kind of incantation or prayer, the meaning of which none of us could understand: he then proceeded with his Address, and was listened to with much attention and respect. Several of the Chiefs spoke in rotation. They generally held a small stick in their hand while they were speaking, walking at the same time backwards and forwards before the audience; and at length broke the stick in two, signifying that their anger was broken. Several Chiefs replied to what was said by the Commissioners; until the conditions of peace were closed, as far as they could be at that time.
The Commissioners appointed by Rewirewi and his allies were to call at the Missionary Station the next morning; for us to accompany them, as we had the other Commissioners, and to witness the final ratification of peace. As soon as these points were settled, the assembly broke up; and the Chiefs repaired to their respective Tribes, which formed separate parties under their own Chiefs, each Chief taking the command of his own men. They were naked, having only their belt and cartridge-box. They all loaded their muskets, each Tribe firing, by itself, several rounds, and dancing their war-dance. At length they all formed one dense body, repeatedly fired their muskets, and went through their various exercises, which they closed with a general war-dance. Their dance and yell made the air sound like the roaring of the sea in a storm, when the waves dash against the rocks. The party on the opposite hill began to fire their muskets, and dance, in a similar way. We now took our departure from these wild and savage scenes with much satisfaction, as we had obtained the object we had been labouring for.
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March 18, 1830 --As soon as matters were settled, the different Tribes began to depart to their respective districts. Canoes left the Cove in all directions; and we returned to Paihia with much satisfaction.
March 19 --Early this morning a number of muskets were fired at Paihia, from two war-parties who were returning home. I have no doubt but that the present disturbances will tend to extend the influence of the Missionaries among the Natives, and be overruled for good. Numbers were brought together from distant parts of the Country, whom the Missionaries had never seen; and we had an opportunity of speaking to them from day to day, at all our Public Meetings; which Addresses will leave an impression on their minds. I also met with many Chiefs whom I had formerly visited; and whom I should not have seen, unless they had been called together on the present occasion.
Mr. Marsden thus contrasts the state of the Missionary Settlement with that of the Natives, during this season of turbulence and alarm.
March 14: Sunday --The Rev. H. Williams went and spent the forenoon with the Natives, with a view of allaying their angry feelings, and strengthening the impressions we had already made on their minds for peace. The Rev. W. Williams, the Rev. A. N. Brown, and myself, proceeded to the Chapel, to perform Divine Service. The contrast between the east and west side of the Bay was very striking, though only two miles distant: the east shore was crowded with different Tribes of fighting-men, in a wild, savage state, many of them nearly naked, and, when exercising, entirely so: nothing was to be heard but the firing of muskets, and the din and confusion of a savage military camp; some mourning the death of their friends, others suffering from their wounds; and not one but whose mind was involved in Heathen Darkness, without one ray of Divine Knowledge. On the west side, there was the pleasing sound of the "Church-going bell;" the Natives assembling together for Divine Worship, clean, orderly, and decently dressed, most of them in European Clothing: they were carrying in their hands, the Litany, and the greater part of the Church Service, with their Hymns, written in their own language. The Church Service, as far as it has been translated, they can both write and read with the greatest ease. Their whole conduct, and the general appearance of the Settlement, reminded me of a well-regulated English Country Parish. In the Chapel, the Natives behaved with the greatest propriety, and joined in the Church Service. Here might be viewed, at one glance, the blessings of the Christian Religion, and the miseries of Heathenism, with respect to the present life: but when we direct our thoughts into the Eternal World, how infinite is the difference! The Rev. W. Williams read the Litany, and nearly the whole of the Church Service, excepting the Lessons and Psalms, in the New-Zealand Language, in which the Natives joined apparently with much pious feeling: many of them have a sincere desire to acquaint themselves with the True God, and to learn His ways.
I consider this Sabbath to be one of the most pleasing and interesting I have ever spent. The Day-Star from on high hath evidently begun to shine upon these poor benighted Heathens: some have begun to inquire what they must do to be saved. Though the Missionaries are situated in the very centre of Satan's Dominions, where he practises all his hellish arts, and where the degradation of human-nature appears in all its horrors, through men's depravity, called forth into exercise by the influence of the Prince of Darkness; yet they shall see the day when Satan will fall like lightning from heaven. God has promised, that His glory shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together; and the Scriptures cannot be broken: the time will come, when Human Sacrifices and Cannibalism shall be annihilated in New Zealand, by the pure, mild, and Heavenly Influence of the Gospel of our Blessed Lord and Saviour. The work is great; but Divine Goodness will find both the means and the instruments to accomplish His own gracious purposes to fallen man: His Word, which is the sword of the Spirit, is able to subdue these savage people to the obedience of the Faith. It is the duty of Christians to use the means, to sow the seed, and patiently to wait for the heavenly dews to cause it to spring up; and, afterwards, to look up to God in Faith and Prayer, to send the early and the latter rain.
After the Rev. W. Williams had read the Service, I preached to the Europeans from the two last verses of Romans viii.;
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when I endeavoured to shew what the Apostle meant by the love of God in this passage; what was the great power of the Apostle's persuasion; and that, whatever dangers the Christian may be called to encounter, whatever trials to sustain, whatever privations to suffer, or whatever enemies may conspire against him, there is nothing, in earth or in heaven, that shall ever be able to separate him from the love of God. I stated, also, the perilous situations of many of the Saints, both of the Old and New Testament; out of which it appeared, to human reason, impossible for them to be saved; yet God gave them a glorious deliverance: and, as the Missionaries had the same God to protect them from evil, they might safely rely on Him. Notices of Mr. Marsden's Conversations with the Natives.
March 23, 1830 --We arrived at Waimate in the evening. In this Settlement there are a number of different Establishments belonging to different Chiefs, all either relatives or friendly allies. We had no sooner pitched our Tent, than we were surrounded by the Natives. Rewa, and some of the principal Chiefs, spent the evening with us. Our conversation turned upon the miseries of New Zealand, arising from their constant wars with each other: we told them, if they wished to enjoy their Native Land, they must not kill one another: if they continued to do so, they would have no man to protect their Country from any Foreign Enemy, should any, at a future period, wish to take it from them: they seemed sensible of this, and blamed Captain ----- for all the public evils that had lately happened. In addition to Politics, we introduced the subject of Religion. One Chief, whom the Rev. W. Williams had formerly visited, was there: he had told Mr. Williams that he had prayed to God every day, in consequence of what the Missionaries had said to him; but, he said, God was a great way off: he did not know whether He heard him or not, as he had received no answer. I was much struck with this observation: it evidently appeared that his mind was impressed with a desire to know the Only True God. He reminded me of the Roman Centurion, Cornelius, who prayed to God always, until, through the medium of an Angel, he received instruction from Heaven to send for Peter, who would tell him words by which he would be saved. Mr. Kemp, one of the Missionaries who occasionally visits Waimate, told me that the Natives asked him why the Missionaries did not come to live with them. "You tell us," said they, "about your Religion, when you come; but we forget what you told us before you come again, you are so long absent: you should live with us, and tell them to us to-day, and to-morrow, and the next day after; and then we should not forget them." Such are the observations which they make; and it is to be wished that their desires should be complied with.
March 28, Sunday --About seven o'clock, I retired to Mr. Kemp's, where I lodged. He informed me there were several Young Men and Women who wished to come into the room, to have some conversation on Religious Subjects. I replied, that I had no objection; when twelve Young Persons came in: their anxious countenances expressed the inward workings of their minds: their object was, to learn what they were to do to be saved. I endeavoured to represent to them the love of Jesus in coming from Heaven to die for a ruined world; and mentioned many instances of the love and mercy which He manifested to poor sinners, when on earth; such as -- His compassion to the two blind men who sat by the way-side, begging -- to the Woman of Samaria, who met Jesus at Jacob's well -- to the Woman who was a sinner, who fell down before Jesus, and washed His feet with her tears, and wiped them with the hairs of her head -- to the Woman who was taken in adultery, and brought into the Temple to Jesus -- and to others: all of whom He had graciously received into His favour and love, and shewed Himself ready to pardon and to save them. I told them that they were exactly in the same state as those whom I had mentioned. They heard, with tears and deep attention, all I had to say. What I could not clearly express, Mr. Kemp interpreted. When I had spoken to them for about an hour, we all kneeled down to Prayer; when, to my utter surprise, a Young Native Woman began to pray. I never heard any address offered up to Heaven with so much solemn awe, with so much pious feeling, with so much sweetness and freedom of expression, with such humility and heavenly-mindedness. I could not doubt but that this Young Woman prayed with the spirit, and with the understanding also. She prayed, fervently, that God would pardon her sins, and preserve her from evil; and for
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the Natives in the room, that they all might be preserved from falling into temptations by which they were surrounded. Her very soul seemed to be swallowed up by the sense she had of the evil and danger of sin, and the love of Jesus, who came to save sinners. Her voice was low, soft, and harmonious: her sentences were short, and fully expressed in the true spirit of Prayer. I never expected to see, in my day, any of the Natives of this barbarous Nation offering up their supplications for pardon and grace to the Only True God, with such godly sorrow and true contrition. The aged Widow of the late Chief, E'Ongi, and two of his Daughters, were in the room. When we arose, the old woman exclaimed, "Astonishing! Astonishing! Astonishing!" and then retired. I must confess I was not less astonished than she was, as the circumstance was equally unexpected by me as it was by her.
State of the Mission.
The following Extracts from the communications of the Rev. Samuel Marsden and the Missionaries will illustrate that improvement in the state of the Mission to which we have already referred.
May 6, 1830 --I dined with Mr. Hamlin: a Young Woman waited at table. She seemed very much concerned about her future state, asking Mrs. Hamlin, with great simplicity, if there was any more room in Heaven? She said, her mind was very dark, and her heart very hard; and wished Mrs. Hamlin to tell her what she must do. Mrs. Hamlin told her, she must pray to God. She asked, "What must I pray?" Mrs. Hamlin told her. She said, "O Mother!" which they use as a term of strong affection, "they are the very words we used last night, when I and some of the Girls were praying together; but I am afraid God will not pardon me, I am so great a sinner." She is humble, and meek in mind. I was much interested by her simple statement. I took tea with Mrs. Hamlin. They have some Domestic Servants who are deeply impressed with the importance of Eternal Things: the Word of God has produced a wonderful effect upon their minds; and the communications of the Spirit, both in their convictions and consolations, appear to me very uncommon: yet their experience seems perfectly agreeable to that of some of the Heathens in the Apostles' time.
A Pious Youth died at Rangihoua a little before my arrival. Mr. King informed me, that a little book, containing part of the Church Service and a portion of the Scriptures, which had been translated, was his constant companion. His afflicted Mother, when he died, put the book into his hand, and expressed her conviction, from his attachment to his book, that he had gone to Heaven. The late Duatara's Son, a fine youth, died the day after my arrival. He was very anxious to see me; but before I landed, he was dead. His friends were much distressed about him. [Rev. S. Marsden.
Since the affair at Kororarika, the Natives here have been very quiet, though with much watchfulness: about five weeks since, a party from Matauri went down to the Southward, to seek revenge for the death of E'Ongi, the principal Chief, who fell on that occasion: they killed a considerable number; falling on them by surprise, and in a time of peace. This circumstance may probably involve them in much trouble, if not loss of lives. However, I rejoice to say that all parties pay us every possible respect, and receive our Message. We visit them as frequently as we can; and shew them all that we are their common friends, desiring not theirs but them, and that they may turn from their lying vanities to the One Only True God, and Jesus Christ whom He has sent. As we are situated between both parties, it frequently occurs that they meet here and deliver their harangues. The Natives in the Settlements behave with great order; and there is no doubt but the work of Divine Grace has begun amongst them: several here have been baptized, and there are many others in a pleasing state. The Mission has certainly never been in so prosperous a state as at present. [Rev. H. Williams.
It will, I doubt not, much cheer you, to hear that our work, at length, affords some prospect of an abundant recompense for the labour which has been carried on for so many years. The number baptized during the past year has been 8 Adults and 5 Children: two of the Adults are since dead. Many are in a most promising way. [Rev. W. Williams.
The following passages from the Rev. William Williams's Journal confirm the opinion thus expressed.
April 25 -- Went up to the Pa, with Mr. Davis, and spoke to the Natives.
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There are again rumours of hostilities being renewed, in consequence of some slight aggressions from the opposite party. In the mean time, while the Natives outside continue unsettled, we have very much encouragement from our own Natives: the spirit of inquiry continues among them; and those who have been admitted into the Church conduct themselves consistently; with one exception, by which we have been put to much pain.
April 30, 1830 --Conversing with our Natives in the evening, I spoke closely to those who seemed to be most attentive. One observed, that he is like a person at the bottom of a tree: he looks up to those who have already ascended, and are eating the fruit--meaning thereby, those who have made progress in Spiritual Knowledge; --but that he knows not whether he shall ever mount the tree himself.
May 23 --Went, in the afternoon, to the Pa. One of our Baptized Natives went with me, and spoke very pleasingly to some of the people. When he began, he was asked what he knew about the matter. "Know!" said he; "do you think we do not know these things from the Word of God? According to Native Ideas," continued he, "old people only have understandings; but young people are able to understand the Word of God."
June 10 --At Kororarika I met with the Chief from the Southward. He said that the inhabitants of the Southward wondered that the Napuhis, who lived with the Missionaries, and were instructed by them, should fight with one another.
June 19 --Spoke, in the evening, to our own Natives, who profess a desire for Religious Instruction. One more, I hope, will soon be added to our little band of Believers--a man, whose outward conduct has long been satisfactory; and his heart seems now to have partaken of a real change.
June 23 --Went up the river, to the Pa of the Kauakaua Natives, with Mr. Brown. All I can say of our visit is, that the Natives were never more attentive. One of Mr. Fairburn's Natives requested permission to see his Master, who still continues confined to his bed. When he entered the room, he wept for some time; then, after making many pleasing remarks, he asked if he might pray with him; and, kneeling down, he prayed, most affectionately, that God would restore his Master to health.
July 15 -- The state of our Natives indicates a gradual change taking place among them. In conversing, this evening, with those who are more seriously inclined, I had reason to bless God for the progress of His work. When our little party was dispersing, I detained one man, and mentioned to him the subject of Baptism. He and some others also have, I believe, turned to the Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity.
July 18 --Visited Natives at Kororarika. A party in connexion with this place, and who were concerned in the late contest, are about to proceed to the Southward, to fight with any party they meet; though they are at hostility with none in that quarter. It is said, they are going to obtain satisfaction for one of their Chiefs who fell in the action at Kororarika: they cannot conveniently obtain it from the people who killed him; so they purpose spending their vengeance on innocent people who are more defenceless. While, therefore, we have much encouragement around us, you will perceive that some of their most barbarous practices prevail as much as ever.
July 30 --Spoke to some of our Natives in the evening. Taiwanga, a Baptized Native, observed, that God is now chastising him for his sins. "I am an obstinate Child," said he, "and God is now whipping me." His natural disposition is exceedingly turbulent; and it has, I doubt not, caused him much sorrow: Two of his Children have lately been sick; and this he considered to be on account of his hardness of heart.
Aug. 8: Sunday --Spoke to Natives at Otuihu. In the evening, visited a sick Native, named Rape, living with my Brother. For some months past he had been exceedingly careless and indifferent to any thing good: now, however, he has shewn a disposition to inquire; and this change may be attributed, under God's Blessing, to the instrumentality of those Natives about him who have received the Truth. He is now exceedingly ill. He told me, that he thought much of Jesus Christ, and that He would take him to Heaven when he dies. "I pray to Him to come and sleep with me, and take care of me, lest the Devil should come to tempt me. My body," he observed, "has net been baptized; but Jesus Christ will baptize my soul, by His Holy Spirit." I told him, that if he is sincere in believing in Christ, we will baptize his body now; for that Christ has told us to baptize those who believe.
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Aug. 15, 1830 --The Native Boy/Rape, was baptized this day, by the name of John: he has given every evidence of which, in his situation, he is capable, that his professions are sincere. The language of his lips is every thing that can be wished: he seems to enjoy conversation on Religious Subjects alone; and by the profession he makes, he can expect no temporal advantage whatever.
Aug. 20 --Last night Rape died. A few hours before his departure, I went to see him; and after saying a few words Upon the blessed prospect he had before him, I engaged in Prayer. Seeing that I was about to leave him, he pressed me to stay longer and talk with him. I have already said that his mind had not long been seriously impressed, though sufficiently long to give every satisfaction to us. His health has been in a declining state for some months; and some of his companions, who had felt the benefit of Religion, were concerned for him, and paid him occasional visits. Matthew Pouter told Mr. Davis that he had been with him, but that he felt no concern about what was said to him, Mr. Davis told Matthew he must not despair, but be very urgent with him, and pray with him and for him. In a few days, he told Mr. Davis, with great delight, that Rape's heart began to feel; and from that time he has made a steady advance. I committed his remains to the grave in the afternoon; and in the evening I conversed with those Natives who are desirous of instruction, at my own house. After they were dispersed, Rebecca, a Native Girl living in my Brother's Family, came back to converse with me about her own state: she is so far decided, that I trust she will shortly be received into our little band of Christians. [Rev. W. Williams.
On the Rev. W. Yate's return from New South Wales, at the end of July, he writes:--
I cannot but feel great pleasure in the improvement which has taken place among our Natives, during my absence. I was very forcibly impressed with it, the day after my arrival; and I have had no reason since that time to believe that my impressions were incorrect. [Rev. W. Yate.
Mr. Yate's subsequent Journal contains these notices of the state of the Natives:--
Aug. 15, Sunday --I this day preached twice to the Europeans; and once addressed the Natives, on the subject of Infant and Adult Baptism. I was led to speak on the subject from having, in the afternoon, baptized two Native Children; the Parents of one living in the service of Mr. Clarke; of the other, in that of Mr. Kemp. Some of the Parents are very anxious for the Sacrament to be administered to them. If they go on as well for the next fortnight as they have done for the last three months, I think I shall admit them. Indeed, I see no reason why they should not become partakers of that Ordinance, which has been such a blessing to numbers of Converted Heathens.
Aug. 22: Sunday --I was much pleased to-day with the conduct of the Boys in our Settlement: the change which I perceived in their outward character was very striking. In one house was a group of seventeen persons, asking each other the questions of the Catechism; and proposing other questions which occurred to them, as arising out of the written answers. In another was a group of six, practising hymns. In the road, were three, with the Scriptures in their hands, explaining them, as far as they knew, to a large party of strange Natives; who listened to the simple tale of the Gospel, and regarded it as some new matter. Jesus Christ was held forth as the Saviour of Sinners. His willingness to deliver all who go to Him for salvation, was told again and again; whilst Hell, and eternal damnation, were boldly and plainly declared to be the portion of all who neglected the offer made to them in the Gospel. These truths, thus told from day to day, and from Native to Native, cannot long be without their effects. The blessing of God must attend His own Word; and, by its instrumentality, many in this Land must be turned from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan unto God.
Sept. 5: Sunday --Preached twice to the Europeans, and administered the Sacrament. In the evening, addressed the Natives. W. Puckey, being here, spoke to them in the morning: I was very much delighted with his manner of speaking to them, it was such pure Native; and his matter was equally excellent. After this Evening's Service, some of the Natives desired to stay in the Chapel for conversation: of course, I remained with them. The subject turned upon the great desire they had to be permitted to enter the Church of Jesus Christ. A more pleasing state of mind than some of them manifested it is impossible to conceive. My whole heart
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was rejoiced at the confession which they made of their faith in Jesus Christ, as the only Saviour of Sinners. They spoke of their inability to believe, without some other assistance than that which they were now receiving: and then said, that they did seriously and earnestly pray for the Holy Ghost, to give them strength, and to teach them what they really ought to do, and how they ought to act, under their present circumstances. Oh that God would give us all grace, and teach us, His Servants, that we may be enabled to teach these poor inquiring sinners the way to obtain everlasting life and happiness! [Rev. W. Yate.
I am happy to say, that I trust the Lord is carrying on the work which He has begun in the hearts of some of the poor Natives who are living in our Settlements. I think I may say, that many are lifting up their hearts at a Throne of Grace, and praying fervently to Almighty God for the pardon of all their sins, through the blood and righteousness of Jesus Christ. This has been gradually working in the hearts of many, over whom we have closely watched for months past; and we have reason to believe that they are seriously disposed, from their Christian-like conduct -- very different from what it once was. I have, of late, had some pleasing conversations with several who live in our Settlement; who, a few months ago, were quite opposed to all that is good, but are now making a public profession of the Religion of Christ, and that not without many scoffs from their poor ignorant Countrymen: they have been enabled to stand against all; and will, I trust, be living witnesses of the power of the Gospel. I doubt not but our gracious Lord will, ere long, raise up a Church in this dark corner of the earth, against which the gates of Hell shall never prevail.
We continue to visit the Natives as frequently as we can, for the purpose of holding intercourse with them on religious subjects; and, generally, they hear what we have to say with attention. I believe the Natives at large are thinking more about the things which we make known to them than ever they did; and I hope the time is not far distant, when the little leaven which is working amongst them will leaven the whole lump.
[Mr. J. Kemp
My last Letter was written to you under rather peculiar circumstances arising from the very disturbed state of the Natives about us; but I am happy to date this in more peaceable times, and with brighter prospects of usefulness among the New Zealanders. That darkness, that almost impenetrable darkness, which, for such a length of time, hung over the New-Zealand Mission, seems to be giving way; and day, yea, the glorious Gospel Day, is breaking upon the long benighted New Zealander. Some begin to say and feel, that, though once spiritually blind, now they have light in the Lord. Others are walking in, and adorning, their Christian Profession. The Sabbath is more strictly regarded in our Settlements than in any Christian Country that I am acquainted with; and many are reading the Word of God, not only for themselves, but also for others. The Rev. S. Marsden, with one of his Daughters, having once more visited New Zealand, and having spent between two and three months with us, will be able to give you much valuable information respecting the Mission, and of our general proceedings. The good old Gentleman's heart seemed to overflow with love and gratitude to God for what He had done: he said he could hardly have expected to see so much done in his day; knowing, as he did, the difficulties which were in the way of benefitting them, in a spiritual point of view. While residing with us, he often spoke of their present appearance and conduct, compared with what they were fifteen years ago; and often exclaimed, "What hath God wrought, for His Own Name's sake, among the poor Heathens!" You will, however, perceive that our difficulties are not lessened, but rather increased, by the change of times. We have to watch and pray, that, when the good work is begun, it may be carried on: and we need especial grace, that we may be enabled to warn, to reprove, to correct, where necessary; that those who believe may be thoroughly furnished unto all good works. May the Lord give us understanding in all things! [Mr. G. Clarke.>
The Natives manifest a considerable change in their behaviour. While some are seeking the way to the Heavenly Kingdom with their faces thitherward; others, though not influenced by the same principles, are yet altered in their outward deportment. It is observable, that, during the last six months, the Natives in the School have discovered a greater desire to learn to read and write. As the School at this Station has, during the
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last four months, devolved altogether upon me, I feel better able to speak respecting the conduct of the Natives. A year ago, it was not an easy thing to keep any sort of order in the School; and even within the last six or eight months we have had the same difficulty to contend with: now, nearly as good order is kept up as in many English Schools. During Divine Service, also, we had the same disorderly conduct to bear with; but now the very reverse is the case. On every occasion, whether on Sunday or on a week-night, the deportment of the Natives is becoming; and, of some, truly serious. Not long ago, the Natives would not endure plain speaking, without being disorderly, and sometimes rude; but now the plain truths of the Gospel are listened to with apparent interest. May the Holy Spirit accompany the Word, to the salvation of many precious souls! Being bought with the same price, may they be reconciled to God! I doubt not but the day of their redemption is at hand: let the Society be unceasing in prayer to our Heavenly Father, that it may even now dawn upon us. It is remarkable, that at the time when our prospects were very gloomy, the Lord was pleased to give us indications of good being done. How kind to us, in our low estate [Mr. C. Baker.
I find, by experience, that all the changes and distressing circumstances which have taken place amongst the Natives, from time to time, have been preparing the way for the Gospel of Jesus Christ. Many of the Natives confess, that their System of Religion is bad; that their hearts and lives are very wicked; and that their laws and customs are opposite to the welfare of their Country; but that they are at a loss to know, in their situation, how to do better. However, there are some in the Schools who are seeking the Lord in earnest; who are daily praying for His grace and mercy; and are endeavouring to instruct others. May the God of all Grace strengthen and confirm them in the knowledge of themselves as sinners, and of Jesus Christ as their only Saviour and Redeemer; and direct their feet into the way of peace! [Mr. J. King.
We feel thankful that we are still preserved in health and peace. We have cause for rejoicing that the Lord is making bare His arm, in the sight of the Heathen. I believe we can say of individuals in the different Settlements, "Behold! they pray!" I trust that we shall have living witnesses from among the poor New Zealanders, that the Gospel of Christ is the power of God to salvation to every one that believeth. The Means of Grace are, in general, pretty well attended, and we are encouraged to visit the Natives around. The average number of Natives in our Settlement is about 30; they make advances in their learning: the major part of them can read and write, and some of them can cipher. I hope that we shall soon have Native Teachers among us: indeed, some of them have actually commenced praying with their Countrymen. The Natives of Rangihoua behave well: they have lately manifested the good effects of Missionaries residing among them. On being requested, by a party with whom they are connected, to go with them to war against some Natives living near the River Thames, they replied, "No: we have heard what the Missionaries say against these things, and therefore we will not join you." They were then put in mind of their Baptism; in which they were educated to the Devil. to do his work; one part of which is, that they may be strong to kill and to destroy: they replied, "We have lately heard what Mr. Marsden says against these things, and will not join you." [Mr. J. Shepherd.
My inexperience prevents my entering at all into any detail of the New-Zealand Mission; but certainly, as a stranger, I cannot but perceive that a "good work" is begun here; and, that many are inquiring the way to Zion -- certainly not among those still remaining in their own Settlements, but among those in connexion with the Schools and Establishments. These, being many of them Sons of Chiefs, will return to their homes, and to their brethren, bearing, I trust, the precious seed with them; and thus become Fellow-helpers with us in Christ.
[Mr. T. Chapman.
A great and glorious work of Divine Grace is going on in the hearts of some few of the Natives living with us. Those who have been baptized continue to walk consistently, and to manifest the nature of the Gospel in their walk and conversation. Several are on the eve of Baptism; while some others are under concern for their immortal souls. Thus has the Lord begun to shew mercy even to the Savage New Zealanders. It would, indeed, rejoice the hearts of those who have long been praying for the conversion of these poor despised Heathens, to be present
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at one of their Prayer-Meetings; to hear their fervent petitions at a Throne of Grace, in their own behalf, and in the behalf of others. I often hear them pray for grace, to make them Missionaries, that so they may become useful to their Countrymen, May we not hope --nay, have we not every reason to hope --that their prayers may be heard and answered, and that many of them will become Missionaries to their Countrymen? In fact, some of them already act the part, and do the work, of Missionaries.
I shall not enter into a detail of the work of Divine Grace going forward at this Station (Paihia), as I fully expect that you will have received an account of it from the Rev. H. and W. Williams. One instance, however, I will venture to lay before you, which I consider to have been a singular and peculiar blessing attendant on the use of the means. Some few weeks ago, one of the Te-Puki Natives, who had lived with us some years, was lying very ill; and, to all appearance, his illness was likely to end in a speedy dissolution. During the whole of the period in which he lived with us, up to the time of which I write, he had always manifested a careless indifference to the Things of God, as well as inattention to what was taught in the Schools; so much so, that, when he could stay away from School, he would do so from choice. Finding that the poor careless Lad was drawing so near his end, I could not but feel for the apparently lost estate of his immortal soul. In the midst of my dilemma, the thought struck me forcibly that I would speak to the Natives, in public, about him. I did so: for, it being my turn, that evening, to address them, it was no sooner thought of than done. I spoke to them of the awful state of the poor Lad's soul; and requested them to endeavour to visit him; and so to use the Means of Grace, that, under the Divine Blessing, the poor Lad may be plucked as a brand from the burning. That same evening, nearly the whole of the Converted Natives met together, and prayed with him and for him. Thus they continued to visit and pray with the sick man, for about a week; when one of them came to me, and, with similar sensations of joy to those which pervade the Heavenly Hosts at the conversion of a sinner, he said, that Rape had begun to love Jesus Christ. The same Native had before lamented to me the hardness and impenitency of the sick man's heart; but now he seemed filled with joy and gratitude, on account of the apparent marks of his conversion. The poor sick Lad continued to grow rapidly in grace; so that it might have been truly said of him, that, as his outward man decayed, his inward man was renewed day by day. The last time I saw him was on the 15th of last month. He was then in a most pleasing state of mind; and, literally, rejoicing in the prospect of being delivered from this world of sin and misery, and of being with his Redeemer. He told me, that his soul had been washed by the blood of Christ; and that he had no desire to remain longer here. The next day, being Sunday, he was baptized; and, four days after, his happy soul was dismissed from its clay tenement, and, I trust, safely lodged in the everlasting embraces of the dear Redeemer. This was, indeed, a brand plucked from the burning -- a glorious triumph of Divine Grace! In this way the Lord was pleased to own, and bless, the labour of love, even of the poor Converted New Zealanders: this was indeed choosing the weak things of this world to confound those that are mighty. To the great Name of the Ever-Blessed God be all the glory I The sick Girl, mentioned in my last Letter, is still alive, and in a most pleasing state of mind; but, to all appearance, her glass is almost run out. There are very few evenings in which she is not visited by some of the Praying Natives. A few evenings ago, a scene of a very gratifying nature took place. A Lad who has lived with me from a child, and whom I redeemed about two years ago, came in to converse and pray with the sick Girl. This was very gratifying, both to us and to her; as none of us knew that he was under a Divine Impression. It is but a few days since, that I heard of two other Natives, who had also been brought under Divine Impression: thus is the work of God making a slow and silent progress here. Blessed be His Holy Name, that I have lived to see these days, and to witness such triumphs of Divine Grace!
The work of Divine Grace, at present, seems restricted to those Natives only who are living with us in the different Settlements; as I do not know an instance in which Faith has shewn itself, in a saving way, out of the Settlement, except in the case of Christian Rangi. This, evidently, points out the utility of taking out the Natives, in a certain way, from among their Countrymen, and bringing them under
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the rules and regulations of Christian Discipline. It no doubt appears very strange to many people in England, that upwards of 100 Natives should be fed and clothed at the Society's expense, in our Settlement at Paihia: but, let it be remembered, that the present state of this Country is a peculiar one; as those feuds and broils, to which the Natives are so much exposed, and to which they are naturally so much addicted, when living in their native places, have a direct tendency to distract their minds, and draw their attention from every other object. This seems to be Satan's very stronghold, in this Country. Let it be remembered, also, that these Natives are our Labourers, both men and women. Some of the men are very useful as Mechanics; some are Carpenters; some are Brickmakers; some are Plasterers, &c. It is by these people we get our work done. I hope and trust that the day is not far distant, when it will not be necessary thus to collect the Natives together; because the bulk of the work at the Missionary Stations will be done, after houses are built for the Missionaries; and, by that time, I trust many of our Young Men will become so far established in grace, as to return to their respective homes, and there preach the Gospel to their benighted Countrymen -- not only with their lips, but by their lives. But, at present, it appears to me as a thing of the greatest importance, that a certain portion of Natives should be selected together from among their Countrymen, in order that they may have an opportunity to wait on the Lord without distraction. [Mr. R. Davis.
Since our last, we have been all peace with the Natives, and the work of the Gospel is gaining ground. The Baptized, and the Candidates for Baptism, are going on as well as we could expect or wish. To God's Holy Name be all the praise, for these tokens of His favour, and these seals to our labours amongst the Heathen! [Mr. W. Yate.
I think I may say of all here, they are well, and doing well. We claim a continued interest in your prayers--that we may walk worthy of the high vocation wherewith we are called; and that a double portion of that Spirit, without whose assistance all our labours would be fruitless, may be poured upon us from on high.
[Rev. A. N. Brown.
Administration of the Ordinances of Religion.
The circumstances attendant on the Administration of Religious Ordinances afford further indication of the influence of Divine Truth on the minds of the Natives.
March 21, 1830 --I preached in the Chapel this morning, from Acts x. 43-- shewed what were the first Doctrines preached to the Heathens; namely, Remission of Sins, through faith in Jesus Christ--and pointed out the wonderful effects produced by the first Sermon; for the Holy Ghost fell upon all those who heard the Word; and they were all immediately baptized, and received the knowledge of salvation in the remission of their sins; -- and, that the same Gospel, preached to the New Zealanders, would, through the Divine Blessing, produce similar effects upon them. A very strong and deep impression has been made on the minds of some of the New Zealanders by the Preaching of the Gospel, and they are now earnestly inquiring what they are to do to be saved. As a good work has begun, we may hope that God will carry it on. When these New Zealanders come fully to embrace the Christian Religion, and Missionaries are raised up amongst themselves, they will then be able to declare the wonderful words of God in their own tongue to their Countrymen; and will be more likely to gain attention. I was much gratified at one circumstance which came to my knowledge: some women had gone to Kororarika, to attend their husbands in the late disturbances: in the evening, they assembled, sang a Hymn, and prayed together in one of their huts: they were laughed at by some of the Natives; and Tetore, one of the head Chiefs, who happened to be near, reproved those who ridiculed them. Some of these women, I know, would not have performed their Sacred Devotions in the midst of such a scene of bustle and confusion, before they lay down to rest, unless their hearts had been deeply engaged with the subject of Religion. One single fruit will shew the nature of the tree. I had now been twelve days in New Zealand.
[Rev. S. Marsden.
May 11 --This being Easter Sunday, it was observed with much solemnity. I preached in the morning. In the time of Divine Service, a Native Man, his Wife, and Child, were christened; and also a Daughter of Mr. Davis. It was a very solemn season: the Natives were deeply affected with this Ordinance. The Man and his Wife had long been anxious to obtain salvation, and had repeatedly expressed their wishes respecting this Sacred Ordinance: their lives and con-
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duct had been becoming their profession; got and they were convinced of the necessity they were under to apply to Jesus for the pardon of their sins. All the Europeans in the Settlement were present; and a great number of Natives, both men and women. The Church and Baptism Services were in the Native Language; in which the Natives joined. The Grace of God, which bringeth salvation, is most evidently appearing in the lives and conversation of the Natives who reside at the Missionary Stations. They wish also to be married according to our Forms; I mean those who are anxious to adopt our customs. The Rev. H. Williams married two Native Men and Women.
On Sundays, the Scholars have attended regularly on the Means of Grace: on other days, as usual; excepting the last month, during which they have been very irregular; most of the Boys have been absent on account of a disturbance among the Natives. In the School we have had 17 Men and Boys, and 10 Girls.
[Mr. J. King, Rangihoua, March, 1830.
During the last Quarter, my occupations were much the same as in the preceding; viz. attending to the European and Native Schools; occasionally visiting the Natives, to afford them Religious Instruction; and, the secular duties of the Station. The Girls' School, as usual, has been attended to by Mrs. Kemp, Mrs. Clarke, Mrs. Hamlin, and Mrs. Baker. Number of Men and Boys, 44, Girls, 22. [Mr. G. Clarke, Kerikeri, March, 1830.
There are in the School, 77 Men and Boys, and 25 Women and Girls: our Wives have attended, as usual, to the Instruction of the Female Natives.
[Rev. H. Williams, Paihia, March, 1830.
No house being at present erected to receive the Children from the other Stations, have only those resident at Paihia, seven in number, under my instruction.
[Rev. A. N. Brown, Missionaries' Children, March, 1830.
Ever since I have been here, I have taken a part in the Native School; and, lately, it has devolved principally upon me. In this particular part of my labours I feel much satisfaction. I have been pleased by seeing many of the Natives in good earnest at their learning: many of them can read the Scriptures; and not a few have made considerable progress in Arithmetic.
[Mr. C. Baker, May, 1830.
Our Schools go on much as usual. Mr. Yate having been to the Colony, got some more of the Scriptures, the Liturgy, Catechisms, and Hymns, printed, which will be of very great use. We stood much in need of them, as the Natives were quite at a stand for something to go on with. [Mr. J. Kemp.
The Rev. W. Yate took a Printing Press with him to New Zealand, on his return to the Mission in July last from New South-Wales. The Press had been sent from this Country, at the instance of the Missionaries; and is likely to prove highly serviceable to the Mission.
I am about to take with me to New Zealand, a Youth, aged 15 years, very strongly recommended by Mr. Marsden: he is to assist me in printing; for which purpose I have put him in the Gazette Office, till we sail. I have no doubt but that he will be fully employed. I send to you, by this conveyance, a few copies of the Work which I have been superintending. [Rev. W. Yate, July, 1830.
Sept. 1, 1830 --Employed with James Smith in printing off a few Hymns in the Native Language: we succeeded beyond our most sanguine expectations. [The same.
We thank you for the Press; and have no doubt but that, with the blessing of God, it will be an instrument of great good in this Land. You will perceive, by the copy of a Hymn forwarded by this conveyance, that we shall be able, in a short time, to manage it. We have made a requisition for some figures, and other little articles connected with the Press; which we hope you will forward as soon as possible. [The Same, Sept. 1830.
The Schools will receive great benefit from the Press; for we shall be able to get portions of the Scriptures printed, as they are wanted. [Mr. J. Kemp.
During Mr. Yate's stay in New South-Wales, he carried through the Press an Edition of 550 Copies of a small Volume of Translations into the New-Zealand Language. These comprise the first three chapters of the Book of Genesis; the first eight chapters of the Gospel according to St. Matthew; the first four chapters of the Gospel according to St. John; the first six chapters of the Epistle of St. Paul to the Corinthians; parts of the Liturgy and Catechism;
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and nineteen Hymns. The Natives already take much interest in this little Volume; and it will, we trust, prove the means, under the Divine Blessing, of imparting to them the saving knowledge of a Crucified Redeemer. Mr. Yate remarks:--
The Natives are much pleased with the Maori (Books), and are very willing to purchase them: they will work a month for a book, to call it their own. I think, by purchasing their books, they will value them much more than if they received them gratis: besides, a large expenditure of other property will be saved to the Society.