Formation of a new settlement at Waimate [etc]
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CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY.
IN our last Number, pp. 54-68, a series of extracts was given from the communications of the Missionaries on the general state of the Mission. It was there mentioned, that during the Rev. S. Marsden's stay in New Zealand some important measures were adopted, with a view to the extension and increased efficiency of the Mission. A view of these will now be presented to our Readers.
Formation of a New Settlement at Waimate.
This important step was taken after full conference with the Missionaries, and with their cordial concurrence. In order to enable our Readers to appreciate the reasons which led to this determination, it will be necessary briefly to trace the history of the Mission.
The first Missionaries landed at Rangihoua, on the north side of the Bay of Islands, on the 10th of June 1814; where a Settlement was formed in the beginning of the ensuing year. Through the influence of Mr. Marsden the Missionaries were placed under the protection of Duatara, one of the principal Chiefs in that part of the Island. The second Settlement was formed at Kerikeri, in 1819, on a river which falls into the Bay of Islands, on the west side, at the distance of about 16 miles from Rangihoua. The third Settlement, Paihia, on the south side of the Bay, about 16 miles southeast of Kerikeri and about 10 miles south from Rangihoua, was formed in 1823.
Mr. Marsden thus explains the views with which the first Settlements were formed:--
When this Mission was originally formed, it was of the first importance to place the Missionaries where they would not he murdered. Rangihoua was the only spot where they could be safe. I was personally known to the principal Chiefs, who had under their authority, at that time, a very powerful Tribe; and
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with them I had made arrangements for the Missionaries to settle with the inhabitants of the village. The local situation was not good, as it respected the land, which was hilly, cold, and stiff, and could not be cultivated with advantage; but at this time we had no choice. The Natives of Rangihoua have treated the Missionaries with great kindness, from the day of their landing to the present time; but, on account of the stiffness of the soil, not much wheat has been raised there.
The following incident shews that Mr. Marsden took his measures with accurate information of the state of the Island at that time.
Mr. ----- went over to the south side of the Bay; and selected a situation for himself, about eight miles from Rangihoua, because the land was good. As soon as he informed me, I objected to his settling there, as I was apprehensive he would be murdered; and I determined to take him back with me to Port Jackson. At length he made me a promise that he would settle at Rangihoua, if I would allow him to remain: to which I agreed. After my departure, Mr. ----- forgot his promise, and removed with his family to the place which he had formerly selected. He had not been there long before a party of Natives plundered him of his property, and were very near murdering both him and his wife; but, after being cruelly beaten, they were saved by the interference of a friendly Native, aided by the boats of a whaling ship which was anchored off the place. These boats took
Mr. and Mrs. -----, with their remaining property, back to Rangihoua. Mr. ----- had some cattle there, which were all afterwards killed.
With reference to Kerikeri, Mr. Marsden writes:--
When the Rev. John Butler and his colleagues came out (in 1819), they took up their station at Kerikeri, about 12 miles to the westward, under the protection of E O'ngi, the late Chief. The land here is much better; but things did not go on well in Mr. Butler's time; so that little was done in cultivation whilst he remained there, and not much since, in raising grain.
The formation of the Settlement at Paihia is thus noticed by Mr. Marsden:--
When the Rev. Henry Williams arrived (in 1823), he fixed his station at Paihia, on the west side of Kororarika Bay, under the protection of a friendly Chief. There he has resided, to the present time, with several of the Brethren. The land is most unfavourable to agriculture: it faces the sea, and is backed in by high barren hills. There may be, adjoining to the beach, about seven or eight acres of low land, part of which is wet and swampy. Little improvement can be made here in the land: I therefore consider it very objectionable, as a permanent Settlement; and also on account of the shipping, which anchor opposite to it.
Mr. Marsden proceeds:--
These Stations were selected, at first, for personal safety and convenience; but now that the views, principles, and characters of the Missionaries are known to the Natives, and friendships are formed between them, they may with safety extend the sphere of their operations into the interior.
General Views by which the Formation of the New Settlement is recommended.
Of the site of the New Settlement Mr. Marsden observes:--
Waimate holds out every local advantage for a permanent Station: it is situated more than 20 miles from the shipping; the land is extensive and of a fair quality, generally level, and well adapted for the productions of agriculture; and there is a very numerous population.
Mr. Marsden's views with regard to this undertaking are further unfolded in the following extracts from his communications:--
From the first formation of the Mission, I have always looked upon agriculture, as a secondary consideration, to hold out the best inducements for the Natives to form industrious habits; and, from that conviction, I have from time to time urged this important subject upon those employed in the Mission, not only for the general benefit of the Natives, but to guard themselves against the want of bread. The demand for flour from New South-Wales, for the present supply of the Mission, is about 50,000 lb. per annum: 25,000 lb. for the Europeans, and the same quantity for the Natives.
The argument which I have generally heard urged, by some individuals, against agriculture here, is, that flour could be prepared cheaper in New South-Wales than it could be in New Zealand. Ad-
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mitting this to be correct, which I cannot admit until experience has proved it to be so, it still appears to me most desirable that the Europeans should make the attempt to grow wheat. The Natives will never do it, unless the Europeans set them the example. Maize has been introduced for some time back. Of this valuable grain the Natives now grow considerable quantities, and are very fond of it: the climate and soil answer well for its production. I have no doubt, from the maize I have seen growing, but that a sufficient quantity may in time be purchased to supply the Mission with 25,000 lb. of maize-meal for the support of the Natives who are attached to the different Stations, in lieu of the 25,000 lb. of flour now purchased in New South-Wales. This would open a small market for their produce, and act as a stimulus to their industry. What they would want in exchange would be principally blankets; which are most valuable articles to them, being in constant demand, and in wear night and day.
In another communication Mr. Marsden adds--
I have been most anxious to establish a Station in the interior, for many important reasons. As about 50,000 lb. of flour are annually required for the support of the Mission, and as the climate of New South-Wales is not very favourable to the growth of wheat, I consider it of great moment that the Missionaries should not depend upon that Colony for their supplies of flour, but that they should use every means in their power to provide for themselves. Whenever they can supply themselves with bread, the Society will be relieved of part of the expenses of the Mission; besides which, the Natives will derive great advantages from agriculture. The cattle are increasing very fast; supplying the Missionaries with milk and butter, and occasionally with fine beef. They have slaughtered three beasts since my arrival; and are going to salt down several, for their winter supply. This will tend to reduce the expenses. In the interim, the Missionary will be in the centre of his work, and removed from the annoyances of the shipping. This will save him much labour; which he now has to undergo, in travelling to visit the Natives. The Missionaries go with safety to Waimate, as the most perfect confidence and friendship exist between them and the Chiefs. The land selected is very good; and the inhabitants numerous, on account of the goodness of the soil. They will very willingly part with a portion of their land; they are so anxious to get the Missionaries to live with them. Messrs. Clarke and Hamlin are nominated to form the interior Station: they are two most excellent, active, and laborious men; amiable in their dispositions, industrious in their habits, firm in their conduct to the Natives, and wholly devoted to the work of the Mission. I have great hopes that they will succeed well. Mr. Hamlin, I am informed, has an extraordinary talent for learning the language. When once the Missionaries have got an interior Station, and grow what grain they want for their own consumption, I shall consider the Mission as permanently established: but not until then.
I have no doubt but that you and the Parent Committee will not only see the propriety, but also the necessity, of this measure, for the permanent good of this Mission. I could state many other reasons why a Station should be formed in the interior; such as, the establishment of a Sabbath Day amongst the Natives; the beneficial influence which the moral and religious conduct of the Missionaries will have upon those around them; the raising of provisions for themselves and for the Schools; the instructing of the Natives in agriculture, gardening, and other simple arts; and also the opportunity which they will have of marrying many of the young men and women who live with them as domestic servants or labourers, and settling them in cottages around, with a small spot of ground on which they can raise their native food. These are all important considerations. The Natives wish to have the Missionaries in the interior: they ask the Missionaries, when they go to preach to them, "Why do you not come and live amongst us? You should not tell us these things to-day only, but you should tell us to-day, and to-morrow, and the day after, and then we should remember them; but what you tell us when you come, we for get before you come again, you are so long from us."
The land at Waimate, according to my judgment, is of a good quality for cultivation; and capable of producing fine crops of grain of all kinds, as well as vegetables. In every direction are streams of most excellent water; on some of which, water-mills could be easily erected to grind the grain: and I have
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little doubt but that, at no very distant period, they will be used for that purpose. From the nature of the soil, and other local advantages, it will at all times ensure a considerable population. Men, whether in a savage or civilized state, will fix their residence, when they have a choice, where they can live in the greatest ease and plenty. As far as my own judgment enables me to decide, I should strongly recommend that some attempts be made to establish a Missionary Station at Waimate, if it be even on a small scale. If a Station were formed there the Missionary would be in the centre of his work; which would give him great facility in the discharge of his Missionary Duty. The example of the Missionary in his whole conduct and occupations, whether employed in teaching or in cultivation, would have the. most beneficial influence upon the Natives around him.
Mr. Marsden further remarks:--
As houses must have been built at Kerikeri for Messrs. Baker and Hamlin, it will be less expensive to erect them at Waimate, where there is plenty of timber.
The judgment of the Missionaries, in reference to the formation of the New Settlement, will be seen from the following extracts from their Letters:--
The importance of paying some attention to the cultivation of wheat has been often urged by the Society, and has been reciprocally felt by the members of this Mission. Many attempts have been made, from time to time, under great disadvantages; and it seemed almost in vain to look for success, especially as the Natives refused to sell land suitable for this purpose. The way is now opening; and those Chiefs who before opposed are now as anxious to promote this object. In addition to which, the consumption of the Mission has become so great, as to make it important that some means should be used, if practicable, to render the Mission independent of the Colony, where the crops are uncertain; and at the same time to lessen the general expense. In conformity with these views we have for some time past been making arrangements for the accomplishment of this object; and Mr. Marsden, on his arrival amongst us, warmly seconded the proposal. [Rev W. Williams.
I think the Settlement will be of the greatest importance to the spiritual welfare of the Natives; for we shall be in the midst of a large body of them. To this Inland Station I am appointed. We have, of late, often been invited there by the principal Chiefs, who are pleased that we are making preparations to go; which I hope will soon be put into execution. To this end, I and Mr. Clarke, who is also appointed there, have been engaged in looking out for a cart-road, in order to avoid the swamps, of which there are several in the way that the Natives go; and we have succeeded better than we expected, for we have found out a way which, although a little farther round, is firm, and not hilly. In order to accomplish our purpose, we have, however, to build two bridges; one across the Waitangi, which will be 64 feet across, and is partly done: the other will be a small one, and may be built in a week or two. We have also to cut a way through a wood, which is about a furlong in length, before a cart can pass. These are the principal difficulties; which, I presume, will not cause much expense, as the work will be done by the Natives with our superintendence. This has been a long-wished-for object; but there has always been an obstacle on the part of the Natives: now they are continually asking us to come, and the door is opening before us. The place fixed on for the Settlement is about the middle of Waimate; so that we shall not be more than a mile and a half from the farthest Natives of the place, and within 10 miles of a large body of Natives at Pukenui, and of several other parties. I trust that the advantages which the Natives will have therefrom will be incalculable. [Mr. J Hamlin.
You have probably heard from some of us, as well as from the Corresponding Committee in New South-Wales, of the intention of forming an Inland Station at Waimate; where an attempt is to be made at a Farming Establishment, to render the Mission as independent as possible of supplies from Port Jackson. My family is to be one of the three families to form the Inland Station. I will state, as briefly as possible, some of the reasons which have induced me cheerfully to undertake so great a work:-- 1. I have lamented, from time to time, the distance at which we were situated from the body of the Natives, who need line upon line and precept upon precept. By the formation of the Inland Station I shall be in the midst of a large body of Natives; to render them assistance, either in a
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temporal or spiritual point of view. --
2. The difficulty of collecting the Native Children into a School for instruction, on account of our living so far from their parents, will in a measure he obviated. --
3. The influence which the whole of our proceedings must have upon the inhabitants among whom we may live; and the more than probability of maintaining a large Establishment at a comparatively small expense; with a prospect of general usefulness amongst the Natives.
You may probably be apprehensive that the formation of a New Settlement may incur some very considerable extra expense. To which I would thus reply:-- As there have not yet been buildings erected for the different Missionaries in the Stations where they are now fixed, and as the building materials which have been already procured can be taken to the Inland Settlement, the necessary buildings may be erected there without involving the Society in more expense than if erected at the old Stations. The Farming Establishment may, I think, be carried on with far less expense at the Inland Station than at any of the old ones: indeed, it seems to all of us impossible to form a good Farming Establishment at any of the old Settlements, as there is neither good land nor a sufficient supply of wood for such an Establishment. The labour of erecting buildings will be principally done by ourselves and the Natives; and no Mechanic will be employed unless wanted in the Farming Establishment. So that, if this be approved of by you, and the blessing of God be upon our labours, I hope you will hear, in the course of a few years, that a good Station is formed in the heart of the Enemy's Country. [Mr. G. Clarke.
From the time of my arrival in this country to the present hour, I have never lost sight of an Agricultural Establishment. During the last twelve months I have been particularly anxious about it, and deeply impressed with the necessity of making an immediate trial on some of the best lands adjoining Kerikeri. At a Committee held at Kerikeri, Oct 16, 1829, the necessity of an immediate attention to agriculture was suggested, for the three following reasons; viz.
1. From the signs of the times, it is not only possible, but probable, that the time may not be far distant when our Christian Friends in England may not be so well able to keep us as they now are: consequently, we should so prepare, while we have it in our power, as to be able in some measure to furnish ourselves with some of the necessaries of life.
2. Our numbers are increasing, our families becoming large, and some of our children growing up; so that our expenses increase, and are already become considerable: consequently, it appears necessary that we should endeavour to do something, in order to lessen the expense.
3. If we do not attempt agriculture while we have the means in our power of paying working Natives to clear the land, and our resources should fail at home, we shall have no means of support, and may be obliged at length to leave the Island and our Work; which would not only be wicked in the sight of God, but cowardly in the sight of the Natives: whereas, were we to set about doing something, by way of agriculture, we may be able to support ourselves in a partial manner, and continue to labour in the Lord's Vineyard, while the gathering storm is disemboguing itself over Europe.
This point was unanimously carried; and a Resolution passed, that the lands adjoining the Kerikeri should be purchased. As we had not wherewith to purchase those lands at that time, things remained as they were until Mr. Marsden came down; when it was resolved, that the Agricultural Establishment should be undertaken at Waimate. There is not a doubt, in the mind of any one of us, as to the superiority of Waimate for such an Establishment; because it possesses two principal advantages which Kerikeri does not possess, which are, good land and timber. [Mr. R. Davis.
The situation is decidedly approved by all: and the Natives are not only willing to part with their land, but anxious for us to go and take up our residence immediately amongst them. The way appears to me perfectly clear for an Establishment of the proposed kind: and my way to go seems equally plain, or I certainly should not leave the Kerikeri. By going inland, I shall, or rather we shall, make a bold entry into the very heart of the Enemy's Country. We have, hitherto, been sitting upon the borders of that country, because the way has been so blocked up as to render it impossible to proceed further: but the mountains are laid low, and the valleys are exalted; the crooked things are made straight, and the rough places
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smooth: a highway is prepared for us; and the voice of Divine Providence distinctly says, "This is the way." Surely it is our duty to listen to that voice, and to walk in that way, that we may find rest and peace to our souls! If we studied personal comfort, I should say, by all means stay at Kerikeri; but, as we look at the good of the Natives, and at the objects which the Society have in view for them, it is plain that we ought to remove. [Rev. W. Yate
There are certain advantages derived from the purchase of land, growing out of the custom of the Natives, which are thus explained by Mr. Marsden:--
When any Missionary Station is formed, it is of great importance to purchase the land from the Natives. When this is done it becomes neutral ground; and Natives from any part will come, without hesitation, to reside with the Missionaries. The Natives do not like to live away from their own Tribe, because they are liable to be insulted; but on neutral ground they can meet and unite together: this will tend greatly to reconcile the different Tribes. I found Chiefs' Sons and Daughters from different parts of New Zealand living with the Missionaries; some of them 140 miles from their own District. On the neutral ground they were at home, and were not liable to be offended. When these Youths have learned to read the Scriptures, and to write their own Language, they may spread the knowledge far and wide, amongst their own Tribes.
Cultivation of Maize in New Zealand.
Mr. Marsden has been led to attach considerable advantage to the introduction of the cultivation of Maize: his reasons he thus assigns:--
I have already made some observations on the growth of maize in New Zealand; but as it is, in my judgment, an object of such national importance, I think it merits a more particular consideration. Maize is a most nutritious food, both for man and beast: it is now the principal bread-corn in many parts of Europe and America, where the climate is favourable for its production. For the food of man, it may be prepared in a greater variety of ways than wheat can be. One bushel of net maize will weigh 56 lb.; and, when well ground, will yield 18 lb. of good sifted meal. In the field it is not liable to the same injuries as wheat, either when growing or after it is ripe: the farmer may gather his maize into his barn when it suits his convenience, as, in a fine climate, it may remain upon the stalk, without injury, for a long time after it is fit to gather. When brought into the granary it will keep much better than wheat: when ground into meal, the Natives would easily make it into cakes or homony. When they have experienced the advantage of it, they will consider it as the first necessary of life; and will apply themselves to grow as much as they want for their own consumption; and also as much as they can get a market for.
At present the Mission requires, for the support of Schools and Domestic Servants, about 25000 lb. of flour per annum, which must be purchased in New South-Wales. I apprehend this quantity will cost the Society not less than 1l. per cwt; and when the freight, casks, and other contingent expenses are added, the cost of 25,000 lb. of flour will be 250l. sterling. One hundred blankets would purchase more maize from the Natives, if they are encouraged to grow it, than would produce the above quantity of meal. The hundred blankets, if purchased in England, would cost the Society about 30l. sterling; which if laid out in maize, the produce in maize-meal would be 28,800 lb.; so that 9 1/2 lb. of maize-meal would be purchased for the same as the 1 lb. of flour. The 30l. laid out in England in blankets would be expended in New Zealand for the benefit of the Natives; and be of more advantage to them than 250l. laid out in flour purchased at Port Jackson. There is nothing they are so anxious to obtain as a good blanket; they wear it night and day, as long as it will hang together: so that blankets will be always in demand At present, 1 lb. of flour, mixed with water, is allowed each day to five Natives who are in the Schools, or in the service of the Mission. This is but poor support; and it costs the Society as much as 9s lb. of maize-meal would cost. In addition to the 1 lb. of flour, a few potatoes and some other native food is allowed them; but these also are purchased at the expense of the Society. To make Schools general and permanent in New Zealand, they must be supported, eventually, by the industry of the Natives, and also taught by Native Schoolmasters.
Proposed Erection of a Water-mill,
The Natives having now become
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acquainted with the superior value of wheat and maize as articles of food, a mill for grinding corn is urgently required. Some years ago, stones were sent out from this country for the erection of a water-mill; but circumstances retarded the execution of the design. The following passages from Mr. Marsden's communications not only shew the beneficial bearing which a mill is likely to have on the advancement of the people in comfort and civilization; but present a lively picture of their solicitude to avail themselves of the use of wheat and maize, as articles of food.
Much advantage would be obtained by having a water-mill to grind the maize, as well as much expense eventually saved. The mill-stones are in New Zealand; and there are numerous falls of water, upon which a mill may be placed. I have anxiously wished for a mill to be erected, for the last two years. Since I have been here, I have pressed again on the Missionaries the infinite advantages that would accrue to the Mission, if the above object were attended to. They might then give a pound of Indian meal to an old, sick, or hungry Native, which would not cost more than one farthing; which it is not in their power, at present, to do. This would also have the happy effect of increasing the wants of the Natives; by which their industry would be stimulated. When a Native has been accustomed to a blanket, he cannot do without it, and would pay any price to obtain one: and when they have been accustomed to bread, they will not be satisfied without it. A Chief who was with me at Parramatta observed, one day after breakfast, "I can eat, in New Zealand, two baskets of sweet potatoes at one meal: afterwards I lie down and sleep, for I am not able to walk about: but when I have eaten with you as much bread as I can, I can walk about without any inconvenience." He wished me to explain how this was. He was so much gratified with the taste of the bread, and with the effects he experienced, so different from those produced by his native food, that he spoke in the highest praise of bread. The Natives are now particularly fond of bread; and when they can scrape a little of the cob of the corn with a shell, and mix it with water, and afterwards boil it in an iron pot, they like it better than flour. From all that I have seen, I am fully convinced that maize, which was introduced into New Zealand two or three years ago, will prove one of the greatest temporal blessings to the inhabitants, especially when it can be ground into meal.
At the present time there is abundance of maize; but they have no means of grinding it. About three days ago I saw a Chiefs Wife, sitting upon the banks of the river, scraping a bit of maize with a shell, and reducing it to meal as well as she could. She could only just take the top of each grain off, and was a long time before she got a little meal; which she mixed with water, wrapped it up in a small basket, and put it into her oven to cook with steam. They grow a good deal of maize, but the old people and young children cannot eat it unpulverized. They soak it in water for several days, to soften it; but before it becomes soft, it is offensive, A Miller, who could make and work a mill, would be of infinite service to the Mission, and to the Natives. I have no doubt but the Natives would pay for grinding, in maize.
Attention to Secondary Objects necessary.
Mr. Marsden thus assigns the reasons which, in his opinion, justify and enforce attention to secondary objects in carrying on such an undertaking as the New-Zealand Mission:--
The objects I am now speaking of are essentially necessary for the comfort and support of civil society, and also for the permanent success of the Gospel among the Heathen. The Israelites were obliged to gather the Manna for six days, or to go without; and on the sixth day they were to provide for the Sabbath. They were commanded to labour for the six days as strictly as they were commanded to rest on the seventh. Elisha was ploughing, behind his yoke of oxen, when Elijah cast the mantle upon him. David was with his father's sheep when Samuel went to anoint him King over Israel; and it was said of a greater than David, Is not this the Carpenter? If these secondary objects were necessary in Civilized Countries, much more are they in uncivilized ones. There are no wells dug, nor vineyards planted, nor houses built, in New Zealand. A Missionary here enters upon a new scene of labours: he requires much wisdom, much patience, much per-
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severance, and much fortitude, as well as the most serious consideration, in every step that he takes. The eyes of the Christian World are upon him for good; the eyes of the ungodly for evil; and the eyes of the Heathen around are upon him, watching all his actions and words, to see what they can approve or disapprove. On these accounts it requires the utmost circumspection in him to keep in the path of duty; so that he may, on the one hand, faithfully propagate the Gospel of Christ, and, on the Other hand, give due attention to secondary objects.
Labourers at the respective Stations.
Rangihoua--Mr. John King, Mr. James Shepherd.
Kerikeri--The Rev. Alfred Nisbet Brown, Mr. Charles Baker.
Paihia -- Rev. Henry Williams, Rev. William Williams, Mr. Thomas Chapman, Mr. William Fairburn, and Mr. William Puckey.
The Individuals whom it is intended to settle at Waimate are, the Rev. William Yate, Mr. Richard Davis, Mr. George Clarke, and Mr. James Hamlin.
Since the notice at p. 87 of the present Number--that Rangihoua was to be relinquished--went to press intelligence has been received that the Chiefs were extremely averse to the Missionaries leaving them. Mr. Marsden states--
They applied to me, to know whether the Missionaries were to be taken away or not, and demanded the reason. The head Chief, Wareporka, asked Mr. King what they had done. "Have we robbed you? Have we injured you or your families? Tell us what we have done to you. If we have injured you in any way, you have a right to leave us; we will not blame you: but if you have nothing to allege against us, it will be a shame for you to leave us. When you are gone, no one shall touch your houses; but they shall stand empty, until they rot, and fall down: and when any Europeans come on shore and inquire whose houses they are, we shall tell them, 'They belonged to the Missionaries, who left us without any cause; and they now stand as a monument of their disgrace.'"
This affecting appeal was irresistible. Mr. Marsden promised that the Missionaries should not be removed until he had written to England and obtained an answer from the Committee, and with this reply they were satisfied. The Committee have, in consequence, directed Messrs. King and Shepherd to remain at Rangihoua.
The Society's Schooner, the ACTIVE.
Our Readers are already apprised that a Schooner, named the ACTIVE, had been sent out from this country to replace the HERALD, which was wrecked in entering the E'O'keanga. The ACTIVE arrived at Port Jackson on the 20th of June; and sailed from thence for New Zealand on the 19th of July, with the Rev. William Yate, Mr. Thomas Chapman, Mrs. Chapman, and James Smith, Printer, as Passengers, and a cargo of Supplies for the Mission. The ACTIVE arrived in the Bay of Islands July the 31st. Should that part of the object which was proposed by the formation of the Settlement at Waimate be attained, by adequately supplying the Mission with food, it is possible that the use of the ACTIVE may eventually be dispensed with.
Mr. C. Davis, Mrs. Davis, and Mrs. Hart.
At p. 88 of the present Number, it was stated that serious apprehensions were entertained for the safety of the above-named friends. We regret to add, that at the date of advices since received from New Zealand no tidings had been heard of them. A vague report had been circulated, that the vessel had been seized by Convicts, who had secreted themselves on board, and had been carried into Valparaiso; but we fear it is a mere rumour. In reference to this mysterious dispensation, Mr. Yate remarks, under date of the 2d of September last:--
We deeply regret that we have it not in our power to announce to you the arrival of our friends, Mr. and Mrs. C. Davis and Mrs. Hart. Doubtless they have been removed from us for some wise pur-
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poses, the drift of which we are not at present permitted to see. We cannot, however, for a moment suppose but that it is among the all things which are working together for our good, and for the glory of God. Though we cannot always clearly trace the designs of our Heavenly Father, He is daily teaching us simply to trust in His mercy and truth; and is frequently shewing us that He is
Too wise to err, too good to be unkind.
Our faith in His never-failing promises requires to be strengthened: and we earnestly entreat you to be more frequent in your applications to the Throne of Grace on our behalf--that, under the peculiar circumstances in which we are placed, we may be strengthened with might in the inner man; and may hourly grow in grace and in the knowledge of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ; and may have power given us to be faithful to the trust which it has pleased God, through the means of the Society, to repose in us, His weak and unworthy Servants.
Rising Commercial Importance of New Zealand.
In a Letter from New South-Wales it is remarked--
That New Zealand is now becoming a place of importance to this Colony, both with respect to the Whale Fishery and the Trade in Flax, there can be no doubt; and it is probable that some persons are aware that the influence of the Missionaries tends much to the safety of the Crews of the Vessels which are employed either in the Flax Trade or in Whaling.
Further Illustrations of the State of the New-Zealand Mission.
Since the preceding half sheet was put to press, communications have been received from New Zealand, by way of New South-Wales, from which the following passages are selected. The extracts are made from Letters addressed to the Rev. S. Marsden.
I have only just time to say that we are all well. You will, I am sure, be happy to hear of the good conduct of the generality of the Natives, and of the rapid progress which the Gospel is now making amongst them. We were a long time sowing with the tears of expectation: we now see the good Seed springing up, in good ground; and ere long we shall he called to gather in our harvest We are going on, with all possible speed, at Waimate. I am going there: and Mr. Brown is going up to Kerikeri, to take the European Children under his care: he will have Mr. Clarke's house, as soon as vacated by him. Mr. Davis undertakes the Farm. The land is all purchased; and the Natives are particularly satisfied. There are a hundred more from the Southward come to take refuge here ake ake ake (for the future). Our Boys and Girls are going on very well: they are daily improving in knowledge, and, I doubt not, also in grace. Tomorrow week I intend to admit several of them into the Church by Baptism. I have not been in a hurry about it, but have watched over them very jealously; and their life, walk, and conversation, are such as become the Gospel of Jesus Christ.
[Rev. W. Yate.
As the "Active" is about to sail for the Colony, I embrace the opportunity of writing you a few lines; for I am sure, it will give you great pleasure to hear that the work of grace is, as I hope, carrying on in the souls of many of the Natives who are living amongst us. Your old friend Rangi is, I trust, going on well: she manifests a growing desire to know more and more of the mind and will of her Saviour. She often speaks of you with a great deal of pleasure. Tawa, her husband, is, I hope, also going on well: his conduct is very pleasing: also, Ann and her husband appear desirous of walking in the paths of holiness and truth. If all be well, they will, on Sunday next, be admitted to the holy Ordinance of Baptism. May our gracious Lord baptize them with the Holy Spirit sent down from above, that they may be the Members of Christ and Children of God! It will, doubtless, give you pleasure to hear that many other Natives in the Settlements are inquiring the way to Zion, with their faces thitherward: and I do hope the time is not far distant, when the light of (he glorious Gospel of Jesus shall shine into: the hearts of this people, to give them the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ. I have, of late, observed a very great stir amongst the Natives at large, particularly as it respects the keeping of the Sabbath; and I think there are many who make it a point of conscience not to work on that day. I think I mentioned to you, before you left, about a Native named Toratora. I recollect your saying you saw a woman scraping some corn: I believe you saw
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this man at that time, He lives at Waimate; and regularly on the Sabbath visits the Natives at their respective Villages, to converse with them on religious subjects. I believe in many villages about him they have given over work on the Sabbath. He appears very warm in the Cause, and will, I hope, be the means of doing good. I have no doubt, but that the Station inland will tend much to the furtherance of the great work, both in a temporal and spiritual sense. [Mr. J. Kemp.
Since you left us I have been very busy with Mr. Hamlin and the Natives, in preparing Waimate. We have built a good strong bridge over the Waitangi River, which I hope is secure from all floods: we have had several very heavy floods to try, but it is still secure: the Natives are very much surprised at its strength and stability. The conduct of the Natives living in our Settlement is very pleasing. It is Mr. Yate's intention to baptize, on Sunday Week, several Adults, whose conduct up to the present time has been very consistent; and numbers more will, I hope, be added to the Church, of such as shall be saved. You will be pleased to hear that the Great Head of the Church still gives us peace, both among ourselves and with the poor Heathens; and the work of the Lord is, I hope, prospering in every Settlement.
[Mr. G. Clarke.
New South Wales.
CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY.
DURING the Rev. William Yate's late residence in New South-Wales, renewed exertions were made to promote the interests of the Society in the Colony. The following Sermons were preached, and Collections made in furtherance of its objects:-- St. Philip's, Sydney: by the Ven. the Archdeacon and the
.....................................................................................£ s d
Rev. W. Cowper........................................................ 36 0 0
St. James', Sydney: by the Rev. W. Yate.................46 0 0
St John's Parramatta: by same............................... 22 3 8
Field of Mars: by the Rev. C. P. N. Wilton, M. A... 2 15 0
Total.. ..........................................................................106 18 8
Mission to the Aborigines of New Holland.
Arrangements had been made, between Sir George Murray, when at the head of the Colonial Department, and the Society, for undertaking a Mission to the Aborigines of New Holland. The completion of that design was delayed by those political changes which have transferred the Seals of the Colonial Department to Viscount Goderich. After receiving a full explanation of the plan, and of the methods which the Society proposed to adopt for carrying it into effect, Lord Goderich has adopted the measure projected by his immediate Predecessor in Office, and has communicated to the Committee the decision of His Majesty's Government to appropriate from the Revenue of New South-Wales an annual sum, not exceeding 500l, for the support of the intended Mission. This subject was briefly noticed at p. 87 of this Number.
In the present state of the Society's Resources, the Committee would not have ventured to engage in such an undertaking as the present, except on the suggestion of His Majesty's Government, nor unless they had been relieved from the expenditure consequent upon this addition to their existing engagements. But to an invitation proceeding from such high authority, and seconded by so liberal an offer, they could not have refused to accede, without an abandonment of the most sacred duty.
Probable Views of Government with respect to this Mission.
The Committee do not presume to constitute themselves interpreters of the motives by which the Ministers of the Crown may have been actuated on this occasion; but it is not difficult to conjecture what may have been some of the considerations which contributed to their decision.
The Colony of New South-Wales was originally settled merely as a receptacle for Convicts. The cooperation of various causes has promoted the Agriculture, Wealth, and Population of the British Possessions in New Holland with a rapidity of which, perhaps, History
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furnishes no other example. But this extraordinary advance of Colonization has been effected at the expense of the original inhabitants and proprietors of the soil: their lands have been occupied, both for pasturage and tillage, to an extent scarcely credible. In their conflicts with the intruders into their Native Country, they have invariably sustained defeat and loss: and the European Settlers amongst them, having been generally selected from the most ignorant and depraved part of the population of our great cities, have had little else to communicate but the vices of civilized society, with their attendant degradation and misery.
It may not unreasonably be believed that the Ministers of the Crown have felt, and are fully prepared to acknowledge, the claims which these circumstances have established on the justice and compassion of the People of Great Britain. Enjoying peculiar means of information, they are probably much more conversant than others with the real history of these transactions, and more sensible of the urgent necessity of some reparation being made for the injuries which we have inflicted on this unoffending part of the great family of Man. To such motives we venture to ascribe a resolution, to which considerations of economy might, at first sight, seem to have been opposed.
We rejoice, however, in the proof thus afforded us, that the Rulers of our country are not to be diverted by a timid parsimony, from performing the great duty of redressing the wrongs inflicted by British Policy on these barbarous and helpless Tribes. Even on the most sordid calculation of National Interest, it would not be difficult to shew that such an expense is wisely incurred for the protection of our Australian Settlements against the enmity of their uncultivated neighbours. But their claim to our care and instruction rests on much firmer and less disputable grounds.
The Revenues of the Crown in New Holland are derived from the culture of lands of which the ancient proprietors have been deprived forcibly, and without compensation. The small sum subtracted from those Revenues for the benefit of that injured race is due to them, in the strictest sense, as a debt of justice. We have imparted to the Aborigines the knowledge and the practice of European Crimes. Having compelled them to taste such fruits of the Tree of Knowledge, could we, without the most gross injustice, neglect to give them access to the Tree of Life? Hitherto they have known us only as Conquerors and Usurpers. With what propriety could we call ourselves Christians, and yet take no means to embrace them in the bonds of Christian Fellowship? The history of Colonization amongst the Barbarous Nations is the deepest and most indelible reproach to the character of Christendom. Wherever civilized man has set his foot in America or in Southern Africa, it has been as a scourge, to desolate the regions over which he has advanced. The vast territories of New Holland, and its adjacent Islands, are the latest territorial acquisitions effected by the energy and science of Civilized Nations. Could any man who values the reputation of his Native Country, or any Government to whose care that reputation is confided, think, without abhorrence, of repeating on this new theatre the abominations by which the early European Settlements in the Antilles, in America, and in Southern Africa, were polluted.
We have thus ventured to suggest the views which may have induced Sir George Murray to propose, and his Noble Successor in office to adopt and sanction, the measure which has been taken for the conversion of the Natives of New
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Holland. Far be it from us, however, to doubt that those eminent persons, and their colleagues in office, have been also actuated by yet higher considerations. On the contrary, we gladly yield to the conviction, that they recognise the duty, incumbent on every disciple of the Redeemer, to use his influence, however great or however small its amount, in extending the peaceful dominion of Christ throughout the world, and in collecting within the one fold of the one Shepherd all who are wandering from it. It is with too ordinary gratification that we have witnessed this common sentiment prevailing in the midst of the conflicts
of political life, and associating together in philanthropical exertions those who differ as to the mode in which the well-being of our own Nation may, in other respects, be most effectually secured. Aware, however, that the Government of this Country must necessarily consult those secular interests which it is one of their peculiar duties to protect, we have thought it not immaterial to notice the coincidence, which has probably occurred to themselves, between the temporal welfare of the State, and the spiritual good of those for whose more immediate benefit this appropriation of the public money has been made.