1934 - Elder, J. Marsden's Lieutenants - CHAPTER II, THE VOYAGE OF KENDALL AND HALL TO NEW ZEALAND, 1814, p 37-74

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  1934 - Elder, J. Marsden's Lieutenants - CHAPTER II, THE VOYAGE OF KENDALL AND HALL TO NEW ZEALAND, 1814, p 37-74
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KENDALL'S arrival had caused Marsden to direct his attention once more to the commencement of the New Zealand Mission. Naturally he turned in the first place to William Hall and John King, and endeavoured to arouse in them some enthusiasm for the object which he himself had so much at heart. His words of reproof were direct and plain:--

"As Mr. Kendall is now arrived in the Colony," he wrote to Hall, * "I feel it my duty to write to you on behalf of the Church Missionary Society, relative to the Mission intended to be established at New Zealand. I feel no hesitation in saying you have in my opinion acted extremely wrong as far as respects the Mission. This observation only applies to the Mission. I will tell you wherein you have done so. You have always shown a disposition to resist all authority and to take no advice; to follow no opinion but your own, however plain your path of duty appeared to me in respect to the work of the Mission. This disposition I have always considered as a serious radical evil in you as a missionary. On this account you are not open to correction, and you will allow no man to teach you what you ought to know in order to qualify you in some service for the important work for which you originally came out from England. You should consider if you had not engaged in the work of the Mission another might have been found who would now have been filling your place. I am willing to attribute many of your errors to ignorance, which is the parent of obstinacy and self-sufficiency, and not to design. On this account I have shown great forbearance towards you. The Society have pledged great responsibility in me. I feel its weight and am anxious to discharge my trust faithfully. It cannot be supposed for a moment that I should give you any wrong directions or wrong advice knowingly. The temporal and eternal welfare of the inhabitants of New Zealand had been the warmest wish of my heart for years before I saw you, and still continues to be. My high respect for the Society under whose patronage I have the honour to act, my own public reputation in this Colony and elsewhere, and my sincere concern for the inhabitants of New Zealand, are motives sufficiently strong to induce me to act with the greatest caution in every step I take in this important work.

* The Marsden MSS.--The Rev. Samuel Marsden to William Hall, Parramatta, November 28th, 1813.

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I have a growing conviction that God will in mercy visit these poor heathens, who are literally without hope at present. Though I am sorry to say that I scarcely recollect a single instance where you have followed my advice or paid the smallest deference to my opinion or directions in matters relative to the Mission, but invariably acted as if there existed no public relation between you and me, yet I am unwilling that you should relinquish the work to which you are destined. I therefore once more in the name and on the behalf of the Society request that you will no longer halt between two opinions, but will either promise to devote yourself to the work, whenever I may call upon you, or relinquish it altogether.

"I am not conscious that you have any just grounds of complaint against the Society, or against me as agent to the Society. The Society engaged to give you, Mrs. Hall, and Mr. King each £20 per annum when you were employed in their service. I was also authorised to give you more pecuniary aid should circumstances render it necessary. We were six months on our passage from England to Port Jackson. During this time I considered you all in the service of the Society, and on your arrival here I paid you not only six months', but twelve months' salary. This sum I considered quite sufficient for your immediate wants, as the Society had been so liberal in your outfit. You wanted neither clothing nor tools, etc. As there was no immediate opportunity for you to begin the work of the Mission, I thought it just that you should provide for yourselves for a time, as you alone from the high price of labour could by moderate application earn eight shillings or ten shillings per day. Shortly after our arrival information was received of the loss of the Boyd; in a few weeks more, of the murder of Tippahee (Te Pahi) and every man, woman and child that could be met with in his district by the masters and crews of the different whalers who were then on the coast of that island. These unexpected and unfortunate events rendered it imprudent for you to proceed to New Zealand at that time, as we were ignorant what effect these murders might have upon the minds of the natives. In a few weeks some natives of New Zealand came to Port Jackson again; three of these men besides Duaterra (Ruatara) I took into my own house. A fair opportunity now occurred for you to begin the work of the Mission by acquiring the language and forming an intimacy with the natives. I proposed to assist you one hour every morning in my own study along with a New Zealander to learn the language and to arrange it a little for you. I proposed also to make you an allowance for the whole or any part of your time that you might devote to the work. I offered Mr. King £60 per annum if he would devote his time to his own improvement in the language of New Zealand and to the instruction of the natives, but this he declined. The last time I spoke to you upon the subject I promised you £100 per annum if you

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would follow my directions and devote the whole of your time to the work of the Mission in New South Wales, and superintend the establishment I was anxious to make for these islanders; but this offer you declined, alleging that you could make £150 per annum by manual labour, and more. I told you that in making the liberal proposal I had done to you I had far exceeded my authority from the Society, but my anxiety for the improvement of these people was so great that I would not spare any reasonable sum if I paid it myself. But all I could say was not sufficient to induce you to enter into my view and make a beginning. I must also remind you that not long ago I wished you to visit New Zealand, as a vessel was going merely to examine the natural productions, in which were two or three of my friends, amongst the number Mr. James Gordon, * who was intimate with the natives; but I could by no means prevail upon you. I had procured you good accommodation and a free passage; I offered to pay your expenses and take care of your family; but all would not do. This strange conduct was very painful to my feelings and made me completely despair of your ever entering into the work of the Mission. I thought it would have been a satisfaction to yourself to visit the island; and also to the Society, as you could then have stated from your own personal knowledge what prospect there was of establishing a mission amongst the natives; but my hopes were too sanguine, they were greatly disappointed. I then informed you that, as you would not attend to the Mission in any way or upon any reasonable terms, I thought the Society would be justified in calling upon you to refund to them all the money that had been expended upon you when in England and since you came here; and that you might expect such a call, as you acted so directly contrary to what they had reason to expect.

"As far as respects the Mission, your duty and your conduct appear to me totally irreconcilable as a man professing godliness. Had I been fully aware that you would have acted in this way, I should long ere this have applied to the Society for others to have supplied your place. If you would only be candid and tell me what you will do and what you will not do, I should know how to write to the Society, and what steps to adopt in this country for promoting the great object of the Mission. If it is your secret determination to retire from the work of the Mission and to establish yourself in this Colony--and every thinking person must conclude this to be your object--it would be but fair and honest on your part to say so at once. Should you finally determine to renounce your engagement with the Society, I must request you to deliver over to me all the property belonging to the Society now in your possession, such as smiths' and carpenters' tools, etc., and the necessary articles for dressing and spinning flax, as they may hereafter be wanted for their original purpose.

* James Gordon, naval officer, Hobart.

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"I have now stated my sentiments to you fully upon this subject, and I trust you will in reply state yours. I wish you to consider well before you finally make up your mind, and not to return an hasty answer. Examine the natural bias of your own mind, your fixed habits of acting and thinking. To form any resolution against strong fixed habit, though the resolution may be good, yet it will rarely be performed. I am persuaded if you do not regulate your final determination by your known fixed habits, you will act hereafter as you have hitherto done with regard to the Mission, and your conduct will be a source of painful disappointment to the Society, of grief and vexation to all who may have anything to do with you, and of much uneasiness and distress to yourself."

Hall and King were evidently impressed by Marsden's words, and proved ready to listen to the call to action so soon as it was evident that the long and wearisome period of waiting was at an end. On March 11th, 1814, Kendall wrote to the Secretary from on board the Active in Sydney Cove, announcing the purchase of this vessel, "a brig of about one hundred and twenty tons burthen for the express purpose of forwarding the plans of the Church Missionary Society and opening a communication with New Zealand." "Mr. William Hall is on board with me," Kendall continued, "and we expect to sail as soon as we have a fair wind. Mr. Marsden has purchased the Active upon his own charges, * and I have assisted him by drawing upon you for one hundred pounds and upon the Society for my salary up to December 31st next, amounting to one hundred and twenty pounds.

"A young man, a native of New Zealand, whose name is Tohi (Tuhi) 1 has been with me about a month. He can speak English a little, and we can now begin to understand each other tolerably well. I am trying to learn the language, and Tohi, who knows what I want, makes himself to be as clearly understood as possible. He says he will return with me in the Active and dwell with me. The New Zealanders are certainly a fine race of men, and much superior in point of mental capacity to any savages which I have hitherto seen. Tohi is strongly attached to my servant Richard Stockwell (a young man who was recommended to my care by some clergymen at Bristol); he calls himself his brother.

"One object in going at this time to New Zealand is to see whether it would be prudent for us to take our families from New South Wales and reside there. In case the prospect is fair, Governor Macquarie has promised to give us all the support in his power."

* Marsden paid £1,100 for the vessel.--The Letters and Journals of Samuel Marsden, pp. 132-138.

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Hall also wrote to the Secretary upon his embarkation in the Active, * explaining his attitude towards the Society and its work, and expressing his eagerness to reach the New Zealand field.

"I have long waited with anxiety," he wrote, "for an opportunity of answering the designs and intentions of the Society-- as well as in some measure for discharging my duty--and now I hope a way is opened for visiting the heathen. The Rev. Mr. Marsden has come to a determination at last to purchase a vessel for the purpose of visiting the island, and Mr. Kendall and myself are embarked for New Zealand and in expectation of sailing tomorrow if nothing prevents. We have left our families at Port Jackson until we return, which we expect will be four or five months. We shall endeavour as much as is possible, through God's assistance, to treat them well and set them a good example, and likewise to attend to the Society's instructions as much as possible. Mr. Marsden has given us a little property with us that we may have some trade with them in procuring some of the potatoes and fish and timber and flax and such articles as may be thought to contribute towards the defraying the expenses of the voyage. John King is not going this time. Mr. Marsden did not think him immediately useful as we were only going to take a view of the place and the people. He thought Mr. Kendall and myself could answer all the purposes. Mr. Marsden and I have not been upon good terms of late, but it was entirely owing to money matters. I can do very well with Mr. Marsden if I never ask him for any money, but as soon as I begin to want money our friendship is soon done away, so that I was obliged to draw myself from his employ; and I have done much better ever since. It has pleased God to bless me and my family with health, so that we have been able to save a little to support my house in my absence, so that I do not intend to ask Mr. Marsden for any money in future if I can possibly avoid it. I intend to rely entirely upon the Society for my salary or assistance--and you will be so kind as to send me out property to the amount of the money in wearing apparel, such as printed cottons, calicoes, jeans or good fustians, common shirting, a good quantity of threads of various colours. A little common crockery would be very acceptable if convenient. I hope through the grace of God we shall in a short time be able to give you a better account of New Zealand."

While Hall thus explained his attitude, Marsden himself felt that, since the New Zealand Mission was about to be undertaken in earnest, he ought to give the Committee of the Church Missionary Society his estimate of the men whom he was about to despatch to the new station. "It may be necessary," he wrote to the Secretary," ** to give you a little account of Messrs. Hall and

* Mr. William Hall to the Secretary, March 9th, 1814.--Hall papers in the Marsden MSS., Hocken Library.
** Rev. Samuel Marsden to the Secretary, Parramatta, March 15th, 1814.-- The Marsden Correspondence, Hocken Library, Dunedin.

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King separately. I am happy to say as members of society they have behaved well--they are sober, honest, moral and industrious men, and have not suffered their good to be evil spoken of. On this account I am fully satisfied with their conduct. But with respect to the Mission they have not acted as they ought to have done, and have given me much vexation and trouble, as I could not prevail upon them to attend to the natives of New Zealand when I had them living in my house. When Mr Kendall arrived I wrote to Mr. Hall, a copy of which letter I will send for your private information and that of the Society * if I have time to take one before the vessel sails. From this letter the Society will see the spirit of Mr. Hall. This statement has had the best effect upon his mind-- he did not imagine his conduct had been so improper till I had pointed it out to him in writing. The Society will see from my remonstrance with Mr. Hall that it has been my most ardent wish to promote the Mission, and that nothing has been wanting on my part to forward it. Mr. Hall since came forward on his own account, offered his services and assured me that he would in future take advice. All differences were settled, and he cheerfully embarked with Mr. Kendall. I have no doubt but he will be a valuable man as a mechanic, and of great service to the natives and the missionaries. If they would have given up their time to the New Zealanders who were at Parramatta, I would have willingly supported them, but I refused to support them on any other ground. Both Hall and King have acquired much knowledge while residing here, and at the same time have lived comfortably and preserved their habits of industry by being called upon to provide for themselves when they declined devoting their time to the work of the Mission. King is willing to go to New Zealand whenever I may call upon him, which I shall do when the Mission is finally settled. When the missionaries sail from Port Jackson, should nothing prevent them, I shall press upon their minds as much as possible the necessity of industry, and shall direct Mr. Kendall to devote his time and talents to the instruction of the natives and their children, and to the obtaining of a knowledge of their language so as to commit it to writing, and Messrs. Hall and King to employ themselves in agriculture and the mechanics. By agriculture and the simple arts the natives will gradually be prepared for Divine instruction. The mission at Otaheite (Tahiti) has suffered greatly from everyone doing what was right in his own eyes. Had some been appointed to teach and others to follow agriculture or any other useful employment it would have been much better. Without men's duty is pointed out to them, they acquire habits of idleness and are more exposed to temptation and danger. This should be guarded against as much as possible. An idle man, though he may be pious, yet he is a dangerous member in a small society, as he will always be dissatisfied. He will create

* Quoted supra, p. 37.

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difficulties where there are none; and where they are, he will magnify them an hundredfold.

"Perhaps the Society will think my letter to Mr. Hall too strong, and that I ought to have supported him a little, but I do assure you nothing short of such a strong remonstrance would have had any effect upon his mind. I had tried in vain the power of words; and told him I would represent his conduct to the Society again and again. Should Messrs. Hall and King have complained of my conduct towards them, the Society will be convinced from those facts stated in my letter to Mr. Hall that they had no just ground of complaint. They would have taken the Society's money, and yet would not merit it by their services--and to this I would not consent. I believe they are both now fully sensible of their error and will not act so in future. We have had no difference upon any other point but this."

The Active had already sailed for New Zealand when, on March 15th, 1814, Marsden wrote to the Secretary, explaining the reasons which had impelled him to move in this matter, and setting forth his hopes for the future. *

"I was very much gratified with the arrival of Mr. Kendall and his family," he explained, "as it determined me at once to attempt the Mission. I waited upon the Governor, and informed him what was the ultimate object which the Society had in view in sending him out. When he arrived we were building two school houses--neither of them was ready, or Mr. Kendall would have had one of them. It will be some time before they are completed. In consequence of this Mr. Kendall has an opportunity to visit New Zealand before he enters upon any work in this Colony. When I sent the Active I did not think it prudent for any of the missionaries' families to go--but only Messrs. Kendall and Hall. Mr. King remains at Parramatta, as his going would not have been attended with any advantage till they all go, should Providence open a way for them. I have directed Mr. Kendall to bring over with him a chief, in order that we may make some arrangement with him for the future settlement of the missionaries; and that the Government here may explain to them what are our views. I applied to the Governor for his permission to go along with Messrs. Kendall and Hall; and at the time he consented that I should go: but in a few days, when I was preparing, he altered his mind but promised I should go with the missionaries, should it be finally determined for them to settle at New Zealand, and see them properly fixed. I should have been glad to have gone now, as I could then have been better qualified to furnish the Society with every necessary information.

* The Rev. Samuel Marsden to the Secretary, Parramatta, March 15th, 1814.--The Marsden Correspondence, Hocken Library; cf. The Church Missionary Register, 1815, p. 102.

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"Messrs. Kendall and Hall were in very good spirits. They have very good accommodation and I trust will do well. I think Mr. Kendall will soon acquire a knowledge of their language. A very fine young man about 17 years old, the son of a chief, * has been living for some time with Mr. Kendall. They were very much attached to each other--he is gone along with him. I wrote to Duaterra (Ruatara) and informed him for what purpose Mr. Kendall was coming to New Zealand, and requested him to come to Port Jackson, or to send some person of consequence to treat with me respecting their future settlement at New Zealand. Before Duaterra left Parramatta he was very urgent with me to send him a man to teach his boys and girls to read and write. I told him then I would send for Mr. Kendall and he should come. I have sent a variety of presents to the chiefs, and hope the missionaries will be treated with kindness and attention by the chiefs and natives. The young chief who is Mr. Kendall's companion will be able to explain to his countrymen the object of the voyage. He assured me that he would return with Mr. Kendall.

"I think Mr. Kendall will prove himself a valuable man for the work. His heart is engaged in the cause--he is very mild in his manners--kind, tender and affectionate, and well qualified to treat with an ignorant heathen. He applied himself to learn the language from Toohi (Tuhi), the young chief, and made some progress--on board he will have nothing else to attend to.

"From a combination of circumstances I trust Divine Providence has opened the way very clearly now, so as to warrant our attempt. No missionaries could go out under more favourable circumstances than Messrs. Kendall and Hall do at present; and I trust they will give a good account when they return. Mrs. Kendall and Mrs. Hall with their children are living near me at Parramatta--I shall study to make them as comfortable as I can. They are all well. Both the master and the mate ** of the Active have been at the Bay of Islands, and are acquainted with the natives of New Zealand, which will prove a great advantage to them. It is singular that by mere accident the ship's company should consist of the following nations: two natives of Otaheite (Tahiti), one of Owhyhee (Hawaii), one of New Zealand, *** one European, one native of New Holland, one American, one from Sweden, one from Norway, one from Prussia, and English and Irish.

"I gave particular instructions to the master for Mr. Kendall to read the service of the Church every Sabbath Day; and when at New Zealand the Sabbath was to be observed with the greatest

* Tuhi, brother of Korokoro of the Bay of Islands.
** Peter Dillon, an Irishman, and David Siepke, a German.
*** Tuhi.--Vide infra., p. 55.

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solemnity. I shall be very anxious for their return, and trust the Divine blessing will attend upon them and preserve them from all evil."

In another letter of the same date, March 15th, 1814, Marsden explained the manner in which he had come to purchase the Active.

"The arrival of Mr. Kendall, and the communication contained in your letter," he wrote, "determined me to embrace the first opportunity either to freight a vessel or to purchase one, so that I might have her under my own directions. My first object was to freight a vessel if I could get one upon moderate terms; I made several offers but could not succeed. I could have hired one of about 100 tons for £100 per month, upon condition that I victualled her and paid the ship's company, the expense of which would be about £120 per month more. Could I have got this vessel for two months for Messrs. Hall and Kendall to have visited New Zealand I should have taken her up, but the owner could not let me have her for less than six months certain. This would have been too heavy a sum, and I declined the offer. A few days after, a brig from India, called the Active, was offered to me for sale. She is about 110 tons--very good accommodation and a strong good vessel. I purchased this brig for £1,100 sterling, fitted her out immediately, and she sailed yesterday for New Zealand with Messrs. Kendall and Hall. The expense of fitting her out was about £500 more--the first cost and outfit near £1,900 sterling. About £1,200 of this sum I can command from my own private property. I may be compelled to draw upon the Society for £700, trusting that the Society of private individuals will be kind enough to advance this sum by way of a loan. I will make the vessel answerable for the principal and interest, if she returns and any unforeseen circumstances should prevent the establishment of the Mission. I consider myself responsible to the Society for all that I have done; and I should not have drawn upon them for any money on account of the vessel if my own means would have accomplished this object. I trust the Society will not protest my bills, as it is my full intention to pay them, whether the Mission succeeds or not. Should the Mission not answer, I shall sell the vessel as soon as possible and remit the sum I may draw for--and if it should prosper (of which I have little doubt) I am persuaded the natural productions of New Zealand will cover much of the expenses when brought to Port Jackson and sold, such as hemp, timber, etc., etc.

"The documents which I shall transmit by this conveyance," he added, "will give the Society some idea of the frauds and oppressions, cruelties and murders, that have been committed by the masters and crews of European vessels; and convince the Society that nothing can so effectually remove the dread and horror which the natives must feel at the approach of a ship near their shores as a friendly vessel, when they are once convinced

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of the intentions of the Society. The safety and comfort of the missionaries, and the success of the Mission, according to human estimate, will greatly depend upon the vessel. The unknown hardships and insults which Duaterra (Ruatara) suffered before he reached his native land will never be forgot by him or his subjects, though I used all the means in my power to procure him a safe and certain passage to his country. What indignation must he have felt when he had assisted the master of the Frederick for six months to fill his ship with oil, had gone on shore and procured every refreshment for the vessel previous to her sailing for England, and as a reward for his faithful services should be carried, notwithstanding his fear and supplications, away from his country and friends, after he had been absent so many years; and landed naked and friendless at Norfolk Island, and afterwards brought back again to me. Few masters of vessels can be trusted, when once they lose sight of land. Their tyranny and avarice is incredible. I pledged myself to Duaterra that I would send a vessel to the Bay of Islands, and that the master and crew should be instructed to treat them with more justice and humanity.

"New Zealand is one of the finest fields for missionary labours--the inhabitants are numerous, their climate and soil are good, and they are near to Port Jackson. Numbers of British subjects have been cut off at New Zealand in consequence of their cruelty to the natives. The establishment of the Mission there will tend to the security of the South Sea whalers, who put into the island for refreshments. This is an object of some importance.

"It is my intention to keep up a regular communication with the missionaries by means of the Active brig; and at the same time to bring the natives to and from Port Jackson with a view to promoting their general improvement in the arts of civilization and agriculture and in the principles of the Christian religion. Whether I shall have the means of doing this independent of other aid I am not certain yet, till I see what value the natural productions of the island are of, and how they may be procured. Could I have visited the island myself, I then should have been better able to judge what could be done to lessen the expenses of the vessel, which will not be less by estimation than £1,500 per annum. 'The gold and silver is the Lord's.' If this work is from Him, He will carry it on and make it prosper. I wish to commit the whole to Him.

"I have no connection with any person whatever in the vessel--so that none can throw any difficulties in the way in that respect. There is no object of gain in view, excepting of poor souls to Christ. At the same time I should think it no crime, if there should be found any valuable natural productions, to have them brought to Port Jackson and sold for the benefit of the vessel. The arts and commerce will correct the vagrant habits of the natives more than any other measures, and prepare them for the

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Gospel. I could not make up my mind to let the women and children go at present, lest the natives should retain any anger for the injury Europeans have done them at different times. Much blame would have attached to me if they had gone and any serious calamities had happened to them. I have no fear myself, and would go without hesitation. If I get some of the children belonging to the chiefs to Port Jackson, and keep them here at school, this will secure, I hope, the safety of any of our people who may live at New Zealand. I am convinced Duaterra (Ruatara) will either come himself or send some of his subjects who are of consequence. Cawheetee (Kawhiti), the son of one of their great priests, who lived with me, will receive them gladly."

On March 14th, 1814, therefore, the Active sailed from Port Jackson, bearing Kendall and Hall on their momentous mission to New Zealand, while Samuel Marsden, the prime mover, remained in New South Wales, to hope and pray that the long expected day had at last dawned and that "the Lord was about to prosper Zion."

The Active had already been at sea for eleven days when Kendall wrote to the Rev. Josiah Pratt, giving him some account of the progress of the voyage of reconnaissance which he had undertaken, prefacing this by a statement with regard to the relations which he had found to prevail between Marsden and the artisan missionaries, Hall and King.

"The Earl Spencer" he wrote, "arrived in the Port of Sydney on Sunday, 10th October, 1813, and as soon as Mr. Marsden had received my note he paid me and my family a visit, and gave us a hearty welcome. The first subject of our conversation was New Zealand, and he expressed his regret that the attempt to carry the glorious tidings of the Gospel thither had been delayed. I shall forbear to repeat the causes of this delay as stated to me by Mr. Marsden and contradicted by Messrs. Hall and King. An untried man myself, it would ill become me to censure the conduct of others before I appear in the field of action. The Society will be glad to hear that I have found the settlers ready to embark with me when a fair opportunity should offer. Mr. John King is poor, has a wife and one child, and will require some pecuniary aid before he leaves the Colony for New Zealand. Mr. Hall has in temporal matters been very successful during the last two or three years, and lives in plenty. He has purchased an allotment of land upon which he has built a good brick house, and I believe has ten or twelve head of cattle. Neither of the above settlers will, in my opinion, be content without an annual salary from the Society; indeed they do not seem to have considered themselves under its protection from the time their salary was discontinued until now. According to their views, and perhaps not being satisfied with the conditions originally laid down by the Committee, they consider themselves as free from the Society while they are not entitled to

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Vue du Cap Wangari.

From the Atlas of the Voyage de la Corvette l'Astrolabe (Paris, 1830).

The canoe shown in this plate is about fifty feet long, and may be classed as a small war-canoe. The sixteen persons aboard are all comfortably spaced, but the number would have been doubled on a warlike expedition. Most of them are sitting or squatting on the floor grating (karaho), but some, including the European passenger, are seated on the thwarts. The top-strakes (rauawa) are carved throughout, as are the wash-boards (paewai). The figure-head (tauihu) and the stern-piece (taurapa) are of a local type, probably developed on the North Auckland peninsula but occurring as far south as the Waikato. The taurapa is decorated with a pair of antennae (puhi) covered with white albatross feathers and with bunches of dark hawk feathers, while the tauihu, presumably uncarved, is quite covered with hawk feathers.

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Vue du Cap Wangari.
(Nouvelle Zelande).
de Sainson, pinxt.
J. Tastu, Editeur
A. St. Aulaire lith. fig. par V. Adam.
Lith. A. Bes.

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any annual acknowledgment. * I think you would please them by sending them something by way of an investment; ** articles of wearing apparel bear a very high price in New South Wales, and will be much wanted should it please God to prosper us in our attempt at New Zealand. Goods are much more valuable than money in this part of the world.

"A new school house is erecting in a district called Wilberforce, in which I understand it is the Governor's intention to place me and my family in order that the engagement of the Society with Government respecting me may be fulfilled; but whilst my time is unoccupied I have leave from His Excellency to visit New Zealand; and Mr. Marsden, having failed in every attempt to hire a vessel or to procure a passage in one, has therefore purchased the Active, a brig of about one hundred and twenty tons burthen, solely for the purpose of forwarding the Mission; and Mr. Hall and I are upon our voyage thither. Our object at this time is 'to promote a friendly intercourse with the natives of New Zealand.' I also wish to procure a native of New Zealand who is acquainted with the English language as a kind of companion, that I may be enabled to proceed with the New Zealand vocabulary which I have now in hand. I am told some of the natives of New Zealand can speak the English language tolerably well; one of these would therefore be of great assistance to me. I have already collected several words, chiefly from a young chief whose name is To-i (Tuhi) 2 and whom I have clothed and fed for several weeks past; but he knows so little of English that I have not been able to make much progress, although he does all in his power to assist me.

Continuing his letter, he states:-- "I write now (March 30th) from Jariro Bay on the eastern coast of New Holland, where our ship has been detained some days by contrary winds. I have visited some of the natives on shore, and they treated me with evident marks of their goodwill. Some of our sailors have, I am told, been some time since murdered here; but I think they must have ill-treated the natives before they retaliated with so much severity upon them. For a few biscuits and a little tobacco they have supplied us with a quantity of excellent fish, oysters, etc. They cautiously keep away from us their women and children. After much entreaty two of their young men have been persuaded to come on board, and as soon as they perceived we were their friends, and we had gained their confidence, they were very cheerful and happy. They examined the different parts of the vessel,

* "It must also be understood that Mr. Hall does not conceive it to be right to lower himself to the degree of an ordinary mechanic. If he appears in the Mission it must be in a respectable way. I wish to state the truth, and if more mechanics are sent out everything must be clearly explained before they leave home."
** "This would of course be in lieu of salary. Mr. Hall does not intend to ask Mr. Marsden for anything."

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ran up as high as the top-gallant mast to acquaint their friends on the shore with their privileges, and departed highly gratified with their visit. The natives have no raiment upon them. Their canoes are made of the bark of trees, and are of sufficient magnitude to bear them up on the water.

"I have mentioned the circumstances of Mr. Marsden having purchased the Active. Mr. Marsden entertains the idea that by means of commerce he shall clear the expenses of navigating the vessel. I trust that this will be the case; for I should be very sorry that he should be a loser or that, in case he should call upon the Society, a large sum should on our account be drawn from its funds. Should a fair prospect open for us at New Zealand, and the Society or individual members of it agree to purchase a vessel, a smaller than the Active would suit our purpose better; she sails badly, and will not make any progress upon the wind. The vessel should be built in England, where materials are good and shipwrights possessing good abilities can be found.

"I request you will send me a pocket compass and a good plain silver watch that will keep the time well, with a seal upon which there is a suitable engraving, for general purposes. Captain Dillon of the Active has made me a present of a quadrant, so that I need not apply to you for one. I intend to use the watch when I am at sea. Mariners who traverse these seas are often supplied with very bad watches, and it is absolutely needful that we know where we are. It is only a few days since that the chief officer for want of a good watch made the ship one hundred and fifty miles from land when in fact she was only fifty. We were then in a gale of wind, but met with a harbour very providentially. My own watch does not keep the time well.

"We set out for New Zealand under the persuasion that there is now a fair opening for the exertions of the Society. The natives are much superior in point of mental capacity to any savages I have yet seen. They are very industrious, desirous to learn the European arts, and solicit instruction. The people of England, through a natural prejudice in favour of their own countrymen, can dwell upon the cruelties and savage habits of the natives of New Zealand; but the time is now arrived when they must hear of the cruelties of men who bear the Christian name amongst those very savages; and this from official documents supported and established by respectable witnesses. We heard in England of the massacre of Captain Thompson of the Boyd and his men with horror. There can be no argument advanced in favour of cruelty. Yet at that time we were not told the whole of the truth, nor the circumstances which led to that fatal catastrophe. For previous to this some of our countrymen had been committing great depredations at New Zealand. The tops of a field of growing potatoes had been pulled up by some British sailors. The stores had been broken open by force when there could be nothing found

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in the fields, and the potatoes which the natives valued and wanted, and which they had preserved with great care for their own support until the ensuing potato season, had been violently taken away. Add to this Captain Thompson's having ill-treated three young New Zealanders whom he had on board the Boyd and who had worked their passage from Port Jackson as seamen. One of them he cruelly flogged, and sent him on shore naked and barefoot; and this young man having acquainted his father, who was a chief, with his sufferings, all communication between the natives and the ship, until the period of its destruction, was immediately cut off. Some time after the horrid transaction, and while the natives were plundering the ship, they found a little boy and a female or two who had stowed themselves into a secret place. The little boy, upon recognizing amongst them the young native whom Captain Thompson had flogged, who was named by the seamen 'George' * when they addressed him, said 'George, you will not kill me?' 'No,' said the New Zealander, 'you are a good boy; we will not kill you.' The child and the women were consequently spared.

"Another engagement of a more dreadful nature ensued. The crews 3 of ten or more English vessels (chiefly employed in the whale fishery, and one having Col. Foveaux on board) by way of revenge united in destroying the inhabitants and habitations of a whole district, and as it is reported (for I must remind you that I only am able at present to judge of the credibility of the story from the accounts of others) actually murdered several innocent people who had nothing to do with the destruction of the Boyd. In this conflict the enlightened chief Tippahee (Te Pahi) was slain. This was the man who formerly had been caressed by Governor King ** and Mr. Marsden, but who, during the absence of the latter gentleman from the Colony in Governor Bligh's time, suffered very much from neglect. Both he and his attendants (about ten in number) were in want of the common necessaries of life, and were obliged to make their beds under a bridge or in the open air. After Tippahee's death, the district of Tippoonah (Te Puna) *** came under the government of Duaterra (Ruatara), a young man who was long under the protection of Mr. Marsden; and I am happy to hear that he is still living. Tarrah (Tara), a very great chief, and a neighbour of Duaterra, is also very favourably disposed towards Europeans. He is now very far advanced in years, and has many soldiers **** at his command. Whenever a ship touches at his territory he always presents a written character of the conduct of his men signed by the preceding captain, and my young friend

* Cf. The Letters and Journals of Samuel Marsden, p. 8711.
** Ibid, p. 60.
*** At the Bay of Islands.
**** 'A person of respectability informs me that he has seen ten thousand of the natives together at one time."

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Tohi (Tuhi) informs me that he (Tarrah) always disapproved of the conduct of the natives of Tippoonah (however just according to their own ideas) in the affair of the Boyd, and has ever since the period of the affair been their avowed enemy. Cowatee (Kawhiti) is another friend of ours; he also has lived some time with Mr. Hall by desire of Mr. Marsden. Currocurro (Korokoro) is a chief and the brother of To-i (Tuhi). If it should please God to spare me with life, I hope I shall be enabled to transmit you shortly some interesting accounts of these people from my own observation.

"April 16th.--The Active is now at anchor near Hobart Town. We have been tossed about very much on this passage, and I have not enjoyed my health as well as I did on board the Earl Spencer. Indeed I am fearful that upon the whole the change of climate and change of provisions has proved rather injurious to my constitution; but I bless God, He deals with me most mercifully, and I cannot forbear to own that I feel a secret delight in being sent out under the protection of the Church Missionary Society.

"I have left my family under the care of Mr. Marsden, in a house near to his which I purchased for our accommodation. Mrs. Kendall has sent me a letter dated about a fortnight after I left Parramatta. Mrs. Marsden and the family visit her frequently, but she says that, after having lived ten years together so very happy, she cannot bear the thought of being parted; she is willing to go with me anywhere. I must not think, therefore, of making a second voyage without her; nor should I at this time have done it, but I could perceive no other way to carry with prudence the benevolent intentions of the Society into effect. My wife took her bed a few days after her arrival at Parramatta, but the child is dead; so that I have five children still living.

"I must conclude by observing that I indulge the hope that the Society will not be too sanguine in their expectations of success in this undertaking. As far as I am concerned, I should know but little of myself did I not feel conscious of my own inability. Even an attempt to fix the language of the New Zealanders, so that they may be instructed in their own tongue, is a great work, and cannot in the very nature of things be accomplished for some years to come; and I should shrink from such an attempt did I not know that the Society will be satisfied provided I do my best and leave the issue to God. I shall think myself happy if any toil of mine will stimulate others of greater ability to come forward in behalf of a people 'terrible from their beginning hitherto' but who are included in the promises, and will ultimately be favoured with the sound of the Gospel."

To this letter Kendall added a note which is of significance in view of the unhappy strife that occurred subsequently in the New Zealand Mission.

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"Should the Society," he stated, " succeed in the formation of a settlement at New Zealand, one settler must not have to depend upon another, in my opinion, in anything of a temporal nature. For instance, if Mr. Hall should build a house for me, I must of course pay him for it. Our affairs must be kept separate, or else we shall not long agree with each other. I shall endeavour to treat the settlers with respect, but they will think and act for themselves. Mr. Marsden has always considered Mr. Hall in the light of an ordinary mechanic, but he does not think himself bound to work in that capacity."

Kendall's next letter during this memorable voyage of the Active to New Zealand was dated April 23rd, 1814, from Tasmania, where the vessel had to unload some of her cargo. This letter was addressed to his former pastor, the Rev. Basil Woodd of Bentinck Chapel. His first remarks relate to his own personal affairs, his request that Mr. Pratt would send him, as a present from the Society, "a pocket compass to enable him to find his way through the woods" and "a silver watch that will keep the time well." "I am also in want of a few medicinal comforts," he remarks, following this by an account of his physical condition, which is of great interest in view of the unfortunate tendency to over-indulgence in spirits which was to be the curse of his later life.

It seems plain that the change from the ordered life of a London teacher to that of an emigrant and pioneer proved too much for the physique of this middle-aged man, and that, like many others, he ultimately sought to overcome the resulting depression of mind by recourse to stimulants. "Before I left London," he states, "I had long been accustomed to a sedentary life, but by entering upon a different course, by being frequently deprived of my customary rest in the night in stormy weather, and by a change of climate and provisions, I fear I have been rather injured in my constitution. My appetite is tolerably good, but the organs of digestion in my stomach are very weak, and I feel very often oppressed there. After eating such salt provisions as are provided for the use of the ship, I often vomit and purge excessively. I live chiefly upon flour and water when I am at sea. I shall avail myself of your kindness in mentioning the above circumstances to Mr. Pratt, not doubting but by your advice he will send a few articles for the use of myself and family. I could wish to have included some essence of peppermint, and should require directions in order that I might know in what proportions to take the medicines.

"I and my colleague Mr. Hall have been treated with great kindness and hospitality by Governor Davy (Davey), * the Rev. Mr. Knopwood, and the people at Van Diemen's Land. The natives of Van Diemen's Land have been very ill-treated indeed,

* Colonel Davey of the Royal Marines, Lieut.-Governor of Tasmania from 1813 to 1817.

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and have vanished entirely from those parts which are colonized by Englishmen. Great numbers of them have been shot like beasts of prey by our people, and the bushrangers who make their escape from the settlement have (for fear of being discovered by means of any communications which the natives might have with the settlers) killed them without mercy. Hence the natives retaliate when they can, and commit depredations as they find opportunity. There are no natives at the settlement except some children which have been stolen away from their parents. At Sydney, Parramatta, etc., the natives can and do reside without fear or molestation, but here they cannot profit by their intercourse with Englishmen.

"According to our instructions from Mr. Marsden we read the prayers of the Church upon the Lord's Day, and the seamen conduct themselves very well. Our small congregation consists of individuals from different nations, each of them knowing something of the English language. *

"I entreat the favour of a line from you as opportunity may offer, and beg your kind remembrance when you approach the throne of grace."

Kendall sent no further communications home during his voyage in the Active. He evidently kept a journal during the period of absence from New South Wales, and its contents are embodied in a long letter addressed to the Secretary of the Society upon his return to the Colony. ** This letter he evidently wished to be considered as a formal report to the Committee.

"Upon my arrival in New South Wales in the month of October last," he wrote, "and my first interview with Mr. Marsden, he expressed his regret that the attempt to carry the glorious tidings of the Gospel to New Zealand had been hitherto delayed; and he was therefore anxious that I should immediately give myself up to the work to which I had the honour and happiness to be appointed by the honourable Committee. It was necessary either to hire or to purchase a vessel for the purpose of forwarding the benevolent designs of the Society. Mr. Marsden failed in his attempts to hire one, and therefore purchased the Active brig. Sunday, March 7th, was the day appointed for my embarkation, and I was accompanied from Parramatta to the Active by Mr. William Hall and my young friend Toi (Tuhi), a native of New Zealand, whom I had some weeks before received under my protection by the desire of Mr. Marsden.

"I here subjoin a list of the names of the captain and ship's company, with the respective places of their nativity. The ship's company consists of individuals chiefly from different nations, each of them knowing something of the English language:--

* A list of the Active's crew follows, vide infra, p. 55.
** Thomas Kendall to the Secretary, Parramatta, September 6th, 1814.-- Kendall MSS., Hocken Library, Dunedin.

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"Mr. Peter Dillon, master, Ireland; Mr. David Liepke, mate, Germany; Mr. John Wilson, boatswain, England; Mr. John Hunter, carpenter, New Holland; Mr. Thomas Hamilton, cook, Ireland; Mr. William Mansel, North America; Mr. Ab. Wilson, Norway; Bobbahu, Awhyhee (Hawaii); Diekkahee, Bolabola; Mr. Fred. Wormberg, Sweden; Mr. Henry May, England; Babbaro, Otaheite (Tahiti); Mr. William Jones, England; Toi (Tuhi), New Zealand.

"At the Derwent Mr. Rodman Chace (an American) entered as mate in the place of David Liepke.

"A copy of Mr. Marsden's instructions to Captain Dillon." *


"'You will proceed with all possible despatch to the River Derwent with the Active brig, and deliver the stores on board to the person authorised there to receive them. After you have discharged the present cargo you will then with as little delay as possible sail to the Bay of Islands on the coast of New Zealand. On your arrival you will open a friendly intercourse with the natives, particularly Duaterra (Ruatara), Tarra (Tara), Cowheetee (Kawhiti), Kurro Kurro (Korokoro), and any other chief that may promote the object of the voyage.

"'The main object of this voyage is to promote a friendly intercourse with the natives of New Zealand. You will do all you can to prevent any quarrel between the natives and the ship's company. If Duaterra or any other chiefs wish to come to Port Jackson you will receive them on board when you finally leave the island--or if they wish to send any of their children to be instructed, or a young man or two, these you may bring. I wish the natives to be treated with the greatest kindness while you remain there, and everything to be done that can with prudence to gain their confidence. You will inform them that it is my intention to visit them when the vessel returns, and that I wish a chief to come over to Port Jackson, in order that I may enter into some arrangements with him for their benefits.

"'With respect to the articles you will bring back in the vessel, these must depend upon circumstances. I should wish you to bring as much hemp as you possibly can, and such, spars and timber as you may, with Mr. Hall, judge valuable. Pork, if it is to be obtained, and salt fish, rosin, or any other natural productions. I wish you to fill up with potatoes; they had better be kept in the baskets in which the natives bring them, as I think they will keep better that way. On the Sabbath Day I wish Mr. Kendall to read on board, when the weather will permit, the prayers of the Church, and when you arrive at New Zealand I desire that you will be very particular in the observance of the Sabbath day; not buy or sell anything on that day, but all the sailors to be clean and do no work. Messrs. Hall and Kendall

* Cf. The Church Missionary Register, 1815, p. 105.

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will do all they can to procure a cargo for the vessel towards defraying the expense along with you, and I hope you will show every attention to them and make their situation as comfortable as possible. Should Mr. Kendall and Mr. Hall wish to remain a few days longer when the vessel is ready, you will be good enough to allow them, in order that they may form any plan for their future settlement at New Zealand, or to gain any information respecting the island for the future guidance of the Church Missionary Society.

"'I am,
"'Yours, etc.,

"'P.S.--I wish you not to allow any private trade with the natives, nor any natives to be brought on board by the ship's company without your particular permission. And to prevent all quarrels as far as possible, you will not suffer any of the native women to come on board, as this voyage is for a particular object.'

"Although in many important points Mr. Hall and I differ widely in our opinions--and I have to record with grief that we are almost in all respects like unto two individuals sent over by two different societies of Christians--yet I think it my duty to take notice of his proceedings as often as I can, they are so nearly connected with my own. You will be glad to hear that as soon as we were embarked on board the Active it was agreed upon that we should unite in prayer and praise to God every morning and evening, and alternately read a portion of the Holy Scripture for our mutual comfort and edification. And as Mr. Hall did not seem to approve of the idea of adhering to Mr. Marsden's instructions to the captain respecting my continually reading the prayers of the Church upon the Sabbath Day, I readily consented that he should sometimes enjoy this privilege.

"The Active sailed from Port Jackson on Monday, March 14th, and came to an anchor near Hobart Town on Tuesday, April 12th. A few days after our arrival here we were visited by Warrakku (Wai-raku), a young native of the Bay of Islands, who was very desirous to accompany us in the Active thither. He told us he had a great desire to see his mother and sisters, from whom he had been absent some years; but he had unfortunately signed an article to serve in the brig Spring, a vessel then lying near us and bound for Port Dalrymple and Port Jackson, and neither the owner of the vessel nor the captain was willing to part with him. On Wednesday, May 11th, Moroo (Maru), another native of the Bay of Islands, was sent on board to us by Captain Dillon. He had formerly lived with Mr. Hall, and, hearing of us while he was at Port Dalrymple, he left his ship there and came over by land, performing his journey through the woods in five days. His captain sent after him, but I am happy to say that without much difficulty I succeeded in gaining for him his liberty.

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"Before I left the River Derwent I had the pleasure of receiving a letter from Mrs. Kendall, of which the following is a copy:--

"'Parramatta, 19th March, 1814.

"'My Dearest,

"'It is with much pleasure I write to inform you we are all well, as I hope these lines will find you. I get better spirits than I had; when you first left me I was low and dull, but I hope God will protect you and send you safe home to your family.

"'All the children have had very bad eyes. Thomas has been quite blind, but they are now better.

"'Richard Stockwell conducts himself very well and is very attentive. He is busy in the garden.

"'Mrs. Marsden and family frequently pay me a visit. It is a great comfort to me in your absence to have such friends so near me.

"'My dear love, I did not think I could bear your absence from me so long, as we have had ten years together so very happy. God grant we may meet again and spend many more years together as happy. I do not care where I am if we are together; I cannot bear the thought of being parted. I think the time very long. I always pray for you every night and morning, that God may bless you in your undertaking and protect you from the cruelty of the heathen, and conduct you in safety to your family so that we may unite again in praying to and praising Him. Our dear children join with me in love to you. Joseph (the youngest child, about two years of age) says his father is gone to New Zealand; he will kiss him when he returns home. They all want to see you very much.

"'I am, my dearest,
"'Jane Kendall.'"

I and Mr. Hall were treated with great kindness and hospitality by Lieut.-Governor Davy, the Rev. Mr. Knopwood, and some other gentlemen at Van Diemen's Land. We had an opportunity to make during our stay an excursion into the interior, where we saw the land in a state of cultivation. It produces very fine wheat, barley, and potatoes. Some tracts of good land are lying waste for want of settlers to occupy them. They are covered with grass and in a great measure unencumbered with woods. Bread, beef, mutton, and pork are very plentiful, and the meat is nearly equal to that in England for fatness and quality. The wool is very coarse and of a hairy nature, and it will not in all probability be materially improved until there is a demand for it. It lies there, as it has done in some parts of New South Wales, as a useless thing upon the ground. Mr. Marsden sent ten good rams of the Merino breed in the Active to assist the settlers in improving the wool, six of which arrived in safety. The population near the River Derwent, including the settlement at Port Dalrymple,

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amounts according to the latest returns to two thousand and seventy-seven persons, but I am sorry to observe in a religious point of view that appearances are very unfavourable. It was estimated to us by an aged friend * who paid us a visit 'that there could be no situation throughout the whole world where a missionary was more wanted than at Van Diemen's Land.' Amongst such an hospitable people schools might be instituted and supported without difficulty, and much good done in the Colony.

"On Monday, May 23rd, the Active sailed from the River Derwent for the Bay of Islands. After a good passage we came to an anchor near Tippoonah (Te Puna) on Friday, June 10th. Duaterra (Ruatara), we were informed, was at his farm in the interior; but, hearing of a vessel being in the harbour, he came over to Tippoonah in the night and paid us a visit on the Friday morning. I put into his hands a letter from Mr. Marsden, of which the following is a copy:--

March 9th, 1814.

"'Duaterra, King,

"'I have sent the brig Active to the Bay of Islands to see what you are doing, and Mr. Hall and Mr. Kendall from England. Mr. Kendall will teach the boys and girls to read and write. I told you when you were at Parramatta I would send you a gentleman to teach your tameheekes (tamarikis) and kocteedos (kotiros) to read. You will be very good to Mr. Hall and Mr. Kendall. They will come to live in New Zealand if you will not hurt them, and teach you how to grow corn and wheat and make houses. Charles ** has sent you a cock and Mrs. Marsden has sent you a shirt and jacket. I have sent you some wheat for seeds, and you must put it into the ground as soon as you can. I have sent you a mill to grind your corn. If you will come in the Active to Parramatta I will send you back again. Send me a man or two to learn to make an axe and everything. You will send the Active full of moca (muka), potatoes, limes, mats, fish, and nets. I have sent a jacket for Kowheetee (Kawhiti). Tell him to assist you and Terra (Tara) to lade the ship. You will be very good to all my men and not hurt them, and I will be good to you. Anne, Elizabeth, Mary, Jane, Charles, Martha, *** Nanny and Mrs. Bishop, Mrs. Marsden are all well, and wish to know how you are. If you do not come to see me send me word by Mr. Kendall and Mr. Hall what you want, and I will send it to you.--I am,

"'Your friend,
"'Samuel Marsden.'

* "Mr. Patterson, who knows my friend the Rev. Mr. Waugh."
** Marsden's only surviving son, born on June 21st, 1803. He died on September 27th, 1868, aged 65.--Cf. Letters and Journals of Samuel Marsden, p. 25n.
*** Marsden's six surviving children.--Ibid.

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"Duaterra gladly received Mr. Marsden's letter, and was very much pleased with the arrival of his promised friends. I and Mr. Hall accompanied him to his principal hipwah (pa) or town, called Ranghee Hoo (Rangihoua). It consists of several warrees (whares) or small huts about five feet in height, seven in breadth, and eight or ten feet in length. We were presently surrounded by many native men, women, and children who conducted themselves towards us in the most friendly manner, and as we repeated our visits their friendship for us became the more apparent. The tohangha (tohunga) * Rakoo (Rakau) paid great attention to Mr. Hall; and the children, who were at first afraid to come near me, us soon as I had gained their confidence would follow me to a great distance to take hold of my hand. In Duaterra's store-rooms were deposited rum, tea, sugar, flour, cheese, and two chests of European raiment. One of these places was unlocked, and although the residence of Duaterra is miles distant yet everything remained safe and unmolested. In many little fenced plots of land at Ranghee Hoo and other places we discovered several hogs feeding. Pork is very plentiful. An axe or a good tokee (toki) ** will purchase one and sometimes two good-sized pigs. The soil is very good near Tippoonah (Te Puna) notwithstanding the hilly nature of the country. The cultivated land produces potatoes, cabbages, turnips, carrots, onions, etc. Those parts which are not cultivated are generally covered with fern.

"On the Sunday after our arrival at the Bay of Islands Mr. Hall read upon deck the prayers of the Church. The rain prevented the natives from coming to the vessel at the time of Divine service, except two or three who had slept on board. In the afternoon the weather was fine, and I and Mr. Hall paid a second visit to our friends at the hipwah (pa). They wished to trade with us, but we told them it was a sacred day. Six days men were allowed to work, and every seventh day was appointed as a day of rest from labour, and to keakea atua, *** for this was the only term which we could then make use of in order to convey to their ideas our worshipping the Supreme Being. We said they might come to the ship with their property on the day following. We acquainted them with our intention of bringing our wives and children from Port Jackson and residing amongst them, and to some children I gave an invitation to go with us and learn the books and see Mr. Marsden; for it must not be omitted that the name of Mr. Marsden is well known at the Bay of Islands. The natives make mention of him in their songs and speak of him with respect. The children and their parents seemed pleased with the invitation, but at that time we did not fix upon any.

* Tohunga, priest,
** Toki, adze.
*** Karakia ki te Atua : pray to the Deity.

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"June 13th.--I, Mr. Hall, and Toi took a walk into the interior with Duaterra to see his farm. We passed by the hipwah (pa), Tupookay (Tupuke), and some of the natives meeting us, took hold of our hands in a friendly manner and requested us to eat with them. After some little conversation we proceeded on our way over some swamps and exceeding high hills. We observed no woods near us of any magnitude, and the tops of the hills were generally fertile and covered with good soil. Plenty of good water is everywhere to be found. At length we came to Duaterra's farm which is called Motoo Terra (Motu-tara). In an enclosure he had sown some wheat, which was already five or six inches above the ground, and his people were busily employed in clearing more land upon which he intended to plant potatoes and to sow two bushels of wheat that we had presented to him by the desire of Mr. Marsden. Mr. Marsden has sent a steel mill to Duaterra to enable him to grind his wheat as soon as it will be ready. The natives could not believe Duaterra that it was possible to make bread of wheat until he showed them the mill, from which as soon as they perceived the flour issue, they burst out in expressions of surprise and admiration. Mr. Charles Marsden sent Duaterra two cocks and two hens, and in return Duaterra put on board the Active a sow in pig which is now at Parramatta under the charge of his young friend.

"Duaterra is chief over the people of four districts. His territory is extensive, and he has four hundred fighting men under his command. He has a friend whose name is Way (Wai) who has two hundred. His uncle Kangrohu (Kaingaroa) has three hundred and his uncle Shunghee (Hongi) has six hundred. Shung-hee was introduced to us by his nephew on Thursday, June 16th. * He is a warrior, but apparently a man of a very mild disposition, and although this is the first time he has had any intercourse with Europeans he is remarkably steady and decent in his outward behaviour, and has little appearance of the savage about him. He is a chief over the people of seventeen places, is a man of a very ingenious turn, and is very desirous to learn the European arts. He showed us a musket which had been stocked and mounted by his own hands, and the performance does him much credit, since he had no man to instruct him. He has several muskets in his possession. The natives of New Zealand procure these destructive articles and powder and shot from vessels which touch upon the coast for fresh water, fresh provisions, spars, etc.

"Wednesday, June 15th.--It was a providential circumstance that the brig James Hay should at this time put into the Bay of Islands, as it afforded me an opportunity to write to the Society and acquaint them that I was at length arrived at my journey's end. We were now visited by the aged chief Terra (Tara), 4 his wife,

* Vide Appendix C, p. 264.

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and one attendant, and I presented to Terra a letter from Mr. Marsden nearly similar to the one I had previously delivered to Duaterra. Terra requested the captain to take the vessel near to Korrorahrekke (Kororareka), his residence on the other side of the Bay of Islands, about ten miles distant from Tippoonah (Te Puna). This was done, and presently a number of canoes came alongside. I accompanied Terra and his party to the shore, and in return for the kind treatment they had received on board I was presented with five baskets of potatoes. Terra appears to be near seventy years of age; he presides over the people of seventeen places.

"On Friday, June 17th, Whettohee (Whetoi), who is also called Pomarra (Pomare), 5 a person from Mattow Hookee (Mata-hui), invited me to go to his hipwah (pa) ; and upon my accepting the invitation he further proposed to show me the place where some timber might be procured for the vessel, if I would accompany him thither. Accordingly we set out in the afternoon in his canoe manned by his own people. The day was very fine. After rowing several miles it began to be very late, and the whole party stepped on shore. There we made a good fire, and I slept by the side of Whittohee (Whetoi), having for my bed some dry fern and his kakkahow (kakahu), * and the canopy of heaven for my covering. It was still night, the atmosphere serene and clear; the stars shone with peculiar lustre over my head; it was a season for contemplation, prayer, and praise! I mention this event with great pleasure and satisfaction, because the natives of New Zealand have been called a most dangerous set of men; that there is no trusting to them, and they will even destroy a man for the sake of a meal. But here, if they had had the least inclination to have done me an injury, either in my person or property, they had it in their power. I had no means of defending myself against them. I had, it is true, two fowling pieces with me, but they were both unloaded. Whittohee knew this, for he had several times discharged them, so that these could only have served to strengthen the temptation: for if anything would tempt the natives it would be a musket; they are so very fond of articles of this kind they will almost give anything for them. But I slept secure, and felt happy that God had been pleased (for some good purpose, as I trusted) to send me amongst them.

"In the morning at an early hour we hastened to the wood. Ahororakkee (Hauraki) and the men he had with him there, with all possible despatch conveyed two good spars to the waterside. This was attended with much labour, as the timber lay at a distance of two or three hundred yards from the river. But these stout active men soon cleared a path for it and drew it along, and I, Whittohee (Whetoi), Ahororakkee (Hauraki), and some others proceeded to the vessel with the spars which we had procured; and

* Kakahu, a flax mat or dress, a garment of any kind.

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about half past ten o'clock in the evening we finished our excursion. For these two spars Ahororakkee received two tokees (toki), and it was agreed upon that he should return to the wood and procure as many more as he could, and convey them to the vessel in the course of a few days. The wood was fourteen miles or upwards from the Active. Loads of excellent pine are to be found. One piece which the natives had cut down measured nearly 90 feet in length.

"On Sunday morning, June 19th, I read upon deck the prayers of the Church. The weather was fine, and several canoes with natives in them were by the side of the vessel. Two or three chiefs were also with us, and the behaviour of the natives during Divine service was very decent and commendable. It was a new thing with them to see our way of worship and to hear of a day of rest from labour, and they seemed to enjoy the idea very much. The Union Jack was hoisted on board the Active, and Terra (Tara) displayed his colours at Korrorahrikkee (Kororareka) in honour of the day. Soon after Divine service was over the natives departed from the vessel, and in the afternoon I visited the kahinghee (kainga) or place of Whittohee (Whetoi) in company with Mr. Hall. The natives were friendly indeed to us, and the interview with the men, women, and children was very gratifying. I distributed on this day several religious tracts amongst the natives, in order to give them some idea of books, and to have noticed the eagerness and delight with which they all received them would have caused a tear, and excited a pious desire in a true believer, in behalf of a people whom Satan has so long held in captivity.

"On Wednesday, June 22nd, Mr. Hall, Mr. Chace, and a party of seamen went up the river in one of the boats as far as the wood, in order to procure some more spars. Mr. Hall experienced the same friendly treatment as I had done, and expressed his satisfaction upon the occasion. A few spars were obtained by the party belonging to the Active, and Ahororakkee (Hauraki) and the natives cut down several others, and on the Friday morning brought them to the vessel for sale. On the Saturday we agreed with Ahororakkee (Hauraki) and his friends for some more spars, for the purpose of obtaining which they returned to the wood on the Monday following.

"Sunday, June 26th.--Mr. Hall read upon deck in the morning the prayers of the Church. The day was fine but no natives came near us. It would have been proper to have given some of the chiefs an invitation to dine with us, as they would have then been present at our worship and known from the example of our people that the day had been observed as a day of rest, and I am sorry it was not done. Terra (Tara) did not hoist his colours at Korrorahrikka (Kororareka) as he had done on the Sunday preceding it.

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"On Sunday, July 3rd, at a very early hour, some natives brought to the vessel several spars which they had procured the preceding week, and offered to barter them with us for tokees, etc. This gave us another opportunity of reminding them of the Lord's Day, and they cheerfully conveyed the timber to the shore where it remained until the Monday morning. The chiefs Shunghee (Hongi) and Whittohee (Whetoi) attended while I read the prayers of the Church, and their behaviour was as usual strictly proper. On the Monday the natives received tokees, etc., for their spars and departed much pleased with their respective bargains. They brought upwards of thirty spars from the wood at this time. Whilst these things were doing, Duaterra and a party of friends were actively employed in cutting koraddee (or flax in the growing state) on the other side of the bay. They conveyed several boatloads to a convenient place, which was at a short distance from a part of the bay where there was good anchorage for the vessel.

"On Tuesday, July 5th, I attended the mourning ceremony for Toutoro (Tautoro) * a man who had died on the Sunday. The corpse was neatly wrapped up in the clothing which had been worn by the deceased. The feet, instead of being stretched out as is customary in England, were 'gathered up' in such a manner by his sides that I could not discern them. 6 I heard the bitter lamentations of the women and the funeral song or ode of the men. I witnessed a mock fight as a part of the ceremony, and the whole party, consisting of two or three hundred, feasting upon sweet potatoes by way of conclusion. The women, who were about six in number and related to the deceased, cut their faces, breasts, and arms with sharp shells until they were covered with blood. Terra (Tara) and his wife were there, who paid great attention to me; they wished me to sit near them, and I was presented with six baskets of sweet potatoes or kymoura (kumara) ready cooked for my dinner.

"Monday, July 11th.--I went to Korrorahrekka (Kororareka) for the purpose of taking my leave of my friends the natives. To Terra (Tara), Ahororakkee (Hauraki), Whittohee (Whetoi), Kyterro (Kaitara), I gave an invitation to accompany me to Port Jackson, but they all declined accepting it.

"On Tuesday, July 12, Terra, Tupee (Tupehi), ** Whittohee, and Ahororakkee, seeing the Active in a state of preparation to depart from Korrorahrekka (Kororareka), came to bid farewell. They breakfasted with us in the cabin, and attended Mr. Hall and myself in our morning devotional exercises. They quietly kneeled down whilst we were engaged in prayer, not offering to speak until we had done. I pray that the petitions which they heard but which they did not understand may be accepted by the Most

* Tautoro, the father of Pomare Whetoi.--Vide infra, p. 72.
** Tupehi, Tara's brother. He accompanied Marsden to New South Wales in 1815.--The Letters and Journals of Samuel Marsden, pp. 70 and 127.

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High God; and that He will bless our endeavours to acquire such a knowledge of their language as will enable us in time to make known the glad tidings of the Gospel.

"From Korrorahrekka (Kororareka) the brig Active was brought to a river called Manghonuee (Mangonui) on the Tippoonah (Te Puna) side of the Bay of Islands.

"Sunday, July 17th.--I read the prayers of the Church. Duaterra (Ruatara), Shunghee (Hongi), and some other natives were present. On this day Toodeekahtacoo (Turikatuku), 7 the wife of Shunghee, five children, and some friends came to the vessel upon a visit to Shunghee, who had remained on board from the time of his introduction. I had some time before this told Shunghee I wished to see Depero (Ripero) and Duingho (Ruinga), his two little boys; they were therefore permitted to remain on board with their father. Toodeekahtokoo (Turikatuku) and the rest of the family settled themselves upon the shore at a short distance from the vessel.

"Friday, July 22nd.--Having now received the koraddee and wood and water on board, the captain signified his intention to quit the Bay of Islands. Many natives came to the vessel for the purpose of bidding farewell to Shunghee, Duaterra, Tenhahnah (Tinana), and Ponahho (Pounaho), who had embarked for New South Wales. The women, especially Toodeekahtocoo (Turikatuku) * the wife of Shunghee, and Dayhoo (Tehu) the wife of Duaterra, wept very much. In the evening Kurrokurro (Koro-koro) and Taranghee (Te Rangi), two brothers of Toi (Tuhi), who were arrived at the Bay of Islands from a distant part of New Zealand (where they had been some months on a trading voyage) just in time to see their relation previous to his departure, came on board, and the interview was very affecting. They embraced each other and wept aloud for a considerable time.

"On Sunday, July 24th, we were under the necessity of returning to Tippoonah (Te Puna), from which place we had sailed the day before, on account of contrary winds. Mr. Hall read the prayers of the Church upon the Sunday in the presence of Shunghee, Duaterra, and some other natives, who all conducted themselves exceeding well during Divine service.

"Monday, July 25th.--The Active set sail for Port Jackson. Shunghee now consented that Depero, his eldest son, who is about eight years of age, should embark with us. Kurrokurro (Koro-koro), the brother of Toi (Tuhi), was also received on board. Kurrokurro (Korokoro) is a chief; his residence is at Pahroa (Paroa) on the south side of the Bay of Islands. About one o'clock in the daytime I had a most providential escape from imminent danger. The vessel was under way, and I had incautiously seated myself upon the top of a water closet, which is raised above the quarter-deck, in order to speak to some natives who were in Kurro-kurro's canoe at the stern. On bringing the main boat from the

* Kendall's three different renderings of this name give some indication of his early difficulties in the spelling of Maori words.

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starboard to the leeboard side I was struck by it and forced overboard. I never had attempted to swim in my life--I could therefore assist myself very little; but the natives in the canoe, observing me fall, came with all possible haste near me, and I was rescued by them from a watery grave. My left leg was severely bruised between the boom and the water closet but not broken. This fresh instance of Divine care and goodness I desire to record with humble gratitude. My life has also been preserved through the kind instrumentality of the people of New Zealand. I pray that the remainder of my life may be spent in humble endeavours to promote the glory of God and the knowledge of His salvation amongst a people who have been so ready to serve me.

"It is recorded by authors on geography that new vessels never left the coast of New Zealand without the loss of some part of their crew. This is a serious charge which I cannot, however, believe to be true. When the New Zealanders are provoked by insult and ill treatment they will undoubtedly retaliate with the utmost fury, but I cannot learn that they have generally, if at any time, been the first aggressors. They have, on the contrary, in a variety of cases which have been incorrectly stated in British newspapers, suffered much from the tyranny and wanton abuse of those who, by reason of the name by which they are called, ought to be distinguished by their mild and humane dealing, before they have returned the fatal blow. It is known that Captain Thompson had flogged Tahrayha (Taraia? Tara), 8 one of the chiefs now living at Whangaroa, previous to the destruction of the Boyd; and the island of the late Tippahee (Te Pahi) at Tippoonah (Te Puna) had been laid waste, the houses burnt with fire, and several men, women, and children shot, before the natives killed some sailors belonging to a vessel named the New Zealand. *

"From the best information which I have been able to obtain I cannot learn that Tippahee had any share in the guilt attending the destruction of the Boyd, although he has been charged as a confederate with the resident chiefs Tippohee (Te Puhi), Pippe, and Tahrayha. The British captains who united in revenging the deaths of their countrymen appear to have been mixed by some natives who were the enemies of Tippahee. It is asserted by respectable characters who visited him after the affair of the Boyd, and to whom he was very kind, that Tippahee was a real friend to an European.

"I met with a person at Tippoonah (Te Puna) who informed me that many of our sailors, when they come into the harbour for necessaries, make it their practice to cheat and defraud the natives exceedingly; that when the natives have parted with such commodities as they previously offer for sale they often receive little or nothing in return, and that this conduct and way of dealing is very painful to their feelings. He declared that if Englishmen

* Cf. The Letters and Journals of Samuel Marsden, p. 97.

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would trade fairly the natives were disposed to pay every attention to them and to supply them with anything they might want most cheerfully. Indeed I think this would be the case with many of the natives. They have a particular desire to be at peace with us. They say we introduce amongst them potatoes, cabbages, turnips, etc., and tools of different descriptions which they are continually in want of. 9 There is also another consideration which will operate most powerfully upon the people of New Zealand, and it will have a tendency to create in them much respect for Englishmen. They are particularly fond of bread. When once there is a sufficient quantity of wheat sown so as to enable the natives generally to know its value, they will esteem us highly, and New Zealand may perhaps at some future day afford rich supplies of this article to our ships which traverse the Southern Pacific Ocean.

"A prudent caution is no doubt indispensably necessary in providing for the security of vessels which touch at New Zealand, after there have been so many depredations committed that they are too numerous to admit of a recital. And if also in enlightened and civilized nations the most salutary laws and regulations, with the power to put them into execution, are often insufficient for the protection both of person and property, surely it cannot be expected but there are men so selfish in the unenlightened world that for the sake of gain they will not scruple to rob and plunder.

"Duaterra says 'some of his countrymen are good, will work for their living and wish for improvement; while others are very bad, will take in a ship or steal anything.' He is very desirous to have it in his power to adopt some salutary measures by which he may be enabled to keep in subjection unruly and mischievous men, and to establish laws and regulations for the good order and well-being of his people. He still is anxious to make a Sunday at New Zealand. In my opinion, the true character of the New Zealanders is not so despicable as Europeans are apt to imagine, and it has by some writers been very unfriendly portrayed. In giving a fair account of a savage nation some allowance ought to be made for ancient customs and usages which have been handed down from one generation to another for many ages. I have been told that there are usages of a barbarous nature amongst the people of New Zealand which are not approved by them all, and others followed by some to which others are averse and which they hold in detestation, and I really have discovered in them all that I could expect in a nation which has been for ages lost in heathen darkness. Although many of them disfigure their faces, and their raiment is the most uncouth in appearance of any I have ever before seen, yet neither the men nor the women go naked. The men are also intelligent, and many of them industrious and full of ingenuity; fit for husbandmen and mechanics as soon as they shall be favoured with the means of instruction. The women employ part of their time in making kakkahows (kakahu), mats, moka (muka) etc., and

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in all probability many of them would gladly learn to spin and knit stockings and the use of the needle; and the children are lively, active, and witty. They made no stranger of me after my first appearance amongst them. When they saw me they usually said 'How do you do, Mr. Kendall?' They then offered me their little parcels of millo (miro) or thread which they had made with their own hands, and asked me for fish-hooks, nails, and buttons in return. It has been truly said of the New Zealanders that they are a noble race of men. They stand in need of our friendship, and if proper steps were taken for their instruction in the arts, attention paid to their wants, and they were dealt with upon just and good principles, they would by the Divine blessing soon be brought over to a state of civilization.

"Tuesday, July 26th.--Shunghee (Hongi), Kurrokurro (Korokoro), Depero (Ripiro), and Ponahho (Pounaho) amused themselves by attempting to learn the alphabet. Shunghee was so much delighted with it that he said he would continue to learn it daily. I had some cards of letters and monosyllables by me, such as are used by the lower classes in Doctor Bell's 10 system of education, and I proposed to give each of the natives some fishhooks for every page they should learn correctly upon my arrival in New South Wales. At this they expressed the greatest satisfaction, and my little pupil Depero seemed transported with the idea of possessing some riches which he should have to show his mother and his uncle Kangwha (Kangaroa) upon his return to his native land. The natives pronounce with difficulty the letters C, G, H, J, X, and Z. The remainder of the English alphabet they can articulate very well. It is my intention in my little vocabulary of the language to substitute K for the C. You will therefore find those words which I placed under C in the adjoining copy under K. As I get better acquainted with the language I have no doubt but I shall find it necessary to make many corrections of my own words. *

"The New Zealanders are averse to drinking spirits. I do not think the ava (kava) ** root which has done so much injury to the natives at Otaheite grows there.

"One day when Whittohee (Whetoi) and Toi (Tuhi) were with me upon an excursion, and I was reproving the latter for making use of some bad language which he had learnt from the seamen, Whittohee commended me for it very much. He repeated the blasphemous expressions of Englishmen, saying they were no good. 'Yes' and 'no' (he said) were good words to make use of. Ponahho (Pounaho), Depero (Ripiro), and Shunghee (Hongi) learned the English alphabet in five or six days. The latter has also written several copies of letters, some of which I send to you.

* Vide infra, p. 11711.
** The New Zealand plant kawa-kawa, from the leaves of which a drink is brewed, is botanically a different plant.--George Graham.

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"The New Zealanders appear to have many deities, to which, however, I cannot learn they pay any particular adoration. I think atua is their name for the Supreme Being, but I am not certain.

"Duaterra (Ruatara) says the marriage contract is made at New Zealand in the following manner:--When a young man forms an attachment for a young woman and he is desirous to have her for his wife, he first consults her parents and brothers and sisters, whose consent he must obtain. If these are agreeable, and the young woman does not cry, she immediately becomes his wife. But if she cries the first night he pays her a visit, or upon repeating his visits a second or third time she continues to do so, he must drop his suit. Simple fornication is not considered a crime, but if a woman is unfaithful to her husband he spears her. Adultery is punished with death.

"On Monday, August 22nd, the Active came to an anchor at Port Jackson. I found my family well in health. My three eldest children during my absence attended school daily. The natives have been well employed since their arrival at Parramatta. Some of them have spent their time in taking a survey of the buildings and various improvements in the Colony, others in learning to read and write, and Tenhahnah (Tinana) has learnt to make nails, etc. They have been before Governor Macquarie. His Excellency has promised them a bull and three cows when they return, and some other useful articles. 11

"Mr. Marsden has obtained leave of Governor Macquarie to accompany us and our families to New Zealand. We expect to embark the first week in November. I shall therefore be from hence entirely dependent upon the Society. I hope I shall do all in my power to earn the expenses necessarily attached to the support of my family, but you will see, my dear sir, and I do not doubt but you will be happy in the observation, that upon my first setting out at New Zealand there will be an opportunity for me to spend the whole of my time in learning the language and instructing the children. If it also should please God to spare me with life, and I find I am encouraged in it, I should be happy to declare publicly amongst the people of New Zealand the glad tidings of the Gospel.

"Those children which I take under my care at New Zealand I shall have to maintain, but I trust this will be done at a small expense.

"Mr. King will accompany us with his wife and one child to New Zealand. They are in good health.

"I have now finished my narrative. You will have the goodness to present my duty to the honourable Committee. I recommend myself and family to their earnest supplication that the Lord Jesus Christ may preserve us in the time of trial, enable us by the powerful operations of His Holy Spirit to know and do His will, and for His own glory crown our endeavours with success.

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"Postscript.--There can be no doubt but the language of the New Zealanders and Otaheitians, and indeed of most of the natives of the South Sea Islands, is radically the same," 12

Hall, for his part, informed the Committee of the Society of his journey to New Zealand in terse, laconic fashion.

"I can now inform you," he wrote, * "with some degree of pleasure, that Mr. Kendall and myself have visited New Zealand and that we have found it very much to our satisfaction. The natives seemed rather strange with us at first, but after we made them acquainted with our intentions they became quite familiar with us, and we did not hesitate to go twelve or fourteen miles into the interior of the country and sleep all night amongst them. We stayed at the Bay of Islands six weeks, and went ashore amongst the natives mostly every day. I told them that I would come and live amongst them and make them large European houses, and that I would come and make boats and canoes, and they were very much pleased with the idea; and after we had pitched upon a place that we thought the most eligible to begin the settlement upon, the party that it belonged to were very much pleased with us and seemed very desirous for us to go and live there; and another party that lived at some distance seemed quite offended because we would not go and live upon their district.

"We expect to return in the course of two or three weeks after this date--the vessel is now fitting out in this harbour and going direct for New Zealand with Mr. Kendall and his family, John King and his wife and child, my wife and little boy, and myself, and Mr. Marsden says he will go with us to see New Zealand. We must unavoidably be a great expense upon the Society, although for my part I have been taken out of my employment these eight months past, and have received no assistance in any respect whatever. I have said that I would draw as little upon Mr. Marsden as I could, but, on account of the great distance we are from the Society, that we shall be all under the necessity of having immediate support. We go relying upon the Almighty for protection, and we hope under Divine direction likewise. For my part I mean to exert myself in the erection of a hut or house for each family, and I hope the Lord will bless us with health and proportionate our strength to our labours. I mentioned in a former letter that I should like to have a gun as a kind of defence, as there is nothing the natives so much dread as the sight of a gun; and to make it more immediately useful it ought to be one that would kill ducks at the distance of sixty yards, as the rivers abound with these valuable fowls and my gun is too short and too light for the purpose; and if you will have the goodness to procure it with a quantity of duck shot and send it by the first conveyance I will take it as a particular favour."

* William Hall to the Deputy Secretary, Parramatta, October 14th, 1814.-- The Hall Correspondence, Hocken Library, Dunedin.

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Meanwhile, Marsden, full of enthusiasm for the Mission which he considered now well begun, secured leave of absence for four months from the Governor. The General Order granting Marsden leave appeared in the Sydney Gazette of November 12th, 1814. In the same Order was published the appointment of "Mr. Thomas Kendall, missionary, to be one of His Majesty's Justices of the Peace in the Bay of Islands in New Zealand, and throughout the islands of New Zealand and those immediately contiguous thereto." *

On November 19th, 1814, the Active again set sail for New Zealand, on the voyage which was to witness the definite foundation of the New Zealand Mission. In the vessel there sailed the three pioneer missionaries with their wives and children. Thomas Kendall, however, had left his two daughters behind in New South Wales, and was accompanied by Mrs. Kendall and his three sons-- Thomas, Henry, and William; William Hall was accompanied by Mrs. Hall and his son William; John King by Mrs. King and his son Philip. In addition to the missionaries there sailed Samuel Marsden as the representative of the Church Missionary Society, and John Liddiard Nicholas, his friend, a New South Wales farmer. ** Captain Thomas Hansen, who was accompanied by his wife and his son Thomas, was the navigator of the vessel. The company of thirty-five souls included five New Zealand chiefs, among whom were Hongi, Tuhi, Korokoro and Ruatara; three convicts who had been given permission to leave Australia for three years, Walter Hall, a smith, Henry alias Patrick Shaffery, and Richard Stockwell, Kendall's servant; and one runaway convict, discovered on board after the vessel sailed.

"We had also on board," remarks Marsden, "one entire horse, two mares, one bull, and two cows, with a few sheep and poultry of different kinds intended for the island." The cows and bull had been presented by Governor Macquarie from His Majesty's herd. ***

The voyage passed without incident. 13 The Three Kings islands were sighted on December 16th, and next day the North Cape was reached. Within less than a week Marsden had assured himself that the missionaries would be welcome settlers at the Bay of Islands, and that his dreams were about to be realised. "I think no Society was ever engaged in a greater work than the Church Missionary Society is in this," he had written to the Secretary just before his departure. "The ground is wholly occupied by the Prince of Darkness, and many and powerful

* Robert McNab, From Tasman to Marsden (Dunedin, 1914), pp. 168-170; Robert McNab, The Historical Records of New Zealand, Vol. I, pp. 330-1; The Letters and Journals of Samuel Marsden, pp. 62 and 63.
** Author of A Voyage to New Zealand. (Two vols., London, 1817.)
*** McNab, From Tasman to Marsden, pp. 170-1; The Letters and Journals of Samuel Marsden, p. 79 et seq.

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difficulties will, no doubt, one way or another, spring up to oppose this great work, but the Lord is King amongst the heathen, and will, i have no doubt, establish His throne there." *

* Proceedings of the C.M.S.

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1   Tuhi, brother of Korokoro of the Bay of Islands. After residing with Marsden for some two years at Parramatta, he visited England with his friend Titore in 1818, reaching New Zealand again in February, 1820. He then joined his brother Korokoro against Hongi, and when Korokoro died in 1823 succeeded him as leader. He died in October, 1823, having disappointed all Marsden's hopes for his influence on his countrymen by lapsing into savagery. --Cf. The Letters and Journals of Samuel Marsden, pp. 144-5, 216; Cruise, Richard A., Journal of a Ten Months' Residence in New Zealand (London, 1823), p 148 J Dumont d'Urville, Voyage de la corvette 1'Astrolabe (Paris, 1831), Vol. Ill, pp. 675-8.
2   Kendall notes:--Toi is a name recorded in Scripture. Toi, King of Hamath, sent his son to King David to salute him and to bless him. He also sent gold and silver, which were dedicated to the Lord.--II Samuel, chapter viii, verse 9.
3   Kendall notes:--Captain Inkston of the ship Speke was the ringleader in this horrid affair. Some women and children were killed.
4   Marsden, in his first journal, speaks of Tara as "an old man apparently seventy years of age--the head chief on the south side (of the Bay of Islands) and a native of considerable influence."--The Letters and Journals of Samuel Marsden, p. 95.
5   Mr. Leslie G. Kelly of Te Kuiti, whose wife is a Nga Puhi of the Ngai-Tawaka hapu, comments:--"Whetoi was the nephew of Pomare I, the great Nga-Puhi leader who led so many northern expeditions to the south and who met his death at the hands of Waikato. Upon hearing of his uncle's death, Whetoi changed his name to Pomare, so that in addressing him, his people might always be reminded of the duty of obtaining utu from Waikato for Pomare's death. Pomare I may have derived his name from King Pomare of Tahiti." Whetoi's pa, which stood at the junction of the Waikare and the Kawakawa Rivers, was destroyed by the British troops on April 30th, 1845.-- Cf. S. Percy Smith, Northern Wars, p. 56 (footnote), and Cowan, New Zealand Wars, Vol. I, pp. 16 and 33. Mr. Leslie Kelly gives the following genealogical tree for Whetoi:-
Pomare I. . . . Haki-Te Tautoro
Whetoi (Pomare II)
6   Dumont d'Urville, who as a lieutenant in la Coquille visited the Bay of Islands in 1824, refers at some length to Maori customs with regard to the treatment of the dead.
7   Turi-ka-tuku, Hongi's wife, is said to have accompanied him in all his expeditions and to have been his most trusted adviser. At this time (1814) she was a woman of some thirty years of age. Some two years later she became totally blind as the result of inflammation of the eyes. In spite of her affliction, Marsden, in 1819, found her hard at work in her potato grounds.--The Letters and Journals of Samuel Marsden, p. 166.
8   Kendall notes: "Tahrayha" (Taraia? Tara) was sick five days on board the Boyd, at the end of which he overheard Captain Thompson saying he would throw him overboard. He was forced out of bed by flogging. It is said that when his father met Captain Thompson on shore he killed him.
9   Dumont d'Urville, on the other hand, upon his visit to the Bay of Islands in 1824, found that commerce with the whalers had given the natives an extraordinary idea of the value of their produce, and that they would accept only powder in exchange:--"Il est venu deux pirogues le long du bord avec des pommes de terre et quelques legumes; mais les prix des naturels sont exorbitants. Ils ne rougissaient pas de demander une livre de poudre pour quelques oignons et a proportion du reste, refusant toute autre espece d'article en echange. Les tribus de la baie des Iles sont tout-a-fait corrumpues par le commerce des baleiniers, et je ne concois pas comment les missionnaires persisent a sojourner la, plutot que d'aller vivre sur d'autres points dans le sud d'Ika-Na-Mawi, ou ils auraient bien plus de chances de voir leurs efforts couronnes de quelque succes.--Le Voyage de l'Astrolabe, Vol. II, p. 233.
10   Andrew Bell (1753-1832), a graduate of St. Andrew's University and a minister of the Anglican Church who adopted the Monitorial System in education, explaining it in his An Experiment in Education (1797). With Joseph Lancaster he shares the credit of being the founder of English elementary education.--Vide Art. Diet. Nat. Biography.
11   Marsden writing to the Secretary on September 20th, 1814, gave the following account of the activities of Hongi, Korokoro, and their friends:-- "... The chiefs are happy with us at Parramatta, and their minds enlarging very fast, beholding the various works that are going on in the smiths' and carpenters' shops, the spinning and weaving, brick-making and building houses, together with all the operations of agriculture and gardening, have a wonderful effect on their minds and will excite all their natural powers to improve their country. The idea of my visiting them is very gratifying to their minds. At present I spend all the time I can spare with them, conversing with them on all the different subjects that appear necessary for them to be acquainted with, particularly on the subjects of religion, government, and agriculture.

"With respect to religion. I talk to them of the institution of the Sabbath Day by God Himself; and they see it observed by us with particular attention. They see the prisoners mustered on Sunday mornings, their names called over, and then marched to church. They see the officers and soldiers marched to church likewise; and most of the people of the town of Parramatta.

"As I have many complaints to settle as a magistrate, they frequently attend; when I explain to them afterwards the different crimes and punishments that each has committed and what sentence is passed upon them-- some men confined for one moon, and some for more, in prison, according to their crimes.

"With respect to agriculture, they visit different farms, observe the plough at work, some men with the hoe, some threshing, etc. They tell me that when they return they shall sit up whole nights telling their people what they have seen; and that their men will stop their ears with their fingers: 'We have heard enough,' they will say, 'of your incredible accounts, and we will hear no more: they cannot be true.'"
12   The Sydney Gazette of August 27th, 1814, made the following announcement with regard to the return of the Active :--"On Tuesday arrived the brig Active, Captain Dillon, from New Zealand, for which place she sailed from hence 4th of March last, for the purpose of establishing a friendly intercourse with the natives; for which purpose Mr. Kendall and Mr. Hall, by appointment of the Rev. Mr. Marsden, accompanied the voyage. She called at the Derwent on her way, and, arriving at the Bay of Islands the 10th of June, found very hospitable treatment from the chiefs and other inhabitants of that quarter. During her stay, which was about six weeks, the James Hay touched there (8 days from hence), and after procuring a few spars took her departure for Europe, all well.

"Three chiefs, one of whom has been to England, and others of inferior rank, expressing a desire to visit this Colony, they were readily received on board the Active as passengers. One of them is chief of the district formerly ruled by Tippahee, and another commands an extensive territory, which contains seventeen towns. Shortly after their arrival they were introduced into the presence of His Excellency the Governor, who treated them with particular kindness, and made them presents with which, as well as with their reception, they were highly gratified. Some of these strangers are now on a visit to Parramatta, and it is not to be doubted will, wherever they go, receive such treatment as to inspire in their untaught minds notions of Europeans very different from those with which the conduct of some of our mariners had, in their own country, possibly impressed them."
13   Kendall suffered much from seasickness during the voyage. "This disagreeable complaint," writes Nicholas, "had a strange effect on poor Mr. Kendall; it made him forget for the moment that he had a wig upon his head, which, falling off in his endeavours to relieve his stomach, dropped overboard, and left him under the necessity of tying a red handkerchief round his temples, which, with the deathlike paleness of his face and the grim languor of his eyes, made him appear so complete a spectre that he forcibly reminded me of Banquo's ghost."--J. L. Nicholas, A Voyage to New Zealand, Vol. II, p. 47.

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