1974 - Williams, W. The Turanga Journals - 1840 Letters and Journals, p 71-143

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  1974 - Williams, W. The Turanga Journals - 1840 Letters and Journals, p 71-143
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The letters and journals. 1840

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The letters and journals

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Voyage to Poverty Bay--settling in at the Turanga station (Kaupapa)-- Maori demand for books--Poverty Bay 'secured' against land speculators--journeys to Wairoa, East Cape, Ahuriri (Hawkes Bay) and Lake Waikaremoana--Kaupapa flooded.


January 1. This morning we were off Cape Brett but did not make the Poor Knights by night.

January 2. Wind S.E. Off Wangarei.

January 3. -- Off Hen & Chickens.

January 4. -- Off Cape Colville.

January 5. Sunday. Held morning service qn deck, at which none of the seamen attended. Mr. Stack 1 had service with the natives. Passed the Alderman in the evening.

January 6. Anchored at Tauranga at about 9 in the morning after grounding on the sandbank. Mr. Chapman 2 came off & conducted us on shore.

January 7. On shore at the Station. 3

January 8. We were to have sailed today but the wind was foul. Letters received from my brother in the evening announcing his arrival at Rotorua, on his way from Cooks Straits.

January 9. Went to meet my brother at the distance of twelve miles from the settlement, and heard the account of his journey.

January 10. Attended a Committee for the consideration of measures to be adopted for the extension of the mission; arrangements made for the occupation of Waiapu, Opotiki and Wanganui. 4

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January 12. Sunday. Preached at the Papa from Psalm 84, and in the afternoon went with Mr. Chapman to Otumoetai. Congregation there about 200.

January 13. Went on board the Martha.

January 14. Weighed anchor at 4 in the morning, and grounded near the rocks outside the reef. We were providentially delivered from our perilous situation in about an hour and got to sea in the afternoon.

January 15. Very light winds. Off Motiti.

January 16. Off White Island. Light wind from S.W.

January 17. Wind S.E. Off Cape Runaway.

January 18. Made Hicks Bay in the morning and attempted to land the natives, but before the canoes could come off, a strong breeze from the W. obliged us to keep our course round the Cape. By the time we reached Tokomaru at 4 in the afternoon, a gale from the S. obliged us to work under close reefed topsails. The sea quickly rose and the night was very uncomfortable.

January 19. Sunday. Wind still S. and the motion was too great to allow of our having service.

January 20. Favored with a northerly breeze, and at length anchored at Turanga at about 4 oclock. Proceeded on shore to Mr. Harris's 5 with Mrs. Williams & the rest of our party, and got all the natives on shore. Our accommodation was not good, but the change was for the better. Had the satisfaction of seeing my trees & plants growing vigorously in Mr. Harris's garden. 6

January 21. Returned to the Martha & landed the cattle, and at the same time a part of our luggage. The captain had neglected to ballast his vessel sufficiently, which obliged him to retain a portion of the goods until he had taken in cargo. Slept at Paokahu and addressed the natives.

January 22. Went up the river with Mrs. Williams in search of our habitation, 7 which we found much to exceed our expectations. The workmanship of the house is good, and it has the advantage of a good verandah 7 feet wide extending its whole length of 45 feet. The house

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itself was too well tenanted with fleas to admit of our entrance, and we took our first meal in the verandah, to the great satisfaction of the assembled crowd. 8 The natives set to work and first lighted fires on the floor, and then cleared out the rubbish, and by this means diminished the number of our enemies to within the bounds of endurance. We then set to work and made one end of the building habitable which has boards laid down, and proceeded to get our luggage into the other part. In the evening held service with the natives.

January 23. Having made arrangements for canoes to proceed to the vessel, I left our house early for Werowero, 9 on the other side of the Bay, where the vessel then was. I there learnt that the captain was not ready to discharge the goods for want of ballast, but that the natives being alongside in great numbers were very clamorous in demanding to have the goods put into their canoes. I hastened on board and found that they had taken possession of the ship, and were in the act of lowering the last of our stores into their canoes. I was much grieved to find that they had committed so great an outrage, and got them away from the vessel as speedily as possible. I afterwards learnt that the cause of this movement was a report that the captain was about to take my things away to the Bay of Islands, and that they had a mind he should not. I was glad to learn from the captain that they had carefully avoided touching anything belonging to the vessel. 10 On my return to the shore went to Maraetaha, distant about 4 miles to see an old chief who is sick. At Werowero I find that the christian party has been obliged to separate from the main body and build a pa on the opposite side of the river. This is the only pa out of 12 where this opposition is manifested.

January 24. Engaged in arranging our things which had arrived at the house, and attending to various other matters.

January 25. Many enquiries have been made for books, and this morning I opened the box, but the applications were so numerous, that I found it necessary to stop when I had disposed of 50 Prayer books and ten testaments, until I should have made a regular division among the different tribes. The books are for the most part sold at

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the rate of 1 basket of potatoes for the small prayer book and six for each Testament. 11

January 26. Sunday. Many strangers came last night to spend the sabbath here, and this morning we had a congregation of at least 1000. Our chapel was the open air, but the weather was favorable, and the extreme attention of this large body was a grateful commencement of our missionary labors amongst this people. On the conclusion of native service we had one in English in our dwelling at which ten Europeans were present who are settlers in the neighbourhood. 12 At noon the natives were again assembled for school, when I counted two classes of men with 70 in each; one of 50; one of 110; one of 150 and one of 50 boys. The women were in two classes, one of 150 and one of 12. 13 The last one of the mens classes of 70, read in the scriptures; the rest merely repeated catechism, the whole class repeated the answer together. There is no order in their classes, but the object in part has been attained, that of teaching the natives to repeat the catechism from which much knowledge must be derived. The evening congregation was nearly as numerous as that in the morning.

January 27. Set out early to go on board the vessel with letters & returned home in the evening.

January 28. My house was beset this morning for books from every quarter, and the circumstance of having to pay for them was no check to the demand. The only course to be taken, as the applications were in equal proportion to the population from every pa with one exception, was to make the division according to the population, charging the native teachers to see to the payment for them. The testaments were given at the rate of from one to 50 persons to one to 100, and the prayer books were about one to 12 persons.

January 29. A principal chief from Wairoa to the southward of Table Cape arrived for the sole purpose of obtaining books. He lives at the distance of two days journey and is a man of much influence. From him I gather that at the Mahia & Wairoa there are upwards of a thousand persons who regularly meet for worship on the sabbath day at eleven principal places. The supply for this district is 5 Testaments, 60 Prayer books & 50 slates. I sent by this chief books & slates for 6 of these places & promise to visit them shortly.

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January 30. The chief of Uawa, Kaniatakirau, 14 called to see me and of course put in his application for books. Uawa is marked in the charts Tologa Bay and has a population of about 1200. When I was last there a young man from Tauranga 15 was living there at the request of the chief as a teacher. I learn he is since dead & I promise to send one of our christian natives shortly. For this place I gave two Testaments and 14 Prayer books.

January 31. Occupied in unpacking some of our boxes which are wet with salt water.


We have all pretty well recovered ourselves today, and tonight are quite in spirits, having a fairer or perhaps I should say a less foul wind to contend against. It seems as if our voyage is to be a very tedious one, for we have not yet made the Barrier Islands tho' they have been in sight all day. The first and second days were very miserable ones. I . . . looked at dear Paihia as long as baby 16 would allow me. I was glad to find after dinner that we were out of your sight, for after the thunder storm, the wind became quite contrary and we had not doubled Cape Brett at bedtime. I tumbled into my cupboard with my clothes on taking baby with me, and James and his Father took up their abode on the cabin floor . . .and notwithstanding the heat and the discomfort we managed to get a tolerable nights rest, tho' I could not but think of those I had left behind, indeed I frequently see you all with my mind's eye, and can picture you all to myself at your various employments at different parts of the day.

Wednesday morning. I was much disappointed to find we were still close to Cape Brett. It had been calm all night, but there was a great swell, and soon after breakfast a very strong breeze sprung up quite against us, and we were all very soon obliged to give up with the exception of little James and his Father, who are decidedly the best sailors in the whole party. . . . All yesterday what little wind there was, was contrary, but the weather being fine, we were glad to keep on deck and we were lying about in all directions like the natives from the effects of the preceding day. Even dear little baby was sick on Wednesday and William began to be qualmish towards evening tho' he soon recovered himself. Today we have only had calm and very light winds against us till tonight, but tho' it is more favourable

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there is very little of it. I have felt quite myself again & able to sit and sew nearly all day, Kino & Katarina having nursed baby between them. You would be much amused to see how Wm. is occupied-- first mixing arrowroot for James & Maria, then feeding Fanny, 17 (who is recovering) the cows, the geese, ducks, fowls and pigeons, watering his plants, and keeping, or endeavouring to keep our numerous retinue in their places. The natives are pretty well behaved, but are troublesome about their food, which of course can only be cooked at certain hours, and they are not inclined to be systematic at all times, as you well know: hunger however will probably make them so in this case. Our Capt. 18 is very civil & accommodating and the meals are prepared and served up more comfortably than I expected. James is quite at home both in the cabin and on deck where he amuses himself with feeding the fowls, and looking at the waitai 19 and the fisses, and he amuses other people by his outcry at every meal for "some rice for poor James". The first time the sugar plums were produced, his dear little companion was immediately brought to mind, for he directly exclaimed "some for poor Josy" 20 Mary & Jane, he says, are gone right away in the boat, and Josy is gone in his kaipuke. 21 But I must say goodnight for I can only write at the cabin table, and I see the young gentlemen would be glad to retire.

Tauranga. 8 Jan. You will not expect many words from hence when I tell you we have been here only since Monday noon and the signal is hoisted for us to return on board this morning. I am disappointed at so short a stay, as it does not give time for Henry to arrive since the weather cleared up, for we landed here in a heavy gale and rain. A messenger arrived from Rotorua on Saty. Mr. Morgan 22 had sent a horse and supply of food to meet him at Taupo, but I feel very sorry to go on without seeing him. 23 The time will appear very long to you, but I hope you will try and keep your mind quiet & free from all undue anxiety on his account as nobody here seems to feel any apprehension about the length of time, on account of the length of the journey, and the numbers of natives he would have had to visit. Poor Mrs. Brown 24 looks far from well and has had four headaches in as many weeks, and another is threatening, which we do not wonder at, for you can form some idea of the excitement we have produced.

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Maria 25 and her children were quite well. Mr. & Mrs. Chapman are here, and it really has been a treat to see them all, and we have all enjoyed our short sojourn on shore.



Since I last wrote the continuance of bustle and excitement has been as great as ever. I do not recollect the date of that letter but it must have been previous to my leaving Waimate. I will begin therefore with that event which took place at the beginning of October, when Mr. Taylor 26 went to Waimate to take my post, though he has not yet found opportunity of commencing school ....

We were obliged to remain at Paihia a long time in order that Jane might prepare a sufficient supply of clothing for our children who remain behind. When this was done I engaged a suitable vessel for our conveyance, the Columbine being absent, & taking in Mr. & Mrs. Stack who were at Paihia we sailed for this place on our way to Turanga (remember the difference between Turanga & Tauranga, the former being called by the English Poverty Bay). We were to have sailed this morning, but happily the weather was not quite suitable, & the delay gives me the opportunity of seeing Henry & also will enable us to hold a general Committee for the despatch of some most important business. When Henry left the Bay he was accompanied by Mr. Clarke, 27 who landed at the East Cape with Mr. Stack & a party of native teachers, & returned by way of the coast of the Bay of Plenty to this place. He is since gone to the Bay of Islands bearing a most favorable report of the district over which he travelled, with one exception namely that Europeans are trying to buy the land in every direction, or rather to cheat the natives out of it by procuring their signatures to documents prepared by lawyers in Sydney, which without being duly explained to the natives are to wrest from them their land for a mere nominal consideration. 28 This fact has given a new impulse in this quarter & Mr. Wilson 29 is gone to Opotiki which is in the centre of the district to form a station, & to secure as much land as can still be obtained for a station & the use of the people. At Cooks Straits it is stated that the N.Z. Association, whose agents are here in the Tory, have purchased from the 40th to the 43 degree of latitude. They have gone through certain forms & have obtained some signatures to their deeds, giving as payment double barreled guns & red blankets; but the natives state that they have no idea of having sold their land & are evidently made the dupes of these land hunters.

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Be that as it may, Henry has purchased a quantity of the said land for the Society, and the Banks of one entire river, Wanganui, which the Association had contemplated the purchase of, he has secured for the natives, before they had the means of seeing its proprietors. 30 In proceeding to Turanga it is my intention to buy as much land as may suffice for the inhabitants, and I also hope to take the same step at Waiapu & Wairoa, & then I will set the association at defiance.

The Papists are increasing their numbers having 3 Priests & 1 Catechist just from England. But as yet their Bishop has not placed his agents with advantage to his own cause. His priests are kept in those districts where the gospel is well established, but if they had been sent into the unoccupied districts they would do much mischief. From this step they are doubtless withheld by the great disposer of events until a purer gospel shall have been planted. 31 The Wesleyans are still a thorn in our side. One of them has just paid a visit to Manukau & baptized 40 persons close to Mr. Hamlin, 32 who were under his instruction. I much doubt whether their baptism ought to be anything accounted of by us. Another of their body who has just secured from

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home his ordination in a box, is gone forth on a journey to the south & will doubtless propose to baptize for us wherever he can find persons willing to be baptized. 33

January 11. Henry is here .... In my next I hope to give you facts from the field of action. Dr. Lang 34 in a letter to Lord Durham says the Church Mission in New Zealand is worse than a failure, but still our congregations amount to from 13,000 to 20,000, and we have had occasion to print 20,000 copies of the Morning & Evening Prayers from the Liturgy, & to apply for 10,000 copies of the Testament to be reprinted in England.



All the land round about us is covered with grass knee deep so that the cattle will be in (not clover but) grass. I am sorry however to find that Captn. Clayton 35 has been making an extensive purchase just at the back of my house--a piece of land which he must have known from its situation I intended to occupy. He has made a mistake I believe in not buying from the owners who objected at the time & say I shall have it & if this turns out to be correct I shall buy it out of his hands. The people of course are wondrous civil & by the accounts the Europeans have given me their civility is likely to last. Yesterday being Sunday I had an assemblage of at least 1000 natives .... It was a very imposing sight for New Zealand, to witness such a congregation all in perfect order & evidently accustomed to meet for worship. I hear good accounts of the Wairoa whither I proceed shortly. Pikopo 36 will not stand much chance here. As for books I could sell 1000 Prayer books immediately. We are likely soon to be comfortably

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fixed & this European 37 whom I employed to saw timber, supplies us with vegetables of every description. So that in both temporals & spirituals we have every reason to be thankful.



February 1. Went to see sick natives in the neighbourhood, & prepared some necessaries for the teachers at the East Cape.

February 2. Sunday. The weather not being favorable yesterday, we had not so large an assemblage of persons at service. There were however about 600. Preached from Romans 3. 23-24. At school there were about 450. At European service there were 12 Europeans, besides our own family. In the evening preached from 2 Cor. 5-10.

February 3. Had a visit from another chief of the Wairoa, who came for books for two principal places. He speaks of 1000 persons assembling at his pa alone for worship, for whom I gave two Testaments and 16 Prayer books. In many places the natives have made manuscript copies of the Hymns & of some of the Prayers. After dismissing this party I spoke with 26 candidates for baptism whose progress in christian knowledge shows that our native teachers have not been inactive at their posts. In the evening I met 16 more candidates for Baptism.

February 4. Went to see a sick native at some little distance. Spoke with 30 additional candidates for Baptism many of whom are well informed. Had a visit from another chief in the Wairoa. From him I learn that the distance between Wairoa & Rotorua may be travelled in about 5 days. An attempt has been made by Europeans to purchase the Wairoa, proposing to leave to the natives all they now occupy, but to dispose of all the rest. I am told that the proposal was rejected and that only a small portion was bought, not amounting to many acres.

February 5. A chief residing at Nukutaurua on Table Cape came this morning to apply for books; and at the same time I received a note from Werowero, the place I mentioned Jan. 23 as being for the most part opposed to the gospel. The note is from this party to request I will go and see them & that they may have a supply of books. The simultaneous movement throughout the whole of this coast is truly astonishing, and shews that God is about to do great things for this

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people. The note sent is a great curiosity. It is written upon a wooden slate, if I may use the expression, which is first rubbed with oil and then plunged into wood ashes, which give it a slight coat on which the writing is made with a pointed stick. Many of these are in use among the natives for want of better. I obtained from another a copy of hymns written with gunpowder. "Swords into plough shares & spears into pruning hooks". Occupied during the day in preparing a chimney for my house of pisa work. 38

February 6. Attending to several sick natives who are brought to me for medical aid. In the afternoon another party from Table Cape arrived for books, or rather a party from four places, at each of which they say chapels are erected. The principal man, a chief of very pleasing manners, told me that his tribe is very fond of our clothing, of which they purchase a good deal from Europeans living with them, "but I am not come for that I want books".

February 7. Another party of natives from the Wairoa made their appearance this morning, but I was very unwell & could not converse with them. I gave them therefore a few small books with which they were well satisfied.

February 8. Heard that the persons connected with a small schooner now at anchor in the Bay, are come inland for the purpose of purchasing a large tract of land upon which several natives are living. Immediately spoke to some of the chiefs on the subject & propose that a general meeting be held on Monday.

February 9. Sunday. Held service as usual with about 800 natives, & afterwards had 5 Europeans at English service, the rest are gone up the country with the land buyers. Went at noon to Werowero to see the chief Tohutohu, 39 whose request I noticed on the 5th. My reception was most gracious, & in a speech of some length, he expressed a wish that I should instruct him & his people, though he has hitherto objected to hear the native teachers. He told me on leaving that he is about to go to Ahuriri in Hawk's Bay, which is his proper home, to prevent his place from being sold to Europeans, who are coming there he says in great numbers from Cook's Straits.

February 10. This morning I had a large meeting at which nearly every principal chief was present, and also 6 Europeans. I told the natives what are the intentions of Europeans in coming to this country --what they have done in Cook's Straits, and in various places along the coast, buying the whole country out of the hands of the natives, who will soon be left at the mercy of the new proprietors. I told them further, what I just learned from the Europeans, that a Barque 40 which

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has visited this place once, and is daily expected back, is coming with the especial object of buying the whole of this district, and cautioned them against allowing any such step to be taken. When I had done many of the chiefs spoke, giving their full assent to all I said. The chiefs then accompanied me into the house, when I explained the course I proposed to adopt--that they should all sell the land to me on the behalf of the Society, and that the whole of the said land should be kept in trust for the natives and their children for ever. I agreed on the part of the Society to give them in consideration of this sale, property which will cost the Society about £200, but which the Europeans who are buying up the country would call £1000 or £1500. The chiefs then gave me the boundaries of the land being names of 218 places with the list of the principal proprietors. During the time of the meeting, one of the Europeans manifested a good deal of irritated feeling, and intimated that I should draw the anger of all the Europeans upon me. There will be without doubt much disappointment among many who have contemplated purchases in this district, which is the finest I have seen in New Zealand.

February 11. Having prepared the deed for signature, I took the chiefs into my house to complete the arrangements for the transfer of their land when I paid them the following property:--105 Blankets, 62 Axes, 62 Hoes, 62 Adzes, 41 Spades, 42 Iron Pots, 60 Scissors, 60 Knives, 60 Combs, 60 Razors, 60 Shaving Boxes, 40 Shirts, 40 Trowsers, 4 Gowns, One Cask of Tobacco, 400 Pipes, 4 Heifers, 1 Horse, 42 Sovereigns. The extent of land thus secured to the natives is about 30 miles long by an average of about 6 wide running in a direct line from the mouth of the harbour back to Opotiki in the Bay of Plenty. The division of the property occupied most of the day, and the parties generally were well satisfied.

February 12. While several of my yesterdays visitors were about the premises, a party arrived from the Wairoa stating that 2 vessels are now lying there, with the object of purchasing land and that 7 vessels are expected from Cook's Straits full of settlers. This news startled the people a good deal, and tends to remove all doubt from those who were inclined to favor the sale of land to Europeans, and some of them asked when I would go to the Wairoa to secure the land in that direction. I proposed to make immediate preparations and start on the morro, and a messenger was sent onward to provide food for our party.

February 13. Having a slight attack of influenza upon me accompanied with cough I deemed it most prudent to defer my journey for a few days.

February 14. Conversed with 22 candidates for baptism and afterwards proceeded inland to Patarata, Toanga and Patutahi which are

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three principal villages, 41 and administered medicine to 10 or 12 sick persons. As we drew near home an hour after sunset, I was overtaken by a very interesting old man, who began to enquire most seriously respecting eternal things.

February 15. Conversed with 36 candidates for baptism and with various other natives.

February 16. Sunday. Had service as usual at home. Preached from Matthew 13. 3-9 in the morning to about 700, and in the evening from Luke 14. 16-24. At the European service 6 were present.

February 17. Completed our preparation for departure to Wairoa and at noon set out with my nephew Henry. Passed by way of Maraetaha and saw old Taweo the principal chief of this Bay, who is fast approaching his end with a mind enveloped in darkness. Proceeded thence to Taikawakawa 42 where we brought up for the night, the weather wearing a threatening aspect. Held service with the natives & retired to rest.

February 18. A pouring rain through most of the night, but our tents were comfortable. Obliged to wait till noon on account of the weather, when we started for the woods, driving a large pig before us with which we had been provided as a feast for the evening. Pitched our tents in good time in a secluded spot at the top of the hills and made comfortable quarters for the night and prepared an ample repast. Our party is about 30.

February 19. Left our encampment early and traversed the wood for a most tedious rout, the latter part being quite overgrown with underwood. At sunset we reached Nuwaka, 43 pa of the tribe Urikapana, pleasantly situated on a grassy plain near the sea beach. At this place worship is established, a very good substitute for a bell was rung for evening prayers, but there is no regular teacher as yet for this people. We passed over and in sight of many 10,000 acres of land today, to the quiet possession of which by the New Zealand Association I would not say a word: but it is so rugged as to be of little use to man. It is worthy of observation that the New Zealander has been taught by his forefathers to cultivate the same predilictions which our own fathers have taught us, and hence they not only live upon the richest soil but also upon that which is most accessible.

February 20. This morning left Nuwaka which is to the south of Table Cape in order to visit the tribes a few miles to the north side

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of the Cape. We brought up at the Mahia of which Hapuku 44 is chief, a man who is very firm in his opposition to the reception of the gospel. One of our christian natives was with him last week, but his reception was such as not to give us a favorable impression. We however determined to spend the night there. After the usual silence which is always observed on the arrival of strangers, this man made a speech in which he plainly said he would not listen to us unless we would clothe him with blankets. We found here Tohutohu, the chief of Werowero who is just back from Ahuriri in a vessel, whither he has been to see his people, and to look after his land. He reports that our countrymen are arriving there in great numbers and that he saw nine vessels at the place. A nominal purchase has been made by a Captain Rhodes from one chief, but the natives generally are altogether opposed, and the principle claimants are now living upon Table Cape. This Rhodes professes to have purchased the whole district extending from Port Nicholson to Ahuriri in Hawks Bay, being a line of coast of more than 100 miles in extent. It is by report the finest district in New Zealand, being principally rich grass land. The property given for this by Rhodes is by the native report as follows: 13 Casks of Powder of 25 lb each, 36 Shirts, 36 Duck trowsers, a part of a Cask of Tobacco, 36 Hatchets, 36 Garden Hoes, 29 Iron Pots, £12 in cash, 12 Blankets, 3 Cloaks, 1 Coat, 2 Boxes, 20 Handkerchiefs, 40 Knives, 1 Piece of Print. The natives are told by the Europeans that the land is now bought, and that they will have no claim upon it. They are now therefore justly under great apprehension. Surely British justice will not allow these proceedings to go on.

February 21. The circumstance of my taking an interest in Hapuku's temporal concerns, (for he is one of the chief men of Ahuriri though he has been living at Table Cape for the last 7 years where he has no land of his own) seems to have brought him a little round; and this morning he requests that his brother may have some of our books, saying that perhaps he shall come round by & bye. Crossed over the neck of land to the northern shore of Table Cape where a large body of natives is living belonging to the country on this side of Port Nicholson. On our way we staid for a time with one of the chiefs of this party, who is well inclined to receive us and wishes that some of his relations should return with me to Poverty Bay to receive instruction. We passed two pas afterwards in the space of a mile and a half and brought up at the third occupied principally by Bay of Islanders, the relatives of the late chief Wera, 45 where most of the people assemble for religious instruction.

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February 22. Having determined to remain here over Sunday, I went this morning to visit a pa two miles further on the coast belonging to the natives of Port Nicholson. Our reception was very good. "Bring your treasures", said the chief, "for the young and the old for the women & children. It is by receiving the word of God that I shall go back to my own place, for it turns enemies into friends and makes people live in peace." I told him I came to bring treasures to him and to his people, but that I was fearful that as to his land he would find it occupied by [my] countrymen. In the evening this chief whose name is Tutapakihirangi, came to my tent to talk about his land which seems to be of immense extent. The place he is most anxious about is Wairarapa, about midway between Port Nicholson and Ahuriri; and he wishes me to take him there to see it when the Columbine returns again, and that if not already in possession of our countrymen, a portion may be secured for his people. He added, I am living here a stranger and have not enough to eat, because I have not land to cultivate, while those to whom this land belongs tell me that they want it for themselves.

February 23. Had service in the morning with about 300 natives and then held English service with 4 Europeans. Two of the christian natives went out afterwards, and found each a party of about 300 besides smaller companies, all apparently desirous of instruction, and some requesting that two or three of their relatives might return with me for instruction. In the afternoon a chief was sitting at my tent door who had received a few prayer books & spelling books. His tribe he says musters 100 men of whom 60 have joined us and that they want some testaments. One, which I sent for the tribe, he saw for one evening, but the chief who had fetched it from Poverty Bay kept it for himself. One of my natives remarked that their spelling books were dirty, and that they should take care of them. "Do you think", said the man, "there is only one person to handle a book? They are always in use." I promise them more books shortly, a promise I hope I shall be able to keep. The spelling book the natives have among them is generally known by heart, and it is a common practice to repeat the greater part of it in an evening, as they sit over their fires, repeating it in a song as children are taught to do in infant schools.

February 24. Left Wangawehi, 46 the place at which we have been staying, and arrived at Nuwaka about 3 o'clock. At evening service about 200 persons were present besides our own party which now musters 50. In the course of the evening I was called upon to speak to the natives about securing their land. I explained the object of our countrymen in buying up the island. I told them that Europeans being the strongest would give them the head of the pig & the feet and take

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all the flesh and the fat to themselves. The fact is that this tribe owning about 12 miles of coast, with as much of the country back as they please, possesses but a very small quantity of level ground, the rest is broken forest land inaccessible and therefore of little use. Now if the Association had the flat land in their hands, they would drive the natives from it over the hills. There was much speaking till a late hour, but all was in favor of my proposal. I hope therefore to buy this district and thus secure it for the natives. This place is in the road from Turanga to Wairoa, and is a highly interesting portion of the field of labour, because all the chiefs are decidedly in favor of the gospel.

February 25. This morning I gave out some of the remaining books for parties which before had not received any, and afterwards took down the names of the principal chiefs of this tribe and the boundaries of their land. Walked about eight miles to Wakaki which is a large body of fresh water which only has outlet to the sea when there is a flood. We intended to proceed further but the party here is large, and the chief said much about remaining for the night. We therefore pitched our tents, and in a little time an immence supply of cooked eels and potatoes was furnished to our people. This party is all favorable to instruction, and have regular worship, but are without a teacher. I was much struck while listening to a woman who was exercising herself with one of our spelling books which has not been here more than three weeks, and she can nearly read it. This party obtain an immence supply of eels, but I imagine that if the New Zealand Association were here, they would find it convenient to take the fishing for their own use. At evening service there was an attentive congregation of 300 persons including children.

February 26. Left before breakfast & pulled in a canoe the distance of 4 miles from the lake to the pa belonging to Ngaitahu, where we staid for a few hours until a plentiful supply of food was prepared. After addressing the natives, we proceeded on our way by the seaside to Wairoa, our party amounting now to 130, and arrived at the outer pa at the mouth of the river by three o'clock. The three principal chiefs of the place spoke in succession soon after our arrival, and told us they were glad to see us, but did not want our karakia, unless we brought them blankets--that theirs was the only tribe which did not believe, and that they meant to continue as they were. After a little talking their tone soon altered and the old chief requested some books. After evening prayers I talked to them about their land, which I find they have unsuspectingly turned over to Captain Rhodes; that is, three or four chiefs have signed a deed to that effect but the greater number of the proprietors of the land had no part in the transaction. They are now unanimous in their expression of feeling, and wish any steps to be taken which may secure their land to them, declaring their readiness to pay for the goods they have received from Rhodes. In the course

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of the evening the old chief Apatu, 47 who had declared his intention not to receive our religion made many interesting enquiries respecting our proceedings.

The river Wairoa is large enough to admit a vessel of 100 Tons burden, but the mouth is not only narrow, but rendered difficult by a shifting sandbank. In the time of floods this bank is swept away, and then I doubt not the passage is good, but every time the wind is on the coast there is a tendency in the waves to drive up the sand towards the mouth. At the present time there is a narrow passage, but in such a position that no vessel could attempt it with safety.

February 27. Left our quarters of last night and crossed the river to Ngamotu, distant about a mile where another tribe is living, which musters 140 men. This party has generally received the gospel, and the chiefs accordingly have [given] us a most cordial welcome. They have been instructed principally by an unbaptized native who was a slave in the Bay of Islands, and has been living here for the last year and a half. His name is Putoka, and by all accounts he has been most indefatigable in his labours. Old Apatu sends his son with me to Turanga for a testament. He (the father) came over in the afternoon and remained till after prayers. A great work is evidently going on here and the fields are ripening to the harvest.

February 28. Passed on to Uwi distant about a mile, where we are to remain over Sunday. At this place Putoko resides. He is not clear in his ideas of christian truth, but the little knowledge he possesses he has turned to the best account. He has been very active since he came in giving instruction around, and a large body of people have received him favorably. He has built a chapel at this place 33 feet square at which the people regularly assemble. This seems to be the most favorable spot for a mission station, being two miles distant from the sea, having a population within the distance of two miles of 1000 persons; about 2000 persons at a convenient distance higher up the river, besides 1200 half a days journey to the south of the Wairoa & 1200 more a days journey to the north. We found not only the people of the place, but many chiefs from the tribes up the river, and the speeches made on our arrival indicated a most cordial welcome. In no part of New Zealand which I have yet seen is there a more favorable opening for missionary labour. At evening prayers we had 4 to 500 persons.

February 29. This morning an easterly gale obliged us to turn our tents round about and to put up a screen to shelter them from the wind and rain. Had a long conversation with Putoka in order to ascertain his progress in christian knowledge, but I find that though sincere and consistent in character, he requires much instruction.

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March 1. Sunday. The heavy rain of yesterday was unfavorable to the assembling of the people in the neighbourhood. Our congregation amounted to about 500 persons. I counted at school 430. In the evening we had about 300.

March 2. Had further conversation with the chiefs about their land from which it appears that not one of those residing within the river had to do with Captain Rhodes and all are decidedly opposed to the alienation of their land. Marked the site of a house 30 feet by 20 for my own accommodation when visiting this place, telling the natives that when a missionary is appointed he would reside there. The situation is beautiful, independent of its missionary advantages. Resumed our journey towards the upper part of the river passing over the chief part of the cultivated ground, and brought up for the night at the village of a small tribe called Ngatiwahakai. Had about 100 natives at prayers in the evening.

March 3. Continued our journey partly by land & partly by canoes to the village of the tribe Tamaionerangi, being accompanied thither by some of the chiefs who had been down the river to meet us. We were much pressed to stay for the night but it was necessary to proceed further. Travelled by a difficult rout to a village occupied by Ngati-kowatu, which we did not reach till we were drenched with rain.

March 4. Proceeded to the Reinga the last village of the Wairoa. Here the river loses its name at a waterfall of splendid magnitude, 48 above which is the confluence of two smaller streams, Ruakituna & Wangaroa; 49 the one rising from the back of Wakatane and the other from Ruatahuna, a lake in the direction of Rotorua. At this village were several sick persons to whom I administered medicine. Regular worship is established here and at prayers we mustered about 100; the number when altogether being about double. It is a remarkable fact that the rock over which the river falls is full of seashells, like that at Hicks's Bay, shewing that at a distant period it was a bed of the sea, and has subsequently been elevated to its present position by that Almighty power, at whose word hereafter the heaven shall depart as a scrowl when it is rolled together and every mountain and island shall be moved out of their places.

March 5. Left early this morning in several small canoes in which we proceeded about 3 miles up the river Wangaroa and then continued our course overland through a most broken country, which from the view we had at the tops of the highest hills is the general character as far as the eye could reach.

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March 6. Continued onward in our rugged path until noon when we descended into a pleasant valley which led us to Turanga where we arrived at 2 o'clock.

March 8. Sunday. Weather wet. Held service at the pa, at which were present about 300. At European service only 3 persons besides our own family. Afternoon service with the natives on the plain beyond our house. Present about 200.

March 9. Conversed with 9 candidates for baptism and afterwards occupied in conversation and in attending to various wants of the natives.

March 10. Conversed with 43 candidates for baptism.

March 12. Held a consultation with the native teachers respecting the future disposition of our strength. It was settled that Joseph Kamon shall reside at Wairoa, for whom at present there is no companion; that Moses Ao shall live on the coast to the south of the Bay; that Richard Taki live at Table Cape and Edward Wana at Uawa. The rest of the teachers for the present remain at Turanga. A large party from Patutahi came about their land which has not yet been properly secured. Held service with them in the evening. They are very pressing to have one of our christian natives reside with them.

March 13. Engaged most of the day in paying for the house which we inhabit.

March 15. Sunday. Weather unsettled. At native service about 600 were present in the morning, and 350 in the afternoon. At native school there were 201 women & girls and 267 men & boys, of whom 21 women & 57 men are reading the scriptures.

March 16. Conversed with 24 candidates for baptism. Went afterwards to look out for a horse road to the inland villages.

March 17. Conversed with 40 candidates.

March 18. Conversed with 2 candidates, one in particular is an interesting character--an old man--a principal chief in his tribe. He shews much earnestness, and is clear in his ideas. Engaged in attending to our sick child who is seriously burnt by falling upon the fire.

March 21. Conversed with the native teachers and their wives preparatory to the administration of the Lords Supper.

March 22. Sunday. Prevented by sore throat from holding morning service which was consequently taken by Richard Taki. The rest of the teachers were out at the principal villages. Had service in the afternoon, and in the evening administered the Lords Supper to 22 persons.

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March 29. our store Sunday. Heavy rain. Held service with a few natives in

March 31. Conversed with 23 Candidates.


February 2. Sunday. Native service again in the open air, a congregation of about 600. English service afterwards at which were present 11 Europeans besides ourselves. A numerous attendance at school.

February 3. Mrs Neale 50 returned home. Many natives about as usual. We find it very difficult to keep them out of the house, not having yet any proper doors. Another party from Wairoa to apply for books.

February 7. My husband very poorly with influenza. Wrote to Mrs. Chapman and part of a letter to England.

February 9. Sunday. Services as usual. Native congregation 800-- English, only 5, several individuals being out with a party from a schooner now in the bay, who are trying to buy land.

February 10. A very large assemblage of natives came together this morning to consider William's proposal to buy their land, on behalf of the Society, to be held in trust for them and their children. Much speechifying of course and more noise. One or two of the Europeans who were present, seemed much irritated by William's cautioning the natives against persons who are buying large tracts of land for a mere nominal payment. A party of the principal chiefs were afterwards admitted into the house and we had their company till evening, when rain came on and dispersed the commonality outside, but delayed the departure of the nobility, who seemed perfectly contented and at home under the shelter of our roof.

February 11. The weather fine again, and our friends assembled again in good time, the chiefs inside the house to inspect the payment for the land which caused abundance of talking and vociferation. I was amused at overhearing one of the ladies argue very stoutly that a part of the payment ought to consist of gowns, as they (the women) could not of course wear the trowsers & shirts.

February 12. About the middle of the day Wm. informed me that he had determined to start tomorrow morning for Wairoa in conse-

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quence of what he heard from a party just arrived from thence, respecting the efforts of Europeans to possess themselves of the land. Set to work immediately to prepare food etc for their journey. All of us hard at work till bedtime.

February 13. My husband having been very poorly all night with a return of influenza yielded to my entreaties to defer his journey for a few days. Heard that the Eleanor was arrived, but disappointed to find she was not going to the Bay of Islands. Dear little Maria improves fast and is some pounds heavier since the cows arrived from Turanganui, where they were left a little time to recover from their voyage.

February 14. Began school today with the teachers and such women and girls as can read a little, hoping to bring them on to assist me in teaching when I shall have a school-room large enough for the whole number. Wm. better and out nearly all day with Henry & George, visiting some of the inland pas.

February 16. Services and school as usual. Native congregation 700. European only 6. Those persons not here who were so offended about the land business.

February 17. A morning of bustle completing the preparations for my husband's departure and finishing letters to send to Colony by Eleanor. At noon he set out with Henry as his companion. Poor James sadly distressed at not being able to accompany them.

February 18. Prepared for school, but no pupils came, probably owing to the threatening attitude of the clouds. A man brought us a few peaches requesting a knife in return, and gravely informing me that at Port Jackson I should have to pay a shilling a piece for them. I told him they were so plentiful there that they fed the pigs with them but he shook his head in token of his disbelief. The letters were brought back by the native who took them bringing word that the Eleanor was gone.

February 19. Some of the women came to school this morning, but Ripeka tells me that she cannot collect them together in the middle of the day. I have agreed to have school directly after breakfast. Ripeka is the wife of Marsden 51 a native teacher of sterling character who lives at this pa.

February 20. Was roused this morning at 6 oclock by being told that my pupils were all seated outside the house ready for school: they waited patiently however till our breakfast was over.

February 21. Mackey the Englishman who is sawing for us came to inform me that the Eleanor was expected in again, and that if I wished

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the letters to go I had better send them immediately to Werowero. 52 He procured a messenger and I wrote a note to one of Capt. Clayton's employees who lives there, requesting him to forward them on board.

February 23. Sunday. A very heavy day. No English service and in consequence of the native services being at the pa, my time was chiefly spent in taking care of my children.

February 24. Full school and many applications for physic which occupied me a good while.

February 25. School in the morning. In the afternoon, no natives being about, I wandered out a little way with my children. The scenery around us is very pretty and were it not for the uncouth fence of the pa I could almost have fancied myself walking in the fields at home.

February 28 It has been a week of unusual quietness--school very regularly attended, but the carpenter's work quite suspended.

February 29. Strong gale of winds with heavy rain. Edward 53 came in the midst of it from Paokahu "to see how Mother was fixed". Obliged to have my bedroom window blocked up with boards and burn a light during the day. Quite a flood in the middle of the house for want of proper drains to carry off the water.



I am really trying to be beforehand and have actually sat down to write before the vessel has arrived ....

We found our dwelling prepared for us, (as far as natives could do it) of ample dimensions, surrounded by a fence, and situated in a regular vineyard of tupakihi, 54 about 10 minutes walk from the river, the view of which is for the present quite obstructed by the bushes, which I could wish were of any other species. The danger however for this season is pretty well passed . . . Grass grows most luxuriantly all around, a little short fern here and there intermingled with it. We are about a quarter of a mile from the pa between which and our premises is a nice space where we hope to have a Chapel and school room erected. My husband was very desirous of having a brick Church, and the clay here would be excellent for such a purpose but we have heard so much of the frequent occurrence of earthquakes in this part

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of the island that he seems to have given up that idea altogether. Some of the pakehas in the neighbourhood have ovens scooped out of a bank of clay and they answer so well that we shall adopt the fashion and a good part of our chimney is already constructed of the same material. It is quite an experiment but it is I think likely to answer, if bricks are used for the barrel and to line the fireplace. Considering that we have only one door and no windows yet, we are tolerably comfortable: my old bedroom curtains form our partition at one end, where a few rough boards are laid down, and our two young men have each a tent for a sleeping compartment. . . .

The teachers who came with us are not to disperse to their several destinations till they have assisted us to get to rights a little, so it will be a good opportunity to drill their wives a little so that they may all teach upon one plan, and I must train some to assist in my own school, which at first will be an unwieldy body to manage ....

I wrote to dear Mrs. Chapman by the inland post last week by way of Wairoa and Taupo. It may be at least a month before it reaches her .... I hope I shall hear from you by every opportunity, letters will be doubly valuable in this secluded place.



March 1. Fine overhead but the wind still high blowing tremendously. Felt very thankful that my husband was on a land journey and not at sea. Another very profitless Sabbath spent much like the last.

March 2. School and domestic employments.

March 3. Ditto and ditto. In the afternoon gave the girls leave to take James and Maria to walk in the fields at the back of the house. A long time elapsing without their return I became uneasy and set out in search of them but they were nowhere to be seen. My first thought was the deep and rapid river, and I felt a good deal alarmed, but there were no tracks of them in that direction. I then went towards the pa, and after a little time met an old woman and one of our own natives with Fanny, both of whom told me they were at the place of a pakeha maori in the pa. Relieved but vexed I turned back & sent Katarina on to fetch them, resolved that they should not again go out of my sight.

March 4. School as usual. In the afternoon a party of natives commenced building a large store for potatoes etc.

March 5. Heard thro' some pakeha maoris from the neighbourhood of Wairoa, that our travellers were still there and not likely to be at home at present. Felt disappointed tho' I did not know whether to give credence to the report or not.

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March 6. All my natives but Ripeka and one little girl requested leave to go to a village on the coast. Just as we were finishing dinner an outcry of ko Parata, ko parata 55 gave us an agreeable surprise. I was thankful to receive them home again, both well and my husband looking much better than when he left home.

March 7. William has brought back with him a large party of natives some of whom are come to live with us, but they do not exactly add to our comfort, at present, as we are somewhat perplexed to know where to put them.

March 8. Sunday. Weather unsettled and native service held at the pa. Only 3 Europeans present at our service--no school.

March 13. Our work has gone on with tolerable regularity all week. School has been well attended and parties of natives have come to converse every day.

March 14. While engaged in turning out the contents of some boxes, poor James got out without a kaitiaki 56 and fell into the fire: he was snatched up immediately by one of the natives and so escaped with a severe burn on one hand. I consider it an especial mercy that his life is spared and desire to record my gratitude to the Almighty Giver and Preserver of it. It has been a day of great suffering to the dear child, but he is able now to bear his hand out of the water and is gone quietly to sleep.

March 15. Sunday. Weather again unsettled but not so much so as to prevent a congregation of 600 assembling on the plain. A very good attendance at school also. Poor James's hand does not appear to have been particularly painful, but the blisters have risen to an amazing size.

March 16. School and my usual domestic engagements. James very quiet and has played about as usual.

March 17. School etc. In the afternoon took a walk with William and the children leaving Henry in charge of the house.

March 18. At school all morning. James very peevish and irritable, and in the afternoon heavy and feverish. In the evening attacked with violent sickness which continued some time. Sat up with him till between 1 & 2.

March 19. My poor boy was so ill that I was obliged to let Makareta keep school. He has been in a high fever all day, and has lain quite in a stupor, he has had great inflammation in both legs and arms.

March 20. Dear little James still too ill to allow of my attending to school. Makareta my substitute. His fever has decreased and so has

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the inflammation in his legs, but it continues in his arms, and his mouth and tongue are much afflicted: the putrid smell from his hand so strong that it has been quite a trial to nurse the poor child.

March 21. My little invalid better but still very ill. Very poorly myself with sore throat.

March 22. Sunday. My husband prevented by sore throat and bad weather from taking his usual duties. James better. In the evening we had the sacrament, all the christian natives assembling to the number of 22.

March 23. Bad weather and consequently no school.

March 26. The heavy rain has lasted all week and brought us into a miserable state. This morning Wm. was taken ill with severe sickness followed by fainting, which alarmed me a good deal but I am thankful to see him much better tonight.

March 29. Sunday. Heavy rain again. A complete flood all round us. William had service with a few natives in the unfinished store.

March 30. The chimney which would have been completed but for the rain obliged to be taken down, the lower part of pisa work having given way during the wet weather.



The arrival and stay of vessels in this bay are so very uncertain that I am determined to have some letters ready and have been wishing and intending to begin every day for the last month; I cannot enumerate the many reasons why I have not, but you well know the worries and turmoils inseparable from the formation of a new station, and the necessity for keeping the children close by your side. We are mate rawa 57 for some news from the Bay of Islands, first & foremost of our dear children, next of you and all yours, and then we should be glad of some information on very many subjects which you know to be interesting to us ... .

April 2. Since I last took up my pen, my poor boy has been very ill, but I am thankful to add that he is now quite well again. . . .

The last fortnight has been a continuation of very bad weather, which has brought us acquainted with all the discomfort of our situation, and we are still without many comforts in our house with which we might have been provided if our carpenter had not been so intolerably lazy. Henry is helping his uncle to build the chimney this week and handles the trowel famously. Notwithstanding we are all

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sixes and sevens & anybody looking in upon us from the civilized north would think us in a miserable plight, (which has indeed been the case during the wet weather), we manage to pursue our respective avocations with tolerable regularity. We have altered the hours for our meals, and find our plan answers well so far: we breakfast at 8, dine at 3 or later, according to the employment of the day, and drink tea at 7. William takes his two pupils before breakfast and again in the evening before tea . . .

The native men & boys have their school immediately after their morning prayers and Renata presides over it. My school I find it necessary to have at 9 oclock and it generally occupies me till 12 every day but Saturday unless weather prevents. I began by fixing an hour later in the day, but I found most of the women were so dispersed by noon that it was impossible to collect them together. At present I only have those who can profess to read (but some of them can read well) and am endeavouring to prepare them for teachers against the time when we shall have a school room. Including my own girls I have generally about 20. On the Sunday at least 150 assemble to say catechisms, and I expect to have a goodly number every day as soon as I have a place to keep school in. But we are sadly in want of books and slates. The number we brought with us was as nothing compared with the demand, and next to the books, the cry is for clothing. William has a very interesting little band of enquirers with some of whom he is much pleased. The native teachers have certainly not been idle for he finds most of them well informed. Renata & Katarina remain with us, an arrangement which adds much to my comfort, but which I had not expected. Wm. did not intend to keep them here, but found he must have someone who could teach school and overlook out door concerns, and the choice naturally fell upon him. Both the children are so fond of her, and she of them, that I don't know what I should do without her just now. Hohepa and Ripeka are gone to Wairoa-- he bids fair to become a valuable assistant.

I do miss very much the weekly bags of clothes and the accompanying pukapukas. 58 When shall we hear from you and of you. The time seems very long.



[Routine station entries--conversing, visiting sick, building chimney-- for April 1-4, 6-7, 9, 27, 29-30.]

April 5. Sunday. The weather being moderate we had service on the plain. Present about 400. Rain at noon prevented us from having school. At our English service we had 14 Europeans besides our own

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family. Heard from William Ngakuku who is just from Opotiki, that three Popish priests had arrived at Tauranga, 59 some of whom will doubtless come further down on the coast.

April 8. Conversed with 15 Candidates. Went to visit a sick native. Had an application for native books from a European living at Mawai 60 who states that he is continually solicited by the natives for a supply, and being told that there are none to be had he wished to know whether it is practicable to have some printed in New South Wales. In the evening my brother arrived from the Bay of Islands bringing much important intelligence. 61

April 11. Went to the wood to look after timber. In the evening a party came from Table Cape. They had seen the vessel enter the Bay, and came up for the chance of obtaining books. It is the party belonging to Wairarapa near Port Nicholson & two of the principal men are to go in the vessel with my brother to see after their land.

April 12. Sunday. Bad weather coming on, but a large body of natives came together for service, and leaving my brother in charge I went to Werowero, where there was a congregation of about 200. Some of the people here, it is said, are disposed to receive the Papists should they come, but I find them all anxious to obtain books and to receive instruction. Held service also with 5 Europeans.

April 13. Unpacked the native books, and was occupied the greater part of the day in folding. Several natives about the house all applying for books.

April 16. Gave out books for natives of Table Cape and Nuwaka for 7 distinct tribes.

April 17. Good Friday. Assembled the natives to service on the plain which is still very wet from the late rains. Six Europeans present at English service. Went in the afternoon to visit sick natives.

April 18. Very numerous applications for books. A man brought a pig with which he tried to purchase a testament three months ago. I was now able to give him one.

April 19. Sunday. The weather being fine our congregation was about 800. At European service 6.

April 20. Continual applications through the day for books, so that before night all the testaments were gone and about 300 Prayer Books. Conversed with 8 Candidates.

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April 21. My door still surrounded by persons wishing to purchase Testaments & Prayer books. I have now received payment for ten since my stock was expended. The books are to be given when the next supply arrives. Conversed with 10 Candidates.

April 22. Conversed with 29 Candidates. After which I was engaged during the remainder of the day in attending to applications for books. Among the applicants was a party from Uawa, being representatives of 6 tribes, who seem to be all with one Consent enquiring after better things. Wm. Ngakuku, a native teacher from Tauranga, now on a visit at that place, writes me word that he finds the people there so desirous of instruction that he must continue there for a time. The chief man of the party, who has, I should imagine been a turbulent fellow in his day was exceedingly importunate for a Testament, "For what have I laid aside my guns and my fighting?" said he, "Is it not that I may have this book & become a believer?"

April 23. Went to Turanganui, after first attending a few applications for books. Found that the Aquila was in the Bay from Tauranga, and heard that the Popish Priests have advanced to Opotiki. 62

April 24. Natives still clamorous for books and gave out the last of the Prayer books. Several applicants afterwards went away without any, who had brought their food some distance to purchase them. Conversed with 23 Candidates for baptism and took occasion to speak of the Popish heresy, and the necessity of taking scripture as our guide to truth. One man very truly observed, "We want to buy scriptures but you will not supply us. We can neither read for ourselves nor have others read".

April 26. Sunday. Fine weather. A congregation of about 800 present. At school there were about 600. After service I went inland to Toanga, where I had a congregation of about 100, many being away further up the country, it being the season of taking up the crops. Attended afterwards a few sick persons.

April 28. Conversed with 40 candidates. Speaking to one of the most intelligent on the importance of taking the scripture as the standard of our faith in opposition to the methods of the Papists, he remarked, "I have not seen the letters of the book". It is lamentable that this people cannot be told to read the scriptures, because there are not scriptures for them to read, though otherwise desirous of doing so. Went in the afternoon to see sick natives in the Pa.

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April 4. This week has been occupied by school and my usual family duties without anything particular occurring to vary the scene. Wm. and his nephew have been busy building the chimney which is sufficiently completed to allow a fire being lighted in it. We have heard tonight that Ngakuku has arrived at the pa from Tauranga and Opotiki.

April 5. Sunday. Ngakuku came while we were at breakfast. We felt disappointed at his bringing not a single line from Mr. Brown to inform us of what was going on. Ngakuku did his best to make up for Mr B's deficiencies, and gave us a great deal of news, much of which we give credit to. Services and school as usual. The evening so cold that we had some loose boards laid down to enable us to sit by the fire in our new chimney, the comfort of which we can duly appreciate.

April 6. Only 5 women at school, which I shall now be obliged to suspend till the kumera harvest is over.

April 7. Mr Espie called and drank tea with us, and amused us with his account of Port Nicholson which place he has recently visited.

April 8. Engaged all day in moving and arranging the boxes and cases to make room for the carpenters who have at last begun the floor. Heard in the morning that a vessel was working into the bay. After a very fatiguing day succeeded in getting one corner of the house comfortable for the evening, and had just sat down to enjoy the unusual comfort of a fire when Kamon made his appearance and informed us that Te Wiremu 63 was arrived and close at hand. William and the two young men immediately started out to meet him, but taking the wrong path, missed him. His strange and wonderful news astonished us all, and we sat listening and asking questions till 1 oclock in the morning.

April 9. Mr. Harris called soon after breakfast. Capt. Clayton arrived while we were at dinner and staid tea. Read some of my letters while Henry & Wm. were out, which I could only skim last night.

April 10. Henry's store of news seems inexhaustible. My mind has been so engrossed that I cannot bring it down to the common affairs of every day life. Gave the girl my yeast jug to wash, half full of beautiful yeast, which she, having no discrimination, threw away, and then forgot to reserve a piece of leaven, thereby losing the power of supplying Henry with some bread for his voyage, which vexed me more than the prospect of eating heavy bread for some days to come. After dinner I strolled out with Henry & Wm. to the river side, and quite forgot that the bread had to be baked. At bedtime recollected that a plum pudding I had made for Sunday, was still in the saucepan which was found standing in the middle of the yard where the fire had been, my Kuware 64 stewards having exercised no more thought than myself.

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April 11. The packages arrived from the ship 65 and among them the basket of beautiful preserve, a substantial proof that we are not forgotten by those we have left behind. Capt. Clayton and Mr. Brown 66 called, and were invited to dinner, but declined.

April. 12. The weather cold and threatening, consequently a smaller congregation than usual and very few at school. Henry took the services at home and William went to Werowero, a pa on the south side of the bay, where reside the only party likely to encourage Pikopo.

April 13. This morning was appointed for Henry's departure, and he was actually preparing to go, notwithstanding the pouring rain, when a note arrived from Capt. Clayton to say the vessel would not sail. William unpacked the books, and the rain continuing without intermission, all but myself spent the day in folding & stitching prayer-books.

April 14. The wind and rain still unabated made us feel thankful Henry is with us, safely housed, tho' we will not say much for the comfort. All set to work again folding & stitching the books. Capt. Clayton came in at dusk and staid tea. After he was gone I read the "United Journal" to the stitching party, Henry giving us notes and explanations by the way.

April 15. The wind quite gone down and the rain only falling in showers. Capt. C. and Mr. Brown were to have breakfasted with us, but sent an excuse. Wm. equipped Henry as well as he could with flushing trowsers 67 boots etc. etc. for the walk to Turanganui a distance of about 6 or 7 miles, which there is every reason to suppose would be water nearly all the way. His companions soon made their appearance and they started during a fine interval, Wm going with them as far as the pa where they were to cross the river, [rest of entry missing].



I was very wakatakariri 68 on the arrival of Wm. Marsh from Opotiki to learn that you had excused yourself from writing because you were in a hurry. Five minutes would have saved your credit. I have yet to learn whether or no you have given a letter of introduction to Pikopo who

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arrived last night in the Aquila & has probably landed today. 69 I hope that some of his people will be here for I shall be able to watch them & attend upon them & serve them as George Clarke has just served a dog in my yard--shoot them in the side. The people here are all for karakia & I trust but little mischief will be done. As for books they devour them & I could now sell at Turanga alone at least 200 Testaments. The congregations in my parish amount to at least 8000 but the wiseacres at the northward whose ideas are as frigid as though they lived at Melville Island 70 would have sent me only the same proportion which was reserved for Waimate had it not been for my brothers interference. I have at this place about 100 candidates for baptism besides a number who meet the native teachers. About 20 are in the first class & are in an advanced state. I meet them about 10 at a time & note on paper the manner in which they answer, so that a register being kept of their answers week by week, it may be seen without difficulty the rank they take. I purchased this place for the Society on the behalf of the natives extending nearly to Opotiki on the 11th of Feby. Whether this will be set aside by the Gov. or no remains to be seen. At any rate I think this place will not fall into the hands of Europeans.

It is truly astonishing to find how the gospel has gained ground even where we have no teachers. Within a fortnight of my arrival I had applications for books from the Wairoa daily for many days, the natives bringing with them books written by themselves. At that place & at the Mahia there are not less than 3000 who assemble for worship. At Uawa there are more than 600 & at Waiapu more than 3000. Mr. Kemp 71 of course does not move & Mr. Puckey 72 has the sanction of N.D. Com. to settle on his bees, besides which he has many grey hairs in his head. I have written strongly home & I doubt not but that they will send more help. My letter is backed now by the report of 27,000 natives in our congregation throughout the Mission. I have written for Mr. Morgan & I hope there will be no buts & impediments. My parish is more than 130 miles long without reckoning the indentations of the coast, & although I am perfectly satisfied to be alone while need requires, it is clear that my attention to the various parts of my parish must be very limited. I hope therefore he will be hastened onward by the return of the Columbine & in the meantime I shall order his [house] at Waiapu. By the way I have invited Mr. Davis 73 to make a sojourn of six months in my house at Wairoa. I had intended to go to Opotiki from Waiapu thinking to meet Pikopo, but as he is here & not there I shall defer my visit . . . Pauri reports that all Tauranga is after the beast. Praying that you may be strengthened for the conflict.


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[Routine station entries for May 1, 4, 11, 12]

May 3. Sunday. A fine morning was favorable to the assembling of our scattered congregations. From 800 to 900 were present. It is a truly grateful sight to witness the gathering together on the ringing of a bell, of the various parties pouring in from all directions. Preached from Matthew 4. At European service 6 were present. Went in the afternoon to Werowero. About 100 assembled at the place of worship. An equal number were sitting apart, having been induced by a native recently from the Bay of Islands, to declare themselves in favor of the Papists. Had a long conversation with this party which was satisfactory. Nothing can more clearly mark the enmity of Satan to the seed of the woman than the efforts now making by the Papists. Every possible device is made use of to deceive. But the serpents head will soon be completely crushed.

May 5. Conversed with natives about the Treaty with the Queen of England, sent hither by the Governor for signatures. The natives approve of the tenor of it, & several signatures of the leading men were obtained.

May 10. Sunday. Held service at home and had an attentive congregation of about 900. Eleven Europeans were at English service, after which I baptized the child of a European. Went in the afternoon to Werowero, and proceeded direct to the house at which the professed Papists assemble. They were very civil and I proposed to hold my service there, so we had Papists on one side & Protestants on the other while I sat in the middle. There were about 70 of each. It was sufficient for me to obtain a hearing. They however cautiously abstained from joining in the singing or responses . . . Our service being ended, I was preparing to depart, but the Papists said they had listened to me, & I must now hear their service, and having some curiosity withal I staid. A very small book was then produced, from which was said and sung a most miserable ditty, quite after the manner of the old New Zealand songs. This being concluded, I asked them if they could tell me the meaning or explain the benefit they might expect? I then pressed them to reject such vain repetition, and to follow that only way which is pointed out in the bible.

May 13. [Journey to East Cape] Left home after dinner accompanied by George Clarke and slept at Turanganui.

May 14. Set out on my journey 74 and arrived at an early hour at Pouawa. About 30 people live at this place, who regularly worship according to the little light they possess. They were very urgent for

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books, complaining that they had not been supplied. Gave them one Testament, one Prayer book & a Catechism.

May 15. Set out at sunrise & reached Pakarae to breakfast. At this place there is a congregation of about 50. Here again I was beset for books & had to leave out of my small supply for the East Cape, 2 Prayer books & 2 Catechisms. Proceeded onwards past Cape Gableend-foreland and pitched our tents at Puatai, a pa recently made by a tribe from Uawa. The party here is small, but the place is furnished with a bell which is an indication of good.

May 16. On our way to Uawa we had to pass another party, and at a little distance from the place we found a flax leaf sticking in the sand on which was written, "Ekoro e Parata haere mai ho mai te rongo pai o te Atua nui o Ihu Karaiti, ho mai ki nga wahi e pangia ana e te pouri. Ehoa ehara i au i tuhi na ki a koe. Na Uhuteama ki a Parata Wiremu." The translation is as follows, "Brother come and give the gospel of the great God, of Jesus Christ, give it to the places which are covered with darkness. My friend it has not proceeded from me that I have written to you. From Uhuteama to Brother Williams." We went up to the place and found about 20 men, who had come from the woods where they live and were waiting for our arrival expecting to obtain books. I had much difficulty to quiet them with a promise of a supply when the next arrival comes, giving them for the present 2 Prayer books, and 2 Catechisms. At the next place our reception was good, but the demand for books the same; and thus it appears I shall have to run the gauntlet from this place to the East Cape. Several people accompanied us to Uawa, which we reached about 4 o'clock. In the evening I addressed several persons who were assembled in the house of Kaniatakirau.

May 17. Sunday. Held service in the Pa, at which about 250 persons were present. At school there were 174 viz 20 boys, 79 men and 55 Women and girls repeating catechisms, and 20 men reading in the Scriptures, of whom 9 read very fairly, although among the whole there were but 4 Testaments to use. In the afternoon we had about 100 and in the evening about the same number. At night I had a party at my tent door, who may be termed inquirers, many of them having a good portion of knowledge, which they have picked up as opportunity has offered, without having any regular instruction.

May 18. Before daybreak I was roused by an applicant for a book, who said he was alone and urged me to give him one before the crowd came to apply. As soon as I was up several came to ask, not for a supply for individuals but for distinct parties, and having but 12 Prayer books and a similar number of Catechisms, I turned them over to the chief to distribute. Left Uawa as soon as the tide allowed us, and made a short journey to Waiokahu where the chief Pahura so pressed us that we were under the necessity of staying for the night. Here again I was beset for

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books for two parties of about 60 persons each, who regularly meet for worship but have scarcely a book among them. Gave one testament to Pahura, but the rest of the people were much dissatisfied that I did not leave more.

May 19. Left Waiokahu and went to Anaura a distance of not more than seven miles. Books again were all the cry, and after saying a little and giving 3 Prayer books & 2 Catechisms, I proceeded onward, being followed by applicants for Testaments, whom I had to satisfy by writing down their names with a promise that they should be supplied when the next came. We had not gone more than a mile when we were met by about 20 young men, who said that the chief of their place was on his way, and that we must stay the night--that he had hitherto rejected instruction from natives but said he would receive it from a European. There were in the party about 40 or 50 persons & I had to stay for the night, and gave the old man a Testament & a Prayer book.

May 20. Set out at 3 o'clock in the morning by moonlight in order to save the tide and arrived at Motukaroro at sunrise. Potae 75 the chief had been supplied with books, but this made no difference with his people who had not. They had all a strong claim to urge, which I could very partially meet. Two miles further on we came to a small party of 30. The chief said he had come out of the woods on purpose to wait for me; that he had not begun to "karakia", but would do so now, and that I must supply him with books. I had a hard matter to persuade him that he could not have a Testament. About 2 miles further on we came to a larger party which has had a small supply. But a small supply only increases the desire of those who have none, and the pressing request of many was necessarily denied. At sunset we pitched our tent at Tokomaru, just as the natives were assembling for prayers. At this place there is much improvement since I last visited it. Most of the people come together regularly for prayers and school, and a chapel is building 40 feet by 24. We had about 250 at service. In the evening I gave 10 Prayer books & 2 Testaments for the whole tribe.

May 21. After morning prayer the school assembled. It has been entirely set on foot by a young man who accompanied me to the Bay 3 years ago, where he staid about 12 months, and though it wants much setting to rights, it does him much credit. There were in all 197 of whom 30 are children, about 56 women & the rest men. One class of 11 are reading, but hitherto they have had only two books to use. Another class of 24 were writing on slates, that being the whole number they possess, & the rest repeated catechisms. After school the chief called for me to see the number of people who are without books. In order to quiet them I had to give 4 more prayer books & 4 catechisms. A native afterwards offered a new shirt for a prayer book but I could not part with one at any rate. Left Tokomaru and came to Waipiro, a pa at which we

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found about 200 natives, a goodly portion of whom are children. The request for books again commenced but as we are now near to Waiapu, I told the people they must wait until a regular division is made at Wakawitira. A native afterwards brought a very handsome mat which he offered for a Testament, but I was obliged to deny him. I did not suppose there was any school at this place, but after I was in bed I heard a large party at work in regular order, first repeating catechism, and then the spelling lesson from the small school book.

May 22. Left Waipiro before daylight and reached Wareponga as the inhabitants were at prayers to the number of about 100 in a neat little chapel 24 feet by 18. As our party had not had prayers we assembled outside this chapel, when I said a few words to the people of the place. Proceeded onwards to Wakawitira which was reached about 4 o'clock. Addressed the natives in the evening.

May 23. After morning prayers the school assembled in which were the following classes. [174 men and boys, and 158 women and girls divided into nine classes. They were variously reading the New Testament, the Spelling book, the Catechism and Luke's gospel.] Engaged during the day in making a division of the books for this neighbourhood. In the evening held prayers and addressed the natives, and afterwards conversed with several till a late hour.

May 24. Sunday. About 900 natives assembled in the chapel 76 whom I addressed from Acts 16. 31. After service there assembled at school 538 -- namely 253 women & girls & 285 men & boys. Went afterwards to William Ikautapu's house and conversed with 11 candidates for baptism; and a little before sunset held afternoon service at which about 800 were present.

May 25. Talked to the natives about the treaty with the British Government, and obtained the signatures of the chiefs of Wakawitira. Afterwards conversed with 18 candidates for baptism, whom I found generally deficient in information. The old chief of this Pa, Ouenuku, 77 the patriarch of the tribe, died about a fortnight ago. He was a man in whose favor I was much prepossessed when I first saw him, and to the last he shewed himself a decided friend to our cause. But I trust he was not merely a friend, and that he himself partook of the blessings which the gospel has brought to this place. He died expressing his trust in Christ, and desired his people to remain stedfast in worshipping God, and not to return again to their former habits.

May 26. Engaged during the day in talking with candidates for baptism, from whom I have selected 13 to be admitted to that ordinance. Addressed the natives in the evening.

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May 27. Held service this morning in the chapel, and baptized the first fruits of this station, being 10 men and 3 women. May they indeed be baptized with the Holy Ghost, that they may be Christs faithful soldiers & servants unto their lives end. Afterwards I baptized 7 children, whose parents are now in the Church of Christ. At noon went to Rangitukia which we reached an hour before sunset.

May 28. Visited the native school before breakfast at which were two classes reading the Testament containing 35. 126 children engaged in the lessons of the Infant school, 120 women & 150 men repeating catechism & spelling lessons, making a total of 431. Among the number were many hoary heads, who seem to take to the exercise of school with as much regularity as little children. Went afterwards to see the native teacher James Kiko who till a late period has had the sole charge here. At his home I conversed with 12 candidates for baptism; the total number here are 120, about the same number being at Wakawitira. In the evening took service in the chapel which was completely filled, and addressed the congregation from St. John 1.9. The chapel is a very neat building 44 feet by 24 & has only one fault which is that it is but half the size required.

May 29. The night was very boisterous and at times the wind blew a hurricane, so that although I had taken much precaution with my tent, it came adrift on one side, and but for the assistance of the natives would have blown over. After the tent was secure the rain came down in torrents, but I was free from wet. In the morning after repitching the tent I went to James Kiko's house where I was conversing with candidates for baptism till night.

May 30. Visited the morning school, in which the total was precisely the same as on the 28th . . . One circumstance is worthy of observation, that of the adult classes engaged in Catechism & Spelling lessons, there were at least one fourth of both men & women who had infants in their arms or on their backs. Engaged during the remainder of the day in examination of candidates, many of whom I find well prepared considering the circumstances under which they have been placed. This opportunity however has enabled me to make many suggestions to our native teachers, by following which they will I trust proceed on a more efficient principle.

May 31. Held morning service at nine at which our congregation was about 600. Those in the building who were as closely packed as it was possible, I counted out after service as being exactly 400. The rest were outside. After the second lesson I baptized 26 adults, among whom were several leading chiefs, three being heads of their respective tribes. After service I was occupied in arranging sponsors & names for the younger children of those admitted into the church, and this being concluded, I returned to the chapel with the christian natives who are communicants, amounting to 12, to whom I administered the Lords Supper, the natives baptized today & those also from Wakawitira being

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present as spectators. At 4 o'clock held evening service during which the children, 21 in number were baptized.


[East Cape journey continued]

June 1. Married 13 couple of the natives baptized yesterday. This step has been deemed expedient because many of the men have two or more wives, all of whom are put away save one. After breakfast read to the chiefs the treaty with the British Government, which was afterwards signed by three principal chiefs. Left Rangitukia and after hard walking reached a small pa called Horoera to the west of the East Cape, about sunset. Held evening service in a neat chapel 30 feet by 20. The congregation is about 50. Conversed in the evening with 12 candidates for baptism.

June 2. Held service at sunrise and again addressed the natives after which I had 10 more candidates. Many from among the number are in a pleasing state & possess much knowledge. Passed on to Hekawa distant about 4 miles. Here too I find good work going on under our native teacher John Timo. A congregation of about 150 assembled at evening prayers after which I had a party of 20 enquirers at my tent with whom I was engaged about 2 hours.

June 3. Heavy rain in the night & a prospect of its continuance induced us to take shelter in a house near at hand. The rain afterwards cleared off, but a river we had to cross in our way to Kawakawa where John Timo lives, was too much swollen to allow us to pass on. Conversed with many enquirers during the day, and in the evening I was requested to meet them in a house which was prepared for the purpose.

June 4. The chief of Hekawa, Houkamau, 78 requested me to go with him to his house to talk. He said that he had not yet been to John Timo, and that he did not go to the house last night where the natives were assembled, lest they should say he went because a European was there. He said he was a very bad man but he wished to receive instruction. I had in all 46 enquirers at this place. The school assembled in the morning to the number of 106. Went in the afternoon to Kawakawa and addressed the natives in the evening.

June 5. Much rain during the night and morning, but we were comfortably sheltered in John Timos house. Conversed with a few enquiring natives and then administered the Lords Supper to John & his wife, after which we returned to Hekawa, having much difficulty in crossing the river, my companion George being ducked over head & ears. Houkamau came again to my tent to talk & will I trust prove sincere.

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June 6. Left a little before daylight on our return. I was soon overtaken by two grey bearded men, who are enquiring the way to Zion, & several others joined in succession for the same purpose. We stayed at Horoera to breakfast, and as soon as our repast was finished, the old chief of the place Tirapueru requested me to go to his house, where I met the same party which came to me on Monday. Continued our journey to Rangitukia which we reached just after sunset. The weather being unsettled we went to James Kiko's house, where we had a very comfortable room clean & well spread with mats.

June 7. Sunday. Weather wet. Held service in the chapel with a congregation of about 350. In the afternoon attended school & had a second service.

June 8. Left Rangitukia and arrived at Wareponga in the evening.

June 9. Went to Waiapu to breakfast & thence to Tokomaru & arrived at Motukaroro at night, at which place I spoke to the few who assembled.

June 10. Left at daybreak in order that we might pass the rocks at low water & by hard travelling we reached Uawa before dark. Here we found a schooner from the Bay of Islands, but my letters had been left by mistake at Tauranga.

June 11. Much rain in the night & a prospect of bad weather, but at eleven there was an improvement in the weather, & we started on our way & made a good days journey. A strong wind has set up from the Eastward with a prospect of abundance of rain.

June 12. Being within a days journey of home, I determined to push on through the rain, which fell moderately till 2 o'clock, by which time we were within the precincts of Turanga & reached our home after dark, having been preserved in good health during the whole trip, & finding that the same blessing had been enjoyed by my family at home.

June 13. The rain began to fall heavily soon after our arrival, and a heavy flood was the consequence, higher than has been for some years. The water was only two inches from the level of our floor.

June 28. Sunday. Held service on the plains, the weather being fine. A congregation of about 400 was present. Went in the afternoon to Werowero & had a mixed congregation of professed Papists & Protestants. The former very civil & I trust with a little attention under God's blessing they will give up their vain professions.

June 29. Spoke with 25 candidates from Paokahu & Toanga. The natives are at length taking steps about the erection of a church.

June 30. Engaged the whole morning with 55 candidates from the neighbourhood.

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May 12. Occupied all day in preparing for my husband's departure.

May 13. After a morning of great bustle increased by the number of natives sitting about, William with his companion Geo. Clarke set out, Henry accompanying them as far as Turanga nui (where they are to bring up for the night) in order to bring back the trees and plants which were deposited in Mr. Harris's garden. A very solitary afternoon and evening. Endeavoured to write but accomplished very little.

May 14. Much indisposed all day and unable to do anything. Henry returned to a late dinner.

May 15. Still very poorly, but able to use my needle, and direct Kino in doing what was actually necessary.

May 16. Very ill all day and had serious thoughts of sending after my husband to fetch him back. Felt much the miserable state of our house wh. would not allow me to escape at all from the noise and annoyance of the natives. Katarina took charge of James and Maria and washed them in the evening. Relieved at night by a little quiet and rest for which I hope I felt thankful.

May 17. Sunday. Still very much indisposed tho' better. Morning service held at the Pa by Marsden who sent word at the conclusion of it that he was too poorly either to attend school or take the afternoon service. The latter was consequently omitted. We had the bell rung for school and a large number assembled, but Henry having no one to assist him some confusion prevailed.

May 18. I have great cause for gratitude to our Heavenly Father having been so much better today as to be able to attend to my regular duties. Many applicants for medicine to whom I attended as far as they come within the compass of my very small portion of skill.

May 19. Preparing sewing for Erena--the wife of the native teacher at Patutahi. An exceedingly quiet day which has proved very salutary.

May 20. Occupied in usual domestic employments.

May 22. Messenger arrived from Rotorua with letters from Mr. and Mrs. Chapman and two newspapers containing an account of the Birmingham riots. 79 Mrs Neale came in the afternoon and brought me part of her stock of fowls.

May 23. Usual Saturday employments delayed to a late hour on account of carpenters work.

May 24. Sunday. No English service. School with the usual attendance.

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May 25. Putoko from the Wairoa came to request a supply of books. We gave him all in our power--viz. a catechism and some lessons. He then begged to have a piece of soap to wash his child, as his name was Te Wiremu. Heard from one of the sawyers that a schooner is at the Mahia supposed to be the Ariel. Itotu with two companions came to begin the partitions, I suppose in consequence of my telling him last week that as nobody would come to do anything for us, it would be well to consider about returning to the Bay of Islands, and that if I were to go in the Ariel, he knew very well that Parata would follow us as soon as he returned.

May 26. A pakeha of the name of Hayes 80 from Waiapu called, and I had the comfort of hearing of our travellers who were quite well on Friday last, and proceeding to the extreme point of their destination. The house in much confusion all day from our workmen at the partitions.

May 27. Too much noise and confusion to allow of my doing anything comfortably. Katerina on the sick list, and Pueru and her husband quarrelling.

May 28. Very poorly again, but fortunately not obliged to make any particular exertions. Kino sick as well as Katerina, consequently had none but my kuwares 81 about of whom I have three--two married women and one little girl the size of Kino, whose cousin she is.

May 29. The confusion, dirt & noise made by our workmen made the day pass wretchedly enough, added to which Maria has had no nurse.

May 30. Usual Saturday occupations.

May 31. Sunday. A very quiet day. Service at the Pa. School as usual.



[The letter was begun on 22 April, but these extracts are from portion dated 11 May.]

As much of my work as possible has been put on one side for my writing .... We have had poor Mrs. Neal for three days. There is every reason to suppose that the Cadmus in which her husband embarked was lost in the hurricane of February 29th, as neither she nor any of her crew have been heard of since. Poor Mrs. Neale is consequently in a good deal of distress, tho' she clings to the hope that he may have

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gone on in the Dunscombe to Sydney according to his original intention, as she has had no certain information about his being in the Cadmus. From Mr. Harris's account, however, I fear her hopes will prove delusive. She is going to the Bay in the Ariel. Should she require guidance and advice you will I am sure do your best for her, for her forlorn situation will be sufficient to engage your sympathies on her behalf. She may not however trouble you, as she is so well known to Mr. Clendon, and Mr. Baker ought to do what he can for her. 82

Your letters are so full that I don't know where to begin to answer them: first of all however, I think I may congratulate you on the settlement being freed from some of the useless lumber--worse than useless I might say for they certainly are a reproach to the mission. I wish the Horotutu family were as well disposed of, for they nominally it seems have nothing to do with the mission, but while they continue in the settlement they will not cease to be as thorns in the side, or pricks in the eyes, for her mischievous spirit will never rest, nor let other people rest. I am sorry to find that her repeated trials have had no right effect upon her. I cannot but consider her as an awful character. 83

I do not wonder at your dreading the effects of these great changes, for I am much inclined to fear that Paihia will lose the character of a missionary station, amid the noise and glitter and parade of government proceedings, and I shall be very glad to hear that his Excellency prefers Okiato and removes thither. You have had much to try you in every way, and your husband's continual absence from home is a very serious thing to say nothing of private and personal feelings, but then poor Wanganui it seems would have been lost but for his efforts. Really our good brethren confine themselves to these northerly latitudes, till they are literally frozen, and expect every body else to become as stiff and cramped as they are. That Wanganui business 84 was most amazing, but

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it is very evident that an higher hand was to have the guidance. As for Mr. T. [Taylor] I think they make a tool of him. Your copy of his note put my ngakau up 85 as well as yours. Those that will work, may work all the world over, and if we can but do it with singleness of heart and eye looking for nothing in return, we shall find ourselves blest. If Mr. T. intends to take other peoples children he will find it necessary to go into school a little earlier than 11 oclock, as I suppose he will think it desirable to give satisfaction to other parents. And when he can forego his favourite pursuits, and gives up his own comforts in the same degree that Parata can & does for the sake of others, I will give him leave to find fault with his want of foresight & arrangement. Wm. I know thought that he had provided no small quantity of timber, but then his ideas were not so extensive as Mr. & Mrs. T's, tho' we had contemplated a new school room & a covered place for the boys to play in. Henry seemed better satisfied than he expected to be, and I hope a bad beginning may make a good ending, but I do feel very vexed that he had no more consideration for you, and so little remembrance of what you had done for him & his family. Unless matters improve, I should like to have our own boys and yours down here in the summer, for I think with the assistance of the two already here they might do very well, and we know that teaching is one of the best methods of learning. I write all this you know for your private eye and ear, and that brings poor Marianne to my mind. I am sorry she did not give her presuming admirer a good rebuff for I am sure he deserved it. 86 He is such an ignorant empty headed young man, I should be quite grieved for her to have any predilection for him, or to be thrown away on anyone not worthy of her. How does Edward go on with his affairs 87 and did you and Mrs. D. have any further conversation on the subject? One of the family is all very well, but she is the only desirable one.

I often think of you and wonder how you get on with all this increase of company & confusion, and your husband away too. This I know is your most grievous trial, but I trust you will find yourself strengthened from Above and that faith and patience will not fail. I stumbled this morning upon an old register of 1826 88 which contains some extracts from your letters. Your trials in those days were of a very different nature from your present ones, but I don't think they were heavier, and as you experienced the fulfilment of the Divine promises then, so I trust you do now. Our way has been very smooth and straight forward hitherto and we have had very few troubles to contend with, but a new station now does not present the same difficulties as in former days. An acquaintance with the language and the character of the natives prevents much that would occur otherwise. Henry half promised to bring you

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and the children next summer to see us. How delightful it would be to have a family meeting. You must try and find someone to keep house for you, for it will do you a world of good (as poor Mother used to say) and Marianne and all the children too. You can arrange for 3 months holidays and if your pupils and inmates are all wanaungas, 89 there will be nobody to find fault. We might have Maria too, 90 for there is some idea, that is, my husband has some idea, that Mr. Morgan may come to Waiapu, as the good folks at Kaitaia are determined to sit still. Wm. has written to Mr. Davis urging him to put in practice his own proposition of occupying a new post for a few months till a resident missionary should be forthcoming. I scarcely expect that he will accede, but I have given Mrs. D. an invitation to come down with him. Wairoa is the place, and you will learn something about it in Wm's journal.



Poverty Bay 8 May 1840

I lately received from Rev. H. Williams a Draft of Treaty between H.M. Queen Victoria and the Chiefs of New Zealand for the approval and signatures of the Chiefs between the East Cape and Ahuriri together with a Bale of Blankets for distribution among the said Chiefs.

I am happy to inform you that the leading men in this Bay have signed the Treaty and I have no doubt but that all the rest will follow their example. In about a week I expect to proceed to the East Cape, but it will be the latter end of July or August before I shall again see the natives of Wairoa ....

The Blankets have been given at the rate of one to each Chief and it will require at least sixty more to complete the bounty throughout.



Turanga 18 May 1840

Having completed my despatches for the Bay of Islands, I promise myself the pleasure of a little paper chat with you, a gratification I have not enjoyed for a great length of time. Indeed I cannot remember when I last wrote to you but all my correspondents have been unavoidably neglected during the last year and a half. Now however that we are becoming tolerably settled in this part of the island I hope to find a little more writing time, but the last twelve months of our residence at Waimate was such a harassing period, (chiefly owing to the continual

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illness of the natives, as well as of my English assistant, and to the enlarged size of the family) that I believe I wrote to no one . . . except my dear Mother ....

This change in our situation & employment is a very great relief to his [William's] mind for tho' he felt it an imperative duty to remain in the school so long as there was no one else to take charge of it, yet his heart was always with these neglected tribes, and I think his intense desire to come among them was increased by the lukewarmness and apathy evinced by many of those from whom we expected better things .... The chief trial connected with our removal is the separation from our dear children and the feeling that they make such an addition to dear Marianne's care and anxieties, and next to that I have felt the parting from such a friend and sister as she has proved for the last fourteen years. She will I know be a mother to my children and I have full confidence that she will do for them as for her own, which is a great comfort to me at this distance.

We have no help-mates here nor have we the prospect of any at present, but our many and varied occupations do not leave us time to feel the solitariness of our situation as respect christian society, nevertheless, we should much enjoy a little occasional intercourse with those we love & esteem. We greatly miss Henry's frequent visits and Marianne's weekly correspondence, but we have had the privilege of a week of Henry's society on his way southward in the service of our new Governor. It would do you good to see how entirely both he and William devote themselves to their work, no exertion or self-denial being spared by either where the promotion of our Saviour's Kingdom or the good of the natives is concerned, and the influence they both possess in every part of the island where they are known is a proof of the estimation in which they are held by the natives, who possess a good deal of discrimination, tho' they can seldom appreciate either actions or motives . . .

Our situation here is a perfect contrast to what we have left being surrounded by a very numerous native population, but scarcely seeing any respectable white person: the country around is very lovely and remarkably fertile, but we find now winter is coming that our native friends have erected our house in the worst possible situation for the wet & mud which are intolerable; gravel and sand however are to be had within a reasonable distance, so in time I hope we shall present a more comfortable aspect both within and without. William is only just beginning to lay out our garden having been delayed by his journey to the East Cape which occupied a month, and by the want of workmen, for notwithstanding the populousness of the place, we find it very difficult to get anybody to work; the two great national characteristics, indolence and covetousness having quite the ascendancy at present. Even the Christian natives at the Northward who have so long been under instruction cannot see the benefit and necessity of industry, so we cannot be surprised here to see the aversion to regular employment ....

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MAY 1840

Another point of contrast between our present and past situations, is the size of our family, which at Waimate amounted to upwards of 30 91 --here we are but six, and two of the six are little James and Maria, two small but nevertheless very important personages in the present state of our family. Our nephew Henry & George Clarke are our inmates, and we expect to see Samuel 92 very shortly, who is coming to improve himself a little under his uncle's tuition ....

How frequently do I wish, dear Kate, that Providence would direct your steps to New Zealand. Here particularly where no English female is within reach, I should delight to have you under our roof, and I cannot give up the hope of your joining us sooner or later if we are all spared. There is abundant employment for every one in this land who is willing to work, but I fear our missionary hive contains too many drones just now, and we want some helpmates to set an example. Of the changes in the Northern part of the island you will have heard long 'ere this reaches you; we are too secluded for them to affect us at present but the Bay of Islands has been rapidly changing its aspect and character and is no longer what it used to be. The political relations with England will we hope prove for the benefit of the natives, who are certainly in danger of sharing the fate of the Aborigines of New Holland & Van Diemans Land unless some powerful protecting hand is stretched out to rescue them.

Mr. and Mrs. Ford, we hear, have dissolved their connection with the Society, a most desirable step, 93 but being still located at Horotutu, which is close to Paihia, I fear they will bring much discredit upon the mission. She has by no means lost her mischievous propensities and the very severe domestic trials by which they have been visited since this time last year, have called forth much profession of the lips, but which has alas been unaccompanied by any change of conduct. Mr. and Mrs. Wade 94 have also left the mission, which is a pity for they might have been very valuable at some of these Southern stations, but at Waimate they were quite supernumeraries ....

I wish you would procure and send me some French books. A grammar, Exercise Vocabulary and some desirable reading books, which you can recommend. French is almost as necessary here now as at home, and William wishes to give his pupils a little knowledge of it, but unfortunately we have no books.


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June 1. A rumour reached us this morning that the Ariel has proceeded direct to the Bay from Port Nicholson to fetch the Governor, in consequence of the settlers there being in great difficulties. Recommenced school.

June 2. Applications from Warepouri 95 the chief of Port Nicholson for Testaments, prayer-books, and physic. Mr. Williams, he said in his pukapuka, had not opened his box of books at Port Nicholson but was gone on to Otaki. School; after which I had many patients who took up not a little time.

June 3. A rainy morning, consequently no school and no patients. A long quiet day spent in sewing by lamp light.

June 4. The weather very gloomy and inclined to be wet, and now the partitions are up our sitting room is destitute of light. Some of my scholars came notwithstanding the rain & I had school as usual.

June 5. School etc. etc. Domestic employments.

June 6. Saturday. All my girls away but Katarina in consequence of the death of Noko's tungane. 96 No work accomplished till very late in consequence. Heavy rain and strong wind from the Eastward all the evening. Obliged to get Henry to nail up a painted canvas at the open place in my bedroom which has hitherto served as window.

June 7. Sunday. Weather fair but not fine and the ground so wet the service could not be held in the regular way and consequently no bell rang. No school. My day chiefly passed in taking care of my two little ones, and I was too much fatigued to enjoy the evening. The little child whose death upset my family yesterday was discovered to be alive this morning. They had made his coffin & were preparing to bury him. I found they had not troubled themselves to do anything else for the poor little creature, so I dispatched Kino & Noko with some arrowroot and wine, instructing them to remain and feed it with a tea spoonful at a time.

June 8. An unusual number of applicants for physic, which with my school, occupied the greater part of the day. No news yet of the Ariel and I am quite inclined to believe the native report. The poor little boy mentioned above died this afternoon having been lost chiefly through the carelessness & indifference of his parents. Desired Leonard, whose relatives they are, would insist upon the child not being buried till they had full proof of his being really dead.

June 9. Beautiful weather which encourages me to hope that we may see our absentees by the end of the week. School as usual, which

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JUNE 1840

however is very thinly attended. No nurse for dear little Maria, who with her mischievous brother have kept me pretty well employed all day.

June 10. School, after which Henry helped me to clean the new windows in our sitting room which are an inexpressible comfort.

June 11. Weather again unfavourable and no school.

June 12. A regular gale seemed to be coming on with a settled rain, which made me not a little anxious about our travellers, feeling sure they must be on their road homewards. In thorough confusion all day owing to various causes, and was trying to get a little to rights at dusk when a loud shout drew my attention outside. Parata had just crossed the river about a mile below us, & one of his party had hurried on to have the honour of first announcing the joyful tidings. We were not long in getting the room comfortable, a good fire, tea on the table, and dry clothes in readiness. Wm. soon arrived in a sad plight having walked thru' wind & rain all day. His mate, less nimble, was an hour behind him. Very thankful was I to see them home safe and well, tho' of course weary and stiff with their arduous days work.

June 13. Weather very bad, but I thought little about it, having my husband and his companion safely housed. In the afternoon however, the river which had been rising rapidly all day, and had caused no inconsiderable flood on the opposite side, sent a strong current up the drains which encircle our premises and flooded us on three sides of the house, which we feared would not escape the insidious element. By 6 oclock it had reached to within a few feet of the door, and we thought of Mrs. Wright holding her door against the tide during the hurricanes, but from that hour seemed to be stationary. We used every precaution nevertheless in putting out of the way whatever might be injured by the water if it should enter the house during the night. The rain which has fallen here has not been heavy, but we are situated just below the confluence of two streams 97 which are much swollen by the water from the neighbouring hills.

June 14. No native service. Four pakehas waded thru' the water to our English service. The flood in statu quo when we arose, but after breakfast it began to subside very rapidly. The weather a little improved. Much interested in the account of the progress of the Gospel at Waiapu and the neighbouring places.



[Conversing with candidates from Ngaitauriri, Werowero, Patutahi, Toanga, Paokahu, and Taruheru: entries for July 7-8, 14-17, 20-23, 27-28.]

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July 5. Sunday. Held service as usual the weather being fine, with a congregation of about 500. The Paokahu natives were present but Ngatikaipoho were at Werowero. 4 Europeans at English service. Went to Werowero and had about 70 natives, after which I called upon the Papists who were busily engaged in opening a cask of powder . . .

July 9. Spoke to candidates from Werowero & Patutahi & Toanga to the number of 21. Had a letter from the Wairoa from Joseph giving an account of his journey to Ahuriri, where he reports that there is a general feeling in favor of the Gospel.

July 10. A party of Ngatikahununu came who had been with Joseph to Ahuriri. Their report confirms the statement made by Joseph. All we want for that place is two good native teachers & a supply of books. I have promised to go down when the Columbine arrives. This is the Southern extremity of my parish being distant by land about 100 miles. A letter from one of the chiefs of the place requests me to send them 1000 books. A party is returning thither shortly to whom I give 7 catechisms and as many slates being all I can provide.

July 12. Sunday. Had service on the plain. The congregation continues at about 500 which is as many as we can expect at this season of the year in the absence of the accommodation of a church. Numerous small parties at a distance have their service at their own little villages. 5 Europeans at English service. Went to Werowero in the afternoon. The congregation was about 200, several of the natives from inland are there preparing timber for our Church. The Papists as usual chaunted their unmeaning ditty while we were holding our service. At the conclusion I gave them also a few words.

July 13. I was called to see a European who is just arrived from Ahuriri for the purpose of obtaining advice for a shattered hand, which had been blown to pieces by the bursting of a gun. Conversed with 31 candidates, six are for the first time from Werowero where much good appears to be going on. Engaged during the remainder of the day in furnishing medicine to the sick. In the evening one of our native teachers from the Bay of Plenty came to see me. He is an old Paihia native & afterwards lived at Waimate. I was much interested in his simple account of his proceedings. It appears that there is much backwardness in that quarter on the part of the natives to receive instruction, and those who prefer the old ways profess themselves to belong to the papists though in reality they are in the precise state in which they have ever been. We may hope for better things when the station at Opotiki shall be established.

July 19. Sunday. Service as usual on the plain; congregation about 500. 6 Europeans. Went in the afternoon to Toanga where the congregation was about 100. Many of the people sick particularly the children. So much is this the case that the people are quite cast down in consequence.

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JULY 1840

I recommended them no longer to halt between two opinions but to close with the gospel offer that they might be able to look to God as their Father. Gave medicine to 10 persons on my return.

July 24. Eighteen candidates from Toanga and Patutahi; Joseph the native teacher arrived from Wairoa with 4 natives from Ahuriri who are to remain with me for instruction and books. The accounts he brings from thence are good and all tend to confirm my opinion of that place as a Missionary station. The house I ordered in March is completed, some of the old priests having dreamt or in some other way obtained a presentiment that a missionary will soon be there to occupy it. In more than two places the Popish errors are professed having been carried there by natives from the Bay of Islands. The great excellence of their doctrine over ours is that no change is required from them in their mode of life. This afternoon a party of our natives brought home 33 large posts for our Church with the work of which all the tribes are now proceeding with spirit.

July 25. In the afternoon examined our Christian natives on the subject of the Lords Supper.

July 26. Sunday. Wet weather. Held service at a large house in the Pa ... In the evening administered the Lords Supper to 14 natives.

July 31. Conversed with 18 natives from Toanga and Patutahi. Some of the natives of Toanga seem to be much shaken in consequence of the prevalence of sickness amongst them of late. Satan takes advantage of the circumstance, & many are ready to attribute their sickness to their connection with us. How truly exemplified are the words of Our Saviour: when tribulation cometh by and by he is offended.


[Entries omitted for August 2, 5, 7, 10-12, 14, 16-19, 26-31: conversing and visiting sick.]

August 1. Went to Toanga. Met a native on the road who reported that some of the people are talking of giving up karakia in consequence of the many deaths which have occurred of late. Found natives making coffms for Rangiwakamoias children, three of whom now lie dead in his house. Poor man he appeared much cast down and after a short silence he spoke on the subject of his grief. He said, that on the first arrival of Missionaries he had paid attention to what they said, and had been a principal mover in the rejection of all their old native superstitions, that he had been desirous to know what was right though he is still in ignorance, and that he could not tell what was the reason of this sickness. I told him that to mourn over his children was right, and that

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I should do the same under like circumstances. But we must remember the cause for which sickness came--it was sin, and we all had sinned and had deserved much more chastisement than we receive. That while all our bodies must die on account of sin, God had mercifully sent his son that we might live with him, and that the bodies of those who we love in him would be again restored and live in glory. On taking leave, he asked me to go into the house and see his children. The eldest, a boy of about 8 years of age, was already placed in a neat coffin. See said he, I am not going to act with my children as one who throws aside your books. These children would be tied up in mats according to old custom, but I am going to bury them. I left him with the recommendation to cleave to Christ as his only source of true comfort.

August 6. Administering medicine to many sick. Had a visit from a Werowero chief for a slate and a catechism; he spoke of a building which was shown me yesterday for a chapel. He tells me that he built it several months ago, but not obtaining a book when others did he joined the popish party, but that now he with several others are coming back.

August 9. Sunday. Held service in the plain with a congregation of about 500 ... . Went in the afternoon to Werowero, where the congregation was large and attentive. Several from the Popish party have joined us. Their bell rang an extra time while we were at service but the sound of their singing was less loud than usual.

August 13. Went down the River to see the sick chief Ahi Manu and other natives in the Pa, & afterwards walked to Raukakaka to see the timber which is preparing for the Church. I found the party hard at work and a quantity of good material ready. Heard of a boat which has lately been upset at Waiapu having six Europeans on board two of whom were drowned and buried near the chapel at Rangitukia. The particulars I do not learn but it is probable that the service would be performed by one of the native teachers there who would read the translation of our Church service as they were buried by the side of a principal chief who had just died. A striking contrast this to former times & a fact which speaks volumes. 98

August 15. Glazing. Laying hearth in the sitting room.

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August 20. Went to Patutahi and Toanga to visit the sick. At the latter place mortality has prevailed to a great extent but some are recovering. The poor natives have been quite alarmed at the sickness and Satan has tried to tempt some to attribute it to the circumstance of their having attended to our instructions.

August 21. Engaged with 29 candidates from Patutahi and Toanga and preparing also medicine for a large number of patients. Received a letter from Richard Tamaka in which he speaks of the natives at Port Nicholson beginning to feel the inconvenience of the settlers.

August 24. Twenty nine candidates from Paokahu. Ngatikaipoho landed their timber for the church. All seemed disposed to proceed with the work at once.

August 25. Heard of the grievous fall of one of our native teachers. It appears he has been carrying on a system of disception from the time of his arrival. It is thus we receive the heaviest blows, worse than the opposition of the Papists. But God will overrule this also.


[Entries omitted for September 1-4, 8-9, 14-16; conversing, visiting sick.]

September 5. Had a visit from Apatari a chief of Wairoa bringing a letter from Joseph the Teacher. It appears some little trouble is occasioned by Putoko, the man who first set on foot Christian worship in that quarter. He is an ignorant man, but I had considered him well meaning & recommended him to keep close to Joseph that he might be better instructed. But he has no wish that Joseph should take the lead, and as the latter has had occasion to find fault with some of his proceedings, he holds his own service in the chapel which he has built, and Joseph has his congregation in an adjoining building which is erected for me. The greater part of the people however are I am thankful to hear with Joseph. I feel much the want of further assistance, I ought now to be there but cannot at present go.

September 6. Sunday. Weather bad. Held service in a house in the Pa. In the afternoon being clear I went to Werowero. Congregation about 100, many of the natives sick with influenza. 99

September 7. Held a meeting with the natives about the erection of the Church when it was determined that the work shall be proceeded with at once. More than 100 men are at work today, some carrying the timber to the spot, some squaring the posts. Tutapatirangi a chief

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from the Mahia was with me this morning. His tribe numbering 400 men now at Table Cape belongs to the neighbourhood of Port Nicholson about 30 miles on this side. Their land is not occupied by the company and indeed has been purchased by the society as a security for them. The chief has seen Col. Wakefield and has told him they are about to return. They intend to go next month. The party is generally favorable to Christianity but whether they will have any advantage of instruction where they go is a question. Also another chief from the Mahia brought me a packet of letters left them by a vessel. This party amounting to 200 men is shortly to move to Ahuriri. They are very solicitous to obtain books. In the afternoon conversed with a party of 23 candidates.

September 17. Occupied in marking the posts for the church--that is, in fixing where the windows and doors are to be. It is encouraging to see the diligence with which the people carry on the work. In the afternoon letters arrived from the Bay of Islands.

September 18. Went on board the Ariel to see after our stores. Spending a little time at the Pa at Werowero I met with two natives from Rotorua who give a better account of affairs there than I expected, They spoke of one chief Hikairo a leading man who does not at present attend to instruction but tells his people to get as many books as they can that they may have a supply when they do begin. He professes to be waiting for some other persons of influence to come forward and says that then he will join. The party at Werowero are shortly to leave for Ahuriri. Those who have been mentioned as hailing for papists are beginning to come round. The chief man of the party has applied to me for a testament.

September 19. Many applications for books but none are come. Spoke with 3 candidates.

September 20. Having an attack of lumbago I had some difficulty in going through the service which was held in a new house in the Pa. The congregation was large considering our accommodation. Obliged to remain at home in the afternoon.

September 21. Lumbago worse today so that I was unable to converse with candidates who came as usual. Writing letters for the Bay.

September 22. Still unable to go out. Finished letters and sent them to the vessel.

September 26. Conversed with the native teachers and their wives. Heard of the death of Ahimanu: this man has been in a decline for some weeks. When in health he visited me several times for instruction and gave satisfactory proof of a mind sincerely enquiring the way to life. I saw him about ten days ago and concluded to admit him to baptism if his disease continued unabated. But I have been prevented

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during the last week from going out and in the meantime it has pleased our heavenly father to take him to himself. He is now doubtless with the redeemed in glory, one of the first fruits of this station, leaving many behind him apparently following the same course which he has trod. During the week the natives have been busily employed in erecting the frame of the church, the progress of which I have been able to watch from my window. It presents an imposing spectacle being probably the largest building which has yet been erected in the country.

September 27. Sunday. Obliged to leave the native service to the teachers. Held English service at the usual time. Only three Europeans present.

September 28. Spoke to 25 candidates for baptism. A native from Table Cape is come to remain for a time with me. He is a relation of Hapuku, a man of notorious character for his overbearing conduct to the Europeans living near him, and who has declared himself a papist. He however directed this man to come to me for books but added that he should not mention his name because he would have nothing to do with them. I asked what is Hapuku's object in calling himself a Papist. It is because he can go through a form of karakia thus--touching with his right hand his two shoulders his breast & his forehead (which I observed was done by the Papists at Werowero when they repeated the gloria patri) and then he may be allowed to "haka" and "rurerure" which are the names for the native dances which are accompanied by obscene songs.

September 29. Conversed with 43 candidates. Columbine arrived. Captain Stratton 100 came up in the afternoon bringing letters.

September 30. Conversed with 25 candidates.


September 17. I am ashamed to see how long my pen has been idle, but our winter has passed very monotonously, and my time has been employed very unsatisfactorily. I was obliged to give up my school altogether owing to the cold and wet and dirt, and having no proper accommodation for the native girls in the house, I have been obliged to do with a very small portion of their assistance. Today we have been agreeably surprized by the arrival of the Ariel, 101 and the sight of the united productions of the Paihia journalists have made me resolve to recommence my diary. It will however, when compared with theirs, prove sadly deficient both in interest and amusement. For this my

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readers must make all due allowances remembering that our situation and circumstances form a perfect contrast to theirs. We received the various budgets just after dinner and work of all description was suspended that we might hear and read the news. Much disappointed to find that we are to have no visitors by Columbine, having quite calculated on Samuel and Thomas. 102

September 18. A very bustling morning for Turanga. Boat and canoes all sent off to the Ariel. Henry and George went in the boat and Parata on horseback to Werowero. All business having been stopt yesterday, gave me the more to do today, and I did not clear till evening, when having put my children to bed I sat down quietly to read some of my letters which I had only skimmed at first. William and his companions did not arrive at home till after 8 oclock having had a very fatiguing day and nothing to eat.

September 19. The stores and packages from the Ariel did not arrive till noon when we were again in a tolerable bustle, as almost everything has to be accommodated in the house at present.

September 20. Sunday. My husband tho' threatened with lumbago, held native service in a large unfinished native house in the Pa. Our own service afterwards at which now only 3 or 4 pakehas attend. Wm. unable to go out in the afternoon. Just before tea surprized by the arrival of Mr. Harris, who made a sort of an apology for coming on Sunday. He remained all night; our Sabbath evening consequently less comfortable than usual.

September 21. Mr. H. departed after breakfast, accompanying Henry to Werowero. My husband very poorly all day. I made many attempts to write with very little success. Heard in the afternoon that the letters must be sent on board to-morrow.

September 22. Writing till the last minute. Henry had another journey to Werowero to convey the letters wh. we were afraid to trust to a native lest they should not get on board. William so unwell at night that he was unable to move, and I was obliged to call Henry out of his room to assist me in supporting him to the bedroom.

September 23. My husband very poorly indeed and unable to move about. Heard that the Ariel was only gone to Turanga-nui.

September 24. William still unwell tho' better. The children's coughs also better.

September 25. Occupied in common domestic employments, and waiting upon my husband.

September 26. Parata so much better as to be able to receive the native teachers in the veranda.

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September 27. Sunday. My husband still too unwell to go out, but he had English service at home. I had no school as it was too cold to sit outside.

September 28. Parata had his various parties of natives to talk in the veranda, after which I walked with him to see the progress of the church. Two sides of the frame are up and the ridge pole which is suspended by ropes till the posts which are to support it are in their places. Their machinery and mode of proceeding seems to me more curious than safe. William much fatigued with his short walk, and glad to sit still for the remainder of the day. The weather having become warmer and tolerably settled, I resolved to re-commence school, and according to my husband's proposition to have it before breakfast.

September 29. Such a violent headache all night that I had little expectation of being able to fulfill my intention. It abated however before daylight and I was ready by the time my pupils were assembled. I had however only two besides those of our own household. They say it interferes too much with their planting. Heard in the afternoon that a kaipuke had just come to anchor & had fired two guns. While we were considering and wondering whether or not it would prove to be Columbine, Capt. Stratton made his appearance having lost no time in finding his way to our kainga. The table was soon strewed with his despatches and the evening was spent in reading them and asking him questions.

September 30. All hands in motion very early getting together the food intended for Columbine. Had school quietly for an hour while Wm. gave orders outside and extracted a tooth for Capt. Stratton who returned at noon to his vessel. Evening spent in writing. A very severe southerly wind has been blowing all day which brought back the children's coughs.



October 2. Preparing for a journey to Ahuriri.

October 3. Received stores from Columbine. In the evening divided the testaments and gave out most of those which had been promised at this place.

October 4. Sunday. Held service in the Pa in a native house with a congregation of about 600. English service as usual. I was obliged to remain at home in the afternoon from remains of lumbago.

October 5. Made preparation for a trip to the southern part of Hawkes Bay. Numerous applications for testaments continue to be made and payment is brought, but I am obliged to refuse all and merely to take an account of names against another supply. At noon left

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Kaupapa 103 accompanied by George Clarke and reached the Columbine at 4 o'clock. At sunset we weighed anchor with a land breeze. Wrote letters in the evening.

October 6. Wrote letters expecting to land at Ahuriri at Noon, stood off and on in the evening expecting a canoe.

October 7. Landed on the beach a few miles from a native village. Proceeded to Ahuriri to a small settlement where the natives did not exceed 50. It was the abode of two principal chiefs who propose that we shall remain here over Sunday and that they will assemble their whole tribe which is now scattered abroad in the cultivations. Two days ago a boat of about 9 tons burden from Port Nicholson put in here in distress having been blown away from the straits. The men have landed their cargo and hauled the boat up to repair. In her cargo are 4 hhds. of rum belonging to a settler at Port Nicholson which the natives here take a fancy to, and the Englishmen feeling that they are in their power have allowed them to take what they like. The evil to the natives is immence, because they are like children and will not refrain from the evil having no principle to withhold them. Addressed the natives assembled to the number of about 100.

October 8. Walked up the hill to take a view of the Bay which appears to be commodious, but the channel is said to have but little water. Endeavoured to persuade the chief to return the casks of rum which are in his possession. But he replies that he means to pay for them in pork, but after a while said he would return them. He professes a wish for books and instruction, and at the same time renders a willing service to Satan. Addressed the natives.

October 9. Spoke to the natives in the morning on the subject of the fall. Finding that some of the people were drinking rum last evening, I spoke to the chief again, but he was quite disposed to be angry at my resuming the subject. Shortly after, Hapuku from Table Cape made his appearance, a man who bears a worse character than any native I know. I expected that he would without ceremony take the remaining cask of rum & anything else he might fancy. He was contented however with a keg containing about ten gallons and a bag of rice with some sugar for which he says he will pay in pork. To me this chief was very civil, much more so than when I saw him at his own village at Table Cape. I was nevertheless glad to see him take his departure. It was grievous to see the rum carrying about in calabashes & I was on the point of leaving the place forthwith, but on further consideration remained & addressed the natives in the evening on the subject of the last judgement.

October 10. Spoke to the natives on Luke 6. 21. and after breakfast conversed with some of my own natives and with two belonging to

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the place. During the day several stragglers came in from the cultivations to be ready for the service tomorrow.

October 11. Sunday. At morning service had about 100 besides our own party which was a small assemblage but they were attentive and there were several circumstances which tend to encourage. It was evident from the manner in which they join in the responses that prayer is not new to them. There are a few also who can read though as yet they have had only some two or three books which have been brought from places at a great distance. One book was from Kapiti another from Turanga and a third from Rotorua. Held English service afterwards in my tent with the Europeans belonging to the vessel from Port Nicholson. In the afternoon had school at which we raised one class to read in the Testament, most of whom were my own boys. The rest repeated catechisms; in short there is much to encourage us to labour here but the population is smaller. Held service again at sunset.

October 12. Left our quarters early and proceeded by canoe across the Bay to a river which runs from the opposite quarter up which we pursued our course till afternoon when we came to a good sized Pa, but the natives were absent at their cultivations. Going on a little further we came to a village at which there was a party of about fifty. There was a small chapel about 20 feet x 14, the first we have met with, and a few from among the party who have been for sometime maintaining the form at least of worship. Here we held our evening worship and conversed of the things which make for salvation. The whooping cough prevails here and is more severe than with Europeans owing to the careless exposure of their children to the cold winds.

October 13. Held service soon after sunrise and administered medicine to the sick. This part of the country is exceedingly fertile being a plain of alluvial soil for some miles in extent and the natives say that after passing the nearest hills there is plain grass land the greater part of the way to Cooks straits, through the centre of the island. This will doubtless be a strong bait to Europeans but the natives need not suffer on that account as the district is unoccupied. The Hills or rather mountains to the westward are covered with snow throughout the year; and in the extreme distance the mountain of Tongariro shows its silvery top, at the foot of which is the lake Taupo. In the afternoon we heard of the arrival of the natives belonging to the Pa we passed on the 12th., and forthwith proceeded thither. The natives present do not amount to more than 100, they say the rest of the people are away hunting. After evening service I conversed with several who for the most part are willing to receive instruction and are clamorous for books. Here too is talk of Pikopo (the papists) and all who are not disposed to receive us call themselves Pikopo, not knowing what they say. There is a native lately come from Matamata who says that the Pikopo party there have cast off Pikopo and burnt his books. There are two natives also from Taupo who bring a good account. They say that nearly all

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excepting a tribe called Ngatipehi profess Christianity, but this last mentioned tribe set out some weeks ago to fight with the natives of Taranaki, the Christian party having used every persuasion to prevent them. I learn from the Port Nicholson natives that this party was almost exterminated by the natives against whom they went to fight. 104

October 14. Held service at sunrise and addressed the natives on the subject of the crucifixion. The word of God may here be said mightily to spread and prevail. A testament has just been produced which was given to a chief of Taupo at Waikato by Mr. Maunsell. 105 It is now in the hands of a man who is likely to make good use of it. Answered many enquiries of the natives respecting the general conduct and practices of those who profess Christianity: their religious services, their line of conduct to observe respecting quarrels which may arise. In the afternoon catechized some of the people of the place with my own natives. Addressed the natives generally in the evening.

October 15. Went to Wairua to a village distant 1 1/2 mile to a party which professes to belong to Pikopo. We were received civilly and had much reason to be satisfied with our trip. The chief complained that two parties of christian natives had visited the neighbourhood & had passed him, and that on this account he had turned papist, which however consists in nothing but the repetition of a short form of prayer including one to the virgin Mary. And yet the papists would find a ready reception among such. After a little conversation I was requested to let them have some of our books. Set out on our return and proceeded only a short distance on account of tide.

October 16. Rose at one o'clock, went down the river by moonlight and had to remain the whole day at the mouth of it till the wind abated before we could cross the Bay. Reached Maraetara at nine o'clock in the evening.

October 17. Left Maraetara and travelled northerly to Wakari passing one small party with whom is living a serious native from Turanga. At Wakari is living a party of the natives who have recently left Werowero in Poverty Bay, this being their home which they left five years ago on account of war.

October 18. Sunday. Began service with about 70 natives but soon about 20 withdrew to shew their adherance to Pikopo and went through their miserable service at a short distance from us. A European trader at this place came to service, which we had in the tent. 106 In the

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afternoon had a second service and I was glad to find that there is one man who seems to take an interest in these things and conducts service regularly.

October 19. Left Wakari in a canoe the weather being very fine and arrived at Mohaka in six hours. The journey by land is very fatiguing and would have occupied us three days. Mohaka is a small river which runs some distance from the interior and the few natives belonging to it are scattered up the country. The principal chief made his appearance in the evening who is said to be a man favorable to instruction. Had prayers with the natives and returned to rest.

October 20. After a little conversation with the natives of the place we took our departure along the beach for the Wairoa. The weather was fine but the wind was so strong at our backs that for some time we had a smart shower of gravel stones. We were glad to avail ourselves of a fair wind to hasten on our road with all speed as it lay under a most dangerous cliff from which stones are frequently crumbling upon the beach below. We passed along in safety under the guidance of him who gives charge to his angels over his children. The latter part of our road was equally dangerous lying over the top of the cliff, the path frequently being within a yard of the precipice beneath. A little before sunset we came up to a party who go by the name of Jews, 107 that is they have come to the determination to have nothing to do with Christianity. We had heard various reports about Wairoa, that the profession of Christianity was altogether given up and the books they had received from me would all be returned when I made my appearance there, and a chief at Ahuriri went so far as to request that I would send Joseph the native teacher from thence to live with him. I did not therefore expect a friendly reception from this party of Jews, but I determined should they invite us we would stay with them for the night. They left us however in no doubt about their disposition for after a friendly reception they allowed us to pass onward. It was therefore dark before we pitched our tent on the opposite bank of the river at Ngamota.

October 21. Very few natives are to be seen in this part being scattered among their plantations. Crossed another part of the river to the principal pa which belongs to the Jews to try again the temper of the people; there I met with the chief man who had received from me a testament. In his speech of welcome which is always made to a stranger he adverted to the state of the people that many had given up their profession because they could get nothing by it, others again because some of their relations had died, and that the house I directed to be put up was unfinished because they thought nobody would come to live in it. In my reply I told him it was nothing new for persons to make a

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profession and then lay it aside, but that we should not on that account give up the place, for that Satans efforts would be of no avail against the power of the word of God, and that the house they have thought has been built to no purpose, would certainly be inhabited. I was glad to find that this chief still continued to attend to Josephs instruction with a few of his people. There was a sick woman at the Pa, wife to the chiefs son, and I heard that two priests had been called in to cure her by their karakia. On my return I was accompanied by one of these priests, a man of great celebrity in former times. He told me what he had been sent for, but the karakia he made use of was, "E to matou matua i te rangi", "Our Father which art in heaven". Proceeded to Uruhou where Joseph lives, and found the people apparently glad of my arrival. A commodious house has been put up larger than I ordered, nearly ready for the first missionary that comes. The situation is by far the most picturesque of any of our stations which I have seen, having a beautiful prospect of a winding river, the banks of which are diversified with groves of forest trees. In point of missionary labour few places can be more advantageously chosen. At present but few natives are found at home, but with those few I had service as soon as my tent was pitched.

October 22. The reports which have been so industriously spread by those who wish to have it so, that the profession of Christianity has been given up, I am glad to find are without foundation, and that though the seed which has fallen by the way side has been picked up by the birds, there is much that falls upon good ground and is springing up. This morning I had conversation with about 20 of those who came regularly to Joseph among whom was the old priest I mentioned yesterday. Addressed the natives at morning and evening prayers.

October 23. Conversed with 9 of my own natives. Addressed the natives morning and evening.

October 24. Addressed the natives morning and evening. Conversed with the same party which came to me on the 22nd.

October 25. Sunday. Our assembly this morning fell far short of the number of people belonging to the place because many at this time are living at their cultivations. Our congregation amounted at this time to about 200. A party of Europeans from Table Cape happening to be here, we had English service in my tent at which there were six present. Then the native school was assembled. After dinner I went down the river to the Jew party. Eight small canoes were on the river fishing for mullet and some people were in the cultivations. The chief, whom I wished particularly to see, kept out of the way for nearly two hours, and in the meantime I had a conversation at the village, not of the most pleasing kind, as for some there was every disposition to object. At length the man came whom I wanted, but he did not give much encouragement. Held service at Uruhou on my return.

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October 26. Joseph assembled the native school at prayers at which there were 44. He and his wife have their classes in very good order considering their disadvantages. Married a European to a native woman, their bands [sic] having been duly published. After breakfast set out for Wakaki on our return home arriving at Patitahi, the first pa in about two hours. The natives were all away but towards evening a few came in from the cultivations to whom I spoke of the things of God.

October 27. Conversed with several natives of Uruhou previous to their return and gave them general advice respecting their future proceedings. Our journey today lay over a swampy road about two hours which brought us to the cultivations of the next tribe Ngatihino. This party, when assembled amount to 300, but we had not a third of that number. Spoke to them in the evening on the subject of the crucifixion.

October 28. Got to Nuwaka about noon which is the last place we call at on the coast. Very few natives are at home, from the cause before mentioned. Addressed those who were present in the evening.

October 29. Bad weather came on in the night and we had to move the tent to a more sheltered spot. In the afternoon it was fine and we proceeded up the river as far as the commencement of a new road which has been cut for me through the wood.

October 30. Walked in the wood for ten hours and at length reached a few houses on the skirts of Turanga near Taikawakawa.

October 31. Breakfasted at Taikawakawa and after a various conversation with the people continued our course and reached home about 1 oclock finding my family through mercy in tolerable health.


October 1. Cooking and preparing for my husband's journey, as he has decided upon getting Capt Stratton to convey him to Ahuriri from whence he will return overland.

October 2. A note from Capt Stratton to say that no canoes had reached the vessel tho' they left here on Wednesday. The dilatoriness of the natives very trying and annoying. A grand committee outside which was a great interruption to all proceedings inside. Writing at every interval.

October 3. School. Canoes returned bringing stores from Columbine. Much troubled with the kaihoe 108 who were much dissatisfied with their payments. Wm. very unwell in consequence of his yesterday's exertions in walking to Rakaukaka to try and settle a dispute among the natives. A great bustle all afternoon with the applicants for books

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and in the evening all our own natives clamoured to be served. With great difficulty got together what was necessary for the travellers, 109 who are to go on board on Monday morng.

October 4. Sunday. Wm. took his two morning services, but feeling rest necessary for his back, remained at home in the afternoon. Myself scarcely able to hold up from a violent cold, and the two little ones coughing incessantly.

October 5. No school. A morning of confusion and noise. Food to be got off in the canoes and various preparations to be completed for Parata and George. Persuaded them to leave a couple of boys to go by land, to wait till the bread should be baked which gave me a little additional time to finish my despatches for the Bay. The calm of the afternoon anything but agreeable, being such a strong indication of the absence of the head of the house. James cried several times to be carried after his Father and repeatedly asked where he was gone, and why he and George did not come to dinner.

October 6. School, after which the girls begged hard to be allowed to carry their kohue 110 and tubs to wash under the shade of the bushes, to which I at last consented--the wind being still most bitter and piercing. Henry walked out and ascertained that the vessel was gone. About noon the canoes returned; the head of each crew with a cheque to Henry for their payments which for a wonder they took without any trouble. Columbine had sailed the preceding evening with the land breeze. Just as the natives belonging to the canoes were departing, a large mob made their appearance, bringing the delinquent who was to have been sent away by Columbine. They came straight up to the fence and then turned off to the side of the store where they remained very quietly for some time. After a regular committee in which Katarina and Ripeka Matenga were (to my great amazement) prominent speakers, they returned as quietly and as orderly as they came.

October 7. School--bread making etc. which seems almost a make believe concern with our diminutive and diminished family. Henry heard during his walk, that there was a slight shock of an earthquake last night, but none of our establishment had perceived it any more than ourselves. The natives told him that this was only the tamaiti, but we should soon have the kaumatua 111 before long. Hayes called with a note from Mr. Harris inquiring for letters by Columbine.

October 8. School. A very quiet day without any interruption to usual employments.

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October 9. School. Henry and I busily occupied the whole day in arranging, sorting and re-packing stores of almost every description.

October 10. School. Mr. Harris called and confirmed what we had heard respecting the earthquake. Tongatonga, one of the principal hands at work at the church, came while we were at dinner, with a very deep gash in his heel caused by his adze flying off the handle over his head. Henry plastered it under my directions, and we sent for a couple of his mates to pikau 112 him home. A very fatiguing day, doing little or nothing myself, but chiefly engaged in overlooking my men and maidens. James poorly again all afternoon but he seems better tonight.

October 11. Sunday. While at breakfast one of our natives came to ask who was to have service as Marsden was ill, and the other teachers were all gone to their respective posts. Not quite crediting his statement I sent Henry to ascertain the truth of it, who found Marsden very well and preparing for service which was accordingly held as usual. School afterwards at which there was a good assemblage.

October 12. James very ill all night with violent fever. Got up at daylight and took him to the sofa that he might not disturb Maria. School as usual. James better in the afternoon, but Maria has been so poorly and so cross all day I have been obliged to get Henry to be assistant nurse.

October 13. Another wearisome night with poor James whose fever came on again at midnight. Maria also so restless that I was unable to get up in time for school, so was obliged to defer it till after breakfast. James much better and has played about as usual.

October 14. A more quiet night which was very refreshing and enabled me to be up in time for school. Two natives from Ruatahuna brought letters from Mr. Chapman and Mr. Morgan. A better account of Mr. C, but poor Mrs. Morgan a great invalid. Much difficulty in paying the one who had brought the packet from Rotorua, whither he had been to procure books. I urged them to stay till Parata returned, as I knew he will be glad to learn something about the road to Rotorua, but they appeared in a violent hurry to return.

October 15. School. The strangers who after all went away without their utu 113 yesterday, came for it this morning. After supplying them with needles, thread etc. they went away, but soon after returned bringing all back, having determined to wait for Parata, expecting I suppose that he would be more liberal, but I do not feel justified in letting Henry give him any more than the former messenger had. Walked to the Pa in the afternoon to see a poor woman whom I fear is in a precarious state. While at tea we were startled by a sudden report as of a great gun followed by a loud cry of "Ka toro te ware". 114 Both Henry and I flew to

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the door, not knowing whether it was our own house or the natives', but I was soon relieved by perceiving the flames ascending from a distant part of the Pa. The report which we heard we concluded must have been caused by gunpowder, and from the tangi which reached our ears every now & then, feared that the explosion had not been harmless. Being on the other side of the river, and very dark we could not ascertain particulars tonight.

October 16. School. After breakfast we heard particulars of last night's disaster. The house it appears, caught fire while they were at prayers; Kawenga, the owner of it, notwithstanding its being enveloped in flames with the exception of one very small space, darted in & seized his cask of powder, which he succeeded in carrying out and setting down, but giving it a kick, it immediately exploded, burning him in a dreadful manner. Makaretu (Abraham's wife) was standing close to him, but was not touched. They had applied oil & the ashes of the bark of some particular tree. I gave the best advice I was able, but fear for the result. A tremendous wind blowing all day which made us almost afraid of having a fire either inside or out, everything is so exceedingly dry.

October 17. Roused at daybreak by the report of a great gun, the vibration from which was so strong that I was puzzled to know where it could come from. Found afterwards that there is a great gun in the Pa & a pakeha maori had discharged it in consequence of some disturbance. School & usual Saty. employment.

October 18. Sunday. Very fine but the wind blowing again with great violence. School in the afternoon.

October 19. School. Occupied in sewing for my domestics. In the afternoon alarmed by the rapid progress towards us of a fire which had been burning in our neighbourhood all day. The only natives we have at home being away cutting firewood, and fearing we might be dangerously situated before long, I went to the building and represented my fears to the party at work there. They laughed at me at first, but in a few minutes they all set off with a shout, to endeavour to stop its progress, and in the course of an hour & half, succeeded in extinguishing it.

October 24. It has been a long quiet week, engaged in our usual employments without anything occurring to vary the scene.

October 25. Dear little Maria poorly; had great difficulty in getting a dose of medicine down. After school a rumour reached us that Parata had arrived at Nukutaurua, on this side of the Mahia, but when Renata returned from Werowero, I found they were not quite so far on their way home. He had seen the man who brought word that they were at the Wairoa at Joseph's place.

October 26. Poor James roused me at an early hour by being violently sick, Maria very languid and dosy all day and refused every kind of food. So fatigued with nursing her, I was glad to avail myself of Henry's

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assistance, who very kindly did his best to amuse her for a couple of hours. James quite recovered after breakfast, and has appeared very well all day.

October 27. A restless night with poor little Maria who had a good deal of fever. School tho' very late. The greater part of the day employed in nursing my little girl.

October 28. Another very restless night with poor Maria who every now and then called out most piteously "aue,aue aue". I discovered in the morning that her gums, tongue & lip are all very sore and must cause her a great deal of pain. School with Katarina's assistance. Chiefly occupied in nursing her. In the evening messengers direct from Rotorua arrived with a letter from Mr. Chapman, informing us that poor Mrs. Morgan had been so ill, that they were convinced that they must get her away from Rotorua immediately, that she had such a decided objection to move in any other direction, that they had determined to start for Turanga, notwithstanding the length of the journey, and that they were to set out in two days from the date of this letter, concluding by requesting William to go off with a party of natives to meet them immediately. Finding that if they had left on the appointed day they have already been a fortnight on the road, and William's return being very uncertain, I have felt much exercised (as the Wesleyans say) as to what should be done.

October 29. School. Came to the conclusion last night that I would send off as many natives as we could get, with one of our teachers at their head. Henry expressed a strong wish to go, and this morning I have given my consent. He went after breakfast to beat up for recruits, since which he has been busy mending his tent, and I have made such preparations for him as Maria would allow me. The weather very trying. Yesterday a beautiful warm summer day, and today such a bitter cold southerly wind that I have been obliged to coop up the poor children, fearing a return of their cough.

October 30. No school this morning. Henry having completed his preparations, started about 10 o'clock. He has two Christian natives with him--Leonard and Paul (Marsden's son), but the greater part of their party is to join them at Toanga. Having given Leonard permission to go, made an arrangement with Edward (Marella's husband), to take up his abode here as my kai tiaki. 115 Maria still very poorly, but better and contented with Katarina which has been a great relief to me. A solitary evening spent in writing. At 1/2 past 10 Marella came to tell me they had heard that Paul and his party had resolved not to go. Nonekai who went to carry one of Henry's pikaus 116 as far as Toanga, not having returned, I began to fear he might be in some difficulty, and almost repented having allowed him to go.

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October 31. A more quiet night with my little invalid who allowed me to be ready for school in proper time. The morning spent in cooking, hoping that some of our travellers might arrive before night. Was just clearing away when a loud shout from the girls of "Ko Mita Hori, E Matu ko Mita Hori", 117 announced that one party was at hand, and truly thankful was I to welcome them home again safe and well. In the afternoon Nonekai returned bringing me a note from Henry who travelled only 10 miles yesterday. He had met with some difficulty in consequence of Paul being afraid of coming in contact with the Wakatoheu, one of whom had been killed by his Father in former times. It was proposed that a half-brother of his should go in his stead, but it appears that Paul at last decided to go, and having got some natives from the village where they then were to supply the places of those who had returned, they were about to proceed, their party amounting in all to 18. I had felt very uneasy, but was much relieved, particularly as my husband approved of the step I had taken.



November 1. Sunday. A great comfort to have our usual services again. William being fatigued only took the home duty. Many natives gathered about all day, having found out that he had returned.

November 2. School as usual. The house beset with natives all day, some for books, some for physic, and others for payment due to them. Wrote to Mrs. Chapman and began to copy my journal to be ready for the Ariel which we are now expecting daily.

November 3. Katarina kept school. A very idle day in consequence of indisposition. Dear little Maria much better. A call at dinner time from Mr. Story, our fellow passenger in the Martha. He had just arrived in the Ariel and brought us Henry's list of packages sent, but had not had the wit to ask the Capt for the packet of letters, which rather vexed us as it was too late to send for them. I had made preparations for my husband to go off in the morning to look out for the travellers, but the arrival of the Ariel will oblige him to remain at home.

November 4. Katarina kept school again. A native sent off in good time for the letters, but he did not arrive back till evening. A great comfort and refreshment to hear of and from our dear friends, but we are shocked and grieved to hear of poor Mr. & Mrs. Taylor's affliction. 118 Sat till very late reading and talking over the contents of our letters.

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November 5. No school. The canoe arrived before breakfast with most of our packages. The morning spent in unpacking and disposing of their contents. Had prayer meeting (which had been deferred) and tea in very good time and the rest of the evening spent in writing. We begin to feel rather anxious about the Rotorua party of whom as yet we have no tidings. 119

November 6. School as usual, but all other work deferred till tomorrow to enable me to write.

[No further entries for 1840] JANE WILLIAMS MS (ATL).


November 8. Sunday. Held morning and evening service in the settlement and English service in my house. (5) In the afternoon rode to Werowero and had an attentive congregation. At the conclusion of the service I was requested to go and see the popish party, who have all declared their intention to join us if I would supply them with books.

November 19. Prepared for journey to Rotorua. 120

November 20. Left Turanga accompanied by my nephew Henry Williams and 12 natives and proceeded to Ngamahanga. Road dreary and fatiguing.

November 21. Arrived at the Wairoa river 121 at 4 o'clock and were fortunate in procuring a canoe before dark in which we proceeded to the Reinga. It is said that the people have given up Karakia owing to the misconduct of a baptized native from Hokianga who has been living there. The people as elsewhere are much scattered at their cultivations.

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November 22. Sunday. Had service at 9 o'clock at which all the people at hand attended amounting to about 40 besides our own party. There are still a few who continue to hold worship but much cannot be expected when there is no teacher to instruct them. The same party attended school in the middle of the day and service in the afternoon. The chiefs asked many questions which are an indication that in some outward circumstances there is a disposition to conform.

November 23. Rose before daylight and prepared for our journey. Our road for the day was over a succession of hills having but very few spots fit for cultivation; from the high land we had a distant view which shewed in all directions land abruptly broken which never has been and never will be occupied by men. Arrived late at Ohiwa where there is a tribe of about 30 men belonging to the natives of Wairoa. About half the people profess Christianity, the remainder call themselves Jews or unbelievers. The only book is a prayer book almost illegible from use.

November 24. Our natives were very weary with their journey of yesterday, and setting out late we did not proceed more than two miles before we came up with the Jews party and were so warmly pressed by the chief that we remained for the night. He is connected with the people of Rotorua and Tauranga. In the evening both tents were blown down and we were obliged to move to a more sheltered situation. Had service as usual.

November 25. Continued on our journey to Waikare which is a romantic lake surrounded by rough mountain scenery. The part we have to cross is about three miles over, but the natives say it opens into another sheet of water which is larger. At a small pa 122 at which we pitched our tent there are a few who make a profession and I was gratified to find three who have very considerable knowledge. A few books they have had from Rotorua.

November 26. There was too much wind today to allow us to cross the lake. Conversed with some of my own natives who are candidates for baptism and afterwards spent some time with the people of the place. Had more attention at evening service.

November 27. Crossed the lake early this morning and staid at the opposite shore on account of bad weather.

November 28. This morning the mountain over which we had to pass was white with snow but the weather was fine. Set out at sunrise. In passing over the high ground 123 we found the trees for some miles covered with snow and in some places it was ancle [sic] deep on the ground. At about 4 o'clock in the afternoon we came to Ruatahuna which takes its name from a small stream. This is the principal district occupied by the Uriwera, who have here three pas, but there are many small

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parties scattered through the woods. The country is rugged on every side and densely wooded, well suited for native cultivation, but very difficult of access. The river after a winding course of many miles empties itself into the sea at Wakatane. One visit has been paid here by a christian native from Rotorua and there are many who profess to embrace Christianity, but I hear that at one of the pas nearer Wakatane the people profess popery. This only shews the necessity of using increased diligence in carrying to them the truth.

November 29. Sunday. Had service at nine and at five, and at noon assembled the natives at school but most of the people are away at Wakatane planting corn to sell to Europeans. This tribe numbers about 600 men and requires much attention.

November 30. Set out with little or no food. Three of our party are to meet us on the way with a supply but not falling in with them we were glad to pick the tawa berries to satisfy our hunger. At one o'clock we came to a small village and obtained a scanty meal, and thence we came to Waiti 124 where we found a few natives and very little to eat. The effects of the gospel are still visible and Techariah's visit 125 from Rotorua is spoken of with much interest.


December 1. The weather was rainy till afternoon when we left our quarters and following the course of the river Wirinake, walking sometimes on one side and sometimes on the other, the land rising abruptly on both banks, we came to a village belonging to Ngatiware at which were about 40 persons. That portion of them that profess Christianity came forward and shook hands which was a pleasing circumstance, giving us the right hand of fellowship and shewing too that there is a commencement in this secluded spot.

December 2. Left early and in about three hours we emerged from the mountainous district in which we have been travelling ever since we left Turanga. From the summit of the last hill we had an extensive view, embracing one of the mountains near Taupo on the south, and mount Edgecombe on the north at the back of Wakatane, and Tarawera, above Rotorua, before us. The plain land is about six miles across and seems to become gradually wider towards the sea from Matata to Wakatane, but the soil is extremely barren being little more than pumice stone, and though there are two rivers winding their course through it, the prospect is desolate and dreary. The land beyond as far as the back of Rotorua though plain by comparison is a constant succession of smaller hills. At the further side of the plain we came up with a party

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of about 80, the tribe of Ngatimanawa, who are on their way to Rotorua to a feast. They pressed us to stay with them for the night, there being here also a christian party, but neither our time nor our food would allow us to do so. After talking to the people about an hour we proceeded to a little wood called Motumako.

December 3. Rose early, and the natives having only half a meal left, we walked upon the strength of our nights rest for about 4 hours and then cooked our last provision and continued our course to Tarawera lake. The whole country is the extreme of barrenness. At the part of the lake we first came to we found a party of natives who entertained us with much hospitality and afterwards supplied us with two canoes to take us over to another part of it. The sheet of water is extensive and there are 4 pas in different quarters. At dusk we came opposite to a small island 126 which has been occupied in consequence of the war as a place of safety, and crossed over in a canoe. It is covered with houses having perhaps 60 inhabitants. There too are some of the worshippers of Jehovah.

December 4. Heavy rain early in the morning gave us a bad prospect for the day but the weather improved towards eleven and we crossed over to the largest pa which has been regularly visited by our friends from Rotorua. There is a large body of people, but it is only the younger persons who have given encouragement. The old men however spoke well and say that as soon as peace is established they will attend to instruction. But perhaps it is only a repetition of "Go thy way, when I have a convenient season I will call for thee". From this place we continued our course and arrived at Mr. Chapman's house at Rotorua 127 about six o'clock.

December 5. The settlement is beautifully situated on the bank of the lake and the position is central in respect of missionary labour and many promising young men are living in connexion with Mr. Chapman, but all is yet unsettled owing to the embarrassment arising out of the war. 128 Were there only the few who live about the station who attend to the word of God there would be enough to encourage the weary labourer, but I have been enabled to observe the effects of the gospel in every place I have come to, and its influence has extended to a distance of 4 days journey around. It is therefore a great work which is in progress and will soon shew itself in permanent fruit.

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December 6. Sunday. Held service in the settlement and then went to Oinemutu where about 100 natives were present and among them the native who committed the murder which was the commencement of this war, and the man who killed Ngakuku's daughter. 129 In the evening we partook together of the sacrament of the Lords supper.

December 7. Engaged for some time in conversing with some of the serious natives at Mr. Chapman's request. In the evening held native service.

December 8. Conversed with a party of serious natives and held native service. Made preparation for our journey.

December 9. Left Mr. Chapmans at nine o'clock and crossed Rotorua lake. Slept at Te Rerenga.

December 10. Reached the outside of the wood by 10 o'clock and walked on to the Papa which we reached at about 4. I was glad to find Mr. Brown at home having heard that he was gone to Matamata.

December 11. Conversed with a party of 26 natives for Mr. Brown. A lively interest is still kept up among the natives and the good work is advancing.

December 13. Sunday. Took native and English services in the morning at the settlement and in the afternoon went to Otumoetai. The popish priest resides at this latter place but his influence is not great 130 and I was pleased to see that a greater number of elderly men attend our services than there were a year ago.

December 14. Conversed with about 70 natives who are candidates for baptism. Prepared for our journey.

December 15. Left Tauranga at about 10 oclock and arrived at Maketu about 5. The party here is that principally engaged in the war with Tauranga. We found them particularly civil and willing to listen to instruction.

December 18. Left early on account of tide, having to ford the river Ohiwa. Reached Opotiki a little before sunset but had to wait some time for a canoe in which to cross the river. We found Mr. Wilson just coming from prayers at the chapel, and accompanied him to his house which is about a mile distant.

December 19. Went with Mr. Wilson to see the site for the station. His house is building but as he has only been about three weeks here, all is confusion. There seems to be more encouragement than I had reason to expect both here and at the places which are distant, and with the assistance of native teachers much may be done.

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December 20. Sunday. Held native service morning and evening at the Pa, and English service in Mr. Wilsons tent at which three Europeans from the Pa were present. The native congregation amounts to about 200 and many who have called themselves papists are among the number.

December 21. Left Opotiki on our way homewards & after passing up the bed of the river for about 10 miles we ascended to a range of hills called Kowai. 131

December 22. Travelled all day on the range we ascended yesterday and brought up at night within 5 miles of the river Motu. The whole surrounding country is densely wooded and extremely rugged.

December 23. Travelled hard all day. In the afternoon we had a view of Turanga from the top of the range. Our guide told us that it was here formerly, on occasion of the Tauranga natives having been to fight with those of Turanga, they told their prisoners to take a farewell look at their home to which they were never to expect to return. In the evening we slept on the banks of Turanga river.

December 24. Made a forced march all day and reached home at 10 oclock at night in a heavy rain, thankful to find all well & in safety.

[Routine entries December 25-31.1


Turanga 6 November 1840

We left at Paihia under Marianne's care, sundry articles to be forwarded to you by the first opportunity. One box contained William's collection of dried ferns, intended especially for yourself, the other was filled with the following things, which we will be glad if you will distribute ... 5 large pieces of green jade--3 small ditto--3 green jade ornaments--1 carved box--1 bone meri--21 combs--1 Platypus pouch--and some Clematis seed, and two or three mats ....

William has just returned from Ahuriri, about a hundred miles to the south of us, and has had a very interesting journey. It is a very remarkable fact that the Gospel should make such an astonishing progress just at the very time when everything outwardly (humanly speaking) seems to be against it. The introduction into the land of so many hundreds of individuals intent upon nothing but gain, the exertions of the Popish Bishop & numerous emissaries, in short the numberless ways in which our great enemy shows his malice and raises opposition to our cause would, we might suppose, be sufficient to upset it, but greater is He who is for us than he who is against us. Here, Popery has not hitherto

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been permitted to make much progress: almost all profess to be christians, and the great danger is, that it should prove to be profession only. The mission just now is in very trying circumstances and we greatly need the prayers of all concerned in its welfare. The land affair is a very serious thing. The Port Jackson Government has now taken up the question, and after many and long debates in their council, a bill has been prepared for appointing commissioners to enquire into all claims upon land purchases in New Zealand, and proposing to relieve the large proprietors of the greater portion of their possessions not allowing anyone to retain above a certain fixed quantity. 132 The commissioners have I believe already arrived in the Bay of Islands, and not a little excitement prevailed. As for our body there are some among us who have made very unreasonable purchases, much to the regret of many of their brethren, but then others will be found to have little if any more than is sufficient for their numerous families to be provided for in a modest manner, for land in New Zealand is not like land in New England, and if a boy were to be set down upon 200 acres according to the Society's proposition, the probability is that he must starve, for the land produces nothing but fern naturally and a very few head of cattle would starve upon that quantity of land in a dry season and leave none for cultivation. I think the good folk at home may safely leave their missionaries here to the mercy of the Government, who will be sure not to treat them with too much tenderness, and defer their own severe measures. As for ourselves, it can scarcely be said to affect us, for William's purchase was a very small one, but we feel very anxious lest poor Edward and Samuel, whose farm is now becoming valuable, should be cut short together with their brothers, for we are quite sure that what poor Henry did in the way of buying land, was done in the integrity of his heart, merely to provide respectably for his numerous children without any wish to aggrandize them, and he did not, could not do it, without making great sacrifices. He has very much to try him and so has poor Marianne whose health, I find, is anything but good. I have some hopes that Henry may send her down here with her own children and mine at Christmas for a little change and quiet, but I hear they are expecting the Bishop of Australia, and that may keep them at home ....

We are going on here very comfortably quite out of all the excitement and worry which prevails at the Northward and which is very wearying both to the health and spirits. We are longing to have our dear children home again and I think we shall probably keep some of them when they are here, particularly the boys if William finds he can attend to them.


1   See note on page 155.
2   See note on page 153.
3   The C.M.S. station at Tauranga was at Te Papa. The mission was begun here in August 1835 by W. R. Wade. The Te Waharoa war curtailed the work, although J. A. Wilson was here from January 1836 until March 1837. The C.M.S. Missionary most generally associated with Tauranga was A. N. Brown--see note on missionaries.
4   Although the Tauranga meeting decided on this mission extension, the only one occupied in 1840 was Wanganui--J. Mason and R. Matthews arrived there in June 1840. J. A. Wilson visited Opotiki from Tauranga during 1840 but did not take up permanent residence until the beginning of March 1841. W. G. Puckey was appointed to Waiapu, but refused to leave Kaitaia. Waiapu remained unoccupied until J. Stack arrived in 1842.
5   Williams always referred to Harris as plain 'Mister'. To the Maoris he was known as 'Pene Hareti'--'Pene' being a shortened version of Kapene, Captain. This title was a courtesy one only. (J. A. Mackay, op. cit., p. 94.)
6   A list inside the cover of Williams Ms Diary 1838--9, lists the fruit trees he sent ahead by the Jess: 'Peach 10, Nectarine 4, Apricot 4, Plumb 8, Apple 14, Cherry 4, Pear 4, Walnut 2.'
7   See note on Turanga mission stations.
8   'We had little peace for the first week. Hundreds of natives surrounded the house and all night long kept shouting in unison h-a ha, h-e he, h-i hi, h-o ho, h-u hu, and so on through half the primer spelling book. I think they fancied it was part of the missionary "karakia" or worship. We had brought down with us a small primer in sheets and had given away half a dozen copies, and this was the result.' (G. Clarke op. cit., p. 22.)
9   Wherowhero was not sited at present day Muriwai; the pa was closer to the lagoon. (Mrs H. Sunderland, Gisborne). There was a small trading settlement there as well.
10   George Clarke gave a similar description of the incident, 'but,' he concluded, 'there was a great row, and the charter for the voyage expired in a storm of abusive slang that might have unnerved Mark Twain himself.' (G. Clarke, op. cit., p. 22.)
11   The Roman Catholic missionaries who did not possess 'books', criticised this barter. C.M.S. missionary Thomas Chapman wrote: 'I have found the selling of our Tests. for Pork and Potatoes tell much against us in spite of all our explanations.' (T. Chapman to A. N. Brown 2 March 1842, A. N. Brown Papers.)
12   The European population at Poverty Bay in May 1847 was given as 29 men, 11 women, 52 children. See footnote 95, 1847.
13   In class attendance figures the men always outnumbered the women. William Yate commented on this: 'We find the females invariably less attentive than the men. We can command the attention of the men, but the women scarcely ever listen, and generally walk away to their cooking.' (M.R., 1830, p. 114.)
14   Te Kani a Takirau, paramount chief of the East Coast. Although a friend and protector of pakehas and missionaries alike, he never accepted Christianity-- possibly his three or more wives proved an obstacle he was not willing to overcome. Neither was he a signatory to the Treaty of Waitangi. (Mackay, op. cit., pp. 461-4.)
15   Ngakuku (William Marsh) of Tauranga stayed at Uawa during 1838 and established worship among the people. (W. Williams, Journal 14 April 1839.)
16   Anna Maria, born 25 February 1839.
17   Marianne Williams had a favourite Maori servant called Fanny who died some time in 1828. It is possible that the Fanny William was feeding, was Fanny II, and that she had been lent by Marianne to Jane as a young Maori maid-companion for James and Maria.
18   Capt. Lancaster (Sydney Gazette, 3 December 1839.)
19   tide.
20   Joseph Marsden Williams--eleventh child of Henry and Marianne.
21   ship. Jane's two daughters, Mary and Jane had remained with their aunt at Paihia.
22   See note on missionaries.
23   In fact, as William reported, the Martha was unable to put to sea, and they did see Henry who had made a journey through the centre of the North Island to Tauranga after leaving Hadfield at Waikanae.
24   Charlotte Brown, first wife of A. N. Brown.
25   Maria Coldham, sister of Marianne Williams, married John Morgan.
26   See note on missionaries.
27   See Pre-1840 visits to Poverty Bay.
28   See note on Land Buying.
29   See note on missionaries.
30   In November 1839 Henry Williams bought about 40 acres at Port Nicholson for a native reserve. (H. Carleton, The Life of Henry Williams, Auckland 1874, Vol. 1, pp. 239-40.) On 16 December 1839 he bought land at Wanganui which was also to be held in trust: 'At breakfast held council with the Chiefs respecting their land as they were under considerable alarm lest the Europeans should take possession of the Country. All approved of their land being purchased and held in trust for their benefit alone.' {The Early Journals of Henry Williams, p. 465.)
31   Unlike the C.M.S. mission, the Catholic one did not initially expand through extended settlement, but through the journeyings of the itinerant priest, his mission on his back. It was this mobility which threw the C.M.S. missionaries into such a flurry of anxiety and activity to shore up, in particular, the vulnerable Bay of Plenty-East Coast area. The early Roman Catholic influence is difficult to evaluate. Pompallier's strategy was one of showing the flag, or rather, as Father Garin wrote, the soutane: 'Monseigneur va nous envoyer dans differents points plutot pour nous montrer que pour nous y fixer: "Notre presence, la vue de notre soutane, dit Monseigneur suffira pour les contenter".' {Annales des Missions d'Oceania, Lyons 1895, Vol. 1, pp. 75-6.) By September 1841 the Catholic mission had only seven stations, although the soutane had been seen in most of the inhabited areas of New Zealand. Thomas Chapman wrote of the Catholic influence in his Rotorua district: 'You may depend upon it that if something is not done for these scattered districts we shall be beaten out of the field. The patience, diligence and Native way of going about of these priests, if they can only bring a little taonga to their help will push us out of these starving scattered districts.' (T Chapman to A. N. Brown 2 March 1842, A. N. Brown Papers.) Lack of Taonga--of something highly prized, which in this case was books--was a severe disability which Pompallier tried to overcome by telling his Maori listeners that 'the teaching of the Mother Church makes us understand the word of God. She writes it in our hearts and our hearts are our books.' (J. B. F. Pompallier, Early History of the Catholic Church in Oceania, translated J. E. Luck, Auckland 1888, p. 56.) But to Maoris accustomed to the excitement of reading and writing and to the prestige of owning a testament, it was scarcely a satisfactory answer. That Pompallier was over optimistic about the influence of his mission is evidenced in the following extract from a letter by one of his own priests. In reply to a query about the number of Roman Catholics in the country, Father Forest wrote, 26 March 1843, 'Je doute bien que nous ayons la moitie des quarante mille dont les journeaux francais ont parle, les Anglais memes disent en plaisantant que les catholiques comptent plus de monde dans leur parti qu'il n'y a d'habitants.' {Annals des Missions d'Oceania, Vol. 1, p. 167.)
32   See note on missionaries, page 154.
33   Between 1834 and 1835 the hitherto amiable relations between the W.M.S. and C.M.S. were disrupted by John White's claims to the south and west of the North Island as a Wesleyan sphere of influence. The dispute was settled by the Parent Committees in London, and in 1836 the W.M.S. missionaries were advised to leave Waikato to the C.M.S., and also to vacate their Kawhia and Raglan stations. At a meeting at Mangunu, Hokianga, October 1838, however, the local W.M.S. missionaries decided to re-occupy their former stations. In 1839 John Bumby and John Hobbs sailed from Hokianga to extend the W.M.S. mission to the south.
34   Dr Lang's criticism of the C.M.S. mission in New Zealand was contained in his book, New Zealand in 1839 or Four Letters to the Right Hon. Earl of Durham, London, 1839.
35   Capt. G. T. Clayton bought 1200 acres near Wherowhero in December 1839. By 10 December 1840 several buildings had been erected on the land for curing bacon, preparing pork and collecting corn. Some of the land had been grassed and on this cattle were grazing. (Poverty Bay Claims O.L.C. 4/21. National Archives.)
36   'The words "bishop" and "eveque" were unpronounceable in Maori, so he [Pompallier] took the Latin word "episcopus" and changed it into "epicopo" or "picopo" to describe himself and this word became also the name of the Catholic religion among the Maoris.' (L. Keys, The Life and Times of Bishop Pompallier, Christchurch, 1951, p. 106.) As written Maori had no 'c' the word became pikopo.
37   Jane Williams Journal 21 February 1840, referred to him as 'Mackey the Englishman'. James Mackey was a Wherowhero settler and whaler in 1840. For some years afterwards he operated a boat ferry on the Turanganui River. (J. A. Mackay, op. cit., p. 274) It is possible that he was the same man as James McKay who claimed 4 acres of the Huruhuruhutia Block bought from Moses Yule. (Poverty Bay Claims O.L.C. 4/21.)
38   rammed clay and gravel.
39   By 1845 at least, Tohutohu was living at Hawkes Bay. He was the principal chief of Ngamoerangi. See W. Williams Journal, 29 January 1845.
40   Capt. W. B. Rhodes and the barque Eleanor.
41   Williams MS Diary 1838-9 has a rough sketch map of some of the Maori villages near the Turanga station--Patutai (Patutahi), Taruheru, Towanga (Toanga), Werowero (Wherowhero), Moka, Taikawakawa. The map is too rough to give anything but a relationship of one to the other. Colenso stated that Toanga was 'a pa about 3 miles distant from Kaupapa'. (Colenso Papers, Vol. 1, p. 58.)
42   Taikawakawa was immediately south of Young Nicks Head.
43   Nuhaka.
44   Under the protection of Te Wera, the Mahia became a refuge for Ngati Kahungunu. Te Hapuku was captured when Pakake pa at Ahuriri fell in 1824 to an attack by Waikato and Hauraki tribes, but he escaped and took protection under Te Wera. (S. Percy Smith, op. cit., pp. 144-5.) Later in 1840 he returned to Ahuriri; Colenso thought of him as the undisputed principal chief of the whole district. (Colenso Papers, Vol. 2, p. 130.)
45   Te Wera died in 1839.
46   In the Whangawehi Coronation Reserve at the neck of Mahia Peninsula is an Historic Places Trust plaque near to a hollow rock which according to tradition was used as a baptismal font by William Williams. (Pamphlet compiled by National Historical Places Trust Hawkes Bay Regional Committee.)
47   Te Apatu. His son who accompanied Williams back to Turanga was possibly Paora Apatu.
48   The falls there and the fossilised shells were described in detail by William Colenso on his 1841-2 journey, and also by Lieut. Col. St John in his 'Pakeha Rambles through Maori Lands'. (N. M. Taylor, ed., Early Travellers in New Zealand, Oxford 1959, pp. 19-20 and 569-70.)
49   The Ruakituri and Hangaroa Rivers rise in the ranges to the north east of Lake Waikaremoana.
50   The Neales (sometimes spelt Neal) were probably the first European married couple at Poverty Bay--there is a reference to the husband in Jane Williams to Marianne Williams 11 May 1840. They appear to have come from the Bay of Islands. It is possible that Neale was an employee of Capt. Clayton and that they lived on his Wherowhero land which was close enough to Kaupapa to allow Mrs Neale to visit.
51   Marsden Tukareaha and his son Paul were both native teachers at Umukapua pa. (W. Williams, Journal, 18 April 1839.)
52   The Eleanor (Capt. W. B. Rhodes) would have been collecting cargo from Cooper, Holt and Rhodes' trading post at Wherowhero.
53   Edward Wananga, one of the native teachers at Paokahu. (W. Williams, Journal, 17 April 1839.)
54   Coriaria arborea--commonly called Tutu. The green shoots and seeds are poisonous, but the juice from the berries is not. It was the native wine. See also W. Williams, Journal 14 January 1847, and footnote.
55   Parata meaning brother--to distinguish him from Henry--was one Maori name for William Williams. More often in Poverty Bay he was called Te Wiremu.
56   special person to look after him.
57   very desirous.
58   letters.
59   Bishop Pompallier accompanied by Father Viard and Brother Michael visited Tauranga in March 1840. Viard returned to Tauranga to establish a mission in May 1840.
60   Robert Espie. See Jane Williams, Journal 7 April 1840.
61   Capt. Hobson and his entourage had arrived at the Bay of Islands on 29 January. The Treaty of Waitangi was signed on 6 February.
62   A visit only by Bishop Pompallier. A priest was not stationed there until the following year.
63   Henry Williams.
64   lazy.
65   The Ariel.
66   This could have been William Brown who was given land at Matawhero by local chiefs in 1842 'in consideration of the said William Brown having lived with us for a term of three years during which we have received many presents and kindnesses from him'. (Poverty Bay Claims, O.L.C. 4/21.) It could also have been Manheim Brown from the Bay of Islands. (Bay of Islands Census, N.Z. Centennial Atlas and Gazeteer, Box 2. ATL.)
67   Trousers made of thick woollen cloth.
68   vexed.
69   The Aquila was in the Bay, but the Bishop and his missionaries had remained in the Bay of Plenty.
70   A Canadian island bordering the Arctic Ocean.
71   James Kemp of Kerikeri.
72   William Puckey of Kaitaia.
73   Richard Davis of Waimate, Bay of Islands. He remained at Waimate.
74   William Colenso, in November 1841, walked down the East Coast from Hicks Bay to Poverty Bay, and Bishop Selwyn in December 1842 walked north from poverty Bay. See Early Travellers in New Zealand, N. M. Taylor (ed).
75   Henare Potae whose pa was at Mawhai.
76   In his Notes on Early Life in New Zealand, pp. 29-33, Williams' companion, George Clarke, gave a most interesting recollection of this visit to Waiapu.
77   Williams met Ouenuku on his January 1838 visit to Waiapu--see W. Williams, Journal 20 to 21 January 1838.
78   Iharaira te Houkamau.
79   Associated with the Chartist convention at Birmingham July 1839--see J. L. and B. Hammond, The Bleak Age, Penguin Books, pp. 179-80.
80   John Hayes, a trader known to the Maoris as Hone Heihi, lived at Omaewa near Port Awanui, Waiapu, with another pakeha known as Ropiha. Hayes arrived there in 1834. A local chief, Tamati Porourangi built a store for them 'in return for two casks of powder and one cask of tobacco'. (Mackay, op. cit., pp. 130-1.)
81   lazy ones.
82   A New England whaler, Cadmus, was lost in the South Pacific, but not until August 1842. (A. Starbuck, History of the American Whale Fishery, New York 1964, p. 376.) The schooner, John Dunscombe arrived at Sydney from New Zealand on 26 February 1840, but Neale was not listed as a passenger. (The New Zealand Journal, 1840, p. 180.)
83   Horotutu was the next beach along from Paihia towards the Waitangi River. Neither the Fords nor the Bakers who lived there were favoured by either of the Williams' families. Samuel Ford, the official C.M.S. medical man, annoyed William Williams by his refusal to leave the Bay of Islands and go to the southward. The 'awful character' was probably Mrs Ford, although Hannah Baker, Charles Baker's second wife, would also have fitted this description. Both Samuel Ford and his wife had 'trials'; neither had robust health and two of their children had died. In a letter to Kate Heathcote, Jane wrote that Mrs Ford was possessed of 'mischievous propensities'. (Jane Williams to Catherine Heathcote, 18 May 1840.)
84   On 11 December 1839, when Henry Williams was at Rangitiki on his return journey from the Kapiti district where he had left Hadfield, a taua of Ngati Ruanui arrived from Wanganui under Wiremu Neira, a Wesleyan native teacher. Neira told Williams that they were on an expedition to Otaki, and that they had been sent for by another Wesleyan native teacher. Henry Williams remonstrated with Neira and his taua for their threatened conversion of Otaki by force of arms. After much firing of guns and 'much inflammatory language', Neira and his party gave up the expedition and followed Williams to Wanganui. Henry Williams commented, 'Sad effects of the Wesleyan system on this part of the country'. (The Early Journals of Henry Williams, pp. 461, 463-4.)
85   Mr J. M. McEwen, has commented: 'Obviously, she means here ngakau riri, or a feeling of ire'.
86   Marianne's admirer--she was the eldest daughter of Henry and Marianne-- was William Colenso. He was certainly rebuffed by Henry Williams.
87   Edward, Henry Williams' eldest son, married Jane Davis, daughter of Richard Davis of Waimate.
88   Missionary Register.
89   relatives
90   Maria Morgan.
91   Jane was including the boarders at the Waimate Boys' School.
92   Second son of Henry Williams.
93   Samuel Ford ceased working for the C.M.S. at the Bay of Islands on 30 April 1840, but he did not officially disconnect himself until 25 September 1840.
94   William Wade was engaged by the C.M.S. to superintend the printing press. He arrived at the Bay of Islands with William Colenso in 1834, and like Colenso was never happy with his northern colleagues. 'I am unhappily subject to a degree of morbid sensibility', he wrote to Brown, . . . 'but the way in wh. we have been treated by the Brethren of the Northern District is not the mere fruit of a sickly fancy.' He also accused the Northern Committee of a wish to get rid of them. (W. Wade to A. N. Brown, 9 October 1839. A. N. Brown Papers.)
95   Te Wharepouri, a migrant from Taranaki, settled with his people at Petone.
96   a male relative.
97   Te Arai and Waipaoa Rivers.
98   The statement quoted in Christianity among the New Zealanders mentioned only one man drowned: '"These are to certify that John Brown, of the brig Martha, seaman, was unfortunately drowned on the beach, and was buried by the kind assistance of the chief and missionaries (native), who paid every attention by having the rites performed in a proper manner, and with good order."' (W. Williams, op. cit. pp. 289-90.)
99   The children were also suffering from whooping cough.
100   When W. J. Lewington went into partnership in the Hokianga timber industry with James Busby and Gilbert Mair, his place as master of the missionary schooner Columbine was taken by Captain A. Stratton.
101   In the stores which she carried for the mission, there were only nine testaments for distribution. (W. Williams to C.M.S., 23 September 1840, C.N./096.)
102   Sons of Henry Williams.
103   Name of Turanga mission station 1840-44.
104   See 'Taupo-Taranaki Quarrel' in Journal of Ensign Best, N. M. Taylor (ed.), Wellington, 1966, Appendix 7.
105   Rev. Robert Maunsell. In June 1839 Maunsell arrived at the C.M.S. Waikato station of Maraetai.
106   There were three principal European traders on the Hawkes Bay coast during 1840; William Burton based at Wairoa, Stephen Simmons with five men at Ahuriri, and F. W. C. Sturm at Nuhaka. The first two were left by W. B. Rhodes either at the end of 1839 or January 1840. Sturm dated his arrival at Nuhaka from 1839. ('Log of the Australian Barque of Sydney', W. B. Rhodes, pp. 97 and 125. J. G. Wilson, History of Hawkes Bay, Dunedin 1939, p. 147.)
107   Followers of the Maori prophet Papahurihia were sometimes known as 'the Jews'. His teaching consisted of a mixture of Christian, Judaic and Maori religious ideas. See 'Papahurihia, First Maori Prophet', O. Wilson, J.P.S. Vol. 74, pp. 473-82. 'Papahurihia: Some Thoughts on Interpretation', J. Binney, J.P.S., Vol. 75, pp. 321-30.
108   paddlers.
109   In Williams MS Diary 1845-7 there is a list the things he took with him on a journey: 'Surplice, Sac. cup, Wine, Bands, Bible, P.[rayer] Book, Book for reading, Nat. P. Book, Medicines, Writing Paper and Pencil, Candles, Tent, Poles, Hatchet, Luifers, Blacking and Brush, Clothes brush, Sugar, Coffee, Salt, Gelatine, Wine, Bread, Meat, Bedding, Towel, Soap'.
110   boiler for clothes.
111   child and adult.
112   carry.
113   reward.
114   the house is on fire.
115   trusty.
116   packs.
117   "Mister George, Mother, Mister George".
118   Richard Taylor's eldest son, Arthur, was killed when he fell from his horse and was dragged by it.
119   The Rotorua party had in fact gone to Tauranga. John Morgan and his family left Rotorua on 18 October and reached Tauranga on 21 October, from whence Morgan intended to take his wife on the Columbine to the Thames for medical advice. (J. Morgan, Letters and Journals, Vol. 1, p. 126.)
120   This journey of William Williams is important. He, and not William Colenso, nor Father Baty of the Marist mission, both of whom made the journey a year later, was the first European to reach Lake Waikaremoana, and he was also the first European to pioneer the Maori Opotiki to Turanga inland track-- the Te Kowhai track. His journal records little about the route he took. To Williams inland exploration was simply one of the more tedious parts of a missionary's job, a job made more urgent in 1840 because of his fear of Catholic infiltration. Unfortunately the small notebook diary which he probably kept in his pocket and in which he possibly recorded more brief details of the route, is missing for the years 1840-45, so that now all we have is the information in his Journal to the C.M.S. There are more details in Colenso's account of a more leisurely trip in which it is likely that he followed in Williams' footsteps. Colenso stayed with Williams at Kaupapa for a few days before he set out for Waikaremoana on 20 December 1841, and one can assume that the two missionaries discussed the route. (Memoranda of an Excursion made in the North Island of New Zealand in the Summer of 1841-2. W. Colenso; 'My First Visit to Lake Waikare', T.N.Z.I. Vol. 27, pp. 360-82, and a composite account in Bagnall and Petersen, William Colenso, pp. 113-5.)
121   Not the Wairoa River but a tributary, the Hangaroa.
122   Probably Onepoto.
123   Huiarau Range--summit 3015 feet.
124   Te Whaiti.
125   Thomas Chapman's head native teacher.
126   Submerged in the Tarawera eruption.
127   The Rotorua station was moved from Mokoia Island to Te Ngae on the eastern side of Lake Rotorua about July 1840. The position of the station and of the principal outposts visited by Thomss Chapman are marked on a sketch map drawn by Chapman in his Letters and Journals, Vol. 1.
128   In December 1835 a Rotorua Maori killed a relative of Te Waharoa, chief of Ngati Haua of Matamata. Te Waharoa and his Waikato allies attacked the Rotorua and Maketu tribes in 1836. Because of the fighting the C.M.S. stations at Matamata and Rotorua were abandoned. By 1840, although fighting had ceased, the tribes were still uneasy.
129   See T. Chapman, Letters and Journals, Vol. 1, p. 161.
130   J. P. Viard, S.M.
131   In a later letter to Brown, Williams described this route. He estimated it as a five days' journey, although in December by a forced march of 38 miles on the last day, he had travelled it in four. (W. Williams to A. N. Brown 17 February 1841, A. N. Brown Papers.)
132   See note on land buying on page 146.

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