1974 - Williams, W. The Turanga Journals - 1841 Letters and Journals, p 158-191

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  1974 - Williams, W. The Turanga Journals - 1841 Letters and Journals, p 158-191
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Station duties increase--journey to East Cape--demand for books continues--Williams pleads for assistance--visit by Urewera Maoris-- Roman Catholic intrusion--journey to Wairoa--engagement with Father Baty at Mahia.


January 1. Conversed with 12 candidates from Toanga many professors from that place have renounced their profession, as they say, in consequence of the many deaths which have occurred among them, but they are doubtless those hearers who are likened to the seed which fell by the way side. A few remain stedfast and will serve as a calling point for others. Went to see Tutapaturangi and Hore who have for some time withdrawn from worship through the mis-conduct of one of their people.

January 3. Held service morning and afternoon at Perohuka's 1 house. 7 Europeans at English service. [Entries omitted January 4-7.]

January 9. Spoke again with the candidates for baptism, amounting in number to seventy and arranged their Christian names. It is with more satisfaction that I have passed these candidates than on any former occasion, because, having had them under immediate instruction for several months, I have been able to ascertain that, in point of knowledge of the leading doctrines of Christianity they have clearer views than I have generally found. May it be found hereafter that this is not merely head knowledge but that the profession made with the lips proceeds from a heart enlightened by the Spirit of God.

January 10. Sunday. Having made arrangements in our new building 2 for the baptism of the candidates, we proceeded thither to hold the service. It was a solemn and memorable occasion for the natives of Turanga, a public recognition of the worship of Jehovah. May an abundant outpouring of the spirit be manifested. Among those admitted

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into the Church this day were three of the leading chiefs; a fourth would have been in the number but he is absent. Addressed the natives in the morning from Mark 18. 10-15 in the afternoon from Luke 19. 12-24. Six Europeans at English service.

January 11. Many persons are coming forward for instruction, and the baptism yesterday seems to have the effect of rousing some who had begun to enquire, but had again become careless.

[Entries omitted January 12-16]

January 17. Sunday a calm and beautiful morning, which was the occasion of a good assembly. Proceeded to the church before the natives and was much struck with their approach to the building, by their own arrangement they advanced in distinct tribes, first Ngaitawiri came up and occupied the centre of the building then Ngatikaipoho occupied the North side, and Ngatimaru the south. The circumstance reminded me forcibly of the passage in the 122 Psalm--Jerusalem is builded as a city that is compact together, whither the tribes go up, the tribes of the Lord unto the testimony of Israel, to give thanks unto the name of the Lord. The sun shone brightly around but the thin covering of our roof was sufficient to protect us from its force, while a refreshing breeze from the sea gently wafted through the open sides of the building and produced an exhilirating effect. The external decorum in their approach to the house of God, was also kept up in a more unanimous rising than usual at the commencement of the service, which seemed to say that those who had been only careless hearers of the word were desirous of following in the steps of those who are more sincere. The children baptized were 34 and bands of marriage 33, preached from Mark 11. 13-16. At English service 11 Europeans were present. In the afternoon I went to Toanga, where there are still many sick, the congregation was small, most of the people being up the Valley.

[Entries for the rest of January omitted. Williams read with Bible Classes and conversed with candidates for baptism. On January 22, Marianne Williams from Paihia arrived in the Columbine bringing with her four of her own children and William and Jane's four who had remained behind at the Bay of Islands--Mary, Jane, Leonard and Sydney.]

[Williams' Journal to the C.M.S. for February and March 1841 has short station entries only in which he read, conversed, distributed medicine and held services. Parties came for instruction from Ngaitawiri, (occasionally spelt Ngaitauwiri), Ngatihupe, Ngatimaru, Ngatikaipoho, Patutahi, Toanga, Paokahu, Taikawakawa, and for prayer books, from Nukutaurua and Werowero. When all the prayer books had been distributed, payment in baskets of produce was left for a future issue.]

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March 29. Still unable to meet the natives. [He had lumbago.] Two messengers arrived from Wairoa, who state that Joseph meets with great opposition from the natives generally. It appears that offence has been given by his enforcing a little strict discipline wh. at present they are not in the humour to bear. It may be said I believe of the natives generally that they do not attend to instruction, but those with whom Joseph is living continue stedfast. I doubt not all will be right as soon as we can have more labourers in the work.

March 30. Writing.

March 31. Gave out books for natives of Waikare, a lake in the interior.

WILLIAM WILLIAMS TO C.M.S. Turanga 19 March 1841

It is with much regret that I learn there is no prospect of a deputation coming to New Zealand, and particularly in reference to the arrangement of money salaries. 3 The direction of the Parent Committee that a Special Committee be formed for the investigation of this matter will not I fear be carried out, on account of the difficulty of getting together a sufficient number of persons of extensive experience. As the subject therefore may be open for some time, I shall venture to give my individual opinion ....

In a former letter I suggested that the Salary whatever might be the amount should be permanent, and not be reduced when the children successively reach the age of fifteen. In your letter of Feby 17 you state that "present healthy maintenance is all for which provision is to be made by the Salary assigned to each agent." Now according to the present rate of Salary this object is abundantly provided for, so long as the children of a family are under the age of 15. But when instead of the present annual allowance of £10 & a ration for each child, the sum of £50 is given as an apprentice fee, the case is very different. If any member of the Parent Committee who is himself a

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MARCH 1841

Parent will take the trouble to calculate he will find that it is at this period his heaviest expenses commence. The sum of £50 is I fancy almost the lowest fee which can be given. It is not I am told sufficient for the trade of a carpenter because if that sum is given, the youth must be boarded at his parents expense. The healthy maintenance therefore which has been enjoyed by the family being now diminished, the father must divide his individual expenditure in clothing with his sons, and the food which before was ample must now be reduced in quantity or quality--or other means must be sought out of making up the deficiency. This is the principle which is now working, and the result has been such as might be expected. I venture therefore to recommend, 1st. That the Salary of whatever amount be permanent, without any reference to the age of the children.

2nd. That the house in which the Missionary resides be provided by the Society together with necessary repairs, or that if the Missionary provide his own house, a sum not exceeding £ be allowed to him. 3rd. That the following scale of Salary for a Clergyman be adopted exclusive of House & Travelling expenses. Single Man £150, Married Man with no family £200, £12 in addition with each child, but that the highest amount do not exceed £300 ... .

4th. That the rate of Salary for a Catechist should be determined according to the rate adopted in other missions.

The allowance of £50 now given when a child arrives at the age of 15 will also be a subject for consideration. 4


If you look at your letter book you will find that during the last two years I have written two letters to your one, for it somehow happens either that your eyes will not allow you to write or that you are out of the way when there is an opportunity. The bearer of this is the postman on the new road to Opotiki, which is now for the first time traversed by letters, but if you will duly write, it may be traversed more frequently. In my last, which went by way of the Bay, I told you that I had concluded to keep my boys at home. They are accordingly here & though there is a material addition to my labour, there is also an addition to my satisfaction. Mrs. W. also has the comfort of being assisted by her daughter Mary, 5 which now in particular is a valuable consideration. She would have written to Mrs. Brown but has been so unwell all day as to be incapacitated from taking up a pen. The fact is she has expectations, which we hope may be realised in a fortnight or three weeks hence and which will sufficiently account for her indisposition. And so I hear that you are about to atone for your mistake in

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sending brother John Morgan to Otawao, by giving a mittimus to Mr. Ashwell. When I hear this is confirmed I shall say the rongo is mau 6 between us. In the meantime I have given Mr. Ashwell some hints about his movements in order that no time may be lost. 7 The work in every part of this district materially increases. The candidates for baptism are doubled & those who have been baptised now come every week to read. At the East Cape the case is the same. There are now, I am afraid to say how many candidates for baptism, but considerably more than 300, but I shall not be able to go near them till the middle of winter, because it is a tangata kotahi, 8 who has to attend to everything. You will be glad to hear that the Bible Society has undertaken to print 1000 copies of the Testament, but as the Wesleyans made so much better a figure, than we did in the Lords Committee, 9 they print also an equal number for them. 10 This however will be all right, a double force againt pikopo. To me it is particularly a cause for thankfulness, because I have expended all which have been sent me from the Bay--have received payment for many more and know not whether there are any more to send me.

Nothing I believe is said about a deputation or any reinforcements for us. Perhaps Mr Coates 11 is in the sulks, and yet I doubt not but that at their meetings they will have more to say about New Zealand than any other mission.



April 1. Writing grammar. 12

April 2. Conversed with 31 candidates. Natives at work at roof of church.

April 3. Writing grammar.

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APRIL 1841

April 7. Mrs. Williams was this morning confined with her seventh child 13 and is through a merciful providence doing well. Was too much occupied to receive the natives.

April 8. Conversed with 17 natives from Patutahi.

April 9. Good Friday. Held service morng. & Eveng. at the church which there was a good attendance. At English Service there were six Europeans.

April 10. Worked in the garden. At noon Mr. Harris came up from Turanganui.

April 11. Sunday. The congregation large at morning service being about 1000, and in the afternoon about 700. At English service there were about 9 Europeans.

April 12. Bible class from Paokahu 15.

April 13. Read with Bible class of 26 from Ngaitawiri & afterwards conversed with 98 candidates. Most of them are from Toanga & 20 came for the first time. Two of the number are heads of their respective tribes, and it really seems as though young and old, rich & poor are pressing forward to the Kingdom of Heaven.

April 14. Bible class from Ngatikaipoho 32 and afterwards was engaged till late with 113 candidates, of these 68 are new & several old men are of the number, men who in their day have been principal upholders of superstition. Received intelligence from Joseph at Wairoa who states that a very strong feeling is manifested there against the gospel, partly at the instigation of an American.

April 15. Candidates from Patutahi 30. A party of Ngapuhi arrived by way of Waiapu, consisting of Tekeao Kaitara and John Timo and James Timo. Teachers from the East Cape are of the party and bring a favourable report of their district.

[Short routine entries to the end of April. On 27 April a party arrived for books from Heretaunga, Hawkes Bay.]


Turanga 28 April 1841

There has been some alteration in the house since you left. 14 There is a chimney built in the Ware Mahi 15 in place of the door and the door has been removed to the corner of the room by the cupboard and Father is going to build a brick oven at the back of the chimney

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and the old chimney has been built up higher. The natives have almost finished the roof of the Church and they are planing boards for the other part of it and Father is going to have a new house somewhere at the back. 16 I suppose that somebody else will tell you that you have another little sister, her head is covered with dark hair and she has got very large arms and fingers and blue eyes and her name is to be Lydia Catherine. Father will soon go to the East Cape and expects Henry down before he goes. Sydney 17 is grown so fat that Father talks of taking him with him to the East Cape only he has not got shoes enough to wear out on the journey.



May 1. Conversed with 12 of my own natives.

May 2. Sunday. Weather wet had service in Perohuka's house morning & evening. English service as usual. 2 Europeans.

May 3. Bible class from Paokahu 12, candidates for baptism 53. A few events have recently taken place which are worthy of mention as showing the change from the long established customs of their ancestors. They are cases of trespasses of their pigs into the plantations of their neighbours. In some instances direct restitution has been made for the damage in others where the pigs have been killed in the act of trespassing, if the damage has not proved so great as the value of the pigs the difference has been equalized. The chief difficulty I have had to deal with is that they have been disposed to give an exorbitant price.

May 4. My party of candidates from Toanga arrived before day break, as many come the distance of ten or twelve miles, they make this arrangement that they may return home in good time. The candidates today were in all 109 and the bible class 28.

May 5. Bible class from Ngatikaipoho 22 and candidates 95.

May 6. Candidates from Patutahi 41.

May 7. Candidates from Taikawakawa 25. A party of natives returned to Ahuriri, there being no prospect of any books at present but they have two of their party to wait for their arrival, one is a chief from Te matau o maui the extreme point of Hawks Bay.

May 8. Engaged with a party of 25 today. Seven are from Tolaga Bay and are well informed though they have had but little instruction.

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MAY 1841

May 9. Sunday. Had a full congregation of natives in the morning & preached from Mark 11.11. In the afternoon spoke from Eph.2. 19-22, with particular reference to the approaching baptism. At English service there was only one European.

May 10. Examining 65 candidates for baptism during the whole of the day from whom I selected 46, who have continued to give satisfaction for some months past.

May 11. Examined candidates from Ngatikaipoho total number 111 of whom 25 are selected for baptism--of the latter three persons are particularly deserving of notice, two brothers and a sister all about the age of 60 whose general knowledge of Christian truth is clear & decisive who after growing old in native superstition are now become babes in Christ, being made children of God and inheritors of the Kingdom of God.

May 13. Examined candidates from Patutahi & Taikawakawa, in all 111 of whom 28 are received for baptism. From Patutahi about 20 persons came for the first time whom the general movements of the natives seem to have aroused, or perhaps rather the influence of the Holy Spirit leading them to feel the necessity of that Salvation which is offered to them. One old man a principal chief has lost five children, his whole family since I have been at Turanga. At first he kept aloof from us, but now he comes to seek for comfort where alone it can be found.

May 14. Conversed with most of the candidates who are to be admitted to baptism & arranged their names. In the evening many natives arrived from Table Cape, hearing of the approaching baptism & some of them are candidates who are anxious to be baptized, but I have not yet conversed with them.

May 15. Conversed with a party of 44 natives from Table Cape & another of 32 from Nuwaka. As far as I could judge from one interview, many are much advanced in knowledge. I propose going to their places early in the spring & if any are then found fit subjects for baptism, to admit them to that right in the presence of their own people, for I doubt not that the circumstance of a baptism taking place among them will under God's blessing be the means of good to many of the careless. Occupied till late with different parties.

May 16. Sunday. The day was providentially fine or otherwise our large congregation would have been put to much inconvenience from the walls of the church being yet open. About 1500 persons were assembled and many were attracted by the novelty of the baptism who on ordinary occasions never come near us. The candidates being in number 145 entered the church first in order to avoid confusion in their arrangements & took their places in rows across the building. A serious solemnity pervaded the whole congregation & I trust that the

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Spirit of God was not only with those who were then admitted into the church of Christ but also with many others also, who have hitherto been strangers to his influence. After the baptism I addressed the congregation from Rom. 6.4. In the afternoon the assembly was nearly as large as in the morning when I preached from Rom. 3.20. Held a native service in the evening at my house & baptized our infant by the name of Lydia Catherine.

[Routine entries May 17-23.]

May 24. Left home at nine o'clock with my nephew Thomas & my son Sydney & a party of 25 natives several going for their own pleasure. [Journey to East Cape.] We proceeded with the horses to Turanganui. We then went to Papawariki 18 saw Mr. Harris & took our course for Pouawa. A cold southerly wind came on & before dark was accompanied with rain. We had to pitch our tents as well as we could in the dark, but on the whole we did very well, in the evening conversed with a party of 8 natives at the tent door.

May 25. Set out after breakfast and in two hours reached Pakarae. Spoke to the natives, and while our party waited for food, I pushed on with Sydney round Cape gable end foreland & reached Puatai in good time. There we found Edward 19 the native teacher from Uawa who had come to talk with the natives. Addressed the natives who numbered about 100 & upwards.

May 26. Conversed with 21 candidates several of whom are well informed. Left at 11 o'clock and reached Uawa at 3 o'clock. Held service in the evening and afterwards conversed with 26 candidates for baptism. A good work is evidently progressing & there promises to be an abundant harvest.

May 27. Left Uawa before breakfast on account of tide, & reached Waiotaha by 12. Conversed there with 16 candidates some of whom are well informed & a little further on had 6 more. After passing the Arawata o Mahaki we came to Anaura a little after dark. After evening prayers conversed with 24 candidates who were generally ignorant, but it is gratifying to find that the movement is universal & that with few exceptions all are enquiring the way to join.

May 28. The weather still continued fine though cool. Left Anaura before breakfast & having conversed with 5 candidates on the way reached Motukaroro 20 at noon. Conversed with 46 candidates here of whom 10 are able to give satisfactory answers to the questions put to them. Further on the road had another party of 8 & proceeded to

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JUNE 1841

Tuatini within a mile of Ariuru the Pa of Tokomaru addressed the natives in the evening.

May 29. Spoke with 53 candidates after breakfast in 5 classes from whom 4 are selected for baptism. Proceeded to Ariuru & as soon as the tents were pitched was occupied with natives. Spoke with 48 in 4 classes of whom 19 possess a considerable portion of knowledge. The progress made in this place is the more remarkable as no teacher is residing here & it is only occasionally assisted from Waiapu, from which it is distant a long day's journey.

May 30. Sunday. Held service in a commodious church in which was assembled an attentive congregation of 400. Preached from Acts 2.28 in the morn & from John 3.14 in the eveng. Conversed with 53 more candidates between the services of whom two only appear to be fit subjects for baptism.

May 31. Having made arrangements for the baptism of the natives who had past examination the people were assembled at nine o'clock in the chapel, when 36 adults were admitted into the church of Christ whom I afterwards briefly addressed & while the congregation remained I went out to arrange the names & sponsors for the younger children of those just received when 27 of them were received to the privilege of this ordinance. As soon as these services were concluded our party proceeded onward to Waipiro which is the next Pa we came to. Our party was now numerous being upwards of 100 & when within a mile of our meeting place, a number of them (about 40) were urgent with me to catechise them saying that it was the only vacant season we should have. One old man walking with a stick who has followed us two days journey observed while walking by my side. "You see this stick and my grey hair, these are signs that my run is declining. I should not have now left home, but from a desire for the word of God." Addressed the natives of Waipiro in the evening.

June 1. The weather looked bad this morning but there being a break our natives proposed to proceed. The consequence was that we got a good soaking and in little more than two hours reaching Wareponga the next pa, we pitched our tents. The weather continued bad & we were thankful to have good shelter & plenty of food for our party which was now 150. In the evening spoke to about 40 natives who are professed candidates but are very ignorant.

June 2. The weather is improved but the rain which has fallen has swollen the river Waiapu too much to allow us to cross. We therefore stay till tomorrow. I prayed with the christian natives who accompany us including most of those baptized at Tokomaru & also with those enquirers who accompany us. In the evening three old men, principal chiefs of Tokomaru came to talk and are extremely desirous for baptism but they are so ignorant that nothing can be done for them.

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June 3. Catechized a party of about 40 natives of this Pa, those who are better informed & who have regularly visited the native teacher are away at Waiapu waiting for our arrival there. Set out at ten and reached Wakawitira at four.

June 4. Conversed with the native teachers & examined their lists of candidates from which it appears that there are upwards of 500 at this pa. Engaged with candidates for seven hours during which time I examined 82 in eight classes of whom 18 are received for baptism.

June 5. Occupied 9 hours with candidates & examined 85 & received 34 for baptism some of them are persons rejected last year belonging to this pa, all the rest are from villages on the coast & up the valley. Several old men are among the number & it is astonishing to witness the knowledge to which they have attained considering their disadvantages. As to the Catchism used in the schools, the grey headed seem to be as conversant with them as the young. In some cases when I put questions which are somewhat difficult I received a reply of this nature "I am old and grey and know nothing but that Christ died on the cross for sinners."

June 6. Sunday. Held service in the chapel with a congregation of about 1200. In the morning preached from Mark. 16. 15-16 & in the afternoon from 1 Cor. 6.19. when I baptized the 53 adults examined during the last days, & administered the Lords Supper to 15 communicants.

June 7. Occupied 9 hours with 93 candidates of whom 54 are received for baptism.

June 8. Employed as yesterday with 89 candidates and received 45 for baptism.

June 9. Examined 92 candidates of whom 57 are received for baptism. In the evening Wm. Jacob one of the teachers of this place arrived from Hicks's Bay, having left the Columbine the preceding day. Went to his home at 10 o'clock to gather what news I could as he had no letters for me.

June 10. Occupied till 9 in the evening with 93 candidates of whom 50 passed for baptism.

June 11. Examined 15 remaining candidates and received 7 for baptism. Then assembled the candidates amounting to 213 and having arranged their names proceeded to the Chapel. After the baptismal service addressed them from Rom. 12.1. The number now admitted is unusually large but the state of this people is unusual. There is doubtless a great deal of ignorance, but the natives seem to have given themselves with one heart & mind to seek for instruction. As for the catechisms there are but very few from the oldest to the youngest who cannot repeat them. Any simple question on the leading doctrines of

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JUNE 1841

Christianity was sure to be answered and it was necessary to vary the questions much in order to ascertain the extent of real knowledge which has been attained. This number is now received into the outward visible church. May God grant that they may become lively members of Christ being baptized with the Holy Spirit of God.

June 12. Arranged sponsors for the children of the baptized natives, that is for those under six years of age & then baptized them to the number of 128. Set out in the afternoon on our way to Hicks's Bay intending to return to Wakawitira for service tomorrow. Proceeded about five miles.

June 13. Sunday. Remained at the village at which we slept & held morning & evening service, our party amounted to 84. Between the service conversed with the Christian natives & then with a few of our party from Turanga who are candidates.

June 14. Breakfasted early and set out at sunrise for Hicks's Bay which we reached a little after three oclock, and took up our quarters in John Timo's house (the native teacher). Since I was here last a good Chapel has been erected about 45 feet by 25 and the pa altogether presents a pleasing appearance.

June 15. The candidates presented by John amount to 55 of whom I passed 27 for baptism. Many are working for baptism being influenced by the excitement of the times, but none are received for examination who have not been candidates for some time.

June 16. Baptized the adults passed yesterday together with 18 children. As we were leaving the Pa a schooner came in sight, which turned out to be the Columbine but we were on our way some miles before we heard, and the vessel was then standing out to sea. Brought up at Horoera where there is an interesting party of natives. Conversed with 32 candidates & passed 11.

June 17. Conversed with ten more candidates and then proceeded to Rangitukia which we reached about an hour before sunset. Spoke with one class in evening all of whom passed.

June 18. Engaged the whole of the day with 81 candidates of whom 49 passed.

June 19. Examined 72 candidates of whom 32 passed.

June 20. Sunday. Spoke to the candidates for the Lords Supper & then proceeded to morning service. The congregation amounted to about 700 of whom 300 were outside so that I took my station at the door in order to be heard by all. Preached from Eph. 4. 22-24. In the afternoon preached from Eph. 3. 14-19. and baptized 97 adults. Afterwards administered the Lords Supper to 36 communicants.

June 21. Examined 80 candidates of whom 48 passed for baptism.

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June 22. Engaged 12 hours with 600 candidates & passed 69 for baptism.

June 23. Examined 20 candidates of whom 5 passed then having addressed the candidates proceeded at 2 oclock to the baptism of adults being in number 122. At the conclusion of which baptized 113 children. The service was not over till about an hour after dark & the poor children were much disquieted by the proceeding. Having a little quiet in the evening for the first time the teachers came to sit with me while I was arranging my packages for our departure in the morning. My companions Thomas & Sydney left at noon today & will have made a good commencement of their journey.

June 24. Rose at 4 oclock & called up the natives to prepare food. Before break of day the weather assumed a threatening aspect, with wind from the North, but as the natives were disposed to start we set out though the rain had commenced. By the time we had crossed the river Waiapu which we had to do in a canoe we were very wet and were glad to take refuge in a house on the opposite bank. There we enjoyed ourselves by a comfortable fire, & at about 11 the weather broke & allowed us to continue our journey. Travelling on at a brisk rate till dark we reached Wareponga where we found about ten of the christian natives baptized at Wakawitira. Held service in the chapel and spoke from Math.7. 43-44.

June 25. Set out at day break & proceeded with little interruption till an hour after dark when we reached Tangoiro. Here a party I had examined at Motukaroro on my way to Waiapu was very anxious to be examined again & to be baptized at Uawa. This however I told them could not be, but I catechized them generally with several more in addition.

June 26. Set out a little before sunrise on account of the high tide, the road being impassable at high water & at eleven came up with Thomas & Sydney when we breakfasted. Then continued over road to Uawa which we reached at about 3 oclock just in time to escape the rain.

June 27. Sunday. No chapel has yet been erected, but the building is under preparation. Our morning service was held on the site which has been cleared for the building. The congregation amounted to about 300. I afterwards conversed with 3 classes of candidates several of whom examined passed for baptism. Held evening service in a large house as the weather was too cold for us to assemble in the open air.

June 28. Engaged the whole day in conversing with candidates for baptism.

June 29. Concluded the examination of candidates. A temporary substitute for a building has been made with the timber preparing for the chapel of which the posts are put into the ground marking out

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JULY 1841

the size of the future building. Within this we assembled when the adults amounting to 66 were admitted to the rite of baptism and afterwards 30 of their children. These natives are from several small villages and it is to be hoped will be the means of community spiritual benefit to their relations.

June 30. Left Uawa at sunrise the ground being covered with hoar frost, an unusual appearance, & passed through a long swamp without much inconvenience. Arrived at a village at ten where we intended to breakfast, but the tide being favourable for our passing by Cape Gable end foreland we continued our journey. At the next stage Pakarae we found that the people were gone to Pouawa about 6 miles further on, so that we were obliged to continue till after 3 oclock before we took our first meal. Here we agreed to stay for the night & in the evening I conversed with about thirty persons of the place, most of whom are fresh enquirers and as yet extremely ignorant.

July 1. Continued our journey & arrived at one oclock home at Turanga, after an absence of 38 days, thankful to find that a gracious God has continued the same mercies to my family at home which we have experienced on the way.

July 2. Unpacking goods which had arrived from England. 21 July 3. Engaged as yesterday.

July 4. Sunday. Weather very cold. Held morning service in the Church which is still open to wind & weather. Preached from 1 Peter 3.12. In the afternoon had service in a large building in the Pa. At our English service only our own family. In the evening there was much excitement from the report of a hostile expedition from the natives of Opotiki 22 of which notice has been received some weeks. This evening 5 strangers are said to have been seen in a wood near at hand & it is supposed they are scouts of the party. All the people are collected in their Pas & preparation making for defence.

July 5. A large body of natives under arms out this way to scour the neighbourhood but found no enemy. Began to distribute books which have been paid for some months back but the supply of Testaments is so small as not to meet a tenth part of the demand.

July 6. Still much excitement among the natives but it does not prevent their crowding my door from morning till night for books.

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July 7. Engaged the whole day in distributing books.

July 8. The applications for books are not yet met & numbers go away disappointed for want of testaments or even parts of Testaments.

July 9. Engaged in conversing with natives & distributing books.

July 11. Sunday. Held native service morning & afternoon. Preached from Math 6.24 & Isaiah 49.15. At English service only one European present.

July 12. Met my classes for catechizing and reading scripture--at the bible class were 42 of the tribe of Ngatimaru & 114 candidates. The classes are now become so large that in order to give the requisite attention to each individual it will become necessary to divide them & receive each class every fortnight instead of once a week.

July 13. Bible class 38 from Ngaitawiri. The candidates from that & three other tribes amounted to 127. A vessel has just arrived from the Bay of Plenty, by which the report is confirmed of a hostile movement from Opotiki, & it is further stated that three individuals living about 25 miles from this on the road to that place have been killed treacherously. I have urged them to go in a strong body to ascertain the truth of this report & at any rate to keep their people out of the reach of harm.

July 14. Bible class 44 from Ngatikaipoho. Candidates 128.

July 15. A large party of candidates from Patutahi came this morning. All the men under arms, but I felt it needful under present circumstances to go inland instead of conversing with them to urge the natives to go in quest of the three men said to have been killed. We all went therefore to Toanga, to which the said natives belong and they agreed to set out early tomorrow.

July 16. The three natives arrived at Toanga last night after we left, but still the uncertainty remains & no native will venture to go and ascertain whether there is any intention to commence hostilities. It is not according to native custom to send a herald to proclaim war, but the first intimation given is often the perpetration of a murder. The natives of Toanga have universally given over their practices, but many of those of Opotiki profess to belong to the Papists & these are the people who feel themselves at liberty for the commission of any wickedness, but should they think proper to come I doubt not they will meet with a warm reception & a more unanimous opposition than they would formerly have done. Met two classes of 40 from Taikawakawa.

July 17. Conversed with 117 candidates from Werowero Ngaitawera & Ngatiaweawe.

[July 18-25. Writing and 'conversing'.]

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JULY 1841

July 26. Bible class of Ngatimaru 50 candidates 70. A messenger has arrived from Wairoa to say that the Uriwera are at hand & that the report of a hostile attack from Opotiki is without foundation. Writing.

[July 27-28 omitted.]

July 30. Went to Turanganui to marry Mr. Ellis. 23 Spoke with 12 candidates from Te mako.

July 31. Married 11 couple of Ngatikaipoho. Spoke afterwards with a large party of Xtian natives, who are candidates for the Lords Supper, who from the observation of the native teachers, under whose eyes they more immediately live, there will be many to keep back from that ordinance not on account of gross sins, but because they do not maintain that strictly christian demeanour which becometh those who profess Godliness. Went to the Pa to visit several sick natives, and in the evening spoke with 14 candidates.

WILLIAM WILLIAMS TO C.M.S. Turanga 26 July 1841

[Pleads for additional missionaries]

The facts are these

1st The geographical extent of this district, which is 180 miles on the map, but in consequence of the difficulties of the road it requires from 12 to 14 days hard travelling to pass through the whole length of it.

2. The idols are already cast to the moles and to the bats, the swords are beat into ploughshares and the spears into pruning hooks, that is, the whole fabric of native superstition is gone, whether relating to the living or to the dead, the old priests being as forward to take this step as any others. Their weapons of warfare are laid by, their animosities with distant tribes are given up, and their petty quarrels are settled by arbitration.

3. The disposition to receive instruction shewn by the fact that more than 8000 persons assemble every Lords day to worship the God of christians, for the most part in chapels neatly built.

4. The desire to possess Prayer books and Testaments, for the purpose of obtaining which they come from the extreme point of Hawkes Bay and for which they are always ready to pay, when the distance does not prevent them from doing so. Numbers have brought a payment

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beforehand, to make sure of early possession on the arrival of a supply and since the Testaments printed in New Zealand are expended, they are perfectly satisfied to leave their payment hearing that others are on their way from England.

5. The number of candidates for baptism, upwards of 1400 who are under weekly instruction.

6. The number of native christians. Eight hundred and seventy eight adults having been received into the Church of Christ after careful examination which together with three hundred and sixty three children make a total of twelve hundred and forty one. Among the adults are included a large proportion of the leading chiefs.

7. The general consistency of conduct in those who profess Christianity ....

8. A large community of christians being now formed it becomes necessary that instruction should be regularly given of a character which is beyond the knowledge and ability of the native teachers. Their diligence in the work and consistency of conduct call for much thankfulness to him who has made them what they are; but they are themselves babes in Christ, and with their flocks require to be fed with the sincere milk of the word that they may grow thereby. Without this mode of instruction, unfolding in succession the precepts of the gospel, error of a serious nature must necessarily arise.

9. From the great transition which has taken place in so short a space of time, there must be difficulties of continual occurrence which require the judgement of persons possessing more maturity of thought than the natives can be supposed to have. I allude to their petty quarrels from various causes, and particularly from damage done to their crops by the pigs of their neighbours. These are no longer to be settled in the summary manner they were in former times, but are now to be regulated on christian principles.

10. The unceasing activity of Satan. I know not how many Popish Priests were in New Zealand previously, but last month there was an arrival of 4 Priests and 8 Catechists. 24

11. This request for help is not made with a view to the occupation of new ground, but that what is already in possession may be kept. We have not now to say, Let us go up at once and possess it for we are able to overcome it--it is already subdued.

12. A great work has been accomplished in which the hand of the Lord has been signally manifest. It has not been by might nor by power but by the Spirit of the Lord of Hosts. It has not been through the labours of your missionaries, for the word has only been preached by native teachers. We have literally stood still unto the salvation of God....

P.S. The above statement relates exclusively to the East Cape district.

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[Entries omitted Aug. 1-10; conversing, reading with Bible Classes, visiting sick.]

August 11. News having come last night that a large party of natives from the tribe Uriwera & from Wairoa are at hand and are to come into the Pa this morning, I put off my classes of candidates & went to the Pa to lookout. Visited many sick natives. A large party from Uawa came but those from Wairoa are put off till tomorrow to give time to the people to assemble.

August 12. The weather was unfavourable this morning & the visitors were no doubt glad to come forward as early as possible, having been quartered in an open encampment about four miles off. By the time I got to the Pa they were all come & the usual ceremony of speechifying was just commencing in which I took my part & then returned home. A few natives are come from Rotorua but bring no letters.

August 13. There is now a general assembly of nearly all the Turanga natives in honor of the visitors. Had several parties from Wairoa & the Lake Waikare for books. Spoke with 33 candidates.

August 14. Catechized 56 candidates from Taikawakawa & Turanganui. Engaged during the rest of the day with strangers.

August 15. Sunday. The weather was fine & our assembly large. There was not less than 1800 at Church & it was necessary to pack them as close as possible in order to make room. Preached in morng. from Luke 19.12-13. and in the afternoon from Acts.2.28. At the latter service the number was about half, and just at the conclusion we heard a disturbed sound in the pa, which became louder & louder, so that it became necessary to proceed when I found the visitors all under arms & ready for any mischief. It turned out that a great provocation had been given to them which in former times might have led to a serious result. As it is they talk of leaving early in the morning on their return home.

August 16. A payment was given this morning for the insult received & all seem to be on a quiet footing again. A great muster was afterwards made of the Turanga natives in honor of the visitors, when there were about 1200 men under arms. All was conducted in an orderly manner, without the savage dancing & shackering of former times & terminated in a general discharge of musketry.

August 17. We are becoming a little more quiet and our own natives are beginning to disperse. Married 4 couple. Read with a bible class of 53, principally from Toanga & conversed with 142 candidates.

August 18. Married one couple & conversed with 82 natives from Ngatikaipoho.

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August 19. Read with Bible class of Ngatikaipoho 35 & conversed with a party from Wairoa.

August 20. Occupied during the day in unpacking & drying a case of Testaments containing 492 copies of the sacred volume just as we hear that 3 christians of the Pope are about to come to this quarter. 25 The earnestness with which the natives eye this treasure is very great, & it will not be long before all the copies are disposed of.

[Entries omitted August 22-31.]


Poverty Bay 24 August 1841

This event [birth of Lydia Catherine] took place on the seventh of April when our seventh child was brought into the world being our fourth daughter .... It was a time of much anxiety for Jane, not having any female attendant excepting in the persons of two of her old native girls, but through the gracious care of our heavenly father every thing went on well, and the absence of that attention which on every former occasion she has enjoyed, did not seem to be felt. At an early period she was able to assume her wonted duties, her health being as good as ever. Our little one has since made rapid progress in her various accomplishments, and is as great an object of interest as youngest children usually are. The presence of our eldest daughter Mary at home, has been a source of much comfort to her mother. She is an affectionate child (now fifteen years of age) industrious in her habits, and takes an equal share with her mother in all household duties. Indeed without her, I know not how she would get through the difficulties of her present situation, the eldest of our second series of three being only four years of age. While on the subject of children I will again mention my two elder boys who are with me . . . From all I hear of the school at Waimate, 26 I am thank-

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fill that I have them with me, and I am still more thankful that I am able to carry out the plan I had formed for their instruction without interfering with the care of the natives. The time I give up to them is about three hours daily of which half is before breakfast & the remainder at the close of the day, before tea. My nephews Henry & Thomas who are also with us, are reading Homer, Herodotus, Virgil & Cicero & Leonard without difficulty keeps up with them. Twice a week we make an attempt at Hebrew which is interesting to all parties, and may hereafter turn to good account. The daily occupation is one lesson in Greek, one in Latin or Hebrew, with a problem of Euclid & Latin Exercise. A little French has lately been added twice in the week which is attended to by Jane. Of poor Sydney I have but little to say except that he is as dull as ever, though not incorrigible. Were there a good school I would place him there but as the contrary is the case he is better at home.



[Urges Brown to visit Turanga.]

And then too what about Mrs Brown, it would I think be of essential benefit to both of our wives, and Mrs. Bs appendages are not so heavy but that it might be done. If one two or three hundred men can expedite the business they shall be ready. I wish much to see you about various matters and to hear your opinion about the changes which are taking place, but I cannot on paper enter upon them. One point I hear that you of the S.D. are displeased with, that is the doing away of the N.D. & S.D. 27 To my view it is one of the wisest steps which could be taken. The proposal of separate committees with deputations attending alternately has not been found to answer, and then separate Committees without deputations only legislate one against the other. I think that for the government of the whole body there is nothing like one general meeting in the summer season in a central position, which would necessarily be Tauranga or somewhere near to it, when effective plans would be laid down, and unanimity of action secured. We do not hear as yet of the Bishops for New Zealand, perhaps they will give a new complexion to the state of things. I shall hope then to see you Archdeacon & following up the rules of good order.


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[September entries are largely concerned with routine conversing, and visiting.]

September 25. Measured timber from the sawyers and paid the natives for carrying it. Addressed the candidates for the Lords supper in the Church. The native teachers exercise a good deal of circumspection over the christian community, and inconsistency of conduct does not fail to be noticed by them. There are many in consequence who are still kept back from this ordinance. The discipline is salutary and cannot fail in producing good effect. Spoke with 14 candidates for Baptism.

September 26. Sunday. Congregation about 1000 in the morning. Preached from Ephesians 8. 17-18. At the Lords Supper there were 161 natives which is within 50 of the whole number of professed Christians. Congregation in the afternoon about 600.

September 29. Occupied with native teachers in deliberating about a provision for the natives of Ahuriri and concluded that Paul Matenga shall go thither. Went afterwards to visit sick natives.

September 30. Conversed with 20 candidates from Table Cape, and supplied them with a share of the Testaments. The natives of that quarter have heard that the Popish priests are coming this way, but I am very thankful to find that many who had professed to join them are now coming over to us. They return much pleased with the acquisition of books they have made.

WILLIAM WILLIAMS TO C.M.S. Turanga 14 September 1841

From the Secretaries Communications I may mention two points some time ago, which occasioned much uneasiness among our lay brethren; the mention of superintendency on the part of the Clergymen & the distinction proposed in the education of the children. 28 And then again in more recent letters it has been most plainly intimated that a change in their sphere of labour must take place. The increase of European population has also had much influence on the question in these places to which Europeans particularly resort. For three months previous to my removal to this place, I lived at Paihia, where during my brother's absence at Cooks Straits, I had to take charge of the duties. I then found it was necessary for me to take services both at Paihia and at Kororareka, because there were many European settlers at the latter place, who said repeatedly that they would not attend the church if a layman officiated. This feeling placed the clergyman in great difficulties, because there was more to do than he could

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attend to; and these observations coming to the ears of the laymen, made them also exceedingly reluctant to obtrude themselves upon the squeamish feelings of their countrymen ....

[Requests supplies from England.]

It is of the more importance to me because I am out of the way of obtaining supplies which are within the reach of others. Some of my demands too are exceedingly heavy. I have to supply now twenty native teachers and their wives besides my own domestic establishment, and since I have been at Poverty Bay I have had to purchase 24 dozen of striped shirts over and above what I could obtain from the Societys store. If articles of this description are for the payment of my own domestics, the additional expense is personal, but if they are required as most have been for native teachers or for the payment of sawyers etc the loss falls on the Society. 29


October 3. Sunday. Service morning and afternoon with natives. At English service six Europeans.

October 5. Packing up for journey to Wairoa with my nephew [Henry] and my son Leonard.

October 6. Set out from Turanga on our journey to Wairoa. At Taikawakawa we found a large number of natives, who much wished us to stay for the night, that I might converse with them, but the plan of our journey required that we should proceed further.

October 7. Slept at Tarewa on the top of a range of hills. In the morning we found the ground covered with snow which is so far a novelty that Leonard saw it for the first time. The natives were not disposed to move till the snow was all melted, so that it was late before we reached Nuwaka.

October 8. Examined 50 native candidates for Baptism of whom 34 passed.

October 9. Examined 23 candidates and passed 18. In the afternoon took down the names of the candidates and addressed them.

October 10. Sunday. At morning service the congregation consisted of about 200, when 52 adults were admitted to the rite of Baptism, and in the afternoon 25 of their young children. It is a grateful proof of the steady advance of Christianity that the solitary wilderness so far from home should produce fruit so largely, for the work seems to

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advance as surely here as elsewhere. The native teacher Marsden is a steady consistent native, and is entirely looked up to by the people, among whom indeed he is a principal chief.

October 11. Set out for Nukutaurua on Table Cape which we reached early in the afternoon. A Popish priest has been here about a fortnight, 30 and is living very near to the village where our teacher resides. He finds however that a large majority of the people are close attendants upon our instructions but still there is a party attached to him, who have altogether kept aloof from us. Held evening service in a chapel 54 feet by 40 and had a congregation of about 500 persons. I am told that the Priest has expressed his readiness to meet me and discuss the difference between us and the Church of Rome before the natives.

October 12. Wrote to the Priest, and received his answer that tomorrow he will be glad to meet me. Engaged in conversing with natives generally; and examined 20 candidates for baptism all of whom passed.

October 13. Went accompanied by a large body of natives to the village where the Priest is living, and after a brief interchange of salutation, we commenced our discussion ....

[The discussion was scarcely a dialogue. Baty attacked the Protestant Churches as 'heretical', and its scriptures as 'stolen from Rome'. He also accused the Protestant clergy of being 'adulterers'. Williams made good use of the fact that many of his hearers had testaments and were able to follow his scriptural references. He attacked the Catholic 'worship of idols', and 'exultation of the Virgin Mary'.]

Our discussion had now lasted 4 hours, and enough had been brought forward to satisfy me that the natives who were disposed to pay deference to scripture would be favourably impressed in the behalf of protestantism, and after a brief recapitulation of the chief points I presented the priest with the native testament I had used on the occasion, and took my departure. 31 In the evening I addressed the natives on the subject of the intercession of Christ.

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October 14. Examined 51 candidates of whom 41 passed. The natives tell me that when our party had left the priest yesterday, he made an exhibition of his images to his own people. No doubt telling them that he had them only to look at but not to worship. Addressed the natives on the value of the Scriptures in the evening.

October 15. Examined 50 candidates and passed 35. A native came this morning who says that he with others watched the priest this morning through the chinks of the door of his house, and that what he said on Wednesday about not worshipping images was false, they said he first put on his ("kakahi karakia") vestments, and then took his images out of a box, that he put some clothes on them and duly arranged them with lighted candles by their side that he then bowed before them and prayed.

October 16. Examined 20 candidates of whom 15 passed. In the afternoon arranged the names of the candidates and addressed them. The natives tell me that Hawaikirangi the chief supporter of the Papists is anxious that I should baptize his daughter who has been under the instruction of our native teacher but has not been presented to me.

October 17. Sunday. Examined Hawaiki's daughter, a girl about 12 years of age. She is tolerably well informed and under the circumstances I think it desirable to comply with the fathers wishes. An application was made from the Papist party to be present at the service which of course was assented to. The Chapel was well filled with about 650 persons of whom the Papists did not number more than 30. The candidates were arranged in front of the pulpit in rows to the number of 111 and were baptized after the second lesson. Had English service at 12 with 12 Europeans and baptized 4 of their children during the afternoon service. Baptized 33 native children.

October 18. The Romish priest passed early this morning on his way to Wairoa, having been sent for by a party there who have from the first refused to join us. He is anxious I suppose to get the start of me there, but it is of little consequence. Many natives came before I left the place to ask questions relative to their future proceedings, in many little matters. Several have given notice to our teacher of their wish to come forward as candidates. Proceeded to Waikokopu and spent some little time with Mr. Harris and Mr. Martin 32 of Port

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Nicholson, also baptized 2 children of a European named Edwards. In the afternoon fell in with Paul Pomare and the party of Christian natives going as teachers to Heretaunga, who came on with us to Nuwaka which we reached in a little time.

October 19. Administered the Lords supper to 32 communicants consisting almost exclusively of teachers and their wives. The natives lately baptized at Nuwaka were spectators. These I addressed on the subject of that ordinance and the teachers also respecting the work on which they are entering. Went on to Wakaki where is a neat little Chapel partly built and evidently prepared in the expectation of having a baptism here. Examined 20 candidates for baptism of whom 13 passed and afterwards addressed the natives in the Chapel.

October 20. Examined 32 candidates of whom 19 passed making a total of 89. I wished to have the baptism this afternoon but the natives are unwilling that it should take place except on the Sunday but as I cannot wait they prefer going to Wairoa. Held evening service in the Chapel.

October 21. Proceeded to Wairoa and found what may be termed the mission settlement much improved by the addition of a handsome chapel 60 feet by 30 fitted with seats which give it a neat appearance. The floor is covered with mats of a simple construction made from the flax leaf. Examined 20 candidates of whom only 7 passed. The chiefs came to pay their respects who sent last week for the Popish priest. They were civil but said they were not going to attend to me, neither do they care to have the Priest. I fancy they expected to receive presents from him and are disappointed. Went to the Chapel in the evening and spoke to the natives.

October 22. Examined 60 candidates of whom 34 passed, addressed the natives in the evening.

October 23. Examined 64 candidates and passed 28, arranged the names for the candidates.

October 24. Sunday. At morning service the Chapel was crowded with natives. The adults baptized were 101, and during the evening service 62 children were added to the church.

October 25. After conversing with the natives generally left the station at Uruhou and proceeded a few miles up the river, when we had to wait till the canoes came up.

October 26. Continued our course in Canoes to Taenaiouerangi at the mouth of the river Mangapoike. At this point a native teacher is about to be stationed and the natives also of the Reinga further up the river are anxious to have one with them.

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October 27. Travelled a whole day up the bed of the river until 8 o'clock at night when we halted at the point where the road strikes off direct to Turanga.

October 28. Had a fatiguing day over a very broken country until we reached a valley branching into Turanga. Arrived at home in the evening.

October 29. Natives began to come about for medicines and other matters.

October 30. Went to see the natives of the Pa.

October 31. Sunday. Held service morning and afternoon at the Church, and English service at noon. 14 Europeans present. Went to visit the sick in the Pa.


Table Cape October 15 1841

In looking over your long letter I found a question which I believe I have not answered. It related to the Lords Committee Report on New Zealand. Why the Wesleyans should have been so much more successful than we? I reply that the report was all gammon. Some years ago Henry & I had each a key bugle, but neither of us having either wind or inclination to play upon these instruments we parted with them. Mine went to the Wesleyans & Henrys to the renowned John Flatt. The two parties used these instruments with much effect before the Noble Lords, and it was no doubt thought that the music was fine. The effect produced was only temporary; for it induced us who had remained silent to put forth a plain statement of the truth .... So that the consequence of those statements made by the Wesleyans, & since then of the observations of Dr. Lang and other kind friends, has been the bringing forth of a mass of information which otherwise might have remained dormant. If you want to hear of baptisms I can tell you of more than 1200 in this district, and that too of natives not baptized according to the practice of the Wesleyans, which is to admit the people to this rite upon the mere profession of a belief in Christ, while in most cases they are painfully ignorant, but these 1200 have been diligently instructed and carefully examined ....

At Poverty Bay I still continue undisturbed by European settlers, and so I think I shall continue. But in other parts of New Zealand they come in rapidly. There is I believe much disappointment felt by many . . . Unless a person has got a considerable capital to enable him

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to fight his way, he must meet with much difficulty and many ups and downs before he can hold up his head .... There seems to be a disposition to settle the middle island which will be a very good measure, as the land is of great extent and the native population is next to nothing. According to the Newspapers published in New Zealand, 34 there must be quite an English scene in the places settled, but where I am the country is as much native as ever, and the only difference is that instead of tribes of savages, we have quiet christian communities, where without the restraint of English laws, we have an almost total exemption from those scenes of riot & disturbance, which are of continual occurrence among the settlers.



Turanga 20 October 1841

We have school every morning before breakfast as we cannot get the women to come in the middle of the day, we have it two hours but they think it a very long time and are always in a hurry to leave off. About forty come to the day school but on Sunday there are about 180. We are expecting Jane home this summer and hope to see Marianne also to pay us a visit. We shall be very glad to see them as we never see anybody besides natives of whom there are a great number. When my Father is at home there are always a great many about, whom he has in large classes to be instructed. He has two or three different classes every day, besides which he has a great many sick to attend to, so he is occupied a great deal with them.



Turanga 20 October 1841

Pray do write a little more frequently, you cannot imagine how cheering it is to hear from those we love in this secluded spot where we are completely shut out from all intercourse with the civilized world. Our means of communication with the Bay of Islands are now very

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uncertain and we scarcely ever see the face of a European, this place offering no facilities to the many adventurers who now crowd into the island. This is however no disadvantage to the missionary . . . .

You will have heard before this reaches you of dear Marianne's visit to us last summer and also of the birth of your little namesake. Marianne brought all our children with her, none but Jane returned. Leonard and Sydney we have kept at home from a persuasion that they are likely to do better with their Father than they would at Waimate notwithstanding the limited amount of time he is able to give them. Poor Syd is dull and idle and requires an unusual share of attention and patience to make him get on, consequently for him to take his chance among other boys with a master anything but particular would be just doing nothing. Leonard is a very pleasant child to teach and gets on as well as we could wish: he classes now with his cousins Henry & Thomas. At Christmas Henry is to leave us and John is to take his place .... My messenger is come for his pukapuka so I must hasten to a conclusion .... I hope you have ordered some French books for us, we particularly want some to translate.



November 1. Engaged an English Carpenter from Port Nicholson 35 and was occupied some time in arranging work. Conversed with 90 candidates from Ngatimaru.

November 2. Went to Toanga to see the natives respecting a domestic quarrel but as one of the parties is away could do nothing towards reconciliation. Conversed with 120 candidates.

November 3. Writing and visiting the sick.

November 4. Natives came from Patutahi, catechized 82 candidates and read with a bible class of 16.

November 5. Candidates from Taikawakawa 51.

November 6. Went to Toanga and took the natives from thence to Patutahi to meet the party with whom a quarrel has taken place, where after some time spent in speechifying the quarrel was made up.

[November 7-18, routine station entries.]

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November 18. Went to Turanganui to marry Mr. Espie. 36 Being later than I intended many of the natives of Patutahi had returned before I reached home but 40 were still waiting whom I catechized.

November 19. Candidates from Taikawakawa 58 from Toanga 109.

November 20. Went to visit the sick of whom there are very many at this period.

[Williams has no further Journal entries for 1841.]


Turanga 22 November 1841

I wrote to you about two months ago by a scamp, a pakeha, who has contrived to swindle several Europeans in this quarter, though I am happy to say I am not in the number. Perhaps he will have delivered the letter in the hope of benefiting by you. In that letter I suggested a plan for the improvement of your health, which was a visit to this place .... This being the case I am now on the look out, and as I presume your October Com. is over I am expecting daily to hear what arrangements are made. Our Huihuinga 37 will be--when you please, and it is quite important that some of my good brethren should be here to report for me. We are, though on the coast, out of the world, and have so little communication that it is often difficult to obtain the necessary supplies. This you may understand by the fact that I am without Blankets, Shirts, Trousers etc. In short I am living as the Pakehas say at "Poverty". There is however much advantage in this position . . . and I hope to remain free from any material intrusion ....

I lately paid a visit to Table Cape and found a priest had arrived a fortnight before me. He had given it out to the natives that he should be happy to korero 38 with me & accordingly I sent a note to say how much I should be gratified, particularly as he is well acquainted with native. On the day appointed we met at his kainga in the presence of

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about 500 natives and had a discussion which lasted about 4 1/2 hours .... This Priest is a very fine young man and possesses much shrewdness as most of the Jesuits do. What a blessing for the natives that we have these testaments just at a time when they are wanted. Among the baptisms at Table Cape was the daughter of the principal supporter of Pikopo, and he was very anxious too that I should baptize his daughter & was himself present on the occasion ....

Important ! !

I have had a letter from Mr. Preece to say how glad he should be to come here. Remember he must not come. The Eastern Committee will not receive him. 39



Turanga 18 December 1841

Your parcel sent by Scott's vessel arrived in safety having travelled down the coast from Warekahika--and many thanks I owe to you and dear Mrs. Chapman for your kind letters which had a cheering effect during my widowhood. It was something like having an old friend to spend the evening with me. Mr. Williams was absent at the Wairoa where he met with the Popish priest .... It appears to have been productive of good as most of Pikopo's followers in that quarter have been to purchase books since ....

Mary is quite my right hand and a great comfort to me. I only regret we have not a little society for the children's sake, but of the two extremes perhaps we have the best, at all events we have as far as our work is concerned for we should never be able to get on had we much interruption from company .... Leonard and Sydney we still keep at home . . . The former has got on very well . . . but poor Sydney who is not only backward but very dull requires more attention than either his Father can give him, or he would receive at a common school. It must be a very super excellent master who would bring him on. We do what we can with him amongst us. He has grown stouter than ever and often makes me feel quite uncomfortable to look at him. Jane is still at Paihia, but we are intending to have her home by the first opportunity. I am very glad to hear your account of Sophia Baker. I scarcely expected that you would have been allowed to keep her so long; the advantages to her are incalculable. 40 I should be sorry

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to hear of her returning home; for from what I can gather from our present visitors, 41 that family is worse regulated than ever ....

How do you manage now for natives: do they still cling to you or does the influence of the metropolis extend to Tauranga, and does it affect your schools at all? Here, we are happily beyond it, at least for the present, and our schools which were last summer quite at a stand, are now increasing and I hope may continue to go on with steadiness.

I had intended to return your brown jug by Columbine . . . The medical book also which Mr. Brown was so kind as to lend me has lain some time in readiness to be returned and was forgotten the other day. It has been invaluable to me during Mr. W.'s absences from home.


WILLIAM WILLIAMS TO C.M.S. Turanga 22 December 1841

I enclose with this letter a copy of my journal from Jan. to Nov. 20 of the present year. You will find in it a continual repetition of the same subject, but I have preferred giving it as it is, that you may better judge the nature of my occupation. But there is one fact, which may be gathered from the dry detail, of much interest. It is the steady progress which the enquiry after better things is making among this people ....

[Criticism of the New Zealand Company's allocation of 'native reserves'.]

That the New Zealanders will have a very great return in that tenth reserve, which becomes of excessive value in consequence of colonization, I allow; but of the benefit of their system to the natives, I altogether doubt. By that system the existence of the natives as a distinct race is done away with. Their land is not reserved in the block, but is purposely scattered hither and thither, with a view of separating the natives. Let the question be asked and fairly answered, what is the condition of the natives at Port Nicholson under the influence of Colonization and of those at this part of the coast under the influence of Christianity, both experiments having been tried for precisely the same period of time. In the face of an established magistracy and of stocks and of prisons the Europeans tell me that the natives steal and drink rum; but the Europeans at this place and at Table Cape tell me that before Christianity came among them they were great thieves, but that now their property is in perfect safety. It cannot tend to the benefit of the natives to see Europeans rolling about in a state of

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intoxication, nor yet as is frequently the case, to see 10 or 12 at one time placed in the stocks as a punishment for their excesses. But it is a proof that Christianity is of benefit that whereas the natives of Table Cape two years ago were notoriously fond of spirits, the most of those who drank will drink no more, and that is an act of discipline of their own and not of my appointment, that any man professing Christianity who drinks any spirit is ipso facto excommunicated.


Turanga 28 December 1841

About three weeks ago we were permitted the enjoyment of a pleasure which I regret to say, occurs now-a-days very, very rarely, that of receiving a letter from you: it had been brought from England by Mr. Townsend, 42 but did not reach us till the beginning of this month, accompanied by a communication from himself dated July 5th so they had been five months travelling from place to place before they reached Poverty Bay--a distance of only, not more than, two hundred miles from Port Nicholson. We have felt exceedingly sorry that there should have been so much delay as the poor young man wrote in great distress, apparently not knowing what to do with himself, unable to get possession of his land, and his money of course going as fast as possible, and to mend the matter he had married immediately upon his arrival a young lady who was his fellow passenger from England. You mention his father being a good man and for his sake as well for the sake of those good friends who have written on his behalf, we would very gladly do all in our power to assist him, but we live in a very secluded place and there is no opening in this neighbourhood for either traders or farmers. William however wrote to him the week before last to beg that if he were still unsettled he would come here by the first opportunity and make our house his own for the present, at all events till he saw what course he should be able to pursue. By a little personal intercourse, Wm would be more likely to benefit him, and he would be relieved from much expense and many temptations for a time. The letter was sent to Auckland to be forwarded by post to Port Nicholson so I hope it will reach him without so much delay. He is, I fear only one among many most respectable young men, who have experienced similar disappointments and similar treatment from the N.Z. Company. If he determines upon

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visiting us, he will not I imagine find much difficulty in finding us out as small coasting vessels frequently touch here from P. Nicholson. Poor young man, he speaks of his health being bad and alludes to his mother in very affectionate terms ....

Your letter was a most interesting one . . . But you give us no personal news and we should like much to know how your school prospers, and many little particulars about yourself which you might think unimportant, would always be interesting to us and give us an idea of your proceedings . . . for family news very seldom reaches Turanga. Edward's letters tho' very valuable and always refreshing never contain private detail, you know, and they have been very scarce this last year. Lydia seems to have left off writing altogether, and we have not heard from John for a good deal more than a twelvemonth. I hope you have received the various letters we have sent you from this place: the last was despatched by an unusual opportunity a vessel going direct to England from this part of the coast calling at Port Nicholson on the way. I only heard of it in the afternoon and as the letters, (if sent) were to go off at day break the following morning, I sat up till I had completed one to you ....

I wish you could see how they come in crowds, I may say, to receive instruction. Wm. is now engaged in selecting a large number for baptism from among his 700 candidates. His judgement is formed by a reference to a book in which the names of each is entered, against which certain marks are inserted which indicate their progress in Scriptural knowledge of the principal doctrines of Christianity, and as the tree is to be known by its fruits, their conduct & manner of life is carefully ascertained from the teacher & principal christians of their respective tribes. His Bible classes are composed of those already baptized, and with the candidates, occupy a very large portion of his time ....

I meant to have told you a great deal about our own children . . . all of whom are at home except Jane who is still at school with her Aunt, but we hope to have her back again before long. Our youngest Lydia Catherine commonly called Kate is nearly nine months old, a very merry good humoured child . . . We have two of Henry's boys with us and our own two are also still at home in preference to the school at Waimate. Henry, who came with us two years ago, has just left us and his place is supplied by John, who arrived about a month ago, and Thomas joined our party last Feby ....

We should be very thankful to you if you would procure for us a regular series of good Scripture prints that would be useful to our younger children and to introduce occasionally into my native school. I hope you have transmitted an order to Nesbitt for French books for us. Thomas and Leonard are my present pupils and when Jane comes home I intend that she and Mary shall begin, but at present Mary's time and my own are too much occupied in other matters, more than is good

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for Mary I think, but when Jane comes home she will divide her work with her and I hope time will be found for both to improve themselves a little. They are greatly indebted to Marianne for making them what they are.


1   Te Waaka Perohuka, one of the principal chiefs of Rongowhakaata.
2   James West Stack gave this description of the church as he remembered it in 1842: 'The large church erected by the Maoris was the most striking object about the place. It was the loftiest building I had yet met with. It had a strange appearance, for though the thatched roof and boarded floor were completed, the sides were left uncovered and the totara slabs supporting the roof afforded the only protection from the weather for the congregation.' (J. W. Stack, op. cit., p. 50.) Later in 1842 the church was blown down.
3   The salary of an ordained missionary in 1840 was £100 per annum; he also had a £10 per annum allowance for each of his children under the age of 15. The salary of a married catechist was £50 per annum, unmarried, £30--a catechist had the same £10 child allowance. At the age of 15, a sum of £50 was allowed to a missionary's son, £40 to a daughter. Prior to 1840 this sum was largely used to purchase land. So that 'healthy maintenance' could be provided for, there were, in addition to salary, a number of allowances--e.g. a ration allowance. Pompallier was justified in casting a slightly envious eye at the material provision made by the Parent Committee for the C.M.S. missionaries--the estimate for the Southern District alone in 1840 was £4000. William Williams' 1840 estimate at Turanga was as follows: Salary, £100; Allowance for children, £60; Rations, £74/15/0; Wages for men, £12; Wages for women, £12; Food for natives, £20; Stores, £47; Building materials, £40; Wages to mechanics, £10; Travelling expenses, £20; Boats, carts and horses, £40; Contingencies, £20; Land for station, £76; Medicine, £20; Native Teachers, £92; Stores for Native Teachers, £20. (Station Estimates, C.N./09.)
4   The Parent Committee continued with its original scheme, although the salary of an ordained missionary was increased to £200 by 1850.
5   aged 15 years
6   peace is made
7   Williams was again disappointed. Ashwell remained at Maraetai until September 1842 when he moved to take sole charge of Kaitotehe (Taupiri) station.
8   lone man
9   'Report from the Select Committee of the House of Lords Appointed to enquire into the Present State of New Zealand', 1837-8. British Parliamentary Paper 680.
10   The number was 20,000--'In consequence of a Resolution of the Committee of the Church Missionary Society, requesting another Edition of the New-Zealand Testament, the Committee of the British and Foreign Bible Society have ordered an Edition of 20,000 copies.' (M.R. 1842 pp. 440-1.) Of the 20,000, half were for the Wesleyan Missionary Society.
11   Dandeson Coates was the lay secretary of the C.M.S., the clerical secretary was Reverend William Jowett. In writing to the C.M.S., the local missionaries generally headed their letters, 'Dear Secretaries'.
12   A Dictionary of the New Zealand Language, and a Concise Grammar: to which are added a Selection of Colloquial Sentences, William Williams B.A., printed by J. Telford, Colenso's successor, at the Paihia mission press in 1844.
13   Lydia Catherine (Kate).
14   Leonard's sister Jane returned to Paihia with her Aunt Marianne.
15   workroom--perhaps study or living room.
16   Whakato
17   William Williams' second son.
18   Papawhariki, J. W. Harris's whaling station. Harris first began whaling in 1837 from a site by the mouth of the Turanganui River, but in November 1838 shifted to Papawharika opposite Tuamotu Island.
19   Edward Wananga, formerly native teacher at Paokahu, Turanga.
20   Mawhai--see Preparation p. 60n.
21   The Minerva, trading between Australia and New Zealand and then between the East Coast and Auckland and Port Nicholson, arrived at Turanganui about the middle of June 1841. (J. A. Mackay, MS Papers.)
22   Most of the East Coast tribes had taken part in the siege of Toka-a-Kuku at Te Kaha c.1834. The pa was not taken, but heavy casualties were inflicted. Because of this siege and of the likelihood of a taua seeking utu, a party from Opotiki would have been considered 'hostile' by the Turanga Maoris. (W. Williams, Journal, 8 January 1834; S. P. Smith, op. cit., pp. 473-75.)
23   Captain William Ellis established a whale fishery at Mahia 'probably on the southern side and opposite Waikokopu' in 1837 (Mackay, op. cit., p 146.) In 1838 he took over the Waikokopu station from William and James Ward. Due possibly to the influence of William Williams, both J. W. Harris and Ellis, who were friends married Europeans, the 'Miss Hargraves sisters', both had formerly lived with Maori 'wives'.
24   Actually 4 priests and 6 catechists. The priests were Fathers A. Garin, M. Borjon, A. Seon, L. Rozet--they were from the Marist Seminary at Lyons.
25   In July 1840 Bishop Pompallier bought the schooner Atlas which he renamed Sancta Maria, and he used it both to visit and extend his mission. At the end of July 1841 he sailed from the Bay of Islands accompanied by Fathers Viard, Baty, Borjon, Seon and Rozet. The priests were to be placed at new stations, and the three who were to come to Williams' 'quarter' would have been Father Borjon, Maketu, Father Rozet, Opotiki, and on Williams' doorstep, Father Baty at Mahia Peninsula. Baty was promised for Auckland, and the Sancta Maria was to pick him up from the Mahia on its return journey from the South Island. However at Akaroa, Pompallier learnt of the murder of Pierre Chanel and he at once left in the schooner for Futuna Island. Baty remained at Mahia for 10 months, visting Waikaremoana just ahead of Colenso in December 1841.
26   Criticism of the Waimate Boys' School mounted. In reply to a letter from A. N. Brown who was dissatisfied with his son's progress, Richard Taylor wrote, 'if my missionary brethren are dissatisfied all I can say is I am willing to resign it to anyone who may be preferred--it is in every respect a trying and responsible work'. (R. Taylor to A. N. Brown 26 July 1841, A. N. Brown Papers.) Charles Baker who attended the 1841 examinations, thought the boys 'lamentably deficient in many things and very coarse in their manners'. (C. Baker to A. N. Brown 25 February 1842, A .N. Brown Papers.)
27   The Northern District in 1841 consisted of the following stations: Paihia, Kerikeri, Te Puna, Waimate, Waikare, Kororareka, all in the Bay of Islands, and Kaitaia and Whangaroa. The Southern District consisted of: Tauranga, Rotorua, Opotiki, Otawhao, Maraetai (Waikato), Maraetai (Thames), Manukau, Kauweranga (Hauraki), Otaki, Wanganui. Turanga at this stage was out on a limb-- eventually it became headquarters of the Eastern District.
28   See note on Position of Catechists in C.M.S. Mission.
29   The payment of native teachers was an expense on the Society. They were paid approximately £8 per year, the payment being in goods--duck trousers, shirts or blankets. The mission domestics were also paid in clothing and in food--mostly potatoes and a ration of flour.
30   Father Baty
31   In a letter to Father Colin of Lyons, Father Baty gave his version of the encounter and of the Protestant influence generally. He was not sanguine about the Catholic mission prospects at Mahia. He felt that although celibacy was a great strength to the Catholic cause, William Williams' followers were so anxious to win converts, and so willing to believe Catholics idolatrous, that there was little likelihood of Catholic teaching prevailing. He also acknowledged the value of the Maori New Testaments during the debate in so far as the C.M.S. Maoris made such a fuss looking up all the passages Williams quoted against the Catholic church, that they were not willing to listen to Father Baty's replies. He concluded: 'C'est peut-etre ici la place la plus malheureuse pour les catholiques . . . tous les naturels sont heretiques.' (C. Baty to J. C. Colin 28 October 1841 Marist Fathers Archives Micro MS ATL.) Father Baty had a similar debate--it lasted three hours--with William Colenso when they met at Te Onepoto village, Waikaremoana.

'Among other things I [Colenso] asked the P. "Do you allow the possibility of a particle of the consecrated Bd. falling to the ground and being devd. by a rat or mouse or any other vermin?" He repd. "Oh! yes, certainly such is possible." "Then" I repd. "Do you believe that such an animal as a Rat or mouse on so eating yt. pieces, eats Christ?" "Most assuredly was his cool stated reply-- on wh. (scarcely able to contain my indig.) I replied "Thy Xt perhaps such an animal eats but not my Jesus." (N. M. Taylor op. cit., p. 56 n.)
32   'Mr. Martin' would very likely have been either John or Edward Martin who were cousins of Robert Espie. Both Martin parents were dead, and following the advice of an uncle, Robert Espie R.N., surgeon at Port Dalrymple, Tasmania, and father of Robert Espie, Poverty Bay, the remainder of the family emigrated from Ireland to New Zealand on the Lady Nugent which arrived at Port Nicholson 17 March 1841.
33   Elder brother
34   At this time the newspapers published in New Zealand were: The New Zealand Advertiser and Bay of Islands Gazette, The New Zealand Gazette and Wellington Spectator, New Zealand Government Gazette, The New Zealand Herald and Auckland Gazette. The Nelson Advertiser appeared in September 1841, but the first copy was published in London. The New Zealand Journal, the N.Z. Company paper was also published in London.
35   William Binson Cooper. In 1843 he went to Rangitukia to build James Stack's house--Stack was most dissatisfied with him in spite of his good reputation at Turanga. He later became the manual instructor at Waerenga-a-hika mission school.
36   It is probable that Espie's wife was Ethel Dowries, although J. A. Mackay who recorded this was in some doubt as to her maiden name. Tt was common gossip, in later years, that his bride, who was only sixteen or seventeen years old, had been left at Poverty Bay by a vessel which had put in for a re-fit. In strict fact, the young woman was among the passengers whom Captain A. Campbell brought in the Minerva in June 1841, after an uneventful voyage.' (J. A. Mackay, op. cit., p. 150.) In even stricter fact, Captain A. Campbell's letter stated, 'I landed at Turanga Nui about the middle of June 1841 from my vessel "Minerva" and on that occasion I brought Mr. & Mrs. Uren Sen. & two or three children also Mr. Espie's mother.' (J. A. Mackay MS Papers.) One can only assume that Mackay had some undisclosed additional reason for his substitution of 'wife' for 'mother' in his published work.
37   Meeting--possibly the end of year meeting for the native school examination.
38   Talk or discuss.
39   See note on missionaries.
40   There was a general conspiracy among the C.M.S. missionaries during the forties to keep Sophia Baker out of her step-mother's clutches--Hannah Baker was Charles Baker's second wife. 'The poor child is I fear sadly treated . . . You had better give her an invitation and endeavour to get her out of the hand of this Lioness.' (H. Williams to A. N. Brown 21 June 1839, A. N. Brown Papers.)
41   Samuel Williams, Henry's son, had been with them for a week. He brought John to supply Henry's (jnr) place.
42   C. H. Townsend of Thorp, near Newark, emigrated to New Zealand on the Lord William Bentinck which arrived at Port Nicholson on 22 May 1841. Nine days later he was married by the Presbyterian minister, Rev. John Macfarlane, to a 'fellow passenger', Isabella Malcolm. She was 21 years old and a dressmaker, and had emigrated with her 19 year old sister Jane, who was a straw hat maker. (New Zealand Journal 13 November 1841 and Emigration Register of Lord William Bentinck.)

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