1974 - Williams, W. The Turanga Journals - 1847 Letters and Journals, 414-464

E N Z B       
       Home   |  Browse  |  Search  |  Variant Spellings  |  Links  |  EPUB Downloads
Feedback  |  Conditions of Use      
  1974 - Williams, W. The Turanga Journals - 1847 Letters and Journals, 414-464
Previous section | Next section      


[Image of page 414]


Journey through Manawatu Gorge to Wellington accompanied by William Cotton--return through Wairarapa visiting runholders and then along coast to Turanga--evaluation of Christian profession--practice of tattooing resumed--whooping cough prevalent among Maori children--death of Sydney Williams at St John's from typhus fever-- Williams' defence of Maori land rights--overland journey to Auckland, accompanied from Tauranga by Archdeacon Brown--stormy Central Committee meeting--estrangement between Selwyn and missionaries-- Williams defends northern missionaries from Gov. Grey's attack-- return to Turanga--criticism of Selwyn's 'intonation and candlesticks'-- Leonard leaves for England.

WILLIAM WILLIAMS JOURNAL TO THE C.M.S. [Diary entries in round brackets.]

January 1. Attended morning school at which we had 30 present. Occupied a great part of the day in distributing Almanacs & other small books which were lately issued from the press. A small manual for private devotion the natives are particularly anxious to possess. A slight shock of an earthquake at 1/2 past five in the morning.

January 2. School 28. Wrote tables of lessons for the natives.

January 3. Sunday. Fifty children at school. Large native congregation in the morning and 9 at English service. In the afternoon baptized 9 native children.

January 5. . . . Went to Ahipakura to see a woman who has separated from her husband for the last two years in consequence of some trifling quarrel the result of which has been a total absence from all religious services; she promises to return to her husband.

January 6. Bible class from Ngatikaipoho 84, and 10 candidates for baptism. Whakaripa an uncle of the teacher Edward who died lately came to see me, and tried to extort payment on account of the death of his nephew. He says that his death arose from an operation performed at Auckland, though it was in reality from violent haemorrhage of the lungs. After waiting for four hours he went away pretty well satisfied that his request was unreasonable.

[Image of page 415]


January 7. A party of our natives returned from East Cape yesterday and requested that I would have them together in a reading class, as their own people have attended in the early part of the week.

January 13. Occupied in making preparations for journey to the south.

January 14. Left home at eleven and proceeded to Wherowhero, where I did not find a single native. The plain about 3 miles on was all alive with human beings, there was a general assemblage there to gather the berries of a shrub, the juice of which is a favourite beverage at this season of the year. 1 As soon as I was recognised the word was passed along through the bushes, and the people quickly came together. After taking a draught of the juice of which they had collected many gallons, I arranged a class of 72 near the sea beach consisting partly of christian natives and partly of candidates, & catechized them for an hour and a half. Passed on to Whareongaonga, which we reached a little before sunset. This is a village in which there are many professed christian natives, but it possesses the disadvantage of being generally occupied as a whaling station. This circumstance has been a great hindrance, and about half the people have thrown aside their profession preferring their present world. As soon as I had taken refreshment I held evening prayers and addressed the natives, and at the conclusion of the service, I read with a Bible Class of 23, and catechized 14 candidates for baptism.

January 15. Held morning prayers and before starting looked out for some of the backsliders, talked with the younger brother of the principal chief who acknowledges the evil of his present course and proposes to come and live with me on my return that he may be out of the temptation of the whalers. As a canoe was starting for Table Cape we gladly took passage in her and landed at Mahanga at eleven. At Pukeatua found Isaac the native teacher and chief of his party; had a long conversation with him on various subjects of interest, and went on to Nukutaurua which is my headquarters while I remain here. Held prayers in the chapel, and addressed the natives. Among the few natives who still keep up the form of the Romish worship, I am glad to find that the wife of the principal man of that party has joined us.

[January 16-17 Williams remained at Table Cape. Daniel, the native teacher who 'fell away into a wild delusion' and withdrew from the Christian natives was interviewed and he promised to return. On January 17, the Lord's Supper was administered to 64 out of a congregation of 330.]

[Image of page 416]

(January 18. Left Nukutaurua at five oclock and proceeded to Nuhaka under a boiling sun and reached Wairoa at sunset. The natives were much tired with walking on the hot sands.)

[January 19-23. Hamlin accompanied Williams to Mohaka where a baptism and the Lord's Supper was celebrated. Williams noted that Mohaka had become important as all its original inhabitants had come back from Table Cape. From Mohaka Williams travelled on to Colenso's station where he arrived on January 23. The weather continued 'distressingly hot', and the country south of Waikari had been in flames 'making it exceedingly unpleasant to walk through the ashes of the fern'.]

January 24. Sunday. Mr. Colenso read prayers and I preached morning and afternoon. We administered the Lords Supper to 35 natives. The Christian party at this place is much tried by the opposition of the leading chiefs who are all combined for evil. May this have the effect of leading them to look more steadfastly to Christ and to desire his presence within them.

January 25. Spent the day in converse with my brother Colenso 2 and prepared for our departure tomorrow.

January 26. Left Awapuni at half past six and walked under a burning sun to Waikaha, where we staid to cook and to rest under the shade for nearly three hours, when the sun being less powerful we proceeded to Patangata. Here was waiting to see me Paraone Hakihaki 3 who, with his party lately came from Nukutaurua and have brought with them much of the property taken from the American brig Falco. This they have refused to give up and have consequently been kept at a distance. It was too late to have an interview this evening and as soon as the tent was pitched I assembled the natives to prayers.

January 27. After morning prayers held school when I had a Bible class of 31 christian natives and then catechized the whole after school; catechized 16 candidates for baptism, with a view to communicating my opinion about them to Mr. Colenso. I reserved to the last my interview with Paraone. Our various speeches occupied some time, and the heat of the sun was very oppressive. I was apprehensive for some time that all the talking would go for nothing but at length a musket and a cask of powder and a quantity of bullets were produced and after my fourth speech Paraone promised that by the time of my return

[Image of page 417]


from the south he will collect the whole and deliver it up. Upon this I rubbed noses with him, and shook hands with all his people. We then walked on to Waipukurau, a distance of about 12 miles. Food is very scarce, but here as elsewhere a very liberal provision is made for us, the best which the natives possess. Held prayers and addressed the natives.

[January 28--February 2. Williams continued through Southern Hawkes Bay to the Manawatu Gorge where he was to meet William Cotton. Cotton had gone to Waikanae to supply Govett's place while the latter was studying for priest's orders at St John's.]

February 2. . . . Our passage [down the Manawatu River] was very interesting, and the sight of the canoes successively passing down the rapids was often amusing. Many little difficulties without any danger, at length we came to the passage of the Apiti, 4 which divides the range of Ruahine from Tararua which forms a continuous chain from Taupo to Port Nicholson. This passage is one of the most picturesque scenes in New Zealand. A little beyond this I met Mr. Cotton who left Te Rewarewa on Monday for the purpose of coming this way to meet me. We exchanged a few words in our canoe when Mr. Cotton passed on to see the Apiti 5 and I proceeded to the pa [Te Wi] and pitched my tent. Here our welcome was most cordially expressed in the substantial way of a large quantity of provisions 6 consisting of potatoes, eels, pork and juice of the Tupakihi. Much is said by the natives about staying here for some days but this will not fall in with arrangements. My duties here appointed by the Bishop are to examine and enter candidates for baptism leaving my opinion respecting them with Mr. Govett. Mr. Cotton and I went to evening prayers after which there was much speaking among the natives until I made a diversion by taking a Bible class in the chapel.

February 3. Went to morning school; there were about 100 natives present but it is evident that many are not in the habit of attending, at the same time there is a large proportion of those who can read the scriptures and are regularly walking in the way to eternal life using those means of instruction which are within their reach. In the course of the day I catechized 66 candidates for baptism in three classes and after evening prayers read with a Bible class who seem to avail themselves gladly of this opportunity. 7

[Image of page 418]

February 4. After morning prayers left Te Wi and breakfasted at Ahimate 8 of which place most of the inhabitants had been with us at Te Wi. Reached Te Rewarewa at five. The natives very cordial as they were last year and seem to be in good order notwithstanding the disturbed state of affairs in this quarter. Held evening prayers and addressed the natives after which there were a few speeches made by some of the leading men outside the chapel which were strongly expressive of the determination of the natives to have nothing to do with the disaffected party but to attend closely to their duties as christians. In the evening I had a large Bible class. 9

February 6. Much rain fell in the night and I was apprehensive we should have to accede to the wishes of the natives and stay over Sunday, but at seven the weather cleared and after prayers at the chapel and breakfast we set out towards Otaki. At the mouth of the Manawatu we called upon Mr. Robinson 10 a respectable settler and then passed on to the beach. I was apprehensive we might fall in with Rangihaeata who was said to be quartered close to the beach, and that I might be drawn into communication which I wish to avoid, but he had happily gone inland this morning. The wind today was excessive, sweeping along the beach in our faces, making our walk doubly fatiguing so that we did not reach Otaki till some time after sunset very weary. 11

February 7. Sunday. A full congregation at both morning and evening service. At school I catechized the children but found them very ignorant. Mr. Cotton and I walked out to see the schoolroom at the site of the new village about half a mile from the coast.

February 8. Attended morning prayers and school. Having undertaken to catechize the candidates for baptism, there was a large number remaining about the chapel. Major Durie came from Waikanae with two policemen in quest of Petomi the murderer who is sheltered by

[Image of page 419]


Rangihaeata. 12 I spoke to the chiefs about the matter and they agree to send a deputation to Rangihaeata to request the quiet surrender of the culprit. When the arrangement was made I began to catechize the candidates 54 in number in four classes. Many are very ignorant and the teachers I hope will proceed now with more regularity and system in the care of them. The principal chief set out for Rangihaeatas pa and Mr. Cotton and I went to Waikanae. Levi the teacher came to talk in the evening.

February 9. Went to morning prayers and school and after breakfast catechized 83 candidates for baptism. Talked with Wiremu Kingi, 13 the principal chief about the cause which led the natives of Taranaki to remove some years ago to this place. He told me that the war with the natives of Waikato which ended in this result had been continued through two generations and had its first commencement in a greenstone "Mere". Mr. Tudor 14 arrived from Wellington and was the bearer of letters from home. We left Waikanae and went to Wainui 15 where we pitched our tents at dusk. Addressed the natives at evening prayers and afterwards catechized the candidates to the number of 35 which occupied me till eleven oclock.

February 10. Set out after breakfast, rain came on and by the time we reached the military station at Porirua we were nearly drenched. Called upon Captain Armstrong 16 who was very civil and caused a good breakfast to be provided, he then took us to see the new barracks, a very substantial stone building in the course of erection. The rain, now abating we procured a boat from the ferryman and this shortened our distance to Wellington by four miles. Entering the new road we found travelling more easy. 17 A great improvement has been made since last year, which is still going on under the direction of the Governor. At the half way house 18 we stayed to drink excellent coffee while the rain was again falling in torrents, the remainder of our walk was without inconvenience and we reached Mr. Coles a little before sunset. (Mr. C.

[Image of page 420]

very kind & his notable wife a valuable person though not according to my taste.) 19

February 11. Went to see Mr. & Mrs. St Hill and Mr. Hadfield, talked long with them and remained to dinner. Mr. Hadfield seems to be much better, he looks stronger and is capable of more exertion.

February 12. Wrote letter to go by the Government brig, and at eleven went to the church and read prayers. The congregation consisted of about nine persons who came to have their children baptized. Mentioned to Mr. Cole my wishes about the natives and found him most ready to do all to assist me. He sent off to the villages within reach and went himself to Pitoni to communicate with others. Talked with several natives.

February 13. Went to the church and met a class of natives after breakfast and remained with them nearly three hours and met another class in the evening. (At one accompanied Mr. St Hill & Mr. Cole to Mr. Stokes 20 to luncheon. His garden is one of the best in the place but will not compare with Turanga. Mr. Cotton pulled about his beehives & took some honey. Dr. and Mrs. Featherstone came in during the busy scene. Col. McCleverty 21 called.)

February 14. Sunday. Held native service in the church and administered the Lords Supper to 59 natives. Preached in English in the morning, Mr. Cotton preaching in the evening and held a second service with the natives in the afternoon. Returned with Mr. & Mrs. St Hill in the evening.

February 15. Wrote letters (& then walked out with Mr. Chapman to Korori to an early dinner. Much pleased with the romantic scenery of the road. The Korori district is quite a country village, but Mr. Chapmans is the only good house. He is erecting a new habitation & is in the way to have a very pretty seat. 22

February 16. Mr. Cotton set out on his journey home by way of Otaki. Breakfasted with Mr. St Hill & rode with him up the Hutt to see the new road. Called upon Mr. Swainson 23 on our return and

[Image of page 421]


admired the luxurious growth in his garden. I was engaged to dine with Major Richmond but he is ill & unable to receive company. Spent the evening with Mr. St Hill. The steamer arrived with the Governor, but there is little news.)

February 17. Packed up for my journey and then attended morning prayers at the church it being Ash Wednesday. Went to Mr. St Hills and took leave of Mr. Hadfield and my other kind friends remaining till past five. Mr. St Hill accompanied me as far as Kaiwarawara. Got to Pitoni at 8. Had a Bible class for which several of the natives had come together.

February 18. Held morning prayers and addressed the natives of whom about 50 were present and then catechized them. Waited for the ebb tide and then walked to Orongorongo. The wind was excessively violent. Called upon Mr. & Mrs. Riddiford 24 a respectable couple living at this place and remained till near ten. They were very pressing for me to sleep at their house but I returned to the tent and had prayers with the natives.

February 19. Proceeded on in company with Mr. Macmaster a Scotch settler in the Wairarapa. 25 Encamped at a fishing station near to Te Upokokirikiri 26 and addressed the natives at evening prayers.

February 20. Heavy rain all night which continued till noon today, it then cleared and we proceeded to Te Kopi. After evening prayers catechized the communicants till ten oclock.

February 21. Sunday. Held morning service and administered the Lords Supper to 79 communicants. Then proceeded to the house of Mr. Pharazyn 27 and had English service, their family consists of 5 sons and appears to be well regulated. Mrs. P. is just recovered from serious illness. Had native service at five and baptized 9 children; in the evening catechized 40 candidates for baptism.

February 22. Attended morning school and catechized and read with a Bible class of 50 then married 6 couples and set out on my journey up the valley. 28 Most of the natives we had at the Kopi I found had to return up the valley but the population is scanty. Called at the cattle

[Image of page 422]

station of Mr. Alum 29 and at 5 reached that of Mr. Macmasters, 30 where his notable wife had provided an excellent repast. Went to see her dairy which is in beautiful order well stocked with milk butter and cheese. Walked on after dark to Otaraia 31 and addressed a small party of natives at prayers.

February 23. Walked to Huangarua 32 and called upon Mrs. Smith 33 and remained to dinner, very hospitable. She has five children. Captn. Smith is away at Wellington. Mrs. S. gave me the history of their difficulties and their brightening prospects. Four miles further on I came to the station of Messrs. Northwood and Tiffin. 34 The latter was at home and was very pressing for me to remain for the night but after a very refreshing tea I proceeded to Hurunuiorangi where there is a small party of natives.

February 24. After a four hours walk reached Kaikokirikiri 35 where the people were assembled to meet me. Spent the afternoon with the candidates for the Lords Supper. Addressed the natives at evening prayers. The congregation was about 160 including our own party. In the evening catechized 62 candidates for baptism.

February 25. Attended morning school and read with a class of 47 and catechized the whole school on a part of the church catechism. After breakfast married two couple and administered the Lords Supper to 45 natives, baptized two children and again catechized the candidates for baptism. In the afternoon set out on our journey towards the East coast and slept in the woods.

February 26. Travelled over a very rugged country and reached Whareama 36 at two oclock where is a small village at which we received hospitable entertainment. A little after sunset we came out upon the sea beach at Upokohutia.

[Image of page 423]

MARCH 1847

[February 27--March 7. Once on the Wairarapa Coast, the stopping places as far as Porangahau, were similar to those on Williams' and Colenso's 1843 journey. From Porangahau, which he reached on March 3, Williams turned inland following Colenso's 1845 route to Waipukurau. He left that place on March 7.]

March 8. Reached Patangata at noon and was conducted by Paraone Hakihaki to inspect some property taken from the wreck of the American brig Falco which he now restores. This is perhaps the termination of a long struggle between Christian principles and a satanic influence which has made a breach in our little church for more than 18 months. All the natives of this place except 3 or 4 are gone to Awapuni assembling there for the approaching sabbath. Proceeded about 4 miles further to Ngawhakatatara and encamped. Our party, principally from Waipukurau is about 30 in number.

March 9. Rain in the night and a bad prospect this morning. Set out at six and in a little time the weather cleared. After a walk of about six hours exclusive of delays we reached Te Awapuni 37 and found Mr. & Mrs. Colenso and children well. The natives are gathering together from all sides to be present at the approaching administration of the Lords Supper.

March 10. Spent the day in writing and reading and in the evening held service with the natives. Mr. Colenso is mainly occupied with the communicants.

March 13. Spent the forenoon with Paraone Hakihaki and his party who were concerned with the property from the Brig Falco. The result was satisfactory, it seems probable that all remainder of this property is delivered up, and that the party will again return to a consistency of christian profession. They have long been uneasy in their position but there was a struggle between selfishness and wounded pride in undoing that which they had made a boast of, and a better principle which told them they were wrong. In the afternoon catechized 62 candidates for baptism.

March 14. Sunday. Congregation at morning service about 350. Administered the Lords Supper with Mr. Colenso to 182 communicants. [Williams left Te Awapuni the following day and reached Wairoa on March 18.]

March 21. Many natives are come together from distant villages and though we might have had a much larger concourse yet there were at morning service about 600 inside the chapel and out. The Lords Supper was administered to 157 communicants. We then held English service at which however none of the white people from the whaling station

[Image of page 424]

were present. In the afternoon I attended school and then followed evening service during which Mr. Hamlin baptized the 53 natives mentioned yesterday. The people of this district are evidently improving in their attention under Mr. Hamlins care and though for a long time there has been much want of spiritual life it may now be hoped they are receiving it.

March 22. Left Wairoa at eight oclock and reached Nuhaka at one in company with Mr. Hamlin. The whole tribe of Urikapana had assembled by appointment and Mr. Hamlin had previously conversed with the communicants. At four oclock we had evening service after which we administered the Lords Supper to 36 natives. A little before sunset I left Nuhaka and proceeded about 4 miles to join my natives at the entrance of the wood.

March 23. Rose before break of day and set forward a little before five. At noon we had heavy rain which continued at intervals. Reached Wherowhero at six oclock and home about half past seven. Thus under Gods protecting care have I completed this journey of 700 miles without any casualty or hindrance and have been enabled in some measure to accomplish the object proposed of visiting the natives of this extensive district. At home I am thankful to find that all are well but the natives requiring much attention.

March 24. Occupied with the care of various matters arising out of my absence and read many letters etc.


When I last wrote we were about to wing our flight to the Northward .... [1846 journey to Bishop's Auckland and Paihia] The month we spent at Paihia was chiefly occupied in nursing my four little girls who took the hooping cough with them from Auckland. Little Caroline who was also cutting her teeth was very ill for some days and claimed my exclusive attention. Marianne also had it severely for a little time; the other two more favourably. We had no Father to prescribe for them and help me with them in the night, but the military doctor, a very kind man, directed me what to give them, and his plans and prescriptions were by the blessing of God upon them, very successful. The four children we left behind are Leonard, Sydney, James and Maria. James returned to school with his brothers, and Maria remained at Paihia for a time, but is now going, if not already gone, to school at Auckland to Mrs. Cooper, who was once Marianne's neighbour at Paihia. She is unfortunate in having a very unprincipled husband, and has just opened a school: her eldest daughter is gone to live with Mrs. Morgan (Maria Coldham) as governess to her children.

I am sorry to say that our peep behind the scenes at school and college was anything but satisfactory to us. The Bishop's plans are very

[Image of page 425]


good but they are not followed out, and the time appointed for instruction was sadly frittered away, particularly in the lower school, and the upper one was not much better. Leonard to whom the Bishop had given a scholarship and who is the first boy in the school, had been doing next to nothing in the way of study during the preceding four months which greatly mortified his Father. A great point is made of out-door work, which is all very good in N. Zealand, provided the school hours are well employed, but they were not, and I am afraid none of the masters have really the welfare of the boys at heart . . . Wm determined to speak to his Lordship on the subject feeling sure he was not aware of the real state of things. 38 He received it all very well, but was evidently much vexed and mortified particularly with Mr. Cotton who has many good points about him, but is by no means fit to have the charge of youth. 39 This placed William in the unenviable position of a spy, but he could not conscientiously see things going wrong without speaking. A slight attempt at reform was made and I think the upper school was a little improved. Mr. Hutton sought William's advice and took kindly all he had to say; but Mr. Dale the master of the lower school is not an improvable subject, 40 and from a letter I had last week from Mary, I find Mrs. Selwyn is assisting to teach the little boys just now, which says more for Mrs. S. than for Mr. D. The schools for native boys and teachers were in a more satisfactory state: the Bishop himself pays them close attention when at home, besides which they have more conscientious instructors. The college discipline and course of instruction does not at all come up to William's. ideas and expectations, and he is seriously thinking of sending Leonard to England if we can manage it. We cannot call him a decided character as yet, but he is exceedingly well disposed with very good abilities, and we should like him to be properly prepared for the ministry, trusting that in his own good time our Heavenly Father may be pleased to give him the call. Poor Sydney has been neglected too sadly, which is the more to be regretted as he does not possess the same capacity as

[Image of page 426]

his brother, consequently required rather more than less attention. James who is now ten years old and ought to be doing something we have left this term by way of experiment hoping that things will take a turn for the better. I think his Lordship trusts too much to his masters and does not sufficiently ascertain what is doing or not doing.

Please to remember, my dear Kate, that all this is for your own private edification and not to be talked about unless with Edward and Lydia. Should William determine to send Leonard home, he may probably accompany Mr. Cotton next summer . . . Samuel is a sterling character and gives us great satisfaction: he and Mary are living with the Bishop at present till their own house is completed. It was a great pleasure to spend a little time with dear Henry and Marianne, whose sons and daughters are all now young men and women excepting Joseph .... Henry has had much to try him and has met with but little sympathy: 41 he looks careworn and anxious, & not near so stout as he was. Marianne I thought looking much better than when we last met. Both were in good spirits while we were with them. . . .

We have now been at home seven weeks, quite a small family, only Jane and our three youngest little girls. My husband has been gone nearly three weeks on his long southern journey and is not likely to be back till the middle or end of March. His being so much from home is a great trial to me, but I am surrounded by mercies and blessings and the natives are very quiet and well behaved which is no small comfort. I miss Mary greatly and also James and Maria, both were companiable children, but particularly the latter. Leonard and Syd too have generally been at home at this part of the year, so if Jane and I feel a little dull it is no great wonder, but we both enjoy the quiet and seclusion of Turanga again, quiet tho' we have not much of when the natives come round us, and we are not often without them.. ..

I am afraid you will not be able to read my letter if I cross it, so I will say good night.


[Image of page 427]


WILLIAM WILLIAMS TO EDWARD MARSH Wellington 16 February 1847

As my visit [to Paihia 1846] was to be a very short one I found it necessary to make the most of it and talked much with Henry about the past. He has suffered much from the malice of the wicked, and it was I believe a great comfort to him to meet with a little sympathy. During my short visit I obtained, by putting into requisition various members of the family, the copies of a large number of letters which passed between Henry, the Governor, Sir Everard Home, the Bishop & others, all relating to the events which took place during the war with the natives, & bearing upon the charges made against Henry. It remains to be seen whether a selection from them shall be published or not. Of persons connected with the Bay of Islands you will perhaps recollect the name of Mr. Mair, once in good circumstances. He is now occupied with his son in cutting firewood for the soldiers quartered there. Mr. Busby & his family have returned to their old residence, but I fear his mercantile speculations will not answer, & that he will yet have much to struggle with. His various trials have I believe been made a great blessing to him & to Mrs. B.....After spending four days most agreeably, we again set sail in our little bark, a vessel of twenty tons, . . . and on the 15th we were once more at our quiet home. Home, home sweet home! Our visit from home has not been without much enjoyment, but we all returned better satisfied with our own proper abode, and the only alloy was that our party was so much diminished. The natives gave us a most glad welcome and soon began to flock about our dwelling as usual. I was thankful also to find that the natives have suffered as little from our absence as could have been expected. I had just time enough to see the whole of my parishioners, & then made preparation for the journey on which I am still engaged. ...

On the river Manawatu I met Mr. Cotton by appointment. He left Auckland a little before me & came to Waikanae to relieve Mr. Govett who is gone to receive priests orders. Mr. Cotton is a pleasant companion, though his views and mine essentially differ on many things. We travelled together leisurely from village to village as I had specific duties to attend to by the appointment of the Bishop, 42 & then we came on together to this place.

I was much pleased with the state of the natives generally, and am thankful to find that even in poor Mr. Hadfields district, which has now been for some time in charge of Mr. Govett, who at present only knows the language imperfectly, the natives keep up a consistent profession of Christianity and are preserved from any evil influence of the settlers....

I have seen more of Wellington this visit, and have received much civility from several persons. It may be well for the good people to see a missionary occasionally, for they are apt to entertain extraordinary prejudices, and suppose us to belong to an order of non-descript animals

[Image of page 428]

of a very mischievous tendency. My friends Mr. & Mrs. St Hill are as friendly as ever & Mr. Hadfield who is still with them is a little better in health than when I saw him last year. Poor Chauncy Townsend has no better prospect before him. He is keeping a paltry shop at which are sold sugar plums and other small matters, and I fear he will be content to remain in this position. The settlers who came out under the N.Z. Company have now with one consent turned against the Company. They find that they one and all have been duped from the commencement & poor Col. Wakefield has been so brow beaten that he is afraid to shew his face. The Govr. is likely to do something for the relief of present difficulties and I think acts for the most part with good judgement.

I am sorry to see by the Bishops Almanac which has just reached me that he has got a new fangled idea at the college. He has established the order of the brethren & sisters of St John whose duties are to attend to the sick--alias Sisters of Charity. The principle of the measure is good, but coming forth under this name and at this time it will excite the ridicule of the worldly, and will grieve those who are truly religious. 43



You will like to know what is the actual state of the natives at the present time in regard to Christianity; how far the feeling of hostility which has shewn itself towards the whites has affected them on the one hand, and the temptations brought by our countrymen on the other. It might with reason be expected that where a large body of people have embraced the christian religion, there should be a large proportion of those who received the word with joy who by and bye would be offended, and this too apart from anything arising out of the settlement of the country. This we have found to be the case, but not to so great an extent as I should have expected. As an illustration of this I may mention that out of a population of 2400 at Poverty Bay, there are upwards of 500 communicants who are not admitted to the Lords Supper indiscriminately but after a close & searching enquiry into the conduct & views of each person. At the Bay of Islands I believe there

[Image of page 429]

MARCH 1847

has been a great falling off both among those natives who have been fighting with the government & also among those who have been friendly. The latter have undoubtedly received much injury from their intercourse with the soldiers. At the south in the neighbourhood of Wellington from whence I have just returned I was truly gratified to find that the christian natives generally maintain great consistency of conduct. They continue stedfast in their attendance upon religious worship, and are glad to receive instruction whenever it is offered to them. What more could be expected than this I am at a loss to conceive. And yet there are found those who say that the christian natives are the worst in every respect. If Christianity had not had the start of colonisation in this country, I am persuaded that the native population to a man would have been against the government, and then I believe it would have been impossible to keep a footing unless an overwhelming force had been kept up in the country with a view to exterminating the natives altogether. The settlers now begin to entertain a more favorable opinion of the natives, and I trust that soon we shall have peace established, and that the blessings of peace will follow.



Turanga 30 March 1847

I was very glad to see a letter written by you which came lately from Paihia. I hear that you are very happy with Papa & Mama 44 and all your cousins; and among other things I am told you are beginning to learn music. I hope you will by and bye be able to play on the seraphine. I am just come home from a very long journey of ten weeks down to Wellington. When I came back again I found the place looking very pretty. All the trees are much grown, and the willows and acacias and all the other trees are very beautiful. Your little garden too is flourishing, and your little seat under the kowhai is just where it was and will be ready for you when you come home again.

As you are fond of reading I send you a nice little book which I think you will like. It is about some good christian people who were very much persecuted many years ago because they worshipped God according to the manner which the Bible teaches us. We may be very thankful that we are not exposed to that kind of persecution now, but that we all have the Bible and can read it for ourselves.


[Image of page 430]


[Diary entries are in round brackets.]

[April 5-11. Station duties.]

April 11. Sunday. Held native service morning and evening and administered the Lords Supper to 222 communicants. English service at one oclock. Upon the whole, the communicants are more numerous than I had expected and that, too, after close questioning which would tend to make many stay away.

April 12. Gave my attention this morning to the natives of Wherowhero and Taikawakawa and read with a Bible class of 27 and catechized 24 candidates for baptism.

April 13. Catechized two classes of candidates for the Lords Supper from the tribe of Teitangamahaki in number 60, and also a class of 9 candidates for baptism. Before I had concluded, the arrival of the Rev. C. L. Reay from Nelson was announced on his way to Waiapu. Spent an agreeable evening with Mr. Reay.

(April 14. Mr. Reay set out for Uawa overland.) 45

April 19. Read with a Bible Class of 37 from Ngaiteaweawe and catechized 6 candidates for baptism. There is some excitement in the Pa today in consequence of a proposed matrimonial alliance. A large assemblage is expected tomorrow of the opposing parties.

April 20. Proposed to meet the class of native teachers but found the natives too much excited to allow of my proceeding with so peaceful an engagement. Spent the whole day among the natives and had an opportunity of speaking with many who for a long season have absented themselves from all christian instruction. When the devil wishes to assemble the people for mischief, his call is quickly responded to. The general feeling expressed today has been peaceable and towards evening there seemed to be a prospect of a quiet termination.

April 21. Last night the woman was sent back to the parties who are opposed to the match with the understanding that if she persists in her partiality, the party shall allow her to marry. The case is thus, the woman is a widow and her late husbands friends wish her to marry a relative of her husbands but she, acting upon the christian principle that she is free gives preference to a suitor from another tribe. There is still much excitement but the people are beginning to disperse.

[On April 29 Williams left for an Eastern District Committee meeting at Uawa which lasted from 3 to 7 May.]

[Image of page 431]

MAY 1847

May 8. The Neptune at anchor. A few letters were brought on shore by Captn. Macfarlane from which we heard of the serious illness which has prevailed at the college. 46 Left Uawa at 2 oclock and got to Whangara at 7. Addressed the natives at prayers.

May 9. Sunday. A congregation of 66 natives at morning service and about 56 in the afternoon. There are three Englishmen also with whom I had a short service at noon.

May 10. Left Whangara at past 7 and reached home at 2. The few settlers living here are all in hot water with the natives during my absence through their own outrageous conduct and are pleased to throw the whole blame of their troubles upon me. 47

May 12. Met the English residents of Turanga to hear their various complaints, the result of which was that full proof was given that their observations respecting myself are wholly without foundation.

May 14. Went to see Whata and Kahutia respecting Terina Irikowhai and about a quarrel with Ngatimaru. They were civil, but not being under the influence of Christianity there is less hold upon them.

(May 15. Packed fruit trees for the college. Writing.)

May 16. Sunday. Held the usual services. An attempt in the morning to make a disturbance about the publication of banns but it failed of producing any effect.

(May 17. Writing annual report. In the evening Paul Pomare came about his child who is ill with the hooping cough. Many children are afflicted with this malady.)

May 21. Read with the teachers class and gave out medicine till noon. Then occupied with Te Whanau a Kai till evening who came with a quantity of potatoes to sell. Paul Pomare came in the evening with his child in a dying state.

May 24. Read with the Bible class of Ngatimaru to the number of 87 and catechized 13 candidates for baptism. In the afternoon we

[Image of page 432]

received a letter from the Bishop giving an account of our son Sydneys precarious state. Wrote to the Bishop in the evening.

May 28. Read with the teachers class on the subject of the sermon for Sunday morning. Then the Bible class from Wherowhero at which there were 22 natives, and catechized 22 candidates. The wicked one is much on the alert here just now and after a cessation of seven years he has moved some of these natives to resume the practice of tattooing. The christian natives have ever looked upon this practice as belonging to heathenism and therefore none but those who set at nought all right principles have ever entertained the idea. This afternoon I went to see the two chiefs who are at the head of it. They are heathens but there are several professed christians drawn into the snare. I expostulated a long time but with no success.

May 31. Thirty two natives attended the Bible Class from Ngaiteaweawe and 6 candidates for baptism. Rihara Ngaro called in the evening at my request. For many months he has been in a fearful state. He was formerly a teacher at the Wairoa, but his conduct was so unsatisfactory that he was dismissed and since that time he has been going on badly. We had a long conversation which was satisfactory. He acknowledges that he has been under the leading of the devil all this time and now wishes to return from his evil ways. May he have grace to do so.

[Williams remained at Whakato during June; the revived interest in tattooing continued to be troublesome. Whooping cough was still prevalent among the Maori children.]

June 1. Read with the teachers class and then with the Bible class of Ngaitawhiri. Only 14 were present but I did not expect any attendance, for this is the tribe which is in a very bad state just now, but it was a relief to see even a small number. Three candidates for baptism from Taruheru. Went this afternoon to see some of the defaulters.

June 4. Lazarus and others went to see Whata and endeavoured to persuade him to desist from tattooing, but not being successful he spoke very plainly about his determination to separate entirely from him.

June 22. Read with the native teachers. I hear that the tribes of Teitangamahaki and Te Whanau a Kai held a meeting yesterday in consequence of the tattooing which is going on under Kahutia and Whata and they have determined to shew their disapprobation by giving up the preparation for a feast called "te haunga" which they had undertaken at the wish of Kahutia. Here is another proof of evil being overruled for good as it puts an end to an old native practice of very doubtful character.

[Image of page 433]

JULY 1847

June 23. Read with a Bible class of 6 from Wherowhero and catechized 13 candidates for baptism. While engaged with these natives I received an urgent request from Mr. Hamlin to visit his sick child at Wairoa. Made immediate preparations for setting out tomorrow.

June 24. Arose long before daybreak and was ready to start as the day dawned, but a settled rain came on and obliged me to remain. Writing all day.

June 25. Rain still continued.

June 26. Weather moderated but a higher flood than I have yet known is the consequence of the rain. Much damage is done to the houses and plantations and the natives are in great trouble.

June 27. Sunday. Weather unsettled but held the usual services, two native and one English.

June 28. Wind and rain from the old quarter.

June 29 & 30. Rain still continues and a flood is again the consequence doing much damage.

July 1. An appearance of settled weather. Hearing that there is a canoe at Karaua a small creek which is on my way, I left home and proceeded to Taikawakawa. Here several natives have been concerned in a matter which requires serious notice. On Sunday last a small whale was driven on shore and though they could have secured it with a rope they proceeded to cut it up immediately without regard to the Sabbath. There were several who exclaimed against the proceeding but it was to no purpose. The people implicated were principally candidates for baptism and have consequently thrown themselves back. I invited them to come to service but said I should not allow them to attend the candidates class for some time. However, they preferred remaining away which is a proof that they have a very inadequate idea of the extent of their offence.

July 2. Started at day break and continued travelling till dark.

July 3. Proceeded at daylight and got to Nuhaka by twelve oclock the distance from thence to Wairoa being twenty miles, we accomplished by nine oclock. Found Mr. Hamlins sick child in a very precarious state. It labours under a severe attack of hooping cough complicated with remittent fever.

July 4. Sunday. Mr. Hamlin is labouring under inflamation of the eyes and is obliged to leave everything to me. Held two native services and one English but none of the white people from the whaling station attended.

(July 5. Writing. Mr. Hamlins little one is somewhat better. The Neptune arrived off Wairoa & the captain sent word that Samuel & Mary had left for Turanga.)

[Image of page 434]

July 6. Left Wairoa and got to Nuhaka a little before dark. Soon after a messenger arrived from Turanga bringing the sad tidings of the death of our dear boy Sydney at Auckland. 48 My apprehensions had long been alive from the nature of the reports we had received. His illness was of ten weeks continuance but God has been very merciful to us in our affliction and gives us many indications of the happy state of mind in which our dear child departed. The object is attained for which God created him and he is now joined to the general assembly and church of the first born. Our son-in-law Samuel and his wife have arrived in safety after a very perilous voyage and bring the sad tidings. It is requisite that I return direct home instead of going to Table Cape as my son [in-law] is proceeding to Wellington. Held prayers with the natives and read with a Bible class.

July 7. Set out on my return and reached Te Ahimanawa at night.

July 8. Arrived at home in the afternoon. Found a large packet of letters and heard from Samuel many interesting particulars of our dear boy.

July 9. Wrote to the Bishop relative to the signatures of the Treaty of Waitangi by the natives of this district. The news of the intention of Government about this country is a most serious ground of anxiety. 49 The prospects of this country are dark and gloomy. Samuel set out in the afternoon to join his vessel, but returned in the evening.

(July 10. Samuel left in the morning.)

July 15. Catechized 24 candidates for baptism from the tribe Teitangamahaki and made a selection from them for the approaching Baptism.

July 16. Having under examination a large number of candidates for Baptism who have been on probation for the last year and a half, I finally passed seventeen of them today to be admitted on the approaching sabbath into the church.

July 17. Spent the whole day with the candidates, giving them a final examination to the number of 51. Many have been long upon the list and many of them manifest a degree of earnestness though it is too much to suppose that all are really sincere in the expressions of a desire to give up the world and Satan and to cleave to Christ.

July 18. Sunday. A very large congregation of natives at morning service after which we had the usual English service. Then spent an hour with ten candidates from Patutahi who through a mistake were not present yesterday. During the evening service baptized 78 candidates and

[Image of page 435]

JULY 1847

addressed them on the importance of the vows they had undertaken. May they indeed be found the children of God.

July 25. Sunday. The weather was wet but the congregation was very large. Administered the Lords Supper to 231 candidates. In the afternoon baptized 9 children. In the evening administered the Lords Supper at home, three members of our family not being in a state to leave home in the morning. Our number was seven.

July 31. Went to Toanga and as soon as I got there heavy rain came on which lasted till night. A messenger went off up the valley and brought part of the natives who had not expected me from the state of the weather. Read with two classes of communicants amounting together to 62 and catechized them preparatory to the administration of that ordinance. Several other natives from their inland villages had been with me during the preceding week. I fortunately found an old cook house in which I pitched my tent and though there was three inches of mud in it from the late flood, a good layer of fern kept me out of it.

WILLIAM WILLIAMS TO C.M.S. Turanga 12 July 1847

I am . . . writing upon a subject which just now absorbs all our interest. . . . The news of the determination of our Government to set aside the Treaty of Waitangi, and to seize upon all lands not actually in the occupation of the natives, fills every honest mind with indignation. I understand that Govr. Grey does not intend to put these plans into effect until he shall have heard again from home, and that if the Government still persists, he immediately resigns, as also do the Judge and Attorney General. The Bishop has forwarded a petition in his own name to the House of Commons and determines to resign that part of his income which is voted by Parliament, if this measure is to be carried out.

I now give you my opinion of the effect this measure will produce throughout the country. Hitherto the natives opposed to the Government have been heathen, Roman Catholics, 50 and a few professed Protestant natives who with few exceptions had thrown up their christian profession. The majority of the christian natives and many others have either directly assisted the government or have adopted a neutral course. Now the case will be very different. The natives will make common cause, and the opposition raised will be fearful! Heke and

[Image of page 436]

others who have been in the minority, will now be looked up to as patriotic leaders whose cause has been right from the first. The general feeling among the white people who have been living singly or in small parties among the natives is, that there will be no safety for them, and as soon as they hear that the order is to be put into force, they will make the best of their way to other places. The natives I believe will wage deadly warfare with all white people.

Now in this commotion what will be the position of your missionaries. Many of us were actively engaged in procuring signatures to the Treaty of Waitangi. There was even then a strong feeling of suspicion which was much encouraged by many evil disposed persons. This we combated with success by a reference to the words of the Treaty, which were too plain and simple to admit of a double meaning. During the late disturbances at the north, the Treaty was the means used by my brother in preventing a general rising to the support of Heke, so that the party opposed to Govt, was only about 400 or 500 instead of as many thousands. But now the natives will be told that the Treaty was a form of words without meaning, and they will naturally think that the missionaries have deceived them for some sinister purpose. There is still another view of the case to be taken. The natives will apply to us, their oldest, & as they believe, their best friends. They will ask what course they are to pursue. Can we say? Your country belongs to England by right of discovery, & though the Queen of England had solemnly covenanted to secure to you all your lands and estates, forests, fisheries and other properties so long as it is your desire to retain the same in possession, yet as christians you are bound to submit patiently? If on the other hand we tell them they are hardly dealt with, we are the promoters of rebellion. I do not see in this difficulty any alternative but that of returning to England if this course is persisted in. Our influence with the natives will be ruined. They have always been on friendly terms with the members of the government & with our own countrymen generally, who now will be prepared to hunt them down until they are destroyed from the face of the country.

My brother I believe will have informed you of the strange observations of our present governor relating principally to himself. It becomes necessary to make public various documents we have in possession, which I hope will be done directly I get to Auckland . . . The observations of the Governor are unfounded, absurd, and unjust. I have been instructed with the preparation of these documents, & have carefully avoided everything of an aggressive character. 51 The cause is too good to require more than a simple statement of facts ....

[Image of page 437]

JULY 1847

May our gracious Father direct you and all of us in our present perplexities, that so we may take the course, which shall best promote his glory.


We have just been thrown into deep affliction by the death of our second son Sydney. We left him on our return from the Bay of Islands in the summer in the enjoyment of most robust health. Though only 16 years of age, he appeared to have arrived at mans estate, not overgrown and weekly, but stout and strong & with the prospect of many days before him. The complaint with which he was seized on the 4th of April was a remittent fever which before & since had prevailed much in Auckland & at the college. His case throughout was one of the most severe, and after various alterations he was taken to his eternal rest on the 11th June. The dear lad was in disposition very affectionate and kind & consequently was much beloved. On the first announcement of his danger we had indeed some comfort in the prospect of the future, but it was not so full as we had afterwards. About a year and a half ago he was staying with us & I had then many conversations with him as much so as may generally be expected in those who have had a religious education but are still young. Last summer again we saw much of him at the college. Little did I then think it was to be our last intercourse or I should have attended more to the duty which I owed to him as a parent . . . The nature of his illness was such that there was not a frequent opportunity for holding converse with him . . . But I am truly thankful Samuel was with him during all this period ... He tells me that whenever he was in a collected state and he questioned him upon his hopes, he always replied in a most delightful manner. "Though very delirious," Samuel writes, "for a long period, still for the last two days & nights he was quite clear, collected & calm. He was conscious of his approaching end, shook hands with me, and frequently made signs to make me understand that he was going. He told me upon my asking him, that he was quite happy, that he did not expect to recover, but was anticipating his removal. I asked him if he was not afraid to die, when he calmly replied no. Where do you hope to go I continued, to which on one occasion he said in a low voice to heaven, and on another occasion he looked stedfastly up to heaven, with a countenance which expressed more than the most eloquent language could do" .... These are some of the many particulars mentioned by Samuel & they afford us ample reason for rejoicing that one of our dear children is conveyed safely beyond the dangers of this sinful world into the presence of his Saviour. It is worthy of remark that up to the period of our dear boys illness his Christianity, so far as we could see it, was a sort of negative principle. Having been taught from a child to walk in a prescribed track, he continued in that track, but we could

[Image of page 438]

not tell whether it was from habit or example merely, or from any preference on his own part cooperating with the two former. He was a branch upon the vine giving a promise of fruit, but fruit had scarcely shewn itself .... And yet when lucid intervals occurred, the powers of the mind being still enfeebled by the stupor of the disease, there was a clear expression of faith and confidence. It appears therefore certain to me that Christ was there and that his Spirit was helping his infirmities, and that a work which had been begun before was carried on and made perfect.. .

I must briefly advert to an all absorbing subject upon which you will feel not a little anxious--the intentions of the Government towards this country. If Lord Greys iniquitous instructions are carried out, 52 we have before us a frightful carnage both of whites and natives. The latter will resist to the utmost the forcible abstraction of their lands, while the missionaries who have hitherto been able to speak with confidence of the good faith of the English Government, will now be looked upon with extreme suspicion, and I much doubt whether we shall not have to leave the country.



[Diary entries in round brackets.]

August 9. Having made preparation for an overland journey to Auckland for the purpose of attending the meeting of the Central Committee, I set out this afternoon and got to the village of Taureka an hour after dark, just as the natives had finished prayers. I took up my quarters in a native house my own little cottage having been taken down to prevent its being washed away by the flood.

August 10. Left Taureka at eight oclock, our party consisting of my four companions 53 and Paul, (Pomare) a native teacher with four others who accompany him to the Thames in quest of Pauls brother who is a slave there. There are a few others also going with us up the valley as far as the most remote plantations of the tribe. The weather is fine but the ground still very wet from the late rains. An hour before sunset we came to a ford which is still too deep to cross with comfort. It was therefore determined to encamp for the night and make a raft in the morning for the conveyance of the luggage.

August 11. The preparation of the raft and the transporting ourselves and our bundles over the river occupied three hours. At length we got

[Image of page 439]


clearly off and in half an hour we overtook a party of four who are travelling our way and have been waiting some days for the water to subside. Got from them a supply of pork as they had killed two bush pigs during their delay, and gave them in return some of our bread. We then hurried on as the weather was threatening from the N.W. and it was of consequence to leave the fords in our rear of which there were still eight before us. At one oclock we began to ascend the hills and encamped at dusk. The weather looked bad and the natives put up two comfortable sheds which were of great service in the night as the rain fell heavily.

August 12. Weather fine. We set out at daylight and passed Rangiriri and Tauawatea and brought up within an hours walk of Motu. I have been much reminded during the day of my dear boy who died two months ago. At three places on the road his initials T.S.W. with those of others in the party, were cut in large letters on the trees when they passed this way two years ago. He was then just fourteen years of age and was beginning to feel some of the toils of life for this journey is a very trying one. 54 Now his troubles are over and he gave reason to believe that he is safely landed beyond the reach of danger. (August 12. I could not however refrain from weeping occasionally as I passed over the dreary road, though when I look calmly at every circumstance I can not only submit cheerfully but rejoice.

'Thou art gone to the grave--but t'were wrong to deplore thee Since God was thy ransome, thy guardian, thy guide: He gave thee, He took thee, and now he has placed thee; Where death hath no sting, since the Saviour has died.'

August 13. At Motu where there is a large open spit which is a general place of encampment, there was again dear Sydney's name. Little did he think when passing this road that he was so soon to be an inhabitant of another world. We encamped at Te Wairapukao.)

August 14. We started this morning by torchlight hoping to reach Mr. Wilson's by evening. We travelled hard and got to the outside of the wood by three oclock. Having a strong native in the party who had no load I got carried over the fords which was very fortunate as I had a tendency to cough. Night however came rapidly upon us and we were thankful to find a house with a few natives in it when we had accomplished not more than a third of the distance down the valley. During the long evening our hosts detailed very minutely all the local news with much also relating to Tauranga, the Governor etc. to the great entertainment of our party and then in return asked for news from the far south.

[Image of page 440]

August 15. Sunday. Our party was small for the sabbath but we obtained rest and hospitality and have enjoyed the regular services of the day.

August 16. Arrived at Mr. Wilsons 55 at noon. Mr. W. is absent attending a meeting of Committee at Tauranga.

August 17. Paul and his party who were proceeding to the Thames came to me this morning to say that they learn from the natives of this place that the young man in quest of whom they were going, has been dead for some months and that they propose to return to Turanga. This being settled I started with my four natives to Ohiwa and pitched my tent by the rivers bank on the sands.

August 18. In the night a canoe arrived which we had sent for and conveyed us over the river at sunrise. We then walked on to Whakatane which we reached at noon. We entered the Pa of Toihau. 56 He is a heathen chief whom I had never before seen. He was concerned in cutting off the brig Haweis 57 some years ago and has always borne a bad character. He was however very civil, and by the time we had partaken of the food which he had prepared for us it was too late to proceed on our journey. I agreed therefore to stay for the night. In the evening we had about 25 natives at prayers in the chapel, whom I addressed, but there does not seem to be much life among the people. There are two evil influences to struggle against, a strong party attached to the Romish Priests, 58 and a body of Englishmen who are building small vessels for the natives. 59

August 19. Walked over the sands for six hours and reached Otamarora. There was scarcely a native about the place, and we were glad to push on to Otamarakau though evening was fast approaching and we did not get there till nearly two hours after dark. But few natives in the Pa, but those were hospitable. I pitched the tent inside a large house and had comfortable quarters. About an hour afterwards Mr. Wilson arrived from Tauranga. From him I learnt the latest news from England, particularly the celebrated dispatch of Governor Grey. 60 (We sat up to talk & to read my pamphlets of which he heartily approves.)

[Image of page 441]


August 20. Mr. Wilson and I proceeded on our respective courses. I reached Maketu early in the afternoon. The christian party is now joined by Amohau the leading priest & father of Paul the teacher; but yet there are many who are with the papists. Addressed the natives at evening prayers & read afterwards with a Bible Class.

August 21. Reached Tauranga an hour before sunset, and made a signal for the boat which was soon perceived and I quickly joined the mission party at the station. (Found the two families well but our first meeting was necessarily a sorrowful one from the sad reminiscences of dear Marsh & Sydney. It is arranged that I spend my time between the two families, 61 sleeping at Archd. Browns.

August 22. Sunday. Having had a slight cough for some days, I declined taking much duty but accompanied Archd. Brown to Otumoetai & preached to the natives.

August 23. Read to Archd. Brown my papers & talked about the Govrs letter to Mr. Gladstone & the Societys recommendations. 62

August 24. Wrote to Mr. Venn in answer to charges against the mission.

August 25. Engaged upon the papers.

August 26. 27. 28. Wrote to the Society about Govrs. letter and read Macaulays Essays on Warren Hastings & Lord Clive.

August 29. Sunday. Held native & English morning services at Te Papa.)

[Image of page 442]

August 30. Archdeacon Brown and myself started in two boats for Katikati on our way to Auckland. In four hours we reached the landing place, a distance of 25 miles. We pitched our tents at an early hour having to wait for our natives in the second boat.

August 31. Set out at 1/2 past seven over the country lying between Tauranga & the Thames and at 6 we encamped on the bank of Ohinemuri where we found a small party of natives.

September 1. Waited till the sun was up & the dew dispersing and then walked on to Opita, a village which used to have a good number of inhabitants. But now that peace is established the natives disperse in small parties over a wide district. After taking a little refreshment we embarked in a canoe at one and in five hours we were on board the college schooner 63 which was waiting for us off Mr. Dudley's station at Kaweranga. 64

September 2. While waiting for high water we went on shore to see Mr. Dudley. Found him very cheerful but solitary. Having an engagement to administer the Lords Supper at Coromandel Harbour he cannot accompany us, but is to follow us in ten days to attend the visitation. At one we set sail with a light wind & crossed the frith of the Thames.

September 3. Passed the Island of Pakihi at daylight grounding for a short time on a sandspit. Beat up to Auckland with a strong westerly breeze and at four oclock we landed at Mr. Kisslings door.

The following extracts which relate the history of the stormy Central Committee meeting and the beginning of the estrangement between the Bishop and the C.M.S. missionaries are from William Williams' Diary for September. The members of the Committee were Bishop Selwyn, President, Archdeacons Brown, Henry and William Williams, Revs. Robert Burrows and George Clarke Secretary.]

September 3. Went to call upon the Bishop and Mrs. Selwyn & then proceeded to Chapel which is now held at 8 oclock. Change for the worse--intonation & candle sticks. 65

September 4. Talked with the Bishop or rather listened to him about

[Image of page 443]


the land question. 66 He then proceeded to Auckland with Mrs. Selwyn. Talked during the day upon various subjects particularly the school & college.

September 5. Sunday. Preached at Tamaki in the morning 67 & heard Mr. Cotton 68 in the afternoon. In the evening we read a sermon of Hamiltons.

September 6. Read Societys letter again & ascertained that the Bishop takes a wrong view of the land question, that is that he proposes to go beyond the proposal of the Society. 69 Sent off letter to Mr. Venn.

September 7. Had an interview with the Bishop in wh. we had a warm discussion about the meaning of the Societys letter, but separated without any agreement. Wrote to Mr. Venn & corrected papers. Walked down to Mr. Kisslings & dined there with Henry & Mr. Clarke. 70

September 8. Writing. Concluded to have no meeting & H. & Mr. B. propose to go to Tauranga in the Undine. 71

[Image of page 444]

September 13. Went to Kohimarama. Henry sent his final letter to the members of Com. and in the evening the Bishop came to say he was ready to enter upon business tomorrow.

September 14. The Committee began .... Began revision in the afternoon.

September 15. Committee. Protest to Lord Grey's despatch. 72 ....

September 17. Committee .... In the afternoon Archd. Brown & I examined four of the candidates for ordination, as we are to be called upon to present them to the Bishop. We had before us Messrs Hutton, Purchas, Fisher & Tudor.

September 18. Went with Mr. Brown to see the Bishop respecting the presentation of candidates. Examined Mr. Butt. Went by boat to Auckland & staid at Mr. Blacketts. 73 Mr. Clendon came there also & gave me many particulars about Ohaiawae. Talked with Mr. B. about his late bereavement.

September 19. Sunday. Went to St Pauls. A very large congregation was present arising partly from there being no service at Tamaki or Epsom. Archd. Brown presented Mr. Hutton & Mr. Purchas; Mr. Cotton presented Mr. Tudor & Mr. Fisher, & I presented Mr Butt. After service the whole of the clergy being invited to take refreshment at Govt. House, I went there & then returned to Mr. Blacketts. Spent the evening at the judges and slept there.

September 23 Spent a short time in revision. At 11 attended service, after which the Bishop delivered his charge which occupied four hours. 74 Returned home to dinner being unwell....

September 24. Native Teachers institution proposed for Waimate to be under Mr. Burrows. Proposed that Mr. Kissling undertake the superintendence of the English Boys School as far as compatible with his missionary duties.

September 25. Committee. Passed estimates for 1848 & concluded the Committee. 75

[Image of page 445]


[The Central Committee had met, but the feeling between Henry Williams on the one hand and Selwyn, seemingly in collusion with Gov. Grey, on the other worsened--see note Selwyn, Grey and the C.M.S. versus the northern missionaries. On 17 September, Henry Williams wrote in his Journal, 'The Bishop observed he should institute an enquiry as to all the Governor had said, and require his observations in writing. I spoke freely: we shall see how he acts, but my fears of him [Selwyn] are considerable that a separation must inevitably take place between us. The Bishop and the Governor have been working together in secret.' (Carleton, op. cit., Vol. 2, p. 195.)]

WILLIAM WILLIAMS TO C.M.S. Tauranga 23 August 1847

As to the main question now at issue on the willingness of your missionaries to accede to the recommendations of the Parent Committee, I have no doubt but that a course will be adopted which will meet the approbation of the Society, though perhaps we may differ from you as to the mode in which this matter shall be settled. You have proposed in your first resolution that the Lieut. Governor of New Zealand in connexion with the Bishop shall determine upon the amount of land which it may be suitable for a missionary to hold. 76 Now I believe no missionary will agree to submit this question so far as it is of a private nature to the Governor's decision, for reasons which I will proceed to give.

The despatch of Gov. Grey to the Right Honble. W. E. Gladstone is an unfair statement of the case so far as relates to your missionaries, which is calculated to mislead and has misled to a serious extent the minds of the members of the Special Committee. The remarks of His Excellency apply to grants in excess of the amount of 2560 acres. He states, 'The total number of individuals in whose favour these tracts of

[Image of page 446]

land are claimed may be stated at from 40 to 50, and in this number are included . . . several members of the Church Missionary Society and the numerous families of these gentlemen.'

The first remark which calls for notice is the following, 'I feel myself satisfied that these claims are not based upon substantial justice to the aborigines, or to the large majority of British settlers in this country'. The claims in question which concern the missionaries children . . . have all been examined by the Commissioners of which a return is given in the Blue Book for 1844. . . . We have the testimony of Mr. Shortland, the acting Governor, and of Colonel Godfrey & of Major Richmond, the Land Commissioners who carefully examined the natives from whom the purchases were made, who are agreed in asserting that no objections were offered by the natives .. .

His Excellency proceeds, 'Her Majesty's Government may rest satisfied that these individuals [cannot be] put in possession of their tracts of land without a large expenditure of British blood & money'.

Now the lands granted to the missionaries for their children have been for many years in occupation. Neither has there been any demur made by the natives against that occupation ....

The Governor remarks, 'It is my duty to warn Her Majesty's Government that if British troops are long exposed to the almost unexampled fatigue and privations of a service which has already entailed so large a loss of life in one small force, disastrous consequences must be anticipated'.

Now the natural inference to be drawn from this sentence is that the almost unexampled fatigue and privations . . . have been the result of attempts to put various individuals, said to be confined principally to the north, into possession of tracts of land. I have elsewhere shewn that the war at the Bay of Islands had not the most remote connexion with the land claims. This I have done upon the testimony of the natives generally, upon that of the late Govr. Fitzroy, and upon that of the leading chiefs of the rebellion. The massacre at Wairau & the war at the Hutt River near Wellington and that at Whanganui which has just broken out, will indeed come under this head. They have arisen exclusively from the resistance made by the natives to the occupation of those districts said to have been purchased by the N.Z. Company.

In your Minute of Special Meeting . . . you observe, 'It would appear from these despatches that Govr. Grey conceives that these large land claims are discreditable to the character of the missionaries, and induce them to pursue a course of conduct opposed to the interests of the natives and to the measures of the Government'....

That your missionaries should be pursuing a course of conduct opposed to the interests of the natives and to the measures of Government is indeed a startling assertion, and must have filled your Committee with perplexity and alarm. It was the declaration of one high in office, of unblemished character, enjoying to an almost unparalleled degree the confidence of the Home Government, and whose only motive,

[Image of page 447]


it might be presumed, would be the welfare of the country over which he is called to preside, and the reputation of a christian cause which he much respected. For myself I must confess I feel no uneasiness. A false accusation must fall powerless to the ground. Of our opposition to the interests of the natives, we deny that Govr. Grey is a competent judge, we will rather throw ourselves on the judgement of the Bishop in this matter, who is better able to form an opinion. 77


I left home about 16 days ago, and am on my way to Auckland to attend a meeting of the Central Committee. Since I wrote I have received two letters ... In one of these you request information respecting certain statements which have been made in England about N.Z. missionaries, and particularly about the Williamses .... In the first place as to the statement that the Williamses have property to the amount of £160,000. For myself I possess about 5/- in money, furniture which would not realize at a public auction £20, books perhaps to the value of £100, and our clothes, most of them the worse for wear; about 15 head of cattle and four horses, with 570 acres of land in the Bay of Islands awarded by the Commissioners four years ago for the benefit of my children. With this land nothing has yet been done, not one sixpence has been returned as an offset against the first outlay. The inventory of Henrys goods may be somewhat better than mine, but his personal property is very small. 78 The land awarded by the Commissioners to him amounts to about 7060 acres, and upon this there are several head of cattle, perhaps from 200 to 300. which are managed by three of his sons, who are dependent upon their own resources. Although land has much increased in value in consequence of the colonization of the country, yet I doubt whether the said land would fetch £1 per acre because it is at a distance from any township, and is in a locality which many would not consider safe ....

Long ere this reaches you, you will have heard and you will have been annoyed and perhaps perplexed by the communications sent by our Governor to Earl Grey--a set of charges and insinuations as dishonest as want of right principle could have framed, which were calculated to mislead & have had the effect of misleading the Committee of our Society. Captn. Grey has shewn a spirit of hostility to certain members

[Image of page 448]

of the Mission, but particularly to Henry, almost from the time of his first arrival ... It so happens however that we have it in our power to produce an overwhelming mass of evidence to disprove all that has been ever advanced. The documents which were principally in Henry's possession have been placed in my hands, and I hope immediately I reach Auckland to have printed. 79



John's College, 7 September 1847

Our elder boy Leonard we hope will soon be on his way to England .... I lately received a letter from Edward which encourages me to follow out this plan. If it pleases God that Leonard's health shall endure the climate of England, he will be placed at Oxford, according to Edward's judgement, and will be in all respects under his charge. We do not feel anxiety on his account lest he should be drawn aside by the errors of the new school. We hope that his principles are already fixed, and we are assured that his many friends & relatives on the other side of the globe will feel too much interest in his welfare to allow him to linger in the way of temptation which can be avoided ....

We are about to commence a boarding school for native girls at Turanga, for which we have a building just erected. The day schools are badly attended and the most efficient course will be to take the children as much as possible away from the desultory habits of their parents.


WILLIAM WILLIAMS TO C.M.S. St John's College, 8 September 1847

My letter of August 23rd furnished you with my ideas upon Governor Grey's Despatch to the Right Honble. W. E. Gladstone. I am now compelled to enter upon another subject. On my arrival at this place, I had an interview with the Bishop in which he stated to me his . . . own requisition to the parties holding Crown Grants for tracts of land exceeding 2560 acres. After an attentive perusal of your letter of March 1st which covered the Minutes of Special Meeting, I could not but consider that his Lordship was exceeding the powers which were delegated to him. He sets down a position which does not admit of any exception, and the said Missionaries are to submit their case to his judgement, and to receive without an objection his award.

[Image of page 449]


My reading of your letter is this, that if a Missionary wishes to retain for his own use and benefit any portion of the land which has been granted to him, he is bound to refer his case to the Bishop and to the Governor in order that they may decide what quantity it will be proper for a Missionary to hold for his own use, and that the Missionary is at liberty to dispose of the remainder in one of three ways; either by sale, by transfer to his children, or by investing it in the Native Trust. I told his Lordship that the Missionaries had already made up their minds to act strictly in accordance with the instructions of the Parent Committee, but that having determined not to retain a single acre for their own use there was no case for reference. His Lordship spoke of this interpretation of your letter as being a non natural one, and begged that I would not adopt it. I assured his Lordship that I could not understand it in any other light . . . His Lordship replied with much warmth that unless the parties would agree to abide by his decision, and take the proposal made by the Governor, he would not consent to sit with those members in Committee. His Lordship still adheres to his purpose, and your Missionaries are placed in an extraordinary position. Having come together from distant parts of the island at a great expense to the Society, and involving a most serious interruption of our missionary labours with much personal sacrifice, ... it is now doubtful whether there will be any Committee; indeed the parties are preparing to take their departure. In the meantime our mission never needed more the united wisdom of the body. Assailed as we have been by unfounded calumnies--most unfair and dishonest charges brought against us by the person in highest authority--a deadening influence brought to bear upon our missionary field through intercourse with civilized man--a system of warfare springing up in different parts of the island between the aborigines and our own countrymen which is likely to increase through the measures proposed by the Home Government--and now a division in the camp itself occasioned by that which I can only view as an obstinate determination to follow out a course previously laid down without a fair reference to your instructions--all these things are against us. What God may design with us and with this island is yet hidden in obscurity, ... in the meantime we await your advice.


St John's College 23 September 1847

This is to go by the Dove which is to take Mrs. Reay. She will be no loss here from all I can hear; her name is quite up as they say.

Our Committee has been sitting for the last week and will now soon come to a close. We have had a few difficulties but we have got over them much better than I expected. The Bishop finds us a very

[Image of page 450]

"pakeke" 80 set, & he gives up the point when he finds there is much opposition. The part of our business which most concerns you is that Samuel is to go to Otaki for good. He will by this time be acquainted with the place & will I think be better pleased than to remain at the College. Mr. Tudor is to come to Turanga where I must try & make something of him. This much is settled, but final arrangements I know nothing of as to precise time. . . . The ordination took place on Sunday last; 19th. The persons ordained were Messrs Butt, Hutton, Purchas, Tudor & Fisher. The latter remains here at Tamaki, Mr. Purchas remains here & takes care of Epsom & Hutton assists Mr. Churton in his Sunday duties. The poor school contains nine boys, & it is said the Bishop does not intend to take any more.


[Williams remained at Auckland until October 28 when with James and Maria, nephew Henry and niece Lydia, he returned to Turanga; Leonard was already at home.]


St John's College 5 October 1847

I begin now to look homewards. Mr. Maunsell & I finish our work on the 9th & then I hold myself in readiness ....

At Committee . . . the final proposal [about the English school] was that Mr. Kissling should be requested to act as superintendent of the school, but after having agreed to the proposal he has since declined it, & therefore the school is only where it was. I am seriously thinking of having a school at Turanga for all the children of our district; but in order to carry out this measure I must have a person who can attend to them. I am persuaded it will not do to depend upon the Bishop ....

I have seen very little of Auckland. There has been much excitement about the land question in consequence of the measures of the government, & I think the Governor will find himself in great difficulty in consequence of his measures. The Bishop has acted a part which not only shews much want of judgement, but it will lower his influence much in the minds of the missionaries. He means well but he goes to work the wrong way. The Undine left on the 2nd with Henry & Mr. Brown for Tauranga. She then takes in Marianne [Davies] & her children for the Bay, & on her return from there I hope to have her to convey our party including Mr. Bakers family.

My love to you all, and may we soon be permitted to meet in our happy home.


[Image of page 451]


WILLIAM WILLIAMS TO C.M.S. St John's College 15 October 1847

The [Central] Committee was at length held, a conditional agreement having been made to the Bishop's proposals .... The Bishop in the meantime in connexion with the Governor proposed that the maximum of 2560 acres shall be fixed, not for the missionary to retain in his own hands, but that this shall be the amount to be divided among his children, or for any other purpose. Now without entering into the nature of this proposal ... I merely observe that it was at direct variance with the Society's letter to its Missionaries. Then again the letter from the Society directed that their Missionaries should write to inform the Society of the course they meant to adopt . . . The Bishop's letter was delivered on Saturday the 4th of September, and the Missionaries were requested to give their answer on the morning of the 6th before the business of the Committee could commence. Here then was another striking instance in which the course proposed by the Bishop differed from that laid down by the Society.

The Missionaries, however, agreed to accede to the terms, on condition that the serious charges preferred against some of the Missionaries should be disavowed by the Governor--of their having pursued a course opposed to the measures of Her Majesty's Government, & of having unjustly obtained the lands which they had purchased from the natives--with the further proviso that the said surplus lands should be made over in trust for the promotion of the religious instruction of the natives.

. . . while these negotiations were pending, His Excellency went to the Bay of Islands and information was soon brought that His Excellency had said much during his visit to the prejudice of the Missionaries. In this way the Governor defeated the measures which were taking a quiet course and cut off all further communication. This then is the position in which the case now is. Your Missionaries are prepared to carry out fully the Societys wishes, but they cannot accede to a proposal made by the Governor when by so doing they would virtually acknowledge that they had wrested the land from the natives by an act of injustice, the said purchases having been examined by the Court of Commissioners, and passed by that Court as valid & equitable.

The course preferred by the Governor is a very extraordinary one. He professes a cordial esteem for some members of the Missionary body, .... but of the others he insinuates that they are pursuing a course hostile to the measures of the Government. And yet in a private interview with the Bishop, Archdn. Brown and myself, he disclaimed all belief in the reports which have charged some of the Missionaries with disloyalty. He makes certain proposals to the Missionaries and says that if they accede to them they will have no warmer friend than him, but before there is time to consider his proposal, he sails to the Bay of Islands and tells the natives that the Missionaries had stolen the lands they purchased. He proposes to the Missionaries that the surplus lands should be returned to the natives, but it soon comes to

[Image of page 452]

light that it was His Excellency's intention to locate upon them the pensioners who have just arrived from England.

You will be surprized to hear that the contents of the Governor's letter to the Rev. Henry Venn of April 7 have been communicated to us ... I cannot find words to express the feelings I have at the extreme injustice of that letter 81 .... What he has to say about cattle trespasses is an exaggeration of the most extraordinary character. . . . Mr. Clendon a police magistrate at the Bay of Islands assures me that there has only been one case in which damage to the extent of ten shillings had been committed by the cattle of one of Mr. Shepherd's sons . . . The fact is that there are persons in the country who would like to see the Missionaries sent out of it. We are all thorns in their sides . . . The avaricious settler intent upon his gains and impatient of any wholesome restraint which Christianity may put upon him cries out, "These Missionaries must be driven from the country".


Kohimarama 18 October 1847

I have found my way down to Germany 82 as being the most comfortable place in these parts. I have been to Auckland today and have seen Forsaith 83 about the Facts. They are a long time in progress, but he promises that they shall be out next week. I have directed him to apply to Mr. Kissling for the money, & I will pay it out of some proceeds which I will tell you of another time.

Mr. Fairburn it appears is likely to be the first person upon whom the Governor will fall; and he talks of abiding the issue of a trial. 84 He is writing I believe to Mr. Clarke to propose that the land claimants shall unite to meet his expenses. If it were any other person I should perhaps be inclined to support him, but I really think he is not a reputable person to have to do with. When I saw him this morning in Mr. Forsaiths house although he was perfectly collected, it was evident that he was a little mellowed by the bottle, and that propensity being

[Image of page 453]


still kept up I would not be seen with him nor have anything to do with him ... . 85

The Bishop I believe is thoroughly put out with us (tatou), 86 and I am put out with him. He finds that there is not any one part of his system which we agree with. The native teachers school removed to Waimate. The English Boys school deserted by the missionaries. The college also discountenanced. He mentioned to Mr. Purchas the other day that he had been told that the missionary visitors disapprove of the chapel service. And then too his charge disapproved of 87 Mr. Maunsell, Mr. Kissling & I have severally made our remarks, and yet I think he will not alter his course in any one point, but will persevere to the last until at length there will be a grand "horo" 88 of the whole fabric....

October 19th. Mr. Kissling has seen the Bishop today & says he is thoroughly cut up, particularly about the schools, native & English being withdrawn from him . . . The Bishop has said nothing more about the land question to any one, indeed he said on the receipt of your last letter that he would say no more ....

I am glad to hear of Walkers letter 89 but should have been better pleased if you had sent a copy in native & English & it would be of the very first importance to the facts. [Facts] Let it be sent immediately & it shall go as an appendix, it will be a most excellent finish as illustrative of the following speech of the Governor in the Council on October 12, that outbreaks of the natives had oftener than once been prevented arising out of purchases made by members of the Church Missionary Society.


[Image of page 454]


After all that has passed on the subject of the English school, I feel unwilling to say more, but I cannot acquit my conscience without speaking freely ...

I think you will give me credit for sincerity when I say that I have much at heart the interest of education & that while I have complained on many occasions of the want of efficiency in the school it has been from a wish to see that remedied which might be faulty.

I believe with you that the schools are of the first importance to the prosperity of the country, & I see no reason why those schools should not remain chiefly in the hands of the church: we possess advantages which others have not, but whether our vantage ground be retained will depend upon the course which may be taken. If the Wesleyans or Presbyterians see that they can obtain a really good education for their children in our school without making what they would consider too great a sacrifice, I think they would gladly place their children under our care. I see no reason why the education should not be good with the present means, particularly if Mr. K. undertakes the part which has been proposed. It seems therefore to be the more desirable to avoid any unnecessary cause of offence, such as I believe the practice of intoning to be. I venture to think that the introduction of this change in the service has been made rather at the suggestion of others than by your deliberate choice. It is true that in our cathedrals at home the service is always chanted, . . . but I much doubt whether it can be asserted that it leads to edification. One thing is certain that the service in our cathedrals is generally worse attended than it is in other churches. I have in my recollection the cathedral at York & St. Pauls-- that at Southwell is the parish church but it is little attended by the poor, and I learn from Mr. Kenny, 90 that our evening service has lately been established without any chanting with a view of meeting the wishes of many persons in the parish. . . . The practice of intoning the service has of late been introduced in many churches at home together with other novelties of crosses, candlesticks and the like but they are I believe regarded as the badge of a party & it is the introduction of these matters which has caused so much dissatisfaction & has convulsed the church to its very centre.

If then the practice be one of doubtful effect in assisting our devotions, if it be true that it is one of those parts of the late movement which has caused so much perplexity in England, and if moreover it is likely to be viewed with suspicion and dissatisfaction, I would submit to your L. whether its introduction into this country, even in a cathedral, be not inexpedient....

I would not advocate the principle of becoming all things to all men so as to sacrifice one iota of that which is prescribed or which long usage has established, but I would avoid everything which may give

[Image of page 455]


needless offence, and prevent those from joining with us who might otherwise be disposed to do so.

The effect upon the natives I feel persuaded will be very various. They regard the College as the centre, and many of them will be glad to carry thence all that is new into their own districts. Application has been already made to Rev. G. A. Kissling to use the service at Purewa chapel. If it be introduced among the natives, I believe they will have a formal instead of a spiritual service, but if under the direction of their missionaries it be not introduced they will naturally be led to inquire what the reason is.

I trust you will pardon the freedom with which I have expressed my sentiments, and that you will believe that my only motive is a desire to see our church & our schools more abundantly prospered throughout the country.



[Diary entries in round brackets.]

(November 1. Passed East Cape in the morning. Wind N.W. Landed Mr. Reay's books by Stirley at Reporua. 91 In the afternoon Mr. Babington 92 boarded us at Mawhai. In the evening passed Whangara..

November 2. Anchored at Turanganui at six oclock. Went on shore at eight & sent up the goods by Taruheru, and set out with our party, Henry, Lydia, 93 Maria & James. Met Leonard on our way and reached home by one oclock. All well & happy & the place looking exceedingly beautiful.

November 3. Unwell. Read letters etc. Taikawakawa natives read with Samuel. 94

November 8. Ngatimaru came to korero with Samuel and afterwards held a long korero about Samuel wishing him to remain here, but I was unable to talk with them owing to uneasiness in my chest. Mr. Harris called about the answer to the Memorial of the settlers. 95

[Image of page 456]

November 15. Notice was given yesterday of the administration of the Lords Supper, and this morning I divided with my son-in-law two classes of communicants. Many inconsistencies came to light in the course of enquiry and among the rest resort had been had during my absence to a native doctor who for a time was in some repute, his practice consisting in the administration of herbs combined with native incantations. (Ihaka Whanga & his party came to ask for a missionary to be stationed at Table Cape, while some of the people of this place were equally pressing that my son-in-law should come here to assist me.)

November 16. A small party came from Taruheru. Spent three hours with twelve christian natives only three of whom will be admitted to the Lords Supper.

(November 17. Catechized a class of 42 of the communicants from Ngatikaipoho, Samuel having the rest. The party were afterwards very urgent about Samuel remaining at Turanga to assist me.)

November 21. Sunday. Mr. S. Williams conducted the native morning service and assisted me in the administration of the Lords Supper to 156 communicants. (Champion 96 walked up from Turanganui, the Undine having arrived this morning.

November 22. Catechized a class of candidates of 35 from Wherowhero & Taikawakawa, & Samuel read with the Bible Class. The natives afterwards talked for a long time about Samuel remaining to assist me at Turanga & wrote letters to the Bishop. Sent off the canoe with the luggage to the Undine and a hundred buckets of potatoes. Wrote letters & prepared for departure of our party.

November 23. All bustle until eleven oclock when our party left for the Undine, dear Leonard for his long visit to England, James to school at the college, Samuel to prepare for his final removal to Otaki, & Henry to Pakaraka. I accompanied them to the mouth of the river & returned. Our house seems lonely though we still are nine in the family. Soon after I reached home I saw the Undine under weigh with a fair wind.)

November 24. Ninety six communicants from the tribe Teitangamahaki were catechized in three classes. Attended afterwards to several applications for medicine.

(November 25. Began plastering the back sitting room fireplace. Thirty six communicants from Te Whanau a kai. Plastered fireplace in the afternoon and evening. Lecture in the afternoon.)

[Image of page 457]


November 27. Went to Toanga in the afternoon and found a large body of natives waiting for me. The candidates for baptism of Taruheru and of this place are now very numerous. Seventy six were present in the class. After catechizing them I held evening prayers and in the evening read with 60 of the communicants who had not been present in the classes during the week. This occupied us till eleven oclock.

November 28. Sunday. At morning service the congregation was unusually large and the communicants were 158. A sabbath at a native village on an occasion like the present is indeed a cheering season. The weather was remarkably fine and at an early hour the different parties were engaged in their family prayers of which I had notice by the sound of the hymn with which they commence bursting forth from the houses on every side. This practice is without an exception among the professed christians. How different this is from an English community. Then at the service the combination of voices in the singing and responses is such as to excite extreme surprize in the mind of a stranger. In the afternoon we had school at which the greater part of the morning congregation were present. This was followed by evening service at which I baptized seventeen children.

(November 29. Went to Toanga to marry a young couple & then returned to marry another at the chapel at the Pa. Went to visit the sick & then went on with plastering.

November 30. Married two couple; visited the sick & finished plastering.)


Turanga 16 November 1847

You can't think how it has rejoiced my heart to see your handwriting once more, and to read your affectionate and interesting epistle. I really began to think sometimes that you had cast us off as correspondents and have been almost tempted to suppose that you gave credence to the many absurd and odious stories that are circulated about your New Zealand relations ....

You may perhaps have heard that he [Mr Stack] (poor man) is quite insane and was obliged to be removed from his station a year ago. He is now about to return to England with his wife and seven children. 97 I can scarcely imagine a more distressing dispensation to a wife, but I hear she keeps up her spirits wonderfully ....

[Image of page 458]

My husband I find wrote to you from Auckland and gave you some account of our poor boy Sydney, who was taken from us on the 11th of June after ten weeks illness. This has been a sore trial to his father and myself, but we must speak of mercy as well as judgement, and that we are not left to sorrow as those without hope, demands our thankful praises. Indeed the consolations attending this chastisement have been neither few nor small. Mr. Cotton's & Samuel's attentions to our dear child were incessant, and I suppose we shall never fully understand the self-denial they involved. But the latter never lost sight of his spiritual necessities, and was ever on the watch for intervals of consciousness to lead him to his Saviour. He was quite a father to the poor sufferer and this has greatly endeared him to Wm. and myself. You are right when you speak of him as one of the children of God, such indeed he is, and a zealous and indefatigable missionary. We feel very thankful that he is to be removed to a more extensive field of usefulness, for he was not allowed sufficient scope at college. He and Mary have been with us some time. The latter remains some few weeks longer, but Samuel is going up to Auckland and the Bay to prepare for their removal, and is to call for her on his voyage to Wellington. Their new station is Waikanae, where our friend Mr. Hadfield used to be & where Samuel has been ministering to the natives for a couple of months before he came back here. We should have been very glad to have had them stationed with us, but he is perhaps more wanted where he is going.

William probably mentioned to you his intention to send Leonard to England .... Were it not very clearly the path of duty, I don't think I could make up my mind to let him go so far away from us. It is however my comfort and my privilege to cast this care upon Him who careth for us. Into His hands I commend my dear boy, trusting that He will preserve him from evil, and give him a hearty desire to follow in his Father's steps. I hope if he is permitted to reach England in safety, Edward will allow him to visit you before he is settled anywhere, and I must request you to contrive some plans for his seeing his aunts at Nottingham . . . We shall be rather impatient to hear what Edward's ideas and plans are respecting him. It is very mortifying to think of the precious time which has been wasted these last three years, and the neglect he has experienced: he will have to use great diligence to make up for it...

We have just now a happy family party, but are in daily expectation of a dispersion. My husband returned from Auckland a fortnight ago after an absence of twelve weeks, a period of great anxiety and perplexity both to him and poor Henry ... He brought with him James and Maria, Henry jnr. and Lydia. The latter is come to remain a while with us, and I think a little rustication may be beneficial as Mrs. Davidson has given up her school. Maria has had the benefit of school for the last three quarters of a year, but we must now do the best we can for them here, and as Kate and Marianne both require a good

[Image of page 459]


deal of attention now, I must have regular school hours again. Will you be so kind as to tell me in your next . . . what books you let your younger classes read, what histories you would recommend for my own little girls, geography and grammar also, for I am very destitute of books fit for children their age. I have a nice set of French books which you ordered for me some years ago, and Leonard and Jane have made use of them. They will come in by and bye. James is to return to the Bishop's school, but I must confess not with my cordial good will, but his Father thinks it right to try one more time. Of our Bishop's unaccountable proceedings I cannot now tell you, but you will hear of them from other sources. The neglect of the school was the first thing that forced itself on our notice, and that has been succeeded by many things painful to hear of, still more so to witness. I am afraid there will not be so much cordiality between his Lordship and his missionary friends as has hitherto subsisted between them.



I am at length at home again amidst scenes of busy quietness. . . .

The more I see of the Bishop the more I feel that he is unsound at bottom and I have no expectation of seeing a sound superstructure. I relieved my mind before I came away by writing a letter upon intonation and candlesticks. He made an allusion to it afterwards and expressed an intention of modifying matters. I think however he will not wish for such another cabal at the college very quickly, and I never expect again to be put in a position to examine candidates for ordination. Mr. Taylor & Major Richmond arrived soon after you left and the latter came to stay a few days at the college with Miss Richmond. This was to some purpose for Fisher fancied he must be in love & before the week was expired he wrote to ask Papas leave. And so, and so, I suppose it is all settled ....

Mr. Kissling has undertaken to go up to the college to look after the English school about three times a week, and upon the strength of this I send James back again. Joseph also is to come from the Bay. If Mr. Kissling had not consented I should have opened a school at Turanga. Mr Hutton seems to like the arrangement, and the bishop too I believe has found some relief since Mr. Kissling has entered upon his work. In that book of sermons preached by the Bp. before he left England you will find traces of all these extravagant ideas, and it is my opinion that he has only been kept from shewing these before by the strong phalanx of the missionary body. His Lordship is in an awkward position between the two opposite parties. He desires to please both but it is a difficult matter to do so.


[Image of page 460]


Our party is just about to leave us and I hope, though the delay has been greater than I anticipated, that Leonard may yet be in time to join Mr. Cotton. James returns to the school though under very different circumstances to those in which he was left last year with three brothers and a sister to look after him, but I feel assured that Mrs. Selwyn will be as a mother to him.

Samuel leaves his wife with us as he expects to return shortly on his way to Waikanae. The natives here have been very urgent to have him at this place; so much so that I felt it necessary to allow them to express their wishes to your Lordship by letter for the sake of peace ... If your Lordship would be kind enough to give them a "pukapuka whakamarie" 98 it will tend to quiet them, for they are vociferous to no small degree.

If my nephew Henry returns to this place, I hope to have a boys school as well as one for girls. The two will be quite disconnected being on either side of my own dwelling.

Mr. Hamlin tells me he has written to your Lordship about a temporary visit to Auckland on account of his own health, and of that of Mrs. Hamlin. He has been suffering now more or less for the past two years.

Mr. Colenso has been in great peril again from the floods during the winter. The water was nine inches over the floor of his dwelling and there was much apprehension lest the house should have been swept away. The natives are all leaving the neighbourhood, and retire inland to Patangata and I have written to urge Mr. Colenso to move thither immediately. I recommended when your Lordship was last there, that he should propose a removal on account of the unhealthiness of the locality, but he preferred to hold on for a time longer. Now however the case admits of no delay. 99

Champion takes a few baskets of potatoes which I hope will prove acceptable in this time of scarcity.



Turanga 23 November 1847

The time has now come for you to leave us for a season, and it is an occasion which calls forth the tenderest feelings of all of us. But the object for which you go is the highest we can have on earth, it is

[Image of page 461]


not for any worldly advantage, but solely that you may be the better prepared to serve God in that holy calling to which I trust you may be called. I have no misgivings about your safety whether for temporal or spiritual matters. You have learnt I believe to put your trust in Christ as your Saviour and to look simply for the aid of Gods Holy Spirit to strengthen you against temptation and to enable you to fulfil his holy will. Persevere in this course with diligence; it will ensure to you that peace which passeth all understanding.

If it please God that you should reach England in safety, you will have in your uncle Marsh an adviser on whom you can always depend. He was my adviser in my younger days, and I always looked up to him as a father, implicitly following his recommendations.

You leave us my dear Leonard with your fathers and your mothers blessing resting upon you, and as we shall pray constantly for you so are we sure you will always remember us. God will be your refuge in every time of trouble. Go, my dear lad, and may God abundantly bless you, and in his own good time bring you back to us in safety.



[Diary entries in round brackets.

At the beginning of December Williams visited Uawa. He returned on December 6 to find there was an influenza epidemic at Turanga.]

December 13. Bible class of 113 from Ngatimaru and 34 candidates for baptism. Went in the afternoon to see Whata and Kahutia and the whole party who have been engaged some months in the heathen practice of tattooing. This work was commenced in anger against the christian party and the two heathen who headed the movement soon gathered around them a number of persons who had professed Christianity but had gone back from their profession and by their number they were encouraged to persevere in spite of all remonstrance. The christian party during this interval have acted with much consistency and have prevented many of their wavering relatives from going astray. At length Whata has expressed a wish to see me and make peace. While, however there is a disposition to be on friendly terms and perhaps a willingness to attend christian worship, I have not seen anything like a feeling of compunction on the part of the professed christians of the party. They have left off tattooing because they have finished all they wished to do and now they are more disposed to exult in having attained their object rather than wish that undone which has been done. They will now however be again in the way of instruction which has not been the case for some time.

[Image of page 462]

December 16. In the afternoon set out for Patutahi but few people were about the place, but at the time of evening prayers some stragglers came together and we had our Bible class by the light of the moon. The number was 57. The remainder of our company consisted of the candidates for baptism so that the whole village with very few exceptions is professing Christianity. Such is the general character of the native villages hereabouts. How different from a christian village in a civilized country where but few will attend christian worship still less follow up any further course of instruction.

December 17. Assembled the morning school after prayers though it is evident that but few are in the habit of attending. It is however an advantage to remind them that the way to advance in knowledge is in the use of some little self denial and exertion. The candidates for baptism twelve in number next occupied my attention, after which I proceeded to Taureka. There the natives were busily employed in preparing timber for a chapel upon which they are bestowing much labour. Paul Pomare has already shewn what he can do, for during his residence at Ahuriri as teacher, before Mr. Colenso arrived, he constructed one of the best chapels in the country. The sun was oppressively hot but towards evening the natives came together, when I catechized 45 candidates for baptism and read with 117 natives in the Bible Class. The latter consists almost exclusively of adults, many being far advanced in years, and yet of this number there are 71 who read. While therefore it is to .be wished that many who cannot read would apply until they are able to do so, we have sufficient proof that much has been done in this way. The willingness of the people to receive instruction, and to keep up their attention, as these have done for a long period is most remarkable and is an answer to all the cavils which may be brought against missionary exertion.

(December 19. Sunday. Services, two native & one English. Whata & Kahutia with all the tattooed party were at service for the first time, but Kahutia walked out during the sermon, offended, it is said, at something I said.

December 20. Fifty one in the Bible Class from Ngaiteaweawe & 5 in the class of candidates. Gave out much medicine for the influenza which prevails just now.

December 21. Bible Class of 17 from Ngaitawhiri & 4 candidates. Obliged to give way in the afternoon from an attack of influenza which has entirely unnerved me.

December 22. Tried to write but can do very little.

December 23. I had undertaken to go to Taikawakawa today, but was obliged to give up the journey & found occupation at home in attending to the sick. A poor woman died yesterday who had been brought from

[Image of page 463]


Wherowhero for medical aid & was buried today. She had been recently baptized, but her illness was such that I had no means of ascertaining the state of her mind.

December 28. Eighty eight natives from the tribes of Ngatikaipoho & Te Whanau a Iwi attended the Bible Class & forty candidates for baptism. Our dear little Marianne has been ill many days with what seems to be inflammation of the bowels. The number of natives ill with influenza still continues very great.)

December 29. Went to Wherowhero and read with a class of 24 christian natives and catechized 17 candidates. Went from thence to Whareongaonga. This village which has about 150 inhabitants is much connected with a party of Englishmen who go there to catch whales in the winter season. The consequence has been that the evil influence of our countrymen has much prevailed, but of late the struggle which has been kept up by a small party of faithful christians has been blessed with a happy result. A small chapel has been built, and nearly all the people attend christian worship. As soon as my tent was up we assembled for prayers and the little chapel was well filled, whereas the teacher used to complain that he had not ten persons with him when he erected the building. Our evening was spent in reading a part of the 2nd of Luke in a class of 26 natives, after which I spent some time with the candidates.

December 30. At morning prayers I baptized seven children, and then catechized 44 adults. Many of these attended for the first time and some were candidates four years ago, and withdrew because they were not baptized so soon as they expected. One poor woman I have always looked upon as half witted but she is quiet and very fond of attending service and knows by heart a good portion of the catechism which she has learnt by hearing others repeat it. I asked her a few questions and was rejoiced to find that she is sufficiently rational to receive much important instruction. Returned to Taikawakawa and had there also a bible and candidate class numbering about forty each.

December 31. Occupied with natives throughout the day attending to different calls. Thus closes another year with its long catalogue of mercies, though it has been embittered by the removal of one member of our family from this earthly tabernacle. But even this we can regard as a merciful dispensation, because our dear boy had hope in his death, and we believe him now to be at rest in Christ. Our native charge is, I believe, in a more healthy state than at the beginning of the year, and affords much encouragement.

[Image of page 464]


We arrived here this morning at about 11 o'clock after a voyage from Auckland of about 13 days .... The Bishop [Selwyn] was very kind to me while I was there and so was Mrs. Selwyn. When I went to take leave of the Bishop, he gave me a very nice little Hebrew Bible, with a mitre stamped on each side of it, and said that was to be a tohu 100 that I belonged to New Zealand in case I should run away. He said also that I was to go to get recruits for the College, young men about my own age but they must be good ones, and that I was to shew them in England that there is true religion and sound doctrine in New Zealand. . . 101

As we came in this morning we had a beautiful view of the harbour and brought up right alongside the old Columbine and I saw Stratton himself on board the Deborah .... He told me that he has sold his vessel and is going to England ....

I believe Mr. Stack is a little better, he lives some little way from here but I have not seen him yet. We are going on board the Penyard Park tomorrow morning to set our cabins to rights. She does not sail till I think the seventh of January.

December 22 ... . Mr. Cotton & I went to bathe this morning in the moana. There is a very nice place for bathing--an old hulk with little boxes opening into the water to undress in. You may bathe for sixpence, and if you like it sixpence for a cup of coffee when you come out again. They provide towels etc. When we had our bathe we went into the Government gardens and strolled about for some time & gathered a few seeds notwithstanding a prohibition stuck up just in the entrance which says visitors are not to meddle with the flowers or fruit Mr. Cotton remarked how delighted you would be to take a stroll there.


1   Tupakihi (Tutu). Tt is the native wine, and when boiled with Rimu, a sea weed, forms a jelly which is very palatable; when fermented it makes a sort of wine, and it contains so much colouring matter, that it may be used as a dye.' ('A List of some of the Vegetable Productions of New Zealand available as food for man', The Calendar of St John's College, 1846.)
2   One of the subjects discussed may well have been the Eastern Committee's rejection of Colenso's claim for a more realistic sum of money for his station expenses. £78 had been allotted, but the actual outlay for the new station by the end of 1846 was £250. (Bagnall and Petersen, op. cit., p. 241.)
3   Otherwise known as Brown Hakihaki. He had boasted to Colenso that he and his party who had aided in the plundering of the Falco would make '"the Church" (us) give way and come to their terms', and Colenso feared that such was their booty and such the poverty of his own professed Christian Maoris, that the latter would be seduced. (Colenso, Papers, Vol. 2, pp. 33-4.)
4   Gorge.
5   'The river was very low--and the stones in many of the rapids were barely covered with water, and yet the canoe crawled up these slopes like a writhing eel ... A few miles brought us to the Apiti, the finest river pass I have yet seen. The water perfectly still and of great depth. The sides both rocky and well wooded, pyramids & spires of rock standing up at every turn . . . There would be no possibility of making a road by the side of this river.' (W. Cotton, Journal, 2 Feb. 1847, p. 187.)
6   Cotton added: 'Parata's natives quite revelled in this feast, as they had come from a land of starvation into this scene of plenty. The crops having altogether failed on the East Coast.' (idem.)
7   'P[arata] is really indefatigable with his people.' (Cotton, 4 Feb. 1847.)
8   'We had a number of extra passengers in our canoes--2 women and children & 2 great dogs so that we scraped over the rapids.' For breakfast the party had 'Karourori (stirabout) to begin with. This is now an indispensable first course at all Maori entertainments. It is often served up in an old canoe.' (Cotton, 4 Feb. 1847.)
9   'They were reading John which P. explained excellently well. I stood by and listened, and learnt a great deal, as to the method of teaching natives.' (idem.)
10   Capt. Robinson had been an officer in the East India Company. He came to the lower Manawatu as a trader in 1842. In 1845 he received a crown grant of 400 acres. On 29 Jan. 1847 when Cotton visited him, he was using the land as a cattle station. (T. L. Buick, Old Manawatu, Palmerston North 1903, pp. 138-9; Cotton, Journal, 29 Jan. 1847, p. 183.)
11   'The Archd. quite knocked up ... he asked me if I cd. get my biscuits out easily. I fortunately had some scraps in my pocket wh. I shared with him. I had hitherto been walking in his lee but I now took the lead & gave him what shelter I cd. . . . Otaki . . . Tea & slept on the floor without rocking, happily no mosquitoes.' (Cotton, 6 Feb. 1847.)
12   Matthew Hobman, a boy of about 11, was tomahawked by Petomi at Okiwi, a bay on the eastern side of Wellington harbour, early in Nov. 1846. Petomi took refuge with Rangihaeata. (Wellington Independent, 11 Nov. 1846.) On 8 Feb. Tamihana and other chiefs tried to persuade Rangihaeata to give up Petomi to Major Durie, but failed. He was only willing to surrender the murderer if Te Rauparaha was released. (N.Z. Spectator and Cook's Strait Guardian, 13 Feb. 1847.)
13   Wiremu Kingi te Rangitake migrated with his people from Waitara to Waikanae in the early thirties.
14   T. L. Tudor was acting as schoolmaster at the Otaki and Waikanae native schools.
15   Two or three miles north of Paekakariki at the mouth of the Wainui Stream on its northern bank. (W. Carkeek, The Kapiti Coast, Wellington 1966, p. 152.)
16   Capt. Armstrong of the 99th Regiment. The Paremata stone barracks were begun in October 1846 and finished in August 1847. (Wards, op. cit., p. 263.)
17   Work was begun on this road in May 1846; the labourers were soldiers of the 99th. later joined by Maoris. The road was completed in December 1847. It was 7 miles 4 chains long with a general width of 15 feet, had many log bridges and its cost averaged £700 for each mile. (Wards, op. cit., pp. 262-3.)
18   Approximates Glenside.
19   The vicarage was in Bolton St; (L. E. Ward, Early Wellington, p. 210.) Robert Cole's wife, Jessie, was a daughter of George Hunter, first mayor of Wellington.
20   Robert Stokes was printer and editor of the New Zealand Spectator and Cook's Strait Guardian. His house, St Ruadhan, was in Woolcombe St--the southern portion of Wellington Terrace. (L. E. Ward, op. cit., pp. 318 & 320.) He was also in 1847, treasurer of the Wellington Horticultural Society. Cotton wrote: 'Operated on his bees--took 14 lb of honey and captured a Queen to the astonishment of a large party of Wellingtonians.' (Journal, 13 February 1847, Vol. 11, p. 192.)
21   Lieut-Col. W. A. McCleverty, Senior Officer, Southern Districts.
22   The neighbouring settlers had clustered around Chapman's house so as to give the appearance of a village. C. D. Barraud painted his new house in 1849-- see photo (L. E. Ward, op. cit., p. 240.)
23   William Swainson, naturalist. His Hawkeshead estate of 300 acres was in the Hutt Valley. (L. E. Ward, op. cit., p. 134.)
24   Daniel Riddiford acquired his Orongorongo station of 7,000 acres of Maori leasehold some time in 1846.
25   See footnote 30.
26   On the eastern side of Lake Onoke (Bagnall and Petersen, op. cit., p. 218.)
27   C. J. Pharazyn owned the Watarangi station. His Journal has the entry: 'Prayers at Te Kopi by the Rev. W. Williams from Poverty Bay who dined with us.' (Journal of Charles Johnson Pharazyn 1840-50, 21 February 1847.)
28   Williams would have followed the Matatu track, the main Maori route east of the Ruamahanga River, up the Wairarapa Valley from Palliser Bay. (A. G. Bagnall, Old Greytown 1854-1954, Greytown 1953, p. 2.) Place names are identified on a Map of 'Wairarapa Coast District' in Bagnall and Petersen, William Colenso, p. 218.
29   Albert James Allom in partnership with John Tully, leased the Tauanui run.
30   Angus McMaster from Argyleshire was a passenger on the Blenheim which arrived at Port Nicholson in February 1841. Colenso, who visited his station in March 1846 wrote that he was 'well spoken of by the natives'. Colenso was also given a large piece of cheese and an open invitation to call on them at any time. (Colenso, Journeys, 18 March 1846.)
31   Two miles up the valley from McMaster's station.
32   Site of Martinborough (Bagnall and Petersen, op. cit., p. 219n.)
33   William Mein Smith, surveyor general to the New Zealand Company, retired from Company service, and between March 1846 and February 1847, took up the Huangarua station of approximately 50,000 acres of leasehold land, in partnership with Samuel Revans. The Alexander Turnbull Library possesses pencil sketches by Mein Smith of early Wairarapa homesteads: Gillies' Oteraia, McMaster's Tuitarata, Tully's Tauanui, Morrison's Hakeke, Bidwell's Pihautea-- all drawn about 1849--and Clifford's Whare Kaka, about 1843.
34   H. S. Tiffen and J. H. Northwood leased the Ahiaruhe station for a sheep run in 1845.
35   Te Kaikokirikiri was 'near the site of the Masterton Dairy Factory'. (Bagnall and Petersen, op. cit., p. 219n.) Colenso had also had an enthusiastic welcome when he visited them in March 1846: 'at least 100 Natives, whose shouts and waving of clothes told me I was welcome'. (Journeys, 20 March 1846.)
36   A small village on the Whareama River.
37   Colenso's Ahuriri station was referred to either as Waitangi or Awapuni. Te Awapuni was the nearby pa, and Waitangi, the river near the bank of which was Colenso's house.
38   It would seem from a letter dated 3 May 1847, that Selwyn was aware of the state of things at St John's: 'Between ourselves, I have undertaken this work of a college with a very inefficient body of coadjutors; and every day some one or other of its numerous branches shows signs of weakness and premature decay, by reason of the neglect or incompetence of the person in charge . . . the bane of all colonial work is slovenliness; and my own body are deeply infected with it.' (Tucker, op. cit., Vol. 1, pp. 223-4.)
39   Jane thought that William Cotton was not conscientious enough as a teacher, but James West Stack recollected some other qualities Cotton had which were specially needful to a small boy at school for the first time. 'He was so brimful of fun and good humour that he dispersed in the course of a few minutes the nervous fears which, since leaving home, had troubled me . . . There was something so genuine about the man that, child though I was, I felt I could trust him.' (J. W. Stack, Recollection of the First Public School in New Zealand, Newspaper Cuttings, p. 1.)
40   About Dale, Jane and James West Stack agreed: 'I was placed in the lower school under the charge of Mr. D., who was a gloomy, cross-grained man, very fond of the flute. His bad temper resulted in such free use of the cane that his supply was soon exhausted, he then used equally supple quince sticks.'
41   Henry Williams was a fighter who gave no quarter, but by being so, he made himself the chief target for Gov. Grey's attack on the northern missionaries, and then, to his mortification, found himself largely without allies. In his early years at the Bay he had not endeared himself to his colleagues; they respected his qualities of leadership and his missionary zeal, but Colenso described him as 'very imperious and distant, almost of repelling manner'. (Bagnall and Petersen, op. cit., p. 58.) As the battle raged round him, his most grievous hurt was that, apart from his brother, the other missionaries did not rally to his defence: 'I have certainly noticed the Philosophy of some of my Brethren who have patiently endured the attacks made upon myself, standing as I have been in the front of the Battle, which attacks were made upon the Mission generally, concluding as they did that could they overwhelm me, that many would follow after. Under these circumstances the indifference of Friends has been more severe than these attempts of my Enemies.' (H. Williams to A. N. Brown, 25 May 1847, A. N. Brown Papers.)
42   To administer the Lord's Supper and to examine candidates for baptism.
43   The Brethren and Sisters who were to be part of the St John's community were prohibited from receiving any payment, and were 'to minister ... to all the wants of the sick of all classes, without respect of persons or reservation of service, in the hope of excluding all hireling assistance from a work which ought, if possible, to be entirely a labour of love.' (Quoted from the 'Rules for the Brethren and Sisters of the Hospital of St. John's', Tucker, op. cit., Vol. 1, pp. 208-9.) Williams' criticism was probably directed both against the altruism of the scheme and its overtones of a Roman Catholic community. He would, no doubt, have preferred Mrs Selwyn's description of the hospital as a place 'where we could make some Maoris comfortable and feed them up'. (Reminiscences, p. 31.)
44   Henry and Marianne Williams.
45   Reay arrived at Rangitukia on 19 April.
46   This was an epidemic of typhus fever. It was particularly severe at St John's where there were approximately 17 cases, both Maori and Pakeha, including Willie and John Selwyn and Sydney Williams--the last was to die of it. Every house at St John's became a hospital: 'George and I with Nurse were the staff at our house, though George used to be much away lending a hand for the other patients . . . [we} divided the night and for weeks he and I sat up till four in the morning .... Nothing could exceed the kindness of friends in Auckland, especially Sir George and Lady Grey. Wine and brandy and any delicacies to be had were constantly, poured in on us ... . The trouble lasted till the end of May.' (S. H. Selwyn, Reminiscences, pp. 31-2.)
47   According to a petition drawn up by J. W. Harris and some other Poverty Bay settlers requesting a government officer to live at Poverty Bay, Maoris on 30 April 1847, stole one of Harris's horses and one of Espie's, plus a plough and two bullock chains. They were all later returned. See also footnote 95.
48   He died on 11 June.
49   See W. Williams to C.M.S. 12 July 1847, and note A Conflict of Interests, Part 2.
50   FitzRoy had blamed Roman Catholic influence as partly responsible for the war in the north. Grey later refuted this. ('Grey to Lord Stanley 2 June 1846', British Parliamentary Papers 1847, No. 837, pp. 3-4.) Bishop Pompallier had tried to remain strictly neutral, but when the Catholic mission was both French and 'papist', it was understandable that Protestant missionaries should interpret its neutrality as an encouragement to disaffected Maoris.
51   In a letter to his brother about Plain Facts relative to the Late War . . . , William Williams wrote, 'You will perceive that I have availed myself of the licence you gave me to cut off and add on as I might think proper . . . there is nothing in the production, as it now stands, of an offensive nature .... Our case is a good one, and let the world be acquainted with it.' (Carleton, op. cit., Vol. 2, pp. 158-9.)
52   See note, A Conflict of Interests, Part 2.
53   Maori companions.
54   The Williams' family referred to the Te Kowhai route to Opotiki as 'crossing the alps'.
55   C.M.S. station at Opotiki.
56   Toihau was a chief of Te whanau o apa nui, hapu of Ngati Awa. (J. White, The Ancient History of the Maori, Vol. 5, pp. 202-3.)
57   Whakatane Maoris attacked and seized the Haweis on 2 March 1829. Three crew members were killed. With the assistance of the schooner, New Zealander, John James, captain of the Haweis, managed to recover his vessel. (W. Williams, Journal 11 March 1829; R. McNab, Historical Records of New Zealand, Vol. 1, pp. 687-98.)
58   The R.C. station at Whakatane was under J. Lampila S.M.
59   A return of vessels belonging to Maoris in the northern part of the colony dated 25 August 1847, lists the following schooners built at Whakatane: Wakatane, 12 tons, William and Charles, 10 tons, Maria, 10 tons, Cora, 12 tons, all owned by Ngati Awa; Providence, 15 tons, Waddy, 12 tons, owned by Wakatohea. (N.Z. Gazette 1847, p. 107.)
60   The estrangement between the northern C.M.S. missionaries and Gov. Grey persisted. Grey was determined to end his predecessor's reliance on missionaries as mediators; Secretaries of State, Lord Stanley and Earl Grey, had left him in no doubt that he was to promote settlers' interests and finally Grey was equally determined to promote himself in English eyes, and like Samuel Marsden, he was successful in this. Ian Wards has written of him; he was 'untruthful from the moment he arrived, and so practised in this art that it is difficult to believe that he had ever been otherwise'. (Wards, op. cit., p. 391.) One of his deceptions was that northern land-holding missionaries were largely responsible for causing the northern war. There were several despatches attacking these missionaries, but the 'celebrated one' was that of Grey to Gladstone, 25 June 1846, which came to be known as the 'Blood and Money' or 'Blood and Treasure' despatch. In it Grey claimed that the grants of large tracts of land, eight of them held by members of the C.M.S. and the 'numerous families of those gentlemen', were not based on 'justice to the Aborigines, or to the large majority of British settlers'. He added, 'Her Majesty's Government may also rest satisfied that these individuals cannot be put in possession of these tracts of land without a large expenditure of British blood and money', and he wished the Government to consider whether 'they think it consistent with the national honour, that the British Naval and Military forces should be employed in putting these individuals into possession of the land they claim'. (Carleton, op. cit., Vol. 2, Appendix D.)
61   Assisting Archdeacon Brown at Tauranga was C. P. Davies whose wife, Marianne, was William Williams' niece.
62   Archdeacon Brown's opinion, shared by the members of his district committee, was that the Society's recommendations--see W. Williams to C.M.S. 23 August 1847--were fair. (A. N. Brown, Journal to the C.M.S., 3 August 1847, C.N./026.)
63   The schooner Undine had replaced the Flying Fish. The latter had been badly built, although Selwyn sailed her till she leaked all over the cabin floor and he stepped out of bed into a salt water bath. (G. Selwyn to E. Coleridge 27 January 1847, Letters, Vol. 1, p. 187.)
64   In March 1847, William Dudley took charge of Preece's former Hauraki station.
65   From the evangelical point of view, worse was still to come: Kissling reported in February 1848 that turning to the East at the reading of the Creed was now customary at the College, that the carpenter was making crosses and that 'those large Candlesticks are still permitted to throw their mysterious shade into the face of the minister'. (G. A. Kissling to A. N. Brown 16 February 1848, A. N. Brown Papers.
66   For a background to this land question see note, Selwyn, Grey and the London C.M.S. versus the northern missionaries.
67   'His sermon was full of touching expressions, describing the effects of sickness and bereavement, and any stranger would perceive that he was giving vent to his own feelings.' (W. Bambridge, Diary, 5 September 1847.)
68   Cotton returned to St John's on 23 March. Unfortunately his 1847 Journal ends at this date.
69   See W. Williams to C.M.S. 15 October 1847 and note Selwyn etc. versus the northern missionaries.
70   Henry Williams and George Clarke had arrived to attend the Central Committee. The former's comment on the meeting with Selwyn was succinct: 'The Bishop in a fume. A Committee with the Archdeacons. A fling out. No business.' (Carleton, op. cit., Vol. 2, p. 194.)
71   It was a difficult week spent largely in interviews and correspondence. The two principals, Henry Williams and Selwyn, stood off, one at Kohimarama, the other at St John's, and wrote letters addressed to 'My Lord', and 'Dear Mr. Archdeacon'. William Williams and William Cotton walked between carrying the letters. Mrs. Selwyn was needed, but she apparently did not call; there was no 'mollifying influence'. Selwyn at first refused to meet with the Central Committee until Clarke and Henry Williams had agreed to accept his and Grey's proposal that their land, irrespective of whether held for children or not, should be reduced to 2560 acres and the surplus returned to the Maoris. Archdeacon Brown regarded it all as 'most unsatisfactory' and proposed to return to Tauranga taking Henry Williams with him. (A. N. Brown, Journal to the C.M.S. 6-11 September 1847, C.N./026.) Fortunately for the Central Committee, the Undine was unable to sail, which resulted in further talk and more letters. Finally on 13 September, after persuasion from the five missionaries at George Kissling's house at Kohimarama--Kissling, Burrows, Maunsell, Brown and William Williams--Henry Williams consented to accept his brethren's advice that 'the proposition made through the Bishop by the Governor is one which accords with the wishes of the Home Committee'. (Correspondence, Reports of Meetings etc. concerning the Land Question 1840-49, p. 18.) Clarke had already accepted this. At the same time, Selwyn, no doubt worked on by both Maunsell and William Williams, pledged himself 'to institute the fullest enquiry into the accusations' against the northern missionaries once the forthcoming Ordination ceremony and Central Committee meeting were over, (ibid, p. 17.) With the proposal accepted, Selwyn consented to proceed with the Central Committee, and wrote to the C.M.S., 'I hope that you may now accept my assurance . . . that the causes of anxiety which have now distressed the minds of the Committee ... for 17 years are at an end.' (G. Selwyn to C.M.S. 14 September 1847, C.N./03.) But Selwyn had reckoned without Gov. Grey and without Henry Williams.
72   The protest was against Earl Grey's 1846 instructions which denied Maori right to unoccupied lands.
73   J. C. Blackett of St George's Bay.
74   Selwyn stressed again and again his belief in and love for the doctrines, canons and authority of the historic anglican communion. On the touchy subject of the Oxford Movement, Selwyn stated that its object was 'to develop in all its fulness the actual system of the Anglican church', and to encourage it to a 'more holy and self-denying life'. (Tucker, op. cit., Vol. 1, p. 234.)
75   The minutes of this Central Committee are contained in Documents of the Central Committee of the New Zealand Mission 1847-54.
76   Members of the C.M.S. who held land in excess of 2560 acres were--George Clarke, Richard Davis, William Fairburn, James Hamlin, James Kemp, John King, James Shepherd, and Henry Williams. George Clarke's grant was 5,500 acres, Henry Williams' 9,000 acres.

On 22 February 1847, the C.M.S. Parent Committee met to consider 'apprehensions of a most fearful kind' excited by Gov. Grey's 'blood and money' despatch. Although the Committee did not doubt its missionaries' originial motives, it felt that decisive measures should now be taken to remove all grounds for such apprehensions. It was therefore resolved that 'no missionary or catechist of the Society can be allowed to continue in connexion with the Society, who shall retain for his own use and benefit, a greater amount of land than shall be determined upon as suitable by the Lieutenant Governor of New Zealand, and the Lord Bishop of New Zealand jointly'. ('Minutes of Special Meeting', British Parliamentary Papers 1847, No. 837, pp. 71-2.) This Minute was followed by a letter which was more explicit: missionaries were to accept the joint decision of Bishop and Governor as to the amount of land they could retain for their own use; they were to abandon land which might lead to disputes with the natives; they could dispose of their surplus land in one of three ways-- by selling it, by making it over to their children, or by putting it in trust for the benefit of the aborigines. (Carleton, op. cit., Vol. 2, pp. 177-8.)
77   In effect, throwing themselves on the judgement of the Bishop did the land-holding missionaries no good--see note Selwyn etc. versus the northern missionaries.
78   Henry Williams wrote to Earl Grey, 'I have no personal interest in any land in this colony, nor ever had. The Crown grants were made out by the local Government in my name, as the representative of, and trustee for my family; ... I have never derived any benefit, directly or indirectly, from these land or stock, having invariably paid to my sons the market price for any supplies received from their farms.' ('H. Williams to Earl Grey 1 November 1848', British Parliamentary Papers 1849, No. 1120, p. 78.)
79   Plain Facts .... was printed and 'distributed among persons likely to feel interested, but not formally published'. (Carleton, op. cit., Vol. 2, Appendix 6.)
80   difficult or obstinate.
81   Not April 7 but April 12. T have even recently had much reason to complain of their occasioning a great chance of the renewal of hostilities from the fact of themselves or their children keeping quantities of Cattle which destroy the cultivations of the Natives, & inflict the most serious injury upon them--indeed I think no one can do otherwise than regret that the cause of religion should suffer . . . from the Missionaries or their families following too largely secular pursuits.' (Gov. Grey to C.M.S. 12 April 1847, C.N./014.)
82   Another reference to the Kissling's house at Kohimarama.
83   T. S. Forsaith, a former sub-protector.
84   Grey, however, prevailed on Fairburn to give up his Otahuhu land; but instead of giving it back to the original Maori owners, the Governor established a pensioner settlement on it. He allowed Fairburn 8,000 acres compensation, 'a generosity which contrasts strangely with his attitude to those missionaries who did not bow to his will'. (J. Rutherford, Sir George Grey, a Study in Colonial Government, London 1961, p. 137n.)
85   W. T. Fairburn was a C.M.S. catechist formerly stationed at Maraetai (Hauraki Gulf). He resigned from the C.M.S., following the furore over his extensive land holdings, in 1841. Loss of missionary status and criticism of his land claims brought on a severe depression, and Maunsell in 1843 described him as a 'confirmed drunkard', (R. Maunsell to A. N. Brown 15 November 1843, A. N. Brown Papers.)
86   All of us inclusively.
87   The C.M.S. missionaries disapproved of Selwyn's comments on the Oxford Movement, particularly when he said '. . . when we are expected to censure, we find it rather in our hearts to bless--to bless those servants of God [Keble, Pusey, Newman] who . . . went forth to draw water from the well of primitive antiquity . . . May we not respect the motive, commend the effort, and bless the men, even while we reject the gift.' (Tucker, op. cit., Vol. 1, p. 240.)
88   landslip.
89   Letter from Tamati Waka Nene to H. Williams 12 October 1847: 'Let not your heart be dark, as if it were a saying of mine "that it is through the Missionaries the land is gone". We ourselves sold the land .... In vain I asked what land is it which it is said must be fought for, seeing it was paid for by the Missionaries .... No, the fault and folly was with the chiefs themselves . . . There was no fraud on the part of the pakeha, it was the ignorance of the Maori. If I had not seen the payment, I would have said it had been taken unpaid for by the pakeha, . . . but how am I to know whether the payment was right or wrong. In my opinion it was a just payment.' (Carleton, op. cit., Vol. 2, p. 200.)
90   Capt. Kenny of the Royal N.Z. Fencibles.
91   Capt. H. J. Shirley, a trader at Tuparoa. (Mackay, op. cit., p. 137.)
92   George Babington took over the Mawhai whaling station from Espie. In 1847 he had three boats and employed 20 men. (ibid, p. 154)
93   Henry Williams (jnr.) and his sister.
94   Samuel Williams had been in charge at Turanga while the Archdeacon was away.
95   This is an interesting and, in view of the paucity of early Poverty Bay records, an important document which lists Maori 'outrages' committed against Poverty Bay settlers. It also gives the European population at this time (May 1847) as 29 men, 11 women, 52 children--probably largely half caste. The settlers had 110 acres in cultivation, owned 23 horses, 120 cattle, 300 pigs, 60 goats and one schooner--the Dolphin. The memorialists stated that they had 'endeavoured to live in Amity with the Native race--to bear and forbear has been our motto'--but they wished 'to have some person in authority permanently placed or occasionally visiting' Poverty Bay. It would now appear that their grievances were more misunderstandings than 'outrages' and Williams is cited in some instances as the mediator. He was also--see Journal entry May 10 1847-- not always impressed by the settlers' conduct. (IA/1/50. National Archives.)
96   Captain Champion, master of the Undine.
97   Stack had gone to Sydney on the Deborah, 6 May 1847. His family followed at the end of the year. The medical certificates presented to the Central Committee left no hope of his being re-employed in the mission, and the Committee agreed to pay his and his family's passage to England. (Documents of the Central Committee, p. 4.)
98   a pacifying letter.
99   Te Awapuni pa, which was also damaged in the flood was almost deserted, but Colenso continued to live on at his Waitangi station even though the chief Tareha told him after the flood, '"No one ever lived here on this spot before you; it has ever been only the dwelling place of an Eel."' (Colenso, Journal, 2 July 1847.) The Waitangi mission house was destroyed by fire in 1853.
100   a sign.
101   Selwyn wrote to his friend Coleridge: 'Herewith I commend to your good offices Leonard Williams, the eldest son of the Archdeacon of Waiapu, who will not, I think, disgrace his excellent father or St. John's College .... On the subject of the said Archdeacon of Waiapu I have something confidential to say. He is an episcopally-minded man, and it would give me great pleasure to divide my diocese with him. Yea, let him take all, as I cannot pretend to equal his piety or maturity of wisdom. The Bishop of Australia is of the same mind. He said of him: "He is the man that I should like to have with me when I am dying".' (Tucker, op. cit., Vol. 1, pp. 249-50.)

Previous section | Next section