1974 - Williams, W. The Turanga Journals - 1849 Letters and Journals, p 518-555

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  1974 - Williams, W. The Turanga Journals - 1849 Letters and Journals, p 518-555
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Marriage of Jane to her cousin Henry--journey to Tauranga--journey to East Cape--trouble with the carving of Whakato church--letters to the C.M.S. in defence of Henry--journey to Wairoa and Ahuriri--trial by fire with Roman Catholic priest.


[Routine station duties during January and an Eastern District Committee meeting--the expenditure for 1848 had been £2037; the C.M.S. grant for 1849 was £2128. On February 2 Henry Williams jnr. arrived from the Bay of Islands. On 8 February Williams set out for Uawa to accompany Baker about his district and to marry, baptize and administer the Lord's Supper. At Uawa he found George Clarke and his son Edward who were visiting the Eastern District.]

February 15. The event which was to take place having been kept secret as to time, there were no natives whatever about the premises. Arrangements were made at ten for the school children and our own domestic natives to be in readiness and at a quarter past eleven our whole household proceeded to the Chapel when our daughter Jane was united in marriage with her cousin Henry. As soon as the ceremony was over preparations were made for an entertainment first to the school children & then to our own immediate natives with a few visitors.

February 16. Preparations were made by Anaru & Katarina for a dinner to the native teachers & monitors which was served up at five, consisting of an abundant supply of Pork & Potatoes followed by Apple & Peach pies & a dessert of Apples & a glass of raspberry wine. The number who sat down to table which was arranged in regular English style was 42.

February 20. Mr. Clarke & his son Edward arrived in the afternoon.

February 25. Sunday. This morning I offered the prayer for rain in the morning service, as the crops are suffering severely from drought. This evening heavy rain came on & continued through the night.

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February 26. Rain continuing prevented the assembling of the class of Ngatimaru. In the afternoon assembled the Teachers class.


Turanga 23 February 1849

Hutton after a long illness for which he was obliged to go to Paihia to obtain restoratives, returned back to his room, [at St John's] but not to his duties, for he did not seem to gain his strength. He is now ordered off to Wellington to assist Mr. Cole, much to his own satisfaction, and I suppose will soon find out that a housekeeper will add much to his comfort. Mr. Purchas is gone or going to live at Onehunga having charge of that place and Epsom. This is a change he has long been wishing for. You will then enquire who remains to take charge of the stone walls on the summit of the hill. First there is Mr. Ward who continues to fill his old post, and secondly there is a Mr. Gould, 1 a young student, lately from England. They speak highly of him, and perhaps he would do well under other circumstances. Of the pupils there are not many. Fisher called out to Gould when I was bringing James away, 'Here is a sum in subtraction for you, Gould. Take one from five & how many remain?' .... I have forgotten however another addition to the College, Mr. Thatcher, the architect & private secretary to the Governor, is now an inmate and in deacons orders. What post he may take I know not, perhaps lectures in architecture. Not seeing any prospect of improvement, we, the missionaries are setting on foot another school, the plans of which I hope will soon be matured, and that a master will be sent for to England. 2 At present there is danger lest the children be scattered abroad in whatever schools may spring up, whether Wesleyan, Presbyterian or Pikopo ....

Your sister Jane enters upon a new period of her life, in which she has as bright a prospect of happiness before her as usually presents itself to those who are most favored. In the course of a few days they expect to proceed to the northward and will take up their abode at Pakaraka and Paihia.

Mr. Clarke is now with us & he & I are proceeding to Tauranga to attend the meeting of the Central Committee.


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[March 1 -7 station duties plus New Testament revision.]

March 7. Left home at 7 with prospect of fine weather. [Journey via Te Kowhai track to Tauranga.] Attended some sick natives at Wairengahika & got to Wairerehua at 10, where there was the pleasing sight of a large body of people at work upon the timber for the new chapel. It has been in progress now for more than twelve months and will soon be erected & promises to be a good & substantial building. We [he was accompanied by George and Edward Clarke] overtook our natives near Kekeparaoa & continued our journey till evening.

March 8. Our progress was much impeded by the length of the fern over a road which is almost trackless. Slept in wood not far from Rangiriri.

March 9. Continued our journey to Pukekiwi.

March 10. Reached Te Wairapukao a little before dark & got comfortably settled for the sabbath.

March 11. Sunday. The day of rest comes very opportunely for the weary traveller. We found it a refreshment for soul & body. We held our two services & school.

March 12. Left our encampment about 6 o'clock and emerged from the wood at 4 in the afternoon. We then proceeded some distance down the river crossing it ten times and encamped at an old kainga.

March 13. Much rain fell in the night & there being a prospect of its continuance we hurried off down the valley & reached Mr. Wilsons in three hours. Here a change of clothes & a little warm food soon placed us out of the reach of harm. Mr. Wilson would have started but for the rain.

March 14. Read Guizot 3 until the tide allowed us to set out . . . . At Ohiwa we had a delay of two hours but having crossed this we continued on to Ohope near Whakatane & reached it an hour after dark.

March 15. Breakfasted at Whakatane. Talked with several natives of the indifferent class and continued our journey to Otamarora. Held evening service ....

March 16. Walked to Otamarakau where we dined. During our delay I read with six christian natives, but there seems to be great apathy among the people. Reached Maketu in the evening & put up in Mr. Chapmans house, but Mr. & Mrs. C. are gone to Tauranga.

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MARCH 1849

March 17. Left Maketu at eight & got to Tauranga about four. We were met on the beach by Christopher [Davies] & Mr. Ashwell & soon after saw Archd. Brown, Mr. Preece, & Mr. Chapman with the good ladies also. Mr. & Mrs. Leach arrived today from Auckland for a change having just lost their only son who was taken after a very short illness. 4 Mrs. Maunsell also lost her infant child.

March 18. Sunday. Christopher & I divided the native service in the morning & at 3 in the afternoon. English service was held by Archdn. Brown & Mr. Chapman. The villages of Otumoetai & Maungatapu were attended by our other brethren. After English service we all partook of the Lords Supper.

March 19. Spent the day in conversation with different members of the mission; Mr. Ashwell & his grievances; 5 Mr. Preece & the College & his houses; Archdn. Brown & my letters etc. Auction of books.

March 21. Letters arrived this morning from Mr. Kissling which made it desirable that Mr. Davies should go & take Mr. Kisslings place while the latter comes to [Central] Committee. It was determined that he should leave with Mr. Ashwell today. Mr. Preece set out this morning on his way home, but Mr. Davies, Mr. Ashwell & Mr. E. Clarke did not leave till sunset on account of the wind. 6 Examined a chapter of Romans.

March 23. Revised a portion of Romans. Took tea at Mr. Browns. . Walked with Mr. Chapman. A little after dusk Mr. Taylor arrived by way of Maketu.

March 24. Talked with Mr. Taylor. Revised 15 ch. of Romans . . . Read through the instructive narrative of dear Marsh's sufferings & patient resignation; a little work calculated to do much good to the rising generation & will cheer & encourage every sincere christian. 7

March 25. Sunday. Went to Otumoetai to hold morning service. The congregation there is improved in number, but it is not in the order I am accustomed to on the East Coast. After service I had school with 60 natives & catechized about half of them. In this there is an improvement ...

March 26. Finished the examination of the translation of Romans. [March 27-31. Writing, revising, reading life of Simeon. 8 ]

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I am now . . . waiting patiently for the Central Committee. Mr. Clarke was just too late for the Local Com. in part intentionally. We have still some time before us but I have occupation for the interval in preparation for revision with Mr. Maunsell . . . The only news in this quarter is that Mr. Chapman is to live permanently at Maketu 9 and that Christopher is proposed for Rotorua, that his rheumatism may benefit by the warm baths. However the Central Committee will I presume have its say upon the subject, & I will have to consider what is to be done for the Eastern District .... No further news about the Bishop except that he is gone south, perhaps to the Chathams. 10 Perhaps the visit to that place is repeated so early by way of safety valve.

I have further encouragement towards the contemplated school. Mr. Wilson promises one pupil & £25 towards building. Mr. Preece three pupils & £25. Mr. Hamlin two pupils & £20 & Mr. Baker three pupils & £20. I hope to have all settled this Committee & to write forthwith to England. The Bishop I believe is much put out, but so am I & so are all who have children to be educated.



April 1. Sunday. Held service at Maungatapu. A small congregation of 50 & very listless. No chapel has yet been erected since the commencement. In the afternoon held the English service. Walked with Mr. Taylor & had an interesting conversation upon preaching.

April 2. Mr. & Mrs. Chapman returned to Maketu. Examined translation of Matthew. At eleven at night Mr. Maunsell arrived. We talked till late.

April 3. Talked with Mr. Maunsell .... We commenced our revision of Romans & did 12 verses. In the afternoon Mr. Kissling & Mr. Burrows arrived and brought letters. Had a long conversation with Mr. Kissling about the College & Church.

April 4. Revision before breakfast. Opened the business of Committee 11 ....

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APRIL 1849

April 5. Revision. Committee 2nd day. Discussion arose out of Bps. letter in wh. he declines to sit upon Central Comm 12 .... Question put whether Mr. C. [Clarke] ready to surrender all beyond 2560. 13

April 7. Committee 3rd day . . . Mr. C. states that he made over land to his children after the Govrs. appeal from the decision of the Supreme Court. Three Resolutions passed & a strong disposition shewn by three members to adopt an extreme course. Overruled. Mr. Maunsell appointed to act as Secretary for the Land Question. Read papers relative to Henrys case. Resolution as above. My protest appended. Read letters relative to Mr. Kemp. Resolved that it be proposed to him to go to Turanga or to be superannuated. Revision in evening.

April 8. Sunday. Held service with the natives at the chapel. In the afternoon Mr. Burrows had English service, after which I administered the Lords Supper. Six clergymen present, only six more in the whole of New Zealand who can administer this ordinance. 14

[April 9-17. Central Committee and revision continued. There was a divergence of views about where Christopher Davies should go-- Rotorua, Taupo or the Eastern District. 'Resolved, Davies to E.D. subject to approval of Bishop.'

April 18-27. Return journey via Opotiki and Te Kowhai track to Turanga, mostly in rain.]

April 30. Heavy flood. Mr. Harris called. Heard that Horomona

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Taruna while cutting toetoe on the bank of the river was carried into the stream upon a land slip & was drowned.

William Williams to Henry Williams Tauranga 3 April 1849

I have been busy with Mr. Clarke caballing before the meeting of the Committee .... We are now all here and I suppose begin business tomorrow. As to the result respecting the question I felt no misgivings, but your further extract from Mr. Verms letter gives yet more light. 15 I imagine it must have been something of this kind which led to the remark I had from Hutton, about the Bishop being about to write to you & hohou the rongo. 16 Mr. Kissling tells me that he had it from the Bp. himself, that he found from a statement of the Society that he was on the wrong ground, & that there was no further reason for him to push the question. Why then did he not acknowledge his error like a man? The judge too observed, What a pity it was that the Bishop should embroil himself with his clergy on the land question, when there was no occasion for it. I hope you will be free from all anxiety on this business, and Marianne also. It is quite clear that the result of the whole will be as we desire it. As for the Bishop, I pity his case. It is worse and worse. If ever a man was subjected to a course of humiliating events, it is he. He will find himself overwhelmed in the general ruin of all that is about him if he does not very speedily alter his course.



Our poor Bishop is in the midst of perplexities, and he will yet be more troubled unless he alters his course. Every individual clergyman in the country is against him .... The Bishops position is most unsatisfactory. There does not seem to be any encouragement in the prospect before us. We are without a school for our children, while the Wesleyans are in a position to carry all before them; and our church is in a crippled state for want of men fit to carry on the work and of friends to support it, while under present arrangements very few

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APRIL 1849

will come forward with their subscriptions. I wrote in a former letter about a project which is on foot for the establishment of a grammar school which is to have no connexion with the Bishop. It is not certain whether we shall be able to carry out this measure, but the support promised, I hope, will prove sufficient to allow us to proceed . . . .

April 12. Our Committee is still occupied upon business of importance. One of the most perplexing questions is what is to be done for the supply of vacancies which have occurred in our wide field? Mr. Shepherd is separated from the Society & he is no loss. Old Mr. King who joined the Society in 1809 is superannuated, & Mr. Kemp is likely to follow as soon as we hear from the Society. Mr. Dudley is in a state of insanity in Auckland and must be sent to England as soon as he may be in a state to remove. On the list of infirm missionaries we have Mr. Davis of Waimate, Mr. Kissling, Mr. Brown, Mr. Chapman, Mr. Hadfield & Mr. Hamlin. Some of them are still able to do much, but their constitutions are breaking. Mr. Hadfield I am thankful to hear after being confined for the most part to his bed for the last five years is now able to walk abroad, and has a prospect of going to join my children at his old station at Otaki. To supply our pressing wants the Society have sent us back Mr. Telford an invalid, our former printer. 17 He returned by choice to England & we hoped would have remained there, because during his residence in New Zealand he never shewed any disposition to engage in missionary work of any kind even on the sabbath day. We should naturally have expected, if a missionary spirit had been in him, that he would at least have shewn somewhat of it when he was released by the Society from the duties of the press.

Our hands are very weak, but there [is] one good point in our mission. Whatever difference of opinion there may be between man & man on minor subjects, the societys missionaries are all of one mind on the grand question of the gospel, and the more our difficulties from without may increase, the more shall we be likely to cling to vital principles.



I am afraid you have thought me a most inveterate grumbler, but you must forgive me, for it really seemed as if all our English relatives had given us up with the exception of dear Maria and Edward G.M. whose constant correspondence has ever been a great comfort to us,

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but you know he seldom or never mentions anyone beyond his own family ....

The accounts of our dear boy have given us heartfelt satisfaction. Very grateful do we feel that he has been prospered thus far, his Uncle Marsh's remarks respecting him are gratifying, more particularly as they coincide with the opinions his Father had formed before he left us. I long to know how he has borne the severity of an English winter. I trust his health will be spared and I pray earnestly that he may be upheld amid the peculiar temptations by which he is surrounded and enabled to pursue a simple consistent christian course. 18 I have now lost all my elder children and very lonely do I feel especially when my husband is away which you know is constantly the case .... William . . . has already been away five weeks: how much longer he will be absent is uncertain, as he will have to take a long and wearisome circuit of many miles before he can get home and our winter is approaching. I wish he could be spared this arduous travelling and allowed to give a little more attention to his flock & family. I have far too much on my hands now to do anything satisfactorily, and I fear if we get no help our poor school will fall to the ground. With the assistance of those who would take real interest in it, it would be a most important means of doing good, but in our present position it cannot progress. I endeavour to look after it as much as I can, but my duties are so numerous and varied, that I am obliged to leave it almost entirely to natives. I shall be greatly grieved if the Committee now sitting do not contrive some means of helping us in this our distress, but I am not very sanguine, for many other places are equally destitute of help, but there are not many if any where there is a good school house and plenty of children to be taught.



It [the wedding of Jane and Henry] was a complete contrast to the grand affair at the college and much more congenial to our feelings being as quiet and private as it could possibly be. We feasted a party of our native friends 40 in number the following day. The little cottage in the orchard was the abode of the new-married couple, and there they passed the first five weeks of their wedded life as snugly as possible ....

Our family will now consist of Caroline, Joseph, [Paihia] James and

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APRIL 1849

the four little girls. You will suppose that I miss dear Jane greatly. For nearly seven years she has never been away from me, and since you and Mary left the home of your parents, she has been my sole companion and friend, and (as you know) quite a mother to her teinas. 19 Poor little Emma and Marianne have no one now to whom they can carry all their little troubles with certainty of receiving sympathy and attention, and the old native teinas can no longer call out for Mihi Heni to attend to their numerous wants ....

Dear Mary and Samuel were going on well and happily when we last heard from them but our intercourse is now very irregular. Mr. Yule has got into difficulties and being in debt here as well as elsewhere has for some months past, found it convenient either to miss Poverty Bay altogether, or to pop in and out again before anybody could know he was here.

You will be surprised to hear that our valued friend Mr. Hadfield is so far restored as to be able to walk about and go to church. He is indebted to the cold water system for this improvement, it has not cured him, but he has no longer sleepless nights and is able to eat meat. He is even thinking of returning to Otaki to reside with Samuel & Mary. A letter from Paihia has mentioned his being made Archdeacon, but I have not heard that confirmed yet. 20 Mr. Hutton is gone to reside at Wellington to assist Mr. Cole, and of course the next thing will be that he finds a housekeeper indispensable. Mary will be quite delighted to have Sarah within fifty miles of her, a distance too that can be traversed on horseback 21 ....

I feel much indebted to Mr. Cotton for his great kindness to you but I am grieved to hear of his continued indisposition. 22 May it please God to give him health both of body and soul. I shall always feel a peculiar interest in his welfare, and can never forget his unwearied attention to poor dear Sydney on his death-bed ....

My juvenile party all send their love to you. James and Joseph are as busy as ever in the garden. The former I am glad to see is becoming very fond of reading, but they are both sadly behindhand in almost everything. When your Father returns they get a little more Latin; in the

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meantime I work them as hard as I can in English. Maria learns Latin with them wh. is a great stimulus to James for she gets on at a more rapid rate.



May 3.....Mr. Harvey, 23 Harris, & King called about Mr. Espies affairs.

May 7. Bible Class from Ngaitawera 62 & candidates 42. The natives talked afterward about the whakatapu 24 of the river on account of Horomona Taruna. All the well disposed are averse to it.

May 11. Had korero with Ngaitahupo & the natives of Wherowhero . . . Obliged to refuse admission to 5 children whom their relatives wished to leave for the school, for want of assistance in the attention required. It is quite clear that a most flourishing school may be kept up if encouragement be given.

May 12.....Heavy shock of an earthquake.

May 24. Rain ceased but is followed by one of the heaviest floods ever experienced here doing much damage to the banks of the river & to wheat stacks & other food.

May 26. Buried Horomona Taruna at the site for the new church.

May 28. Bible Class, Ngaiteaweawe, 60 & 27 candidates. After the meeting of the classes the natives proposed that the river should be "noa" 25 in as much as the body of Solomon has been found.


I am anxious to hear various particulars about yourself, especially your ideas upon subjects which may come under your notice in a new and alluring dress, & therefore the more dangerous, because that which is offered is carefully kept out of sight, or made to appear the very

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JUNE 1849

truth itself. It is natural in such a place as Oxford, for young persons to lay their heads together, & to receive impressions from one another, to the exclusion of the advice of older persons who are looked upon as persons labouring under the effect of antiquated prejudices which ought to be dispelled by more recent discoveries. I should not think it necessary to give you a caution upon this matter, only that I know that the sons of many pious persons have been led away. The reason, I believe is this--such young people have been religiously brought up, they have breathed the atmosphere of religion, but they have not got the thing itself within them . . . pray . . . that Christ may dwell in your heart by faith. There can never be a relish for Tractarian views where Christ has been thus received & dwells.



[Diary entries in round brackets.]

June 2. Went to Turanganui to take letters for Auckland & Wellington. Met 25 natives there in Bible Class. The number of natives who have assembled this week for Bible Class & catechizing is 473 being about half the regular attendants. The meeting with the rest is spread over the two following weeks. This furnishes a good indication of a healthy state of the people so far as we may judge from outward appearance.

June 5. Teachers class at 8. Then went to the chapel and married a couple. Upon this followed a candidate class of 48 from Taruheru and a class of 62 of christian natives from the same place. Called to see Nicodemus and his wife whose only child died this morning. Their grief is severe but it is chastened by christian resignation. It is I believe a real alleviation of their sorrow to reflect that their child is safe and that they have the prospect of seeing it again in another world.

(June 6. Attended school. Purchased a large quantity of firewood at Rakauwerewere.

June 7. Went to see Mr. Harris about ploughing the land at Whakato. Attended school, in the afternoon held service at the chapel.

June 8. Worked with the natives in preparing a lime kiln for the school chimney.)

June 11. Met the christian natives of Ngaitawera to the number of 74. I was glad to see Nicodemus and his wife present, nothwithstanding their heavy affliction. His countenance was cheerful but he evidently has much to struggle with. Catechized 43 natives for baptism.

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June 14. The late flood has done us much benefit towards our new church. A large quantity of valuable timber has been washed down which is generally obtained with much difficulty. Many are now at work with much spirit, and it is said they have nearly as much timber as will be required. Attended school and held evening service. (Shock of an earthquake in the evening.)

June 17. Sunday. A very crowded chapel, the congregation being about 700. Administered the Lords Supper to 290 communicants. The whole service lasted four hours. Afternoon service at three during which I baptized 12 children.

June 18. After attending to the wants of many natives from Taikawakawa, I married two couple from East Cape, and then catechized candidates from Patutahi and 57 christian natives. In the latter class were two poor women who have been absent a long time. They had lost three children each, and have been much afflicted, which they gave as their reason for their absence. I reminded them that Christ invites those who are in any trouble to cast it upon him, and that if they took this step now, they would find their hearts lightened.

(June 19. Mr. Harris' bullocks began to plough at Kaupapa.)

June 23. Heard this morning that the chief Whata, who has lately returned from the south, has set up the profession of popery. A few months ago he again joined our service and seemed in earnest, but satan induced him to cast off his wife & take another woman. This led to a separation of his christian relations from his company, and now he takes refuge under the more lenient discipline of the papists, because they will allow him to live as he lists, if so be that he will join himself with them. It is no loss to have such characters away from us; and perhaps it is better that the wolf should appear in his own garb rather than in that of the sheep. Went to Toanga where the natives of that neighbourhood were assembled for the administration of the Lords Supper. Catechized a class of 74 candidates for baptism, including several baptized children of christian parents, who now come under instruction. After this, examined a class of 68 communicants & then held evening prayers, at which I briefly addressed the congregation. One man made his appearance late just as I was concluding & I told him he was too late, that he ought to have attended one of the classes during the past week. He asked to explain, and said that having sold some wheat to a trader for a shirt, the latter tossed the shirt to him with which he returned, and that afterwards he found that there were two shirts, and that he had been to take a payment for the second before he came to talk about the Lords Supper.

June 24. Sunday. Held morning service at nine and administered the Lords Supper to 18 communicants. After the interval of an hour held

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JULY 1849

afternoon service during which I baptized 9 infants. Returning in the evening by the residence of Whata, I intended to give him a word of admonition, but just as I got there he began his Romish prayers.

June 25. Wrote a letter to Whata urging him to consider his ways. I heard afterwards that he expressed himself determined to continue his own course. In the afternoon met the Teachers class & gave them a lecture on part of the Lords Prayer.

(July 3. A heavy flood equal to that which occured a few weeks ago. It will prevent my movement to Uawa this week. Talked with Abraham about his tribe. He is anxious lest some should join the Pikopo. I told him it did not give me any concern, that if any should do so it will be an evidence that they are not the true grain which are to be gathered into the kingdom of heaven.)

July 4. Married a couple and baptized a sickly child which is not expected to live. A teacher asked me to write out some passages of scripture with which to meet the Roman Catholics in case he should come in contact with them.

July 6. Went to see the friends of a christian native who died this morning. The deceased had long been ill and has always expressed a simple reliance on his Saviour. He is now added to the number of those who have died in the faith. I asked his wife how he had expressed himself at the last. His parting words, she said, were, "It is Christ who keeps me afloat--an allusion to the corks by which a fishing net is kept to the surface of the water ....

July 7. Made preparations for a journey to East Cape. A young man, Renata, called upon me after visiting the papist party lately arrived here. The two teachers are his relatives & come from the interior. On entering the house it was supposed he would cry over his relatives, and they made a motion to him to do so. "We will dispense with that," he said, "it is sufficient that I look at you and that you look at me. I am come to send you away; why do you come with your rotten seed to the farm of another man?"

"There is no fault in what we have done," was the reply, "It is your missionary who has neglected to fill the whole of the ground." "No, one missionary has been urging this man for these ten years, and it is his wickedness which has kept him back."

"But why do you call our seed rotten, we belong to the true church, and yours is the rotten one."

"Yours is the rotten one," was the reply, 'because it teaches you contrary to Gods word. Why do you pray to Peter when Cornelius was not allowed to do so? Why do you pray to the angels when the angel would not allow John to do so?"

The chief Whata then said, I will not allow any teachers to go. Your religion is a bad one. You would have no intercourse with me because I

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had taken a second wife, but now my sins are all gone. Look at David who sinned, the prophet released him directly from his difficulty. Renata replied very judiciously. David sinned and he repented sincerely, but where is your repentance?

[July 9-August 23. Journey to East Cape and back.]

July 24. [At Whareponga.] Four vessels are at anchor within sight of this village, (loading with wheat and maize) a strong proof of the industry of the natives. An Englishman living at Hicks Bay tells me that no less than £1200 worth of property passed into the hands of the natives from him alone in the purchase of wheat and maize.

July 26. . . . Te Rakahurumai the chief of the village came to talk in the evening. He had been anxious that I should baptize him but though tolerably well informed, I refused because though he comes to service regularly, he has not attended the teachers class of candidates.

July 27. Left at sunrise and breakfasted at the village of Tuparoa. We were met on the way by the intelligence that a pig had been killed for our entertainment, but we could not wait till it was cooked. Went on to Awatere where the natives are up in arms. It is a party professing Christianity but they have been long in a bad state. Last year they helped themselves to a large quantity of property which an Englishman had for the purpose of trade, promising to pay honestly for it but they have not paid half the amount due. Now a relative of theirs has lately died whom they affirm to have been bewitched by a native priest, and as payment they propose to take a piece of land belonging to the party accused. This step, in persons professing Christianity amounts to a rejection of their faith. I talked with them long upon the subject and urged them to give up their wicked course. Passed on to Te Awanui and saw the person accused of witchcraft. I recommended him and his party to keep quiet and not to promote a quarrel with the other party. Reached Korotere in the evening. Examined the list of candidates with the native teacher.

July 30. Several natives have been awaiting the opportunity of my arrival in order to get married, and in some cases difficulties have been easily removed which would otherwise have proved an obstacle. This morning I married 10 couple most of them young persons. Afterwards proceeded with the examination of 40 candidates with whom I was occupied till eleven o'clock at night.

July 31. Examined five candidates and then baptized 52 adults and addressed them upon the importance of the covenant into which they had entered. Catechized 81 candidates who are under preparation, many of them of short standing and many who are not admitted to

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final examination on account of misdemeanours committed during the past year. Baptized 31 children and passed on to Rangitukia, a distance of about 6 miles. Peter the teacher an intelligent man remained with me till late to talk about the candidates.

August 1. Left early for Hicks Bay and reached Kawakawa a little before sunset. Held evening prayers in the chapel and passed on to Mr. Kisslings house where I prepared a comfortable bed of fern in his sitting room. Hoani the teacher is a man of little system and has swelled out the list of candidates with many persons who have evidently not been long upon the list. Spent some hours in comparing his list with mine and Mr. Bakers, and struck out 94 out of 164, being persons who have not been under probation the appropriate time.

August 3. Examined 36 candidates with whom I spent the whole day till ten at night. The chief Houkamau came v/ith one of his wives whom he is anxious should be baptized. He is a man of turbulent disposition and not long ago killed a wife for adultery. He now makes a profession of Christianity and wishes to be a candidate for baptism. 26 His second wife he says he now puts away.

August 5. Sunday. Baptized 59 adults during the morning service, and administered the Lords Supper to 83 communicants. In the afternoon baptized 28 children. Houkamau came in the evening and dictated a letter to his wife from whom he proposed to separate, and formally sets her at liberty.

August 6. Left early and passing through the village gave many last words to people who crowded around. At the next village, Hekawa, called to see an Englishman and gave him a word of advice. Arrived at Rangitukia in the evening. Talked with the teachers about the candidates.

August 7. I had a full chapel at morning prayers, the people being assembled from the neighbourhood. It was pleasing to see at the school which followed that they are regularly accustomed to the course which was then pursued. The classes were evidently arranged in their wonted order and the class which I took, I believe the first, contained some intelligent natives ....

August 8. I attended school and at evening prayers addressed the natives. The examination of 30 candidates occupied the whole of the day. The character of these examinations presents some variety but there is not much to record. Some are intelligent and shew that with good early instruction they would have risen above mediocrity; some are

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dull and it is often a point of difficulty to decide whether they should be received or not; and others are woefully ignorant, but often in the midst of much ignorance there is shewn a sincerity of purpose to cleave to the one solid foundation of Christ. In old people there seldom appears to be a capacity to receive anything but that which is most simply put before them. Asking one man what was the meaning of a death unto sin, he replied, "You must teach me, I don't quite understand. I am old and my tongue goes on this side and on that and gets wrong. It means that sin should be killed and that will be when a man dies."

"But is there no way in this life? What will destroy sin?" "Jesus Christ; there is no other name but His."

August 13. Married three couple & then left Rangitukia. Crossing the river Waiapu one of the natives with my bedding was in a small canoe which he contrived to upset but he soon recovered the shore pushing his bundle before him and I came off with only the loss of a small tin pail. Called at Awanui where the party from Awatere have entrenched themselves. Learnt from a neutral chief that they talk of returning home in two days, and of putting a speedy end to this trouble. I shook hands therefore with the party and gave them a few words of advice. Reached Tuparoa at four and held prayers during which I addressed the people. Hohepa the teacher has a child apparently at the point of death. Spent some little time in his house & was thankful to hear the mother speak about the illness of her little one in a very christian spirit.

August 19. Sunday. At the morning service baptized 72 adults & administered the Lords Supper to 116 communicants. Afterwards held service with three Englishmen. These persons never attend any Christian worship except when Mr. Baker or myself come this way, and they are too careless to have anything of the kind among themselves. How different from the natives with whom they live whose bell for prayers is daily rung with the rising and the setting sun. In the afternoon had a second service with the natives during which I baptized 47 children. In the evening I catechized some new candidates and then read and prayed with the teacheft.

August 20. Married two couple at eight and then set out on my way to Tokomaru. Our departure seemed to be a general notice to disperse, and we were accompanied part of the way by many natives who gradually dropped off as they came to their respective villages. (At Waipiro I saw Deacon 27 who told me that Mr. Yule was landing my supplies at Akuaku instead of taking them to Turanga.) At Tokomaru the natives were pressing for us to remain but a wedding to be solemnized tomorrow

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morning obliged me to go on to Waihoa. Talked there with Arapeta who for many months has been living separate from his wife. I urged him to return to her and he half promised to do so.

August 21. Arrived at Anaura at a little before 12 & married two couple. Reached Uawa in the afternoon & found Mr. Baker very unwell & the natives in some excitement in consequence of the bad conduct of one of the chiefs. (Rangiuia 28 made a very saucy speech and was answered by several who pressed him to give back Mr. Bakers horses, but it was all to no purpose, and as there are no means of compelling him to do what is right, Mr. B. must quietly submit.)

August 23. Left Uawa at nine and got home at seven in the evening. Here I find difficulties arising out of the erection of a new church which will cause some trouble. The natives have a wish to carve the posts with hideous figures which would give more the appearance of a heathen temple than of the house of God.

August 24. Went to see the natives who are at work upon the timber for our new church. During my absence at East Cape they have hurried forward their work with a view to having some of the posts carved in the old native style before my return. I have given my opinion against this carving as being improper for a christian place of worship but the workmen look much dissatisfied at my interference. 29 Went to the Pa to see several sick natives.

August 25. Went to Tutukoroheke to visit the sick. On my way spoke to a woman about returning to her husband. She professes Christianity, but without any cause beyond a trifling quarrel, she has withdrawn herself away for the last two years. She continues obstinate and as a necessary consequence shuts herself out from the Bible Class.

August 27. Ocupied with a party from Wairoa. Three of the teachers came to talk about the carving; I felt it necessary to speak more plainly than before, and hope the evil may be stopped. (Just at dusk we were taken by surprize by the arrival of Mrs. Pringle & Mr. Kinnear in quest of Captn. Pringle who was wrecked at Table Cape in the Neptune & lately gone to Auckland in the Sisters. 30

August 28. Mr. Kinnear went with me to see the sick natives of the Pa & prescribed for them.)

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The Societys Resolution about publications in News Papers or in other ways I received on my way home, 31 and I immediately laid down the timbers of a letter; they are partly Pohutukawa & partly Puriri. I intend first to give them an account of my trip to East Cape which will much interest them because it will contain a mass of such information as they wish for. I shall then in the same letter tell them that after having reached my 25th year of service I am greatly dissatisfied with that Society which I have served. Though I have never I believe in my life used the language of boasting I mean now to indulge in this folly. I shall tell them what some of their old missionaries have done-- in what way the onward movement was made to the south, to the Thames, Tauranga, Rotorua, East Cape, Kapiti & Whanganui. But now since the death of Mr. Coates there seems to have arisen a new king who knew not Joseph.

These old missionaries are to be accused with impunity of treason & what not, while not only does the Society give them not one word of sympathy, but they give the utmost publicity to the grossest charges. And while it may be said in excuse for what was published in their report that they had not received any refutation, but now after all that has been written with Plain Facts, there is still no sympathy but the same disposition to uphold the Governor & to crush their missionaries. Your letter of explanation about the pledge is written in an extremely temperate tone. If all you had written had been penned with the same caution, you would not have given people the opportunity of finding fault as they have done ....

From . . . Mr. Venns letter I am prepared to expect any extreme measure which may take their fancy, but still I believe that in the end they will have to yield.


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[Diary entries in round brackets.]

September 3. Bible Class of Ngatimaru, 111 natives attended. Afterwards catechized 31 candidates for baptism. When our work was concluded there was some discussion respecting the new church and it was proposed to go to the party engaged in carving the posts where much angry discussion took place. Ngatimaru, with the exception of two chiefs, are willing to follow my advice and give up the hideous carving which they had contemplated, but many others are doing their best to carry their point. I told them plainly that I could not approve of that which is disallowed in our churches at home, and then left them to consider the subject at their leisure. Lazarus came in the evening and gives me reason to hope the difficulty will be got over quietly.

September 5. Te Waka Perohuka came to speak about the carving of the church. I told him decidedly that I would not hold service in the church if carved according to their present plan.

September 6. Te Waka Kurei, another leading chief, came before breakfast to tell me that he cannot give up the carving for that the fame of their carving had been carried north and south and that if they now gave it up, they would be jeered at by all who had heard of it. He seemed, however, to be more subdued in his temper and I suggested again that they should adopt some other mode of carving. "I will go and talk to the people about it," he said, and soon returned, requesting me to accompany him to the workshop. All the tools were at rest and one man was chalking out a new pattern upon a plain piece of timber. A little arrangement now settled the business. I was merely requested to give my approval to certain patterns and the men appeared to be quite satisfied to follow out the improved plan. (In the afternoon rode to Wherorwhero with Mr. Kinnear to see after the goods arrived from Wellington.

September 7. Sent natives to Turanganui to fetch boxes from the vessel ... In the evening there was a general excitement throughout the household from opening of boxes & reading of letters--every member of the family having something peculiarly their own. Writing till 3 in the morning.

September 8. Mrs. Pringle left us to embark on board the Marys . . . Mr. Kinnear returned & then started almost immediately for Makaraka about to embark for Wellington.)

September 10. Went to see the workmen and gave my approval to a new post in which the character of native carving remains but there is nothing to be objected to in the device. Carved work has seldom been seen in the country except upon a small scale; indeed, there are few

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tribes who know anything of the art. If our work, therefore, proceeds we shall have a more elaborate piece of workmanship than has been attempted by the natives before. It is gratifying to see so much labour bestowed upon such an object. Met the teachers class in the afternoon when we considered the conclusion of the Lords Supper.

September 16. Sunday. Native & English service in the morning & native service in the afternoon. Went to see a native named Manawa who has been two or three years thinking about becoming a christian. Five months ago he became a candidate for baptism having at the time a bad cough which I told him he was not likely to lose. He has now been some days in the immediate neighbourhood for the benefit of medicine but is quite beyond its reach. His mind I trust is enlightened by divine grace and I have proposed to baptize him in a few days. He fancies, however, that he will recover and wishes to wait until the general baptism which is to take place in about two months. Having heard from some who have been baptized in the near prospect of death, he seems to have a superstitious idea that if he were baptized now his death will be hastened.

September 17. Attended to a large number of applications for medicine. Then went to the chapel and married a couple from Waiapu who have walked 70 miles to be married. Read with the Bible Class from Te Whanau a Kai 58 in number and catechized 10 candidates. Found that the latter have been much neglected of late.

WILLIAM WILLIAMS TO C.M.S. Turanga 22 September 1849

Your very welcome letter . . . has removed a great burden from my mind, because it assures me that there is still the same parental interest towards us on the part of our immediate friends at home which we have experienced in times past .... Your difficulties consequent upon the death of Mr. Coates must have been great, and I am satisfied that any lack of correspondence on the part of our Secretaries, whether by letters of instruction or of comfort, will be abundantly made up in future ....

You refer to some of the perplexities you have felt with regard to the Bishop. I have already in former letters given you some hints about my opinion respecting him. The Bishop is a man of much talent, with a disposition of mind which impels him to energetic measures, but I think many of his plans are crude and ill digested & therefore come to no satisfactory result.

In England, I believe, the Bishop was connected with the Tractarian school, and many of his intimate friends belong to that party, hence it is natural that his course here should be influenced by them . . . . But it happened providentially that the church was already planted

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in New Zealand, and that all the clergy of the country, except one, 32 were missionaries of our Society. There was withal a disposition on the part of the Bishop to work with us, and there was on many points a liberality of sentiment . . . Hence arose a strong disposition on our part to cooperate with the Bishop, and we gave expression to the confidence which we felt in a paper which some of us presented in 1844 33 ....

Now, after a longer experience, I confess myself much disappointed. As soon as the Bishop had felt his way a little and had moved to a locality of his own near Auckland, a new order of things was introduced. A peculiar garb which is part of the livery of the Tractarians was put upon the Deacons, and Candlesticks & intonation were introduced into the College chapel. At the same time the system pursued in St Johns College and Grammar School was such as to be entirely subversive of the benefits which the church in this country requires ....

I wrote to you from Auckland in December last mentioning the probability of an application being made to you (privately) to engage the services of a clergyman to take charge of a Grammar School in the neighbourhood of Auckland, . . . but for the want of a sufficient effort being made at the time, the plan seems to have fallen to the ground. I am now endeavouring to obtain the services of some well educated settler to open a school at Turanga under my own direction ....

To your enquiry whether the time has not come when Local Committees may be organized among the laity, and whether some trustworthy laymen may not be added to the Central Committee, I am sorry to say that I believe persons are not to be found such as you would approve. The spirituality of the church people of Auckland is at a low ebb, and the class of ministers they are likely to have, is not, I fear, calculated to elevate the tone of their religion. Do not suppose that because my name appears in the Bishops Almanac as examining chaplain, that I have anything to do with the candidates for ordination ....

It is well for the country that our Society has so large a hold upon it. But it is better still that there is a Head over the Church whose eye is ever watchful.

WILLIAM WILLIAMS TO C.M.S. Turanga 26 September 1849

I had hoped to have had no further occasion to write upon subjects which have of late caused so much trouble to the society and to ourselves ....

[Williams criticizes the Society for continuing to side with the Bishop and the Governor over the land question, and for still believing that

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some of its missionaries through their land holdings contributed to the war in the north. In particular he defends his brother.} This condition on the part of my brother [that Henry would only agree to accept Selwyn's and Grey's jurisdiction over the disposal of his land if Grey either proved or retracted the 'blood and money' charge against the northern missionaries] you seem wholly to disapprove, and you pass a heavy censure upon the publication of any refutation of the charges in your late Resolution of November 28/48 in which you designate those publications as calculated to excite political controversy, ... or to foster opposition to the constituted authorities. This disapprobation, I presume, applies as well to the Pamphlet entitled Plain Facts, which was prepared by myself . . . Am I right in supposing that you require your missionaries to remain quiet under an accusation, which if true, shews them to be wholly unfit for their office?

I may further remark that the individual upon whom the weight of this trial falls is one of your oldest missionaries, who, to use the language of your Provisional Secretary, "has rendered much service to the Mission, and has never shrunk from any amount of privation or labour in the discharge of his duties" ....

During the correspondence which has arisen out of this complicated case, there may have been utterances given under much excitement to expressions which had been better kept back. I do not mean to defend them, neither does my brother, for he has manifested a wish to retract whatever may have been of this character. These are points of less moment, and ought not to affect the real question . . . But let these points which I have placed before you be calmly considered and I confidently believe that having reference to the length as well as to the nature of the service in which my brother has been engaged, there will be a disposition on your part to exercise the greatest forebearance about lesser matters, and that your kindliest feelings will be enlisted in the behalf of one who for the last five years has been assailed by false accusations of the most painful description, while he has been met by frowns instead of the sympathies of those to whom he would naturally look for support.


October 3. Bible class from Ngatikaipoho whom I catechized with reference to the Lords Supper. Went to Tutukoroheke to see a party from East Cape, the same party which was provoking a quarrel when I was last there. The chief of the opposite party is also here and though peace has been made, this chief has not much confidence in its stability, and wished me to talk with both parties together. We therefore went over the differences again and ended with a promise of closing the breach henceforth. The offending party enquired before I left what is to be done about a teacher for their village, their old teacher having left them in consequence of the ill treatment he had received.

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October 5. Class of 25 communicants from Whareongaonga and 30 candidates for baptism. These are come the distance of about 18 miles. The chief of the offending party from Waiapu requested to be allowed to join the class as a listener.

October 13. Having been engaged during the week with the communicants from the inland villages I went today to Wairengahika with a view to administer the Lords Supper tomorrow .... The chapel of Toanga has been removed to this place in consequence of its exposure to the floods and has been completed with great neatness. Catechized upwards of 70 christian natives principally elderly persons and women who had not been with me during the week . . .

October 14. Sunday. At morning service we had a congregation of about 350 of whom 171 were communicants. Catechized 68 candidates for baptism between the services, and in the afternoon baptized seven children. The natives were talking in the evening about the popish native teacher who lives with Whata. He tells the people that it is right to worship Peter and that it was he who raised our Saviour from the dead.

October 22. Prepared for journey to Ahuriri and set out at noon. [Travelled by the hilly inland route and down the Hangaroa and Wairoa Rivers to Hamlin's station at Wairoa.]

October 26. Went by canoe to Mr. Hamlin's which we reached by two o'clock. Many natives are assembled from the outposts. Catechized one class of 28 candidates whom Mr. Hamlin had previously passed for baptism. The station begins to assume a better appearance. The frame of a large and substantial chapel is up and only waiting the convenience of the natives to complete it and Mr. Hamlin is at length comfortably housed in a good boarded building.

October 28. Sunday. Mr. Hamlin read prayers and I preached at morning service. We then administered the Lords Supper to 136 communicants. English service followed when five Englishmen attended from the whaling stations. During evening service Mr. Hamlin baptized 153 adults ....

October 30. I proceeded to Mohaka with Mr. Hamlin. There was quite an animated scene on our approach. The village is situated on a picturesque spot on the bank of the river surmounted by a high cliff on the opposite side. We were hailed in native style, and had a long string of natives to shake hands with us. Old Poututu the chief of the place harangued me in a very good speech which was the more pleasing because I had always regarded him as a native upon whom little impression would be made. He has embraced Christianity now more

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than eighteen months and goes on well. Indeed all the people of the village shew that they are well attended by the teacher. After evening prayers I had a fire lighted on the floor of the chapel and catechized 45 candidates whom Mr. Hamlin has long had on his list.

[October 31-November 1. Leaving Hamlin at Mohaka, Williams travelled on to Colenso's station.]

November 2. Left [Tangoio] immediately after prayers and proceeded to Waiohinganga to breakfast. A very excellent chapel has been erected since I was last here, and there seems to be a general improvement among the people. A canoe had been provided by Mr. Colensos kind arrangement and we passed on without any fatigue to the opposite side of Ahuriri, avoiding a most tedious part of the road. We reached the settlement at five. There was a large assemblage from all the little villages far and near and every countenance was cheerful. As I passed along the natives arranged themselves in a line for the purpose of shaking hands and rubbing noses which ceremony I went through with all my particular friends.

November 4. Sunday. There was service at nine with a full chapel. Preached morning and afternoon and administered the Lords Supper assisted by Mr. Colenso to 238 natives.

November 5. I attended morning school and catechized two classes. Afterwards catechized 101 candidates in three classes. The afternoon was taken up with a meeting of natives who came to talk about Mr. Colensos removal from his present position which is threatened by the inroads of the sea on one side and by floods on the other. Many spoke in favor of his removal to Waimarama, but the great difficulty is Hapuku, an overbearing heathen native. When he rose to speak he was much excited by something which had been said by his own brother and it seemed that the discussion would end as the one last year by leaving Mr. Colenso where he is; but at last the old man gave his consent, accompanied however with the demand that the place to which he goes shall be paid for, his object being to take the whole payment to himself. This will not be allowed by the rest of the tribe. (Since the establishment of the government none of our stations have been paid for but have been made over by deed of gift.)

November 6. On my return to Tangoio I found that the Popish priest has been sending a quantity of tobacco as a present to those natives who adhere to him. I have met with several instances in which heathen natives have been bought over in this way to profess themselves papists. While food was preparing I catechized 13 candidates in the chapel. The sun was very hot through the day but I was thankful to reach Moeangiangi in safety. Last week a native sent by Mr. Colenso to carry a letter to me was affected with coup de soleil and died in three days.

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I used my general precaution of carrying a wet handkerchief in my hat & thus felt no inconvenience.

November 8. Had a very fatiguing journey to Mohaka. Held evening prayers and addressed the people, particularly those recently admitted into the church of whom there are about 40.

November 9. Travelled from Mohaka to Wairoa. Found a letter from home stating that the Popish priest 34 is there waiting my return in order that he may shew the people that he is right and that I am wrong. I have written by a native who leaves in the morning to urge the natives of Turanga by all means to detain the priest until my return in order that we may have our discussion before them. On a similar occasion nine years ago I had a meeting with a priest at Table Cape which was attended with the happiest results, inasmuch as a party of natives who had declared for the priest soon after left him.

November 12. Reached Whakaki about ten miles from Wairoa. Pitched our tents under the shelter of the chapel as the weather is unsettled. Held service with the natives about 70 in number. The chapel for the first time is in a respectable condition, being finished in the best style of native work and the floor covered with neat mats with a small communion rail. We hear that the priest is still at Turanga and that the idea of having a discussion has not originated with him but with the chiefs Whata and Kahutia, his supporters, who say they wish to have the subject fairly talked over that they may judge which is the true church. The priest under such circumstances could not decline the proposal without acknowledging that his cause is weak.

November 13.....Proceeded to Nuhaka. I was grieved to hear that a party from the Bay of Islands, among whom is the wife of Te Waka Nene, has been to fetch the bones of a relative, and have been allowed to take them up and return with them. At four o'clock Mr. Hamlin and I administered the Lords Supper to 67 communicants. Those natives we excluded who had consented to the removal of the bones. Afterwards the whole of the natives came together to prayers when I addressed them, and then catechized 21 of Mr. Hamlins candidates.

November 14. Mr. Hamlin baptized 10 adults at morning prayers, and soon after prayers we started towards Table Cape. At the village of Oraka we remained two hours during which I catechized a few candidates for baptism. Took leave of Mr. Hamlin and went on to Nukutaurua. The party of Bay of Islanders who are taking away the bones have just embarked on board their vessel and are off this evening. I believe they were anxious to get out of my way. The teacher here had refused to receive them on account of their errand, though nearly

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related to the leading man among them. Held prayers in the chapel and addressed the natives.

. . . .

November 19. A gale which has been blowing two days prevents me from returning home by boat as I had proposed. We therefore set out at five to travel by the coast. Breakfasted at Mahanga and then went through the woods by a new road which the natives propose to clear as a horse road. Travelled six hours from this place a great part of the time through heavy rain. We encamped two hours before dark, the natives having to erect a shed for shelter. Our number is increased by several persons who are going to listen to the discussion with the priest.

November 20. Met a native today who told us that the priest is still waiting for me at Turanga. He said also that our christian natives have had frequent conversation with the priest, and have not failed to express their minds freely upon the opposition of scripture to the practices of the priest. At six in the evening we reached Taikawakawa, which is twelve miles from home. The chief of the place Matenga is at the point of death, but expresses a firm reliance upon Christ his Saviour. Reached home a little before midnight.

November 21. Set off at daylight to inform the priest of my arrival and proposed to hold the meeting tomorrow morning. Messengers in the meantime are gone inland to collect the natives who are looking with much interest to the event. In the evening I compared a number of texts to which I propose to refer with the Douay and Vulgate Bibles & find there is very little difference so far as my present purpose is concerned.

November 22. The place fixed upon for the meeting is a well shaded spot not far from my house. By eight o'clock the people began to assemble, and the priest with his little party was among the earliest. A little before nine our business commenced by the arrangement of a few preliminaries among which was the regulation of half hour speeches. The priest is an ill looking hard featured man who would be from his appearance an able servant of the inquisition. He had been amusing the natives for some days by telling them that the only way of testing the true faith was for himself and me to walk into a large fire when God would interfere in behalf of his true servant and shew which was the right way. A shrewd native tried him one day with a firestick & urged the priest to put his hand upon it, & that if he were not burnt, he should then believe him to be an extraordinary person. This the priest declined saying that it was necessary that I should be exposed to the fire at the same time. I opened the proceedings by telling the priest I had heard of this proposal but he said it was false, and when I mentioned a number of witnesses he then said it was the only way to arrive at a true conclusion and that he was ready to expose his body to the

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flames if I would do the same, and quoted as authority that the good shepherd giveth his life for the sheep. I told him we should all be most happy to see him try the experiment if he had a wish to do so, but that I not knowing any authority from scripture for such a proceeding was not disposed to tempt God. He still pressed that we should both be exposed to the ordeal and the natives became very impatient and would not listen to him without frequent interruptions. 35 I gave him in reply somewhat more solid and attacked the infallibility of the church of Rome and the absence of authority for asserting Peters superiority to the rest of the Apostles. When he spoke again he still kept to his subject and added that they have miracles in the church of Rome which are a proof from God that it is the true church. He was challenged to mention any miracles which he had performed since his residence in this country and an opportunity was given him for the exercise of his power by a lame man hobbling before him and begging him to restore his deformed limb. His failure to do anything excited a strong feeling against him. I then attacked him on the worship of the Virgin Mary and the saints, referring to texts in the Douay bible and directing the attention of the natives to their New Zealand testament. The priest then brought forward the subject of tradition and while he freely allowed the authority of a large array of bibles and testaments in six languages including that of New Zealand, he affirmed that there was no salvation to be found in the bible alone, that we had one eye only and they had two. The priest continued to declaim in the same way every half hour, but he seemed to regard with satisfaction the frequent interruption of the natives which relieved him from the awkwardness of talking when he had nothing to say. He occasionally urged an appeal to the sign and at length some of the natives ran off (at my suggestion)

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for a quantity of wood to give him the opportunity of having his fire if so disposed. After the lapse of nearly ten hours the patience of the natives was exhausted and the assembly was broken up in much confusion, the natives being abundantly satisfied that the priest had no ground to stand upon.

(November 24. Mr. Rich 36 went to Wherowhero. Made a proposal to Mrs. R. to open a school at Turanga instead of returning to Auckland. The proposal was received, & in the afternoon we went over the gully to look at the proposed site.)

November 25. Sunday. The weather did not permit a large congregation to assemble. Preached on the comparative value of scripture and tradition. The late discussion gave much interest to the subject.

November 26 to 30. Engaged in the revision of translation of first Corinthians preparatory to a further revision by the Rev. R. Maunsell & myself.


My present wish about a school for boys is to have one here, & have requested both Mr. Hadfield & Mr. Kissling to look out & try to catch a schoolmaster. Joseph gets on very well & now we have the assistance of Mrs. Rich we keep to work more steadily ....

Since I wrote the letter to the Society I have received one from E.G.M. 37 ... It is quite clear that however hot headed we may be on this side [of] the globe, there are many persons in Salisbury Square who need cool applications to their upper stories. Upon the general question of the land, they have clearly been in error .... Another error of the C.M.S. has been a wish to keep fair with the great people; that is with the Govr., the Bishop & with Earl Grey. One of E.G.M.s remarks states that they complain of an absence of missionary communication from you, from which they draw the sage conclusion that your mind has been occupied in other ways. Now I think the best thing you can do will be to give the C.M.S. a brief daily statement, a sort of table of contents, for every day for the last four years . ..

I have many times wished myself at head quarters in order to face the folks there. Perhaps it may yet be necessary that some step of the kind should be taken .... The absurdity of supposing that, when a mans character is traduced, he should be in the mood to write agreeably either to those who have traduced him, or to those who have aided and abetted the traducers, is very palpable.


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I had not had time before to read Mr. Busbys letter to the Earl of Chichester, 38 but have now done so and am very much pleased with it. Mr. Baker was here at the time & we read it together & he was equally satisfied with it. I have also since read a second time Mr. Clarkes four letters to the Society of which he sent me a copy. The last one of them particularly in which he tenders his resignation is very good, and it singularly contrasts with the tone of some of the Societys communications. It breathes a christian spirit which will tell with some of the good people in their cooler moments. I am writing to Edward again and shall call his attention to it.

I have nothing much to remark upon just now but must wait for the next edition. Give my kind remembrances to Mr. & Mrs. Busby & present my thanks to him for his advocacy of the cause of condemned missionaries. I cannot but think that the Society, whatever may be their views just now, will have to retrace their steps & undo a great deal of mischief which they have sanctioned. 39 If therefore it should so happen that they take the same harsh course which is intimated about Mr. Clarke, 40 I hope you will not allow your mind to be disturbed by such a circumstance, but relying upon the justice of your cause and the consciousness of that protection of the injured which God will always give, though he may allow the cloud to rest for a time.

The California fever 41 has reached Turanga and we are likely to have a general clearance. Mr. Harris, King & nearly every one. Their loss will not be much felt.



On my return [from East Cape] I found the natives all in commotion about the new church. In the course of the winter they had been very fortunate in obtaining a large quantity of totara at the mouth of the river which the flood had laid bare. This gave an impulse even to the lazy and many hands made light work so that before my return from Waiapu there was all the principal timber required in a state of forwardness. But a spirit of emulation, a desire I believe in great measure to outdo the church at Otaki, 42 suggested the idea of carving all the posts--an art in which the Turanga natives alone, of all the tribes in

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New Zealand, excel. To the carving there can be no objection but the New Zealander finds it difficult to go out of the old track, and nothing would do but such posts or rather such whakairo 43 as that in Lazarus house. But there was a sort of feeling that this might be objected to so they hit upon the expedient of working with redoubled energy while my back was turned so that the advance might be too great before I could interfere to allow of an alternative. Nine beautiful posts were in a state of great forwardness when I came back. There was something so horrible in their appearance that I made at once a decided stand against them, but it was many days before I could make any impression. At last your old friend Wakakurei gave way and recommended a new pattern which is quite non descript exhibiting neither man beast or creeping thing but giving a very good specimen of native carving. They have nearly completed the posts for one side of a building which is to be ninety feet long. 44

In all other respects we go along quietly. The school (girls) . . . goes on with regularity, but not so satisfactorily as if we had the assistance which was contemplated. It was proposed at the Central Com. that Christopher and Marianne should come to this coast & I even hoped, to help me at this station, but I fear it will not be. We have had a break in the monotony of Turanga which is most unusual. Mrs. Pringle whose husband had been wrecked at Table Cape in the Neptune came in quest of her husband, but he had left a week when she came. She was escorted by her brother Mr. Kinnear, a very pleasant man. They staid here about ten days & then took their departure. But while here they enlivened us much & Mrs. Pringle gave us plenty of music. Another change is by the addition of Mrs. Rich who occupies the position of governess. She is a very ladylike person & very agreeable and pays great attention to all the little ones including James & Joseph. Her husband is in Auckland & I suppose that pecuniary circumstances may have led to the present arrangement. We cannot therefore calculate upon much permanency.

St. Johns does not present any more pleasing features than it did .... The school I am told is now at an end, whether from want of scholars, or of teachers I know not. 45 The Bishop by way of mending the matter has absented himself for three months at the Isle of Pines close by New Caledonia. The latest proposal is to have a college at

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Porirua and that Mr. Hadfield should be the principal. 46 You will be surprized to hear that Mr. H. is quite recovered, stronger in health than when he was living at Waimate. This however is not likely to proceed for many reasons, and in the meantime the Wesleyans have begun their college under most favorable circumstances, with it is said a clever man to take charge. I am now trying as a last resource to obtain a schoolmaster to live here. I applied first to James Kemp but he is the son of his father and calculates too much. I then wrote both to Mr. Hadfield (now Archdeacon) & to Mr. Kissling but nothing has yet come of my effort.



Turanga 17 October 1849

There is not much in the daily or weekly routine of a novel character, my work is more like the unbroken course of a parish schoolmaster. A great deal of work, but most of it of the same character. The object is not the raising of exotics to please the eye but which will not endure the chilling blast, but rather the tree of vigorous growth prepared to weather every storm. Our instruction therefore is simple and makes but little show: first the most simple truths of repentance & faith, which you will allow are difficult as they are important. If then we can add to these first and most essential points a little general knowledge of the scriptures, we consider that much is gained. For the accomplishment of this our Bible Classes are held, and our classes of candidates which are frequent & demand our chief attention. You may form some idea from the outline of my engagements on a late visit of seven weeks to Waiapu,...


Candidates for Baptism examined




Children Baptized


















































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Now in such a body of persons there is immense occupation to be found. All these and many more in the same villages are ready to attend service and also desirous in their respective classes to be catechized & to read the scriptures. There are many lukewarm & careless & many very ignorant, but still they come for instruction, and it is to be hoped they profit by it though we do not see much of the fruit. Often there is not much to be seen until at the trying hour of death there seems to be a hope fixed upon the rock of ages, and the believing savage is summoned into the presence of God to join the assembly of redeemed.



Turanga 29 November 1849

You would be greatly interested with the appearance of Whakato just now. After a hard journey to Ahuriri ... it was most luxurious to see the pretty roses of our own garden with the lovely trees which are now come to great perfection, making this place superior to any other that I have seen in N. Zealand. In addition to the beauties of the place we are likely to improve also in our society. I mentioned in my last letter that your mother had obtained the assistance of a Mrs. Rich whose husband, formerly a settler at Tamaki, was thinking about going to California for want of something better to do. Mr. Rich having wisely determined not to go bethought himself that he had better fetch his wife back to Auckland. On my return the other day I found him here ... In conversation with him I ascertained that he had no fixed plans of his own & indeed no apparent means of support, I therefore proposed that Mrs. Rich should open a school for young ladies here having about ten pupils at hand to begin with, and a probability that the celebrity of Turanga will add to the number. The proposal was accepted without hesitation and I believe was a great relief to them both. In the afternoon I went with Mr. Rich over the gully or more properly the dingle, as I see there is no such word in the dictionary, and we soon made arrangements with the natives that Mr. Rich should have the whole peninsula. 47 Our next step is to erect a small plain house, and in the course of a little time we hope to see the whole in progress. If on the other side of the premises we should succeed in getting the boys school, Poverty Bay will then be one of the most important places in New Zealand . . . .

We have at this time a very sick house, Marianne was taken ill with scarlet fever ten days ago, but she was well again in less than a week.

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Then Maria was taken and has been very ill & still continues extremely weak . . . Kate has also had a slight attack but is well again. This time last year Mr. Ford lost four children from the same complaint. We have therefore much reason to be thankful that this attack has been so moderate. Dear little Emma has so far escaped.



[December 3-December 7. Station duties.]

December 8. The native teacher left by the Popish priest called at my request. He was accompanied by the chief (Kahutia) who supports his cause. I hoped to place some points before him for his benefit. As the priest had acknowledged that our testament is correct, I pressed him to read it through with prayer and examine into the foundation to be found for the doctrine of the church of Rome. He promised to read the testament though he appears to be sadly bigoted in favour of the principles which have been instilled into him.

[December 10-17. Station duties.]

December 18. Teachers class in the morning. Catechized 27 candidates from Teitangamahaki who were not here with their class last week. I afterwards examined & passed 14 of them for baptism. In the afternoon went to see the sick and called upon an aged woman who has long been a candidate and is now at the point of death. She has for some time expressed a wish for baptism before she dies and I believe she will be a proper recipient of the rite. She rests her hopes on Christ alone. On my return the school children were assembled in their best attire on occasion of the breaking up of school for a months vacation. The school room was tastefully decorated with green boughs and after enjoying themselves with a good game of play, they partook of an ample repast of cake and tea.

December 20. The tribe Ngatimaru assembled in strong force to drag timber from the bank of the river to the site of the church. The first piece was a very fine log of timber near 40 feet in length and more than three feet wide which is to support one end of the ridge pole. There were about 100 persons dragging it and it was quite a stirring scene. In the meantime other parties were bringing food together and as soon as this log of timber had reached the spot about 100 baskets of food were carried in procession by another party for the people at work upon the timber. The dragging continued through the day ....

December 22. Continued the examination of candidates and read with a large Bible Class. An elderly woman of long standing shewed a strong desire to be admitted to baptism. I had rejected her within the last three

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months at Table Cape on account of her extreme deficiency of knowledge. Again I tried her a fortnight ago with no better success. She made her way uncalled for into the last class I had to examine today, and now her answers being a little better I passed her. It will doubtless often happen that a child of God may appear to be very ignorant to our imperfect perceptions, while many who are quick and ready in answering are far from the Kingdom of Heaven.

December 23. Sunday. One of the candidates, a man of good information, has the misfortune to have two wives, and though he had come to a determination to retain only one, the poor woman who was to be rejected was not so easily to be satisfied. The husbands baptism is therefore deferred until this difficulty has been disposed of. Our congregation consisted of about 1000, being many more than our building would contain. Preached from John 1. 23. English service followed the native in the morning and in the afternoon I baptized 185 adults.

December 24. The quiet of yesterday was disturbed this morning by a quarrel which threatened to be serious between the two principal parties at work upon the church. It arose out of an encroachment made by one party upon the land of the other and a very unchristian spirit has been shewn by a few. After spending some little time with them in endeavouring to allay the irritation, I went to the school house and catechized about 100 principally christian natives. Before we had concluded there was again a renewal of the commotion in consequence of the offending party calling to the others to take away the timber which has been brought with so much labour. There was quite a strong disposition to act upon the impulse and then to destroy our good prospects for the erection of the church. However in a little time the influence of the better part of the natives prevailed. (Went to Turanganui with Mr. Rich to call upon Mr. & Mrs. Dunlop. 48 )

December 31. Gave the teachers a lecture on the subject of Intercession to the Saints. A request was made by one of them that they may have the substance of these lectures in the form of catechism so that the natives may have the subject perfect against the next time the priest comes this way. We are thus brought to the close of another year--a year of mercies & of blessings. In our family we have had a little affliction, three of our dear children having recently been afflicted with scarlet fever, one of them severely, but God has graciously restored them and the infection has not been allowed to spread in any other quarter. Among the natives we have had occasional difficulties but the efforts of satan have for the most part been brought to naught. The cause of the gospel in the meantime may be justly said to prosper, not with a

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brilliant display of christian graces, but slowly & surely. The gospel holds its ground. The fruit will be seen in that day which will reveal all things.

[This is the end of the Williams Journal to the C.M.S. until it is resumed again in 1853 after his return from England. The 1850 entries are from his Diary.]


You will have heard of the arrival of two missionaries, Messrs Lanfear and Barker 49 and that the Bishop and Mr. Kissling have held a Committee to locate them & to propose various other movements in the middle district. It is true that their resolutions are said to be subject to the revision of the Central Com, but what of that if in the meantime the movements are made, Mr. Kissling will find himself in a very awkward position before the Central Com. The act was unconstitutional and wholly opposed to the Societys instruction. They say . . . that in the event of any pressing question, communication shall be held between the President & as many of the members of the Central Com. as possible. This has not been done. We hear nothing of any reference to the members at the north or to Mr. Maunsell or to Archdn. Brown-- all within reach. It is in fact an exemplification of the Bishops lust for power, and if this case were quickly passed over he might henceforward settle everything by himself ....

Our latest letters will have told you of a school for young ladies to be shortly established here. The building is going on and we shall hope to be ready shortly. Mrs. Rich is a most valuable person, as much superior in manner and attainment to Mrs. Tucker as possible. Her husband is not a man of much energy, but he can mind the household staff while Mrs. Rich attends to the more important part.



Henry has forwarded to me a copy of your letter to him of June last in which you notice the transfer of the land to the children. It is a great relief to hear your views expressed in that letter. And I cannot but hope that the Society will upon receipt of all that has been written subsequently, will not only withdraw certain resolutions which have been passed, but will also do justice to their missionaries by giving a counter statement in a future report to rebut the grievous charges which have

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been made by the Governor. I see by a late Auckland paper that the Governor has brought in a Bill to "Quiet the Land Claims", that is, to confirm all the grants issued by Captn. Fitzroy. 50 After straining every nerve to undo what his predecessor had done, and after keeping the country in agitation for three years, he wishes it to be believed that his only anxiety from the first was to make the Titles more sure. In this two faced policy there are unhappily many points of resemblance between the Govr. and our Bishop. But such a course is more excusable in the politician than in the divine. The Bishop is a strange man. He disowned in the strongest terms all connexion with the Tractarians, and yet I believe him to have the strongest sympathy with that body. On the other hand he has seemingly placed great confidence in the Societys missionaries by making four of them his Archdeacons, and yet our views on all essential matters are directly opposed to his. After the experience of seven years, seeing the extreme disagreement that exists between the Bishops views and ours, I fear that he made his appointments of Archdeacons under the hope of gaining over the senior missionaries to his own way of thinking .... His ideas upon education, upon the necessary preparation for his future clergy, and upon every other matter are what they were & perhaps worse. The school in connexion with St. Johns College is now given up. There is therefore now no means of education in connexion with the church . . . The Bishop complains that his diocese is too large for him to attend to, he therefore neglects it altogether. 51 This is the third summer that he has gone to the Chatham Islands 300 miles to the East of N.Z. where two German missionaries are residing, 52 while the rite of confirmation in his proper diocese is neglected. He ought to have taken the whole of the Eastern Coast last summer, but he did not, nor does he intend to do so this summer. Last summer he went to New Caledonia. What connexion that part of the world can have with the diocese of New Zealand it is difficult to conjecture .... It seems to me that the Bishop gets out of the way to avoid the annoyance and mortification which every thing around him at home must occasion.

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I am still endeavouring to set on foot a grammar school at this place. There are more than twenty sons of missionaries whose prospects in life are seriously injured from the maladministration of the Bishop.


1   Frank Gould was at St John's from 1848-52. (J. K. Davis, History of S. John's College, Auckland 1911, Appendix D.)
2   This was to be at Auckland. The cost in buildings and principal's salary was estimated at about £2000 which the C.M.S. missionaries planned to raise by buying shares of £20 each. (W. Williams to H. Williams 19 December 1848 and 22 February 1849, The Williams Family MS. AR.)
3   This was probably Histoire de la civilisation en Europe; the English edition was published in 1846.
4   He had been a candidate at St. John's.
5   Ashwell's particular grievance at this date was the delay in the invitation to study for deacon's orders at St John's.
6   These missionaries had been attending the Southern District Committee.
7   A. N. Brown, Brief Memorials of an Only Son, Auckland 1845.
8   Charles Simeon was a founder of the C.M.S.; Samuel Marsden was one of his proteges.
9   Thomas Chapman wrote to Henry Venn, 27 March 1849: 'You will see by public documents, that I am driven from Rotorua. I have struggled to hold on there now these five years--and had hoped by retiring to Maketu for the winter months, to have maintained my ground . . . My health will not now bear that climate even in the summer.' He did not live permanently at Maketu, however, until 1852. (T. Chapman, Letters and Journals, Vol. 2, p. 397.)
10   Selwyn visited the Chatham Islands, Wellington and Nelson February 2 to April 21 1849.
11   Present at the 1849 Central Committee were, W. Williams, Chairman, A. N. Brown, G. A. Kissling, R. Maunsell, R. Taylor, R. Burrows, G. Clarke, Secretary.
12   Selwyn wrote to William Williams that he had decided 'after mature consideration' to withdraw himself from all further connection with the Land Question. But at the same time he felt that he could not communicate with any persons who in his judgement were acting in opposition to the intention of the C.M.S. He also felt 'extremely unwilling to renew the painful questions of September last', and consequently announced to Williams that he would not chair the 1849 Central Committee meeting. (G. A. Selwyn to W. Williams 14 December 1848, The Williams Family MS. AR.)
13   Both George Clarke, in person, and Henry Williams, by letter, were asked by the Committee whether they would consent to hand over the deeds for their surplus land 'into the hands of any Agent this Committee may appoint'. The Committee's reasons for this were (1) the 1848 Resolutions of the Parent Committee; (2) the pledge given by Clarke and H. Williams to abide by the Bishop's ruling was, according to the Committee, in no way affected by the failure of both Grey and the Bishop to substantiate or withdraw the charges made against the northern land-holding missionaries, although both Clarke and Williams understood that this was the condition implicit in their pledge; (3) that when a favourable decision was given by the Supreme Court to George Clarke on 24 January 1848, 'a stronger [moral] obligation then rested upon him to fulfil his pledge by surrendering the Surplus lands'. (Documents of the Central Committee, p. 30.) This in fact meant that the Central Committee, with the exception of William Williams, the lone dissentient, had lined up alongside the Parent Committee, and consequently alongside Selwyn and Grey. George Clarke and Henry Williams were now isolated. By this stage the issue was no longer a legal one, even though the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council was to reverse the Supreme Court's decision in Clarke's case. The Central Committee felt that as Clarke, and thus by inference Williams also, had won at law, they should now concede to the general will.
14   The other six clergymen were Hadfield, Henry Williams, Cole, Churton, Butt (Nelson) and Govett (New Plymouth).
15   When Henry Venn wrote to Henry Williams on 30 June 1848 (letter cited in H. Carleton, A Page from the History of New Zealand, pp. 44-5), he was still under the misapprehension that FitzRoy's extended grants were illegal. William Williams therefore supposed--he wrote this letter before the Central Committee discussion--that with the Supreme Court's favourable decision, the Parent Committee would cease its opposition. In this he was mistaken.
16   See G. A. Selwyn to H. Williams 8 November 1848, A Page from the History of New Zealand, pp. 38-40. Again William Williams was mistaken. Selwyn wished to end the differences between himself and Henry Williams, but 'peace' involved the latter's acquiescence. Henry Williams replied, 30 November 1848, 'But what peace as long as these allegations are unremoved? .... The offer of peace does not stand equally between us--the smiter and the smitten.' (ibid, p.41.)
17   John Telford, Colenso's successor as mission printer, went to England at the end of 1847. He was a consumptive and suffered a severe attack in England which curtailed the missionary training he was to have received at the Islington Institute. He returned to New Zealand in 1849 and spent 10 months at St John's. He fell out with Selwyn and left the College to work as a Catechist at Pipiriki under Richard Taylor. His connection with the Society was dissolved in 1853.
18   Leonard Williams bore both the English winter and the 'peculiar temptations' very well. He attended the C.M.S. meetings at Oxford, kept closely to his Uncle Marsh and to his studies, although he acknowledged, 'I am not so much of a scholar as the people who are educated at the English public schools'. (W. L. Williams to W. Williams 4 March 1850, Williams Collection, Gisborne.) He passed his B.A. exam, with a third in June 1852 and in September went to the C.M.S. Training Institute at Islington. He returned to New Zealand, married and in deacon's orders, on 18 February 1854.
19   younger sisters.
20   In a letter to his mother, Hadfield wrote: 'The beneficial effect lately produced on my health by a new system of treatments, after all treatment had been hopelessly abandoned for years, is very astonishing. I am now in the enjoyment of comparative health.' He added that when he went to church his appearance seemed to people who had been constantly expecting to hear of his death, like a resurrection. (O. Hadfield to J. Hadfield 23 February 1849, Octavius Hadfield Papers, Vol. 2.) The cold water treatment which Dr Fitzgerald induced him to try was also popular in England under the name of hydropathy. Selwyn appointed Hadfield Archdeacon of Kapiti in 1849--an office Hadfield was at first disinclined to accept.
21   Sarah, Henry Williams' second daughter married T. B. Hutton on 26 April 1849.
22   Leonard Williams wrote to his mother in February 1850 that he believed Cotton was quite well again although he had not seen him. (W. L. Williams to J. Williams 26 February 1850, Williams Collection, Gisborne.)
23   Probably John Hervey who in 1844 opened a trading station on the Waipaoa River. (Mackay, op. cit., p. 106.)
24   A tapu restriction on the river.
25   free from tapu.
26   It was the first Maori deacon, Rota Waitoa stationed at Te Araraoa in 1853, who finally subdued Houkamau. He offered himself as a candidate for baptism, and as a token of penitence, 'begged Rota to appoint him "church sweeper and bellringer to the House of the Lord"'. (Mackay, op. cit., p. 174.)
27   Edward Deacon was the first storekeeper at Tokomaru Bay. Moses Yule also had a store there. (Mackay, op. cit., p. 137.)
28   Charles Baker referred to the chief Rangiuia as 'My most bitter enemy'. (C. Baker, Letters and Journals to the C.M.S. 1849-69, p. 66.)
29   Williams had made no attempt to interfere with the carvings in Lazarus's (Raharuhi Rukupo) house. His veto, probably of the manaia and tiki motif applied only to its use in a church.
30   The Neptune, schooner of 28 tons, Capt. T. Pringle, master, was wrecked off Long Point, Mahia Peninsula in August 1849. The Sisters, schooner of 50 tons, arrived at Auckland on 21 August; she had also been damaged at Hawkes Bay when a whale stove in her bows. (New Zealand Shipwrecks, p. 37.)
31   This resolution was aimed at silencing Henry Williams who in addition to writing to the Auckland papers defending himself against Grey's charges, had also in 1848 written a long memorial to Earl Grey, Secretary of State, and to the Earl of Chichester, President of the C.M.S. He was also popularly supposed to be the author of Plain Facts, which instead of fulfilling William Williams' purpose of telling the truth, only exacerbated public opinion--particularly that of the London C.M.S. The Parent Committee resolved that 'any publication in local newspapers or otherwise, by missionaries or agents of the Society, calculated to excite political controversy, or conveying personal charges especially tending to excite or to foster opposition to constituted authorities', would be regarded as 'utterly inconsistent with the character of a missionary, and calculated ... to injure the interests of the Society and the cause of religion.' (British Parliamentary Papers relative to New Zealand, 1849, No. 1120, p. 111.)
32   J. F. Churton.
33   See William Williams Journal, 28 September 1844.
34   J. Lampila S.M. (Hone Papere) from Whakatane.
35   Lampila's version of this incident was that Williams suggested the trial by fire in the letter which he sent to his natives apprising them of the meeting: 'Connaissant par experience les precautions prudentes pour conserver leurs precieuses vies, je ne pouvais pas croire ce que m'en disait ses hommes'--and that when he challenged Williams with the letter, the latter stated, 'j'ai ecrit cela mais c'etait une plaisanterie'. It seems wildly out of character for Williams to have made such a suggestion, even as a joke, and there seems no doubt that Lampila was more impressed with the idea of trial by fire than was his opponent. Lampila said to the assembled Maoris, 'jugez-vous memes qui de nous deux est dans la veritable Eglise. N'est ce pas celui qui consent a subir l'epreuve du feu?' Lampila also stated however, that when out of sympathy for their minister's predicament, Williams' natives urged Lampila to go alone into the fire, one of the Englishmen accompanying Williams intervened saying that it was not the catholic priest but their own minister who provoked the scene. (Autobiographic du R. P. Lampila 1841-66, pp. 9-12, Marist Fathers Archives.)

Perhaps some light is shed on the disputed authorship of the trial-by-fire, by Lampila's action when he was in the Wanganui district in 1856. He had a similar meeting with Richard Taylor on 8 September 1856, and proposed to test the veracity of their respective faiths by seeing which one could call fire down on two bullocks as Elijah had done. When Taylor demurred saying that even if the natives possessed any bullocks, he doubted whether they would consent to give two of them for the experiment, Lampila replied that he and Taylor should take the place of the bullocks. The upshot was that the C.M.S. natives, thinking Lampila 'porangi' (out of his mind), hurried Taylor off. (R. Taylor, Journal, Vol. 10, pp. 4-5.)
36   George Rich; his wife was governess to the Williams' children.
37   Edward Garrard Marsh.
38   Letter to the Right Hon. The Earl of Chichester . . . in Vindication of the Character of Archdeacon Henry Williams and other Missionaries of the CMS. in New Zealand, Auckland 1850.
39   See note, Reinstatement of Henry Williams.
40   The C.M.S. secretaries wrote to George Clarke, 31 March 1849, that his connexion with the C.M.S. would cease one year after his receipt of their letter.
41   gold rush.
42   Te Rangiatea.
43   carving designs.
44   Nevertheless Williams' criticism may have dampened the workmen's enthusiasm, for the church was not finished when he left for England at the end of the following year. It came to a standstill in his absence, and although resumed on his return in 1853, was continued in only a half-hearted fashion because of the intended move of the station to Waerenga-a-hika. The church was finally opened, still incomplete, on 19 April 1863.
45   Selwyn's impression of St John's at the end of 1849 was very different: 'I cannot keep the numbers down. As the English scholars fall off, from the dislike of the parents for our mixed system, the native youths flow in, with evident appreciation of a system which was designed primarily for them, and now the great Polynesian fountain begins to pour in its supplies.' (Tucker, op. cit., Vol. 1, p. 317.)
46   Selwyn had drawn up an elaborate plan for Trinity College, Porirua, which was to function in the same way as St John's. Hadfield's opinion, when Selwyn first wrote to him about being principal of the college was that Otaki-Waikanae was his proper missionary sphere. He also told his English relatives that although he looked upon the projected college as of the highest importance, he was determined 'for many reasons' not to be engaged in it. The college was never built. (O. Hadfield, 17 September 1849, Octavius Hadfield Papers, Vol. 2.)
47   Donald McLean, Land Purchase Commissioner, visited Poverty Bay in 1851 and called in to see the Richs whom he described as 'agreeable people'. (Mackay, op. cit., p. 179.) George Rich by this time was more interested in sheep farming than in teaching, and the plan for the boys' school came to nothing.
48   James Dunlop, educated at Glasgow University and at a German military college, had just arrived at Poverty Bay. He took up land first at Makaraka and later at Te Arai. (Mackay, op. cit., pp. 180 and 185.)
49   Both Ralph Barker and Thomas Lanfear were in full orders. The former was stationed at Waiapu, the latter at Hauraki.
50   'Crown Titles Ordinance 25 August 1849', Session X No. IV. "An Ordinance for quieting Titles to Land in the Province of New Ulster". In effect this ordinance declared valid all grants made by the crown prior to this date, provided native title was fully extinguished. (The Ordinances of New Zealand 1841-1849, Wellington 1850, J.5.)
51   Selwyn was aware of this criticism--'Off again to the islands, when he is so much wanted at home.' He wrote of his 'grand design' for the South Pacific, and that he would 'die in faith that succeeding bishops would not refuse to add each his course of stone to the rising edifice, in which, as in our cathedrals, all individual pride of foundership would be lost, and buried in the venerable line of spiritual architects'. (Tucker, op. cit., Vol. 1, p. 289.) His older clergymen and missionaries felt, however, that the inspiration he drew from the words, 'In I am, and on I must', meant in fact that he was never sufficiently 'in' before he was 'on'.
52   There were eight missionaries (five men and three women) attached to the German evangelical mission at Te Whakuru, Chatham Islands. Their leader was F. Schirmeister. (Letters to Bishop G. A. Selwyn from German Missionaries in the Chatham Islands 1845-1847.)

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