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New Zealand, North Island
To illustrate the Life and Journeys of James West Stack
Drawn by A. W. Reed
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THE RECORDED JOURNEYS OF JAMES WEST STACK
(1) 1835. From Puriri, Thames, to Mangapouri at the junction of the Waipa and Puniu Rivers. (James West Stack was horn at Puriri during his parents' journey from Paihia to Mangapouri.)
(2) 1836-7. From Mangapouri to south side of Manukau Harbour (probably by way of the Waikato River); Manukau Harbour to Paihia (probably by way of Wairoa River)
(3) 1838. (James Stack only.) From Paihia to Hicks Bay by schooner, thence overland to Poverty Bay. The return journey to Paihia may have been made by a different route.
(4) 1839. From Paihia to Tauranga (Te Papa).
(5) 1842. From Tauranga to Poverty Bay, by schooner; from Poverty Bay to East Cape (Waiapu), overland.
(6) 1842-3. (James Stack only.) From Waiapu (with Selwyn and Martin) overland to Bay of Plenty in the neighbourhood of Opotiki; thence to Tauranga; and back to Waiapu.
(7) 1844. From Waiapu along the coast to Waipiro; then fourteen miles in a whaleboat; and again by land to Tolaga Bay; and on to Turanga (Gisborne). Back to Waiapu by coast tracks.
(8) 1846. From Waiapu to Kawakawa (Te Araroa) by native tracks, including that through the forest on East Cape promontory. Back to Waiapu.
(9) 1846. From Waiapu to Auckland, by cutter.
(10) 1848. From Auckland to Sydney in a brigantine.
(11) 1848. From Sydney to London.
(12) 1852. From London to Port Chalmers, thence to Wellington.
(13) 1852. From Wellington (on horseback) to Porirua Harbour, Paekakariki hills, Otaki beach, to visit Tamihana at Otaki. Back to Wellington.
(14) 1853. From Wellington to Auckland by troopship.
(15) 1854. From Auckland to Waikato Heads (on horseback), via Runciman's Bush and Waiuku.
(16) 1854. Transfer of mission station from Waikato Heads to Kohanga, ten miles up river.
(17) 1854-8. Various expeditions up the river to Taupiri (Ashwell's station), and up the Waipa and Horotiu Rivers.
Continued on back "end-paper."
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TAMIHANA TE RAUPARAHA
JAMES WEST STACK
This portrait dates back to the period of Stack's residence in London. The chief Tamihana had already had an eventful career. About ten years previously he had, at the hazard of his life, travelled down the east coast of the South Island in an open boat, visiting, in Canterbury and Otago, the hated foes of his father, the notorious Te Rauparaha. In 1844 he made a similar journey with Bishop Selwyn. For further references see Index and illustrations.
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MORE MAORILAND ADVENTURES
of J. W. STACK
A. H. and A. W. REED, 33 Jetty Street, DUNEDIN,
and 182 Wakefield Street, WELLINGTON,
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PRINTED IN NEW ZEALAND
FIRST PUBLISHED 1936
All Rights Reserved
COULLS SOMERVILLE WILKIE LIMITED
DUNEDIN, NEW ZEALAND
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IN writing a few introductory remarks to the second volume of James West Stack's recollections of his life amongst the Maoris, I want first of all to express my heartfelt appreciation of the most valuable work Mr. Reed has undertaken in the interests of historical research in the editing and production of these books. The successful accomplishment of this work is a valuable contribution to the early history of Christian missions and civilizing influences in the pioneer days of this Dominion.
Mr. Stack was one of the true and faithful pioneers who laid the foundation of Christianity amongst the Maori people in both the North and South Islands of New Zealand. It is well for us who live in these "soft" days of every luxury and comfort, to be reminded of the "hard" experiences of those who bore the burden and heat of the early days.
Although the central figure in these publications is that of Canon J. W. Stack, there are very interesting references to many other personalities of both races whose lives stand out conspicuously in the early history of New Zealand.
I hope these volumes will be so warmly appreciated by the public, that Mr. Reed will be encouraged to go on with his good work, and publish further books or booklets on the life and work of other pioneers who have laboured at the source of
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existing things. Such books will create tradition which will be more and more highly valued as the years come and go.
Hastings, N. Z.
27th July, 1936
MAORI ALPHABET AND PRONUNCIATION
The following simple rules were given by Canon Stack to Mr. H. F. von Haast.
A Pronounced as in father O Pronounced as oh
E Pronounced as in acorn P Pronounced as par
I Pronounced as in sleep R Pronounced as rar
H Pronounced as har T Pronounced as tar
K Pronounced as kar U Pronounced as oo in two
M Pronounced as mar W Pronounced as war in warren
N Pronounced as nar NGA Pronounced as ngah
(When pronouncing Maori words every vowel must be distinctly sounded.)
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THE encouraging reception accorded, both by the press and by the reading public, to the first portion of the Stack MSS. --Early Maoriland Adventures--warrants the publication of this further instalment.
Once more I have been very fortunate in the friendship extended to me by so many qualified people who have ungrudgingly helped in many ways in the production of this book.
Acknowledgement is again due to Mrs. Frank Coxon, Mrs. W. E. Scaife, and Miss Dorathea Stack, the daughters of Canon Stack, for the preservation of his interesting and historically important MS. recollections, and for their permission to have them edited and published.
Mr. Horace E. M. Fildes has again placed me under a heavy load of obligation, and the informative notes dispersed throughout the book will afford some indication of the extent to which his seemingly inexhaustible stores of knowledge have been drawn upon. It was Mr. Fildes, too, who pointed out that the picture of a Maketu chief in Volume I (Early Maoriland Adventures), accredited to Stack, is a sketch by Major-General Robley. My excuse for attributing the sketch to Canon Stack is that it had been pasted down into his MS. book, having probably been given to him by Robley. Stack, it will be remembered, had written his recollections, not for publication, but for his own family, otherwise he would himself have made this point clear. I gladly make the correction, at this, the first opportunity.
It has been my good fortune to become acquainted with Mr. Herbert Maunsell, the youngest and only surviving son of Archdeacon Maunsell; and through his kindness the book has been enriched by illustrative
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material, and by biographical and topographical information. Messrs. Fred. C. S. Lawson, E. T. Frost, and Henry E. R. L. Wily, whose knowledge of the localities of Maunsell's mission stations in the lower Waikato is both intimate and thorough, have rendered signal service by the information and illustrative material with which they have generously supplied me.
A visit to Banks Peninsula, the scene of much of Stack's later labours, was rendered memorable by meeting, and forging a friendship with, Mr. Louis J. Vangioni. In Early Maoriland Adventures a letter from Stack to Sir Julius von Haast is quoted, in the course of which reference is made to a certain stone axe in the possession of "Narbey, a French settler," and described by Stack as the best he had ever seen. A chance meeting with Mr. C. C. Narbey, at Akaroa, disclosed that he was a son of the French settler who had owned the remarkable axe, that he was present when it was found, and that it might be seen by calling upon his brother-in-law, Mr. Louis J. Vangioni, in the next street. Mr. Vangioni's kindness to the stranger and his wife will not easily be forgotten. He not only has a unique collection of Maori and early whaling curios brought together over a period of many years, but his knowledge of Peninsula people and places and events is encyclopedic, and this knowledge was freely placed at my disposal. About fifty-five years ago Stack was hopeful that the stone axe might have been acquired by von Haast for the Canterbury Museum. It will not, I hope, be a betrayal of confidence to mention that, amongst other valuable material, this very axe may, after all, eventually find a resting place in that institution.
For interesting photographs and background material relating to Tuahiwi and Purau (both closely connected with Stack), and for happy memories associated with them, I am indebted to Mr. Herbert Chapman, who piloted us on expeditions to these places.
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My nephew and comrade, Mr. A. W. Reed, has again been my invaluable colleague, particularly in the matter of the sketches and maps (both in the text and on the end-papers) and for that indispensable adjunct to any book of historical or biographical interest-- the index.
There are many others to whom I am greatly beholden, amongst whom I wish to mention: --Mr. Jas. Cowan, Mr. Johannes Andersen, Bishop Williams, Mr. J. T. Paul, Archdeacon Russell, Rev. M. A. R. Pratt, Rev. T. A. Pybus, Mr. C. J. Ronaldson, Miss C. I. Cruden, Mrs. Douglas Blair, Mr. Eric Ramsden, Mr. Ernest J. Bell, Mr. A. G. W. Dunningham, the Hocken Library Committee, Miss F. M. de V. Jones, Mr. R. E. Tripe, Rev. Frank Latter, Mr. Gilbert H. Mair, Mrs. Pitama, sen., Mr. F. R. H. Gardiner, Mr. A. H. Johnstone, Mr. Wm. H. Paul, Mr. A. G. Buchanan, Mr. G. A. Robertson, Mr. W. W. Rowntree, Mr. Geo. C. Thomson, Mr. W. Paterson (Otago Early Settlers' Association), Mr. E. C. Reynolds, Mr. Ebenezer Hay, Mr. A. Forbes Carter, Mr. C. W. Leete, Miss Horton, Miss E. Mackintosh, Mr. R. Bruce.
I desire to acknowledge the unfailing courtesy and co-operation of the printers, with whom I couple the names of Messrs. J. L. Gregory and J. Holgate.
It is with regret I record the death, on 13th July, 1935, of Mr. Hugh Heber Cholmondeley, whose kindness I acknowledged in the former volume, and who was doubtless the last man whose friendship with Stack went right back to the time, seventy-seven years ago, when the missionary commenced his work in Canterbury.
It has been, it must be confessed, a difficult matter to decide where to draw the line, without overloading, in the matter of annotation. Some may be of the opinion that reasonable limits have been exceeded. It
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has to be remembered, however, that Stack's recollections take us back to a very early period in the history of our country, and that they sometimes refer to half forgotten people, places and events. To elucidate some of these references has involved a great expenditure of time and much research, enquiry and correspondence, besides the generous co-operation of many friends. The easier course would have been merely to let the narrative speak for itself. There seemed, however, to be a duty involved, in view of the importance of the Stack MSS. and the probability that in some instances (as has already too frequently happened in similar cases) the information thus secured might otherwise have been altogether lost. These annotations are now available to those, now and hereafter, to whom they may be of interest; and, after all, those to whom they have no interest are under no obligation to read them.
It is a singularly happy circumstance that a Foreword to this volume of Canon Stack's recollections should be contributed by the Right Rev. F. A. Bennett, for he has not only rendered conspicuous service both to Maori and pakeha, but is a grandson of Dr. J. B. Bennett, New Zealand's first Registrar-General; eldest son of Raiha, a chieftainess of the Arawa tribe; and is himself the first Bishop of Aotearoa.
My last tribute shall again be given to H. I., my helpmate these nearly forty years. If readers, in perusing this further instalment of Canon Stack's recollections, derive half the pleasure that has fallen to my lot in editing them, the labour involved will have been amply repaid.
A. H. REED
155 Glen Avenue, Dunedin, W.1., N.Z.
7th July, 1936.
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Foreword - - - - 5
Maori Alphabet and Pronunciation - - 6
Preface - - - 7
Introductory Note - - - - 14
A NEW ZEALAND BOY IN LONDON, 1848-52
I--Voyage to England - - - - 15
II--My Life in London - - - - 30
III-- London Churches - - - -41
IV-- I Find a Job - - - - 50
V--In the Mission Office - - - - 56
VI--A Great Sorrow - - - - - 62
VII--Some Interesting Londoners - - - - 67
VIII--Archdeacon Williams and Tamihana Rauparaha - - - - 74
IX--Choosing a Vocation - - - - 84
X--Farewell to England - - - - 92
BACK TO NEW ZEALAND, 1852
I--The Slains Castle, 1852 - - - - 102
II--Port Chalmers - - - - 108
III-- Otago Heads and Dunedin - - - - 114
IV-- A Perilous Voyage to Port Nicholson - - - - 119
V--A Ride with Tamihana - - - - 125
VI--Auckland to Waikato Heads - - - - 132
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WITH DR. MAUNSELL IN THE WAIKATO, 1853-59
Introduction - - - - 139
I--First Days on the Mission Station - - - - 147
II--New Friends, Pakeha and Maori - - - - 152
III-- Changing Quarters - - - - 157
IV-- By Canoe on the Great River - - - 162
V--Reverses and Hardships - - - - 167
VI--Attacking Difficulties - - - - 171
VII--A Feast and a Famine - - - - 177
VIII--Great Chiefs, Maori and Pakeha, Visit Kohanga - - - - 181
IX--We Build a Church - - - - 187
X--The River and its People - - - - 190
XI--A Pakeha-Wahine Visitor - - - - 197
XII--More about the "Pakeha-Wahine" - - - - 201
XIII-- My Holiday at Auckland - - - - 207
XIV-- A Momentous Decision - - - - 214
WITH THE CANTERBURY MAORIS, 1859
I--Kaiapoi and Banks Peninsula - - - - 221
II--The Village of Christchurch - - - - 226
III-- My Flock on Banks Peninsula - - - - 230
IV-- My Flock on Banks Peninsula - - - - 236
V-- Settling in at Kaiapoi - - - - 243
Index - - - - - - 248
[LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS]
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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Tamihana Te Rauparaha and James West Stack - - Frontispiece
Native Bible Meeting at Kohanga - - - Facing 64
Robert Latter - - - Facing 65
Dunedin in 1856 - - - Facing 112
Port Chalmers in 1848 - - - Facing 112
Te Matenga Taiaroa - - - Facing 113
Tamihana Te Rauparaha persuading the hostile chiefs to peace - - - Facing 128
Tamihana Te Rauparaha's Autograph - - - Facing 128
Archdeacon Robert Maunsell - - - Facing 129
Waikato River, near the Heads - - - Facing 144
Looking Across the Canterbury Plains - - - - Facing 144
Site of Maraetai Mission Station - - - -Facing 145
The Site of Kohanga Mission Station - - - Facing 160
The Waikato at Tuakau, a few miles above Kohanga - - - - Facing 160
Kohanga Mission Station - - - Facing 161
Wi Harehono Puhirere (Big William) - - - Facing 224
Ameria Puhirere (Mrs. Peni Hokianga) - - - Facing 224
Rhodes's Chimney - - - - Facing 225
The Rhodes Homestead - - - - Facing 225
St. Stephen's Church, Tuahiwi - - -- Facing 240
Pita (Peter) Te Hori's House - - - Facing 240
Pigeon Bay - - - - Facing 241
Portion of the North Island of New Zealand - - 138
Lower Waikato River - - - 158
Banks Peninsula - - 220
Recorded Journeys of J. W. Stack - - End-papers
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James West Stack was born at Puriri, Thames, New Zealand, on 27th March, 1835, and died at Worthing, Sussex, England, on 13th October, 1919.
The preceding volume, Early Maoriland Adventures, contains a brief biography of Canon Stack, followed by Stack's own story of his earliest years. It includes the period spent on his father's mission stations at Mangapouri, Tauranga, Poverty Bay and East Cape; a year at St. John's College under Bishop Selwyn in 1846; followed by a year at Sydney in 1847, prior to the voyage to England with which the present volume opens.
The editor, whose address may be found on page 10, will be glad to hear from anyone in the possession of MS. or other material or information relating to Canon Stack.
KEY TO CONTRIBUTORS OF FOOTNOTES
J. C. A. --Mr. Johannes C. Andersen
H. F. --Mr. Horace E. M. Fildes
J. T. P. --Mr. J. T. Paul
M. A. R. P. --Rev. M. A. Rugby Pratt
T. A. P. --Rev. T. A. Pybus
A. W. R. --Mr. A. W. Reed
C. J. R. --Mr. C. J. Ronaldson
L. J. V. --Mr. Louis J. Vangioni
Other notes, not supplied by the editor, are accredited where they appear.