New Zealand--Church Missionary Society.
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CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY.
IT gives us much pleasure to lay before our readers some Official Documents, which shew that Government attach considerable importance to the designs of the Society for the civilization and conversion of New Zealand. His Excellency, Governor Macquarrie, has seconded the views of the Society with the utmost readiness.
Mr. Marsden being about to sail for New Zealand in the Society's brig the Active, in company with the Chiefs and Settlers, the following Official Letter was addressed to him by J. T. Campbell, Esq., Secretary to Government.
Secretary's Office, Sydney, Nov. 17, 1814.
Being now on the eve of your departure for the Islands of New Zealand; and his Excellency the Governor, being anxious to promote the interests of the Crown, conjointly with those of the Christian Religion, on this occasion, wishes to avail himself of your superior activity, zeal, and intelligence.
For this purpose his Excellency desires that you will explore as much of the Sea Coasts and the interior of these Islands, as your limited time, a due regard to your personal safety, and that of your associates, and the other circumstances of your Mission will reasonably admit.
By these means you will be enabled to form a correct judgment of the nature and quality of the soil, its various productions and its general capabilities; and your observations with regard to the Coasts will furnish you with means of appreciating the relative advantages of the Harbours as connected with the productions of the interior. Those Harbours which possess plentiful supplies of
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fresh water with safe anchorage for shipping, will necessarily claim your particular attention.
Should a satisfactory report he made to his Excellency, on the foregoing particulars, he will feel it his duty to represent it to his Majesty's Government, which may probably be thereby induced to form a permanent establishment on those Islands; and, under these considerations, his Excellency desires your particular attention to the foregoing circumstances, and that, on your return hither, you will make him a full report in writing of your progress and observations, together with the success which may attend your Mission.
I have the honour to be,
Your obedient humble Servant,
(Signed) J. T. CAMPBELL, Sec.
To Rev. S. Marsden, Principal Chaplain in New South Wales.
The most happy results may be expected, under the Divine Blessing, from the intercourse already established by the Society with these large and populous islands, and from the visit of Mr. Marsden. Should his Majesty's Ministers be induced to form such an establishment on the Islands as is above intimated, the Society will be relieved of much of that expense which must otherwise attend these and all other efforts at civilization, and will be enabled to devote itself, more especially, to the education and religious instruction of the natives.
In a former letter, Mr. Marsden's alluded to a General Order, issued by the Governor in favour of the Islanders. We copy this Order, as it reflects great honour on his Excellency, and is an evidence of the advantages likely to result from the attention of Government having been called to the injuries inflicted on the Natives.
GOVERNMENT AND GENERAL ORDERS.
No ship or vessel shall clear out from any of the ports within this territory, for New Zealand, or any other
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Island in the South Pacific, unless the Master, if of British or Indian, or the Master and Owners, if of Plantation Registry, shall enter into bonds with the Naval Officer under 1000l. penalty, that themselves and Crew shall properly demean themselves towards the natives; and not commit acts of trespass on their gardens, lands, habitations, burial-grounds, tombs, or properties; and not make war, or at all interfere in their quarrels, or excite any animosities among them, but leave them to the free enjoyment of their rites and ceremonies; and not take from the Island any male native without his own and his chiefs' and parents' consent; and shall not ship or take from thence any female native, without the like consent, and without having first obtained the consent of his Excellency the Governor or his Secretary in writing; or, in case of shipping any male natives as mariners, divers, &c. then at their own request at any time to discharge them, first paying them all wages, &c. due to them. And, the natives of all the said Islands being under his Majesty's protection, all acts of rapine, plunder, piracy, murders, or other outrages against their persons or properly, will, upon conviction, be severely punished.
December 1, 1813.
As a substantial proof of the protection which Governor Macquarrie is disposed to grant to the Society's efforts, his Excellency, on occasion of the return of the settlers and chiefs to New Zealand, appointed Mr. Kendall to be Resident Magistrate at the Bay of Islands, and issued the following
GOVERNMENT AND GENERAL ORDERS.
Government House, Sydney, New South Wales,
November 9, 1814.
It having been represented to HIS EXCELLENCY the GOVERNOR, that the Commanders and Seamen of Vessels, touching at or trading with the Islands of New Zealand, and more especially that part of them commonly called "The Bay of Islands," have been in the habit of offering gross insult and injury to the NATIVES of those places,
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by violently seizing on and carrying off several of them, both males and females, and treating them in other respects with injudicious and unwarrantable severity, to the great prejudice of the fair intercourses of trade which might be otherwise productive of mutual advantages; and HIS EXCELLENCY being equally solicitous to protect the Natives of New Zealand and the Bay of Islands, in all their just Rights and Privileges, as those of every other Dependency of the Territory of New South Wales, hereby orders and directs, that no Master or Seaman of any Ship or Vessel belonging to any British Port, or to any of the Colonies of Great Britain resorting to the said Islands of New Zealand, shall in future remove or carry therefrom any of the Natives without first obtaining the permission of the CHIEF or CHIEFS of the Districts within which the Natives so to be embarked may happen to reside: which Permission is to be certified in writing under the hand of MR. THOMAS KENDALL, the Resident Magistrate in the Bay of Islands, or of the Magistrate for the time being in said Districts.
It is also ordered and directed by the authority aforesaid, that no Master of any Ship or Vessel belonging to Great Britain or any of her Colonies, shall land or discharge any Sailor or Sailors, or other Person, from on board his Ship or Vessel, within any of the Bays or Harbours of New Zealand, without having first obtained the Permission of the Chief or Chiefs of the Place, confirmed by the Certificate of the President Magistrate, in like manner as in the foregoing case.
Any neglect or disobedience of these Orders, by the Masters or Seamen belonging to Ships or Vessels trading from hence to, or having any intercourse with, New Zealand or the adjacent Isles, will subject the offenders to be proceeded against with the utmost rigour of the law on their return hither; and those who shall return to England without resorting to this place will be reported to HIS MAJESTY'S SECRETARY OF STATE FOR THE COLONIES, and such Documents transmitted as will warrant their being equally proceeded against and punished there, as if they had arrived within this Territory.
And, with a view to carry these Orders into due effect, HIS EXCELLENCY is pleased to direct that the following Chiefs of New Zealand, viz. DEWATERRA,
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SHUNGEE, and KORRA KORRA, be, and they are hereby invested with Power and Authority for that purpose; and are to receive due Obedience from all Persons to whom these Orders have reference, so far as they relate to their obtaining Permission to remove or carry away any of the Natives of New Zealand, or the adjacent Isles, or to land or discharge any sailors or other Persons thereon.
By command of his Excellency the Governor,
(Signed) JOHN THOMAS CAMPBELL, Secretary.
True Copy. Witness the Governor's Seal of Office, and my Signature,
(Signed) Jno. Tho. Campbell, Sec.
We subjoin an extract of a letter from Mr Marsden to a friend, which will further illustrate his views and expectations in the visit which he was then himself on the point of paying to New Zealand.
You may remember when I was in England, that I often mentioned the Inhabitants of New Zealand to you. I have purchased a Vessel expressly for the purpose of promoting the Civilization of these people, and did intend to visit them about seven months ago myself, but could not obtain the Governor's sanction. I have now succeeded in obtaining his Excellency's permission, and intend to sail next month. I have several of the Chiefs now working around me, making nets. I am fully convinced that these people will become a great Nation, if they can only get Iron. This article comprehends all their wishes; they know its value. My first object will be to introduce Agriculture, in general, amongst them. My Friend, Duaterra, has set them an example in growing Wheat, &c. He is now with me. I have had some of their own Flax dressed before them, spun and wove, and made into clothing, which has astonished them very much. The wheels, looms, &c. appear to them wonderful. They are very proud of wearing cloaths made of their own Flax. When Duaterra saw the Flax dressed, and spun, he immediately said he would have a Ship of his own now, as he saw the Flax would make both Rope and Sails. The idea of a vessel is very gratifying to his mind. He is persuaded that he can navigate her himself
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from New Zealand to Port Jackson, and back again, by the Sun and Moon and Stars. He is sure he cannot lose his way. He has very clear ideas of Navigation
I am led to think that it is possible these people may originally have sprung from some civilized nation; and that they have degenerated into a rude and barbarous state for the want of Iron. I shall endeavour when I visit their Island to learn all I can about them; and try to find out, if possible, any real proofs of their former state whatever it may have been.
Mr. Marsden's plans and expectations are further developed in the following interesting communications, addressed by him to the Secretary.
Rev. Samuel Marsden, to Rev. J. Pratt.
Parramatta, Sept. 30th. 1814.
It may be necessary for me to acquaint you with my intentions relative to the final arrangement and settlement of the Missionaries at New Zealand, for the information of the Society.
Mr. Kendall is to devote the whole of his time to the acquirement of the native language, and in educating the children; and to depend upon the Society for the supply of all his necessary wants: he is now making considerable progress in the language. Mr. Hall will be employed in erecting the necessary Buildings for all the Missionaries, and the Public School; for which purpose I must engage our Carpenter, and one pair of Sawyers to assist him, till this work is done: he will also occasionally be occupied, in collecting timber to load the Active, for her to bring to Port Jackson, and in agriculture. Mr. King will have to attend his flax-dressing and shoe making, &c. I wish them all clearly to understand their respective duties, and to interfere with one another as little as possible; as they will have no Head present, to settle any little differences that might arise among them.
The place on which they settle I shall purchase from one of the Chiefs; and also a piece of land for the purposes of feeding stock, or cultivation.
Messrs. Hall and King have acquired much useful knowledge in New South Wales, which will now be of
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very essential service to them. They will he able to apply themselves to cultivation, or any other work that their situation may require them to perform. I consider the time well spent that they have been here, though I have had the most ardent wish for the establishment of the Mission. On my return from New Zealand I shall then be able to speak upon these points.
It will be a grand object with me to promote Agriculture among the Chiefs, as much as possible. When their necessary wants are hereby supplied, they will be more disposed to lay aside their warlike habits, and to attend to the simple arts of civilization.
Duaterra is fully Confident, if he can but obtain iron, that, in three or four years, the whole Island will be supplied with bread. He says it is not long ago since the first potatoes were brought to the Island; and now they are cultivated in every part, and have proved the greatest blessing to the natives. One pig only was put on shore by Mr. Turnbull, Master of a Whaler, and now they have a great number, and take much care of them, I supplied him, at different times, with wheat; but it was either lost in the vessels, or never given to him. When he first got home, I supplied him with seed. He immediately explained the value of the wheat, and gave a part to all the different Chiefs with whom he was acquainted, reserving some for himself. The Chiefs put the wheat into the ground, and had many consultations about it; but when it was near ripe, they thought Duaterra had imposed upon them, and had told them some fine stories as a Traveller. They examined the roots; but, not finding the grain, as they expected, growing like the potatoe, they set fire to all their crops, and burnt the whole. Duaterra was much distressed at this circumstance, as he could not prevail upon them to, give credit to what he said. He reaped his own wheat, and threshed it, and shewed it to the Chiefs; but still they would not believe that it would make bread. At this time the Jefferson Whaler arrived in the Bay of Islands, commanded by a Mr. Barns, to whom I had given a letter to Duaterra, recommending the Master to his kind attention. Duaterra now burrowed a pepper-mill from Mr. Barns, to shew his countrymen, by grinding the wheat, that it would make bread. But the mill was so small that he could not produce a suffi-
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cient quantity, so as to remove their prejudices. By the Active I sent a new supply of wheat, and a wheat-mill to Duaterra. When he got this mill, he immediately ground some wheat: when the Chiefs saw the flour come from the mill, they shouted for joy. He told me he afterwards made them a cake in the frying pan, and gave each a piece, which fully proved the truth of his former assertion, that wheat would make bread. This was the highest gratification.
Duaterra had about two acres and a half of wheat growing when the Active sailed from the Bay of Islands. He had had, for nearly two years, all the prejudices of his countrymen to contend with relative to the cultivation of wheat. The peas were also dug up by the Chiefs, as they thought to find them at the roots like the potatoes.
All their requests are for tools of agriculture. I took them to a stocking-weaver, to shew them how stockings were made. They were much astonished with the loom. Duaterra told me, that they wanted hoes, and not stockings. They could do without stockings at present, if they could get bread. I shall do all I can to encourage them in agriculture, and have no doubt but in a little time they will have plenty of provisions. I desired Mr. Kendall to bring a little New Zealand Flax, which I have had spun before the Chiefs, and is now in the loom. I shall give them some of the cloth to take with them. This has surprised them much. I shall send a little also to you for the Society to see some of the thread.
I am, &c.
(Signed) SAMUEL MARSDEN.
Rev. S. Marsden to Rev. J. Pratt.
Sydney, New South Wales,
November 18, 1814.
I am now embarked on board the Active for New-Zealand, together with Messrs. Kendall, Hall, and King. I have deemed it necessary to take a few select Mechanics to assist the Settlers, for the present, to form their establishment. The chiefs and their attendants return with me, excepting one young man, who remains with my family at Parramatta, in order that he may improve his mind in useful knowledge. He is a very fine young man.
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The Chiefs have been much gratified with their visit to this Colony; and the inhabitants, in general, have treated them with kindness and respect. His Excellency Governor Macquarrie has been very kind and attentive to them; and has given them three Cows and a Bull, one Cow to each Chief. I shall take a Horse and two Mares, for the future benefit of the Settlement. The Governor has also given to each of the Chiefs a suit of military officer's clothing, which has been very acceptable to them. They all seem very grateful.
At my request his Excellency the Governor has appointed Mr. Kendall to act as a Magistrate, which will be a check upon some of the Masters and Owners of Vessels, and their Crews, who visit New Zealand. The General Order relative to this subject, I herewith transmit for the information of the Society. The Governor has directed the Colonial Seal to be put to all the copies of these Orders which I have to give to the Chiefs, in order to shew more particularly what is the wish of the Executive Authority in this Colony.
As far as human foresight can conjecture, there is a fair prospect for establishing the Mission at New Zealand. I have had many difficulties to contend with, but they seem now to he in a great measure removed. The Society must be aware that the expenses attending this undertaking must be very considerable at the first.
Nothing will tend so much to civilize the Natives of New Zealand, as a constant intercourse with this Colony. I intend the Active to be always employed in this service, for the safety and comfort of the Settlers. I think the natural productions of the Island will nearly pay the expenses from this time. When I arrive at New Zealand I shall be a better judge of this matter, and shall then communicate my ideas to the Society.
I leave my Family under the Divine Protection. If I should be spared to return to them, I shall be able to provide for all their wants; but, if Providence should otherwise determine. I recommend them to the kind consideration of the Society, as much of my capital is expended in the work, and my partner has been afflicted for more than three years. --Whatever sacrifices I may make at present, I feel it my imperious duty to visit New Zealand. How far I am a judge of my own spirit I cannot tell. I shall commit all my affairs into His
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Hands, and follow where the Lord leads, so far as I know. I shall give the Society a more particular account the first opportunity. You will excuse my haste and confusion, as the vessel is now under weigh. I have the honour to be,
Your most obedient humble servant,
(Signed) SAMUEL MARSDEN
P.S. The Settlers are all well.