No. 4] JULY, 1862. [Vol. I.
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CHURCH QUARTERLY PAPER.
DIOCESE OF CHRISTCHURCH
No. 4] JULY, 1862. [Vol. I.
ON LAY CO-OPERATION
IN THE WORK OP THE CHURCH
SINCE our first article on this subject appeared in the second number of the "Church Quarterly Paper," an important and interesting debate is reported to have taken place in England, in the Lower House of the Convocation of the province of Canterbury, on a proposal to extend the sphere of lay agency in the Church of England by the revival of the ancient order of Sub-Deacons or Readers. We believe we shall be rendering an acceptable service to our readers by briefly reviewing this debate in the present article. It originated in the presentation by the Rev. F. C. Massingberd of the following petition signed by 85 of the clergy of the diocese of Lincoln, including the incumbents of several populous towns, and more especially Nottingham:--
"The humble petition of the undersigned sheweth--That your petitioners are of opinion that it would greatly tend, under the Divine blessing, to enlarge the sphere of usefulness of the Church of this land, if the clergy might be assisted by an authorized body of lay-teachers, holding some subordinate office, as that of Sub-Deacon, or Reader, yet not subject to those restrictions in respect to their other employments, or to those civil disabilities by which the clergy themselves are restrained, and whose obligation to devote themselves to such subordinate ministry should not be perpetual.
"Believing that such an institution, already in full operation in several colonial dioceses, would be of the highest value towards meeting the religious wants of the ever-growing
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masses of our population at home, without infringing the existing laws, and would be hailed by many good men as supplying them with a sphere of usefulness within the Church which they earnestly desire to find, your petitioners humbly pray your venerable house to take into your most serious consideration that part of the report of the Lower House on Home Missions which relates to this subject.
"And your petitioners will ever pray."
The institution, we observe, is recommended by the petitioners on two grounds. 1. The need of an increased agency to meet the religious wants of the people. 2. The sphere of usefulness it would open to earnest minded laymen, desirous of giving up a portion of their time to the more direct service of God, and to the promotion of the moral and religious welfare of their fellow-creatures. It is also interesting to notice how the greater freedom of the colonial churches re-acts, in some respects, with a salutary effect on the Mother Church. The petitioners speak of this institution as "already in full operation in several colonial dioceses Newfoundland and British Columbia are especially mentioned by Mr. Massingberd in his speech supporting the petition; and their example is recommended to be followed by the Church at home.
The Report referred to in the petition was then read. We wish we had space to print the whole of this admirable document, but we must content ourselves with a few extracts from it. The Committee had been charged with the consideration of two points. 1. Whether the Diaconate, instead of being regarded merely as a stepping-stone to the Priesthood, might not be extended, and rendered more efficient for the distinctive and subordinate offices for which it was first instituted, by the admission into it of a class of persons of lower qualifications in point of literary attainment. 2. Whether it might not be expedient to revive the ancient order of Readers, as was designed by Archbishop Mathew Parker at the beginning of the reign of Elizabeth. In their Report on these two questions, they begin by assuming: 1, That there is urgent need for additional agencies of one kind or the other; 2, "That there are many persons in different stations of life who would rejoice to be employed in the work of the Church under some definite and
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IN THE WORK OF THE CHURCH.
authoritative commission, but who are precluded by various causes from becoming candidates for holy orders."
With regard, first, to the Diaconate, they express an opinion that the difference between deacon and priest should be marked more distinctly than it is at present, and that this object would be in some measure effected, "if the deacons were encouraged to continue in that order, whenever practicable, for a longer period than is now usual, before they are advanced to the Priesthood; and that it would contribute greatly to the efficiency of their future ministry if they could be placed under the direction of experienced incumbents during their Diaconate." But they find serious obstacles in the way of the extension of this Order in the manner suggested, and amongst others they mention the following: "The indelible character of the Diaconate," i. e., the impossibility of resigning it, "constitutes one great difficulty, inasmuch as the Church might on this account often lose the help of those who could give the service of a time, but not the service of a life, to this especial part of her work."
Their attention was therefore directed, in the next place, to the expediency of reviving "the ancient order of Readers." "We find," they say, "that this office, which can be traced back to the third century, or even to an earlier period, was partially restored, at least in name, for a short time, immediately after the Reformation. The purpose of its restoration was to secure parishes from being entirely destitute of all religious teaching, there being a want at that time of persons duly qualified in respect of learning for admission into holy orders. That want indeed no longer exists. But a class of persons is now needed to assist incumbents of populous and scattered parishes in house-to-house visitation, in catechising, and in performing such religious services as may be assigned to them by competent ecclesiastical authority." Then follows the most important paragraph of the Report, which we give in full, and to which we would earnestly beg our readers to give their most careful attention. "Various terms have been suggested as indicative of the office which the present necessities of the Church require. But whatever name may be assigned to the office, we think that it may include persons of all ranks and classes of society; the time of some being wholly given to the work; of others, only in part; some receiving stipends, and others rendering gratuitous services; that those
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ON LAY CO-OPERATION
admitted to it should he subject to ecclesiastical jurisdiction, receiving their commission on the nomination of the incumbent from the Bishop of the diocese, after due examination as to their moral character, their religious knowledge, and their efficiency, with the solemnity of a public service in the church, and by an instrument under the episcopal hand and seal; and that they should be in all respects under the control and direction of the incumbent in whose parish they are employed. We further think, that they should be at liberty at any time whatever to resign the commission so received from the Bishop, and that the Bishop on the other hand should have the authority to revoke such commission."
The debate which ensued was full of interest, but we have no space to comment upon it, farther than to observe that, though some preferred the first of the two plans proposed, that namely of extending the Diaconate by admitting into it persons of a different class and different qualifications, and drawing a broader line of distinction between that order and the Priesthood, yet all were agreed as to the urgent necessity of multiplying the agencies now at work for the advancement of religion, and a large majority decided in favour of the proposal to revive the order of Readers, and adopted the Report of the Committee with a few alterations.
Now an agency of this kind has been at work amongst ourselves, in one or two particular cases, here and there, almost from the first establishment of the Church in Canterbury, and to the extent to which it has been adopted, has proved most beneficial. We ask our brother-churchmen to consider whether the difficulty of supplying the ministrations of religion to outlying districts with our present means, and the evils attending the want of those ministrations, are not so great as to make it our duty to encourage in every possible way the increase in the staff of lay readers. Be it clearly understood that the object is not to supply the place of clergymen, but to prepare the way for them, and to make up as far as possible for the want of them where they cannot be had. It appears to us that these readers, among ourselves, might be of two kinds, the first consisting of persons residing in the districts in which they would perform their functions, the other of persons residing in our principal towns, and going out on the Sunday to some neighbouring
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hamlet to assemble the people for Divine Service and to instruct the children. The Bishop, or the Archdeacon, or some other clergyman, would probably relieve the Reader occasionally, so as to enable him to attend the service and receive the Holy Communion at the parish church, and would have an opportunity of conferring with the people, and judging of the progress made. We believe that the Church has many earnest-minded laymen who would rejoice to find an opening thus afforded them of doing God service under proper sanction and authority, and without striking out new paths of their own choosing they would rejoice to feel that they were called and sent to such a work. Do we not often hear of such persons joining other communions who would gladly have remained within the Church's fold if any such sphere of religious usefulness had been open to them? How many places might be mentioned within a circumference of ten miles from Christchurch, where Sunday after Sunday passes with no religious service, no instruction of the children, which might easily be reached, at least during the summer months, by a lay reader, whose ministrations would be like fountains springing up in a dry ground! Would such work be worse done for being done under regular rule and proper sanction? In the early ages of the Church this office was sometimes filled by persons of the highest dignity: do we not also see in the present day many such persons performing the duties of Sunday School teachers? And if so, why should not some seek also this other kindred office? Some would refuse to receive any pecuniary assistance at all in the performance of their duties; others would necessarily require their expenses to be paid; in some cases perhaps a small stipend would be forthcoming from the district visited.
Surely none will deny that some such agency is greatly needed; the Church at home is awakening to a sense of the need, and is pointing to the colonial churches as teaching her a lesson; this should surely stir us up to some earnest endeavour to remedy the spiritual destitution which lies around us. We once more commend this subject to the thoughtful and prayerful consideration of our brother churchmen.
NOTE--In our own diocese the following form is in use for licensing lay readers:--
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ON LAY CO-OPERATION
"By Divine Permission, Bishop of . . . .
"To our beloved in Christ
"WE, having received the Petition of and divers Members of the Church in the District of certifying their confidence in your morals, integrity, and devoutness, and requesting that we will authorize you to act as Lay Reader in . . . .
. . . . and having further received from you a profession of your belief in the formularies of the Church of England, and of conformity to the Book of Common Prayer, and of your willingness to order yourself according to the customs and discipline of the said church, and to obey the godly admonitions of your ordinary, and of your appointed Pastor, . . . .
DO HEREBY authorize you to read the Common Prayer in the absence of any licensed clergyman, at such times and at such places as the Pastor of your district may appoint; and further to read printed sermons according to his selection, but not to preach nor interpret:
"PROVIDED ALWAYS that you do not use the absolution at the Morning and Evening Prayer, or the blessing at the end of the Communion Service:
"PROVIDED ALSO that you do not minister the Sacraments, or other public rite of the Church, excepting only the Burial of the Dead, and the Churching of Women.
"GIVEN under our Hand and Seal this . . . . Day of . . . . in the year of our Lord One thousand eight hundred and . . . . and in the . . . . Year of our Consecration."
TRADITIONS OF THE MIDDLE ISLAND.
WE left the contending tribes at peace. It was not, however, a peace of long duration.
Manawa, a chief of the Ngaitahu, demanded Ahuarangi, daughter of Tukiauau, chief of the Ngatimamoe, as a wife for his son. The manner in which the proposal was made gave offence to her tribe, and they refused their assent. In spite of the failure of his first attempt, Manawa the following year renewed his proposal. Accompanied by a hundred of his followers, he sought the Ngatimamoe pa, situated near the Kaikoras. Messengers were sent forward to announce his approach and the cause of his visit. On his arrival he was greeted in the usual manner, and his party as they entered the stronghold were shown into a large house set apart for their reception. Manawa was the last to
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enter; the moment he bent his head and stepped through the opening, Tukiauau, who was standing by the gate, struck him a violent blow with a stone axe. Manawa staggered forward, but before he reached his companions, he received a still more violent blow on the head. Immediately he got into the house the door was closed, and the old chief, after wiping the blood from his face, addressed his men. He told them that their case was hopeless. Caught in a trap, and surrounded by foes, they must prepare to die; all he desired was that an attempt should be made to convey to the Ngaitahu tidings of their cruel fate. Many volunteered for this dangerous service. One was chosen from the number. Manawa, after smearing his forehead with blood, charged him to be brave, and committing him to the care of his atuas 1 sent him forth. Hundreds of spears were aimed at the messenger, who fell transfixed ere he advanced a pace.
Again and again the attempt to escape was repeated, but in vain. The imprisoned band grew dispirited, and Manawa failed to obtain a ready response to his call for more volunteers. At length a youth, nearly related to him, offered to make a last attempt. The moment was propitious: the enemy, certain of success, guarded the door with less vigilance. Smeared with the dying chief's blood, and charged with his last message to his family and tribe, the youth sprang out. Warding off the spears hurled at him, and evading his pursuers among the houses and enclosures, he reached the outer fence, over which he climbed in safety and turned to rush down the hill--but the only path bristled with spears. His enemies were pressing upon him. One chance for life remained. The pa stood on the edge of a cliff; by leaping down upon the beach below be might escape. He made the attempt, and a shout of triumph rose from his foes when they saw his body extended on the sands, but their rage knew no bounds when he sprang up, and in a loud voice defied them to track 'the swift feet of the son of Tahu.' The Ngatima-
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moe now proceeded to kill and eat the victims of their treachery. In the meantime the sole survivor of Manawa's party arrived at Waipapa with the startling intelligence of their fate. The Ngaitahu were quite unmanned by this unexpected blow, they resolved to let a year pass ere they avenged the death of their chief; fearing, if they should attack the Ngatimamoe at a place where blood dear to them had so recently been spilt, a panic might seize them, and victory after all fall to their treacherous foes.
They waited therefore till the grass had overgrown the oven in which Manawa was cooked, and had hidden all traces of his sad fate. The war party was then summoned, and it was decided to proceed by sea. All except Kaue, the survivor of the massacre, were ready on the appointed day--and he was told to follow. Vexed at being left behind, he urged his men to hasten the fittings of his canoe; as soon as they were completed, he launched forth and sailed in quest of his friends. On the second day he saw their fires, but passing by them landed on a point which served to conceal his canoe, and from which he could discern the Ngatimamoe pa. Seeing the enemy leaving the shore to fish in the morning, he waited till they anchored, and then issuing from his retreat, charged down upon them. He succeeded in capturing one canoe. Killing the crew, he bound the chief, and rowed back to the place where he had seen his comrades' fires. They took him at first for an enemy, and were not a little surprised when they recognized the very man they were waiting for. Seeing he had a prisoner, they called to ask who he was. "Tukaruatoro," replied Kaue. "He is my brother-in-law," shouted Toro who came running down to the edge of the water with a mat to cover him. 2 Kaue, fearing his life would be spared, stooped down and bit off his right ear and ate it. "Oh! oh!" cried the man. "Aha!" said Kaue, "did Manawa cry when he was struck?" And stooping down he bit the other ear off. The brother-in-law, seeing Kaue's determination to retaliate Manawa's death on the prisoner, gave him up to
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be eaten. The next day, the Ngaitahu laid siege to the pa, but its impregnable position baffled every effort to take it. Food failed besiegers and besieged. The Ngaitahu were about to retire, when Tuterangiapiapi, who was related to persons in the place, hit upon a plan for its destruction. Without divulging his design, he asked permission to visit the Ngatimamoe for the ostensible purpose of offering conditions of peace. He was well received by the besieged, and his visits became frequent and long continued. The Ngaitahu grew impatient at the delay, and wanted to know how he was to effect his object. "Wait" he said, "till a Nor'wester blows, and then seize the opportunity afforded you." When the wind blew from the desired quarter, Tuterangiapiapi went as usual and seated himself in the doorway of a kauta, or kitchen, near the lower end of the pa. Having procured one of the long stones with which the women prepared the fern root, he fastened one end to a piece of green flax, and put the other into a fire; when it was red hot he watched an opportunity and slung it into the thatch of an adjoining house. A cry of fire soon arose. The unsuspected perpetrator of the deed rushed out to assist the crowds who were trying to extinguish the flames, but in his apparent haste to pull off the burning thatch he threw it in such a manner that the wind might blow it to the other houses; and in a few moments the whole place was involved in the conflagration. Under cover of the smoke the Ngaitahu entered, and a general massacre ensued.
This was the last time the Ngatimamoe made any stand against the conquering Ngaitahu. Weakened by successive defeats, and terrified at the treatment they met with from the dominant tribe, they ceased to build pas, secreted themselves in caverns, and fled on the approach of strangers. In Lyttelton harbour there is a cave which formed the retreat of a small tribe, and near Timaru there are several, the sides of which are covered with rude drawings of men, fishes, &c. --which in like manner afforded shelter to this unhappy people.
Hunted on all sides, the Ngatimamoe plunged at last into the recesses of the southern forests where for more than one hundred years they have eluded pursuit.
That they still exist there can be no doubt, and in a future
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number we hope to state all that is at present known respecting the only pagan tribe now in New Zealand.
From the final conquest of the Ngatimamoe till about thirty years ago, internecine wars occupied the various sections of the Ngaitahu. Rauparaha's descent upon this island led them to combine to resist his invasion, but he succeeded in breaking their power, and, after killing great numbers, carried hundreds into captivity. Since then the Ngaitahu have embraced Christianity, and continue to enjoy the blessings of peace.
The following extract from a letter addressed to the Diocesan Secretary by the Rev. B. Dudley brings up our report of the Mission to the commencement of May, 1862.
"You will see by the date of this letter that we are spending a longer time in New Zealand this year than usual. The fact is, that it is very difficult, almost impossible, to charter a vessel at the time we want one. Just now, especially, in consequence of the great trade between this place and Otago, none of the owners are willing to take their vessels off for the sake of a single trip to the islands, even though for the time it were more remunerative to them.
"However, the Bishop has now succeeded in making an arrangement with the owners of the Sea Breeze, the vessel that we had last voyage. They could not let us have her at once, as to take her off the trade in which she is now engaged without substituting another in her place, would lose them many of their regular customers, but they have another vessel now in course of repair. When she is completed she will take the place of the Sea Breeze: so that now the latter vessel is definitely chartered by the Bishop for four months; the charter to commence on the 7th June. It is a long time to wait, and we shall doubtless have some rather trying weather before that time, but it is almost the only resource. The Caroline gun-boat was kindly offered by Sir G. Grey; and the Bishop had thought at one time of taking her to Norfolk Island, and leaving the party there for a time, until the Sea Breeze could pick them up, but she is so exceedingly small and so choked up with man-of-war fittings, that not more than half the party could be taken at once. She is still at his service in
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case any of the party should be taken ill, to send them on before, but she would not have suited for more than that.
"Meanwhile, it is a golden time for teaching. The last few weeks of the school in New Zealand are generally the most remunerative. By that time the scholars are better able to understand and apply what has been dinned into them during the whole summer.
"So far as it is possible to see, never before have the results of a single season been so hopeful as now. The knowledge of the first class, in charge of Mr. Pritt, is something surprising. Any one who were to walk into our dining hall as it is lighted up in the evening, and occupied by the boys at their work, would find it very hard to believe the orderly classes he saw there, some engaged in writing, some translating, some receiving catechetical instruction, were formed of persons who a few months ago were running wild in their own islands, with bow and arrows constantly in their hands, and without clothing of any kind. This was really the case with many: two young men we have now with us are from Santa Maria, one of the Bank's group (the island at which those in the boat are generally shot at.). They joined us quite accidentally as it seemed, quite unchosen on our part, and so far as we know, without any definite idea of where we came from or where we wanted to take them. Now they are as docile and obedient as any in the school. One of them, who was lately moved up from the third into the second class, the husband of four wives in his own island, can now read very fairly and write on the slates in a dialect not his own, but in that of a neighbouring island), and is very useful and helpful in giving words, translating, etc. in his own language. With his help, Harper, one of our Mengone teachers, has obtained a great many words and phrases in the Santa Maria language, and has translated one or two short cards, containing simple scripture teaching. We hope that they will take back a good account of us to their friends, and that we shall find them hereafter more peaceably disposed when we visit them.
"The first class consists of eight young men and lads, and one girl, the wife of one of them. Five of these come from Mota and Vanua Lava, and speak the same dialect; two from Motlav, an island nine miles distant, and speaking a distinct dialect; one from
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Rowa, a small reef island thirteen or fourteen miles from Mota, with about forty inhabitants, and a dialect of its own; and a lad from the Northern part of New Caledonia, who has been with us now nearly five years.
"All of these, however, including the New Caledonian, speak Mota very well. This is one of the classes in Mr. Pritt's charge. All of them can read fairly, most of them well, in their own language, and are able to write from dictation, and to answer written questions. They have, too, a considerable acquaintance with the simple rules of arithmetic, and can read English books--understanding and translating a great deal of what they read. They are well acquainted with the most important points in Bible history, and in the definite catechetical teaching they are now receiving, are able constantly to draw upon what they have learnt for example and proof, answering and taking the meaning of questions in a way that many in most confirmation classes would not.
These boys take it by turns to teach the first class, that so they may be qualified to be sent out hereafter in different directions to teach in the villages of the island, and many of them already show great aptitude.
"The second class too, consisting of seven, has made considerable progress, though far behind the first in most respects.
"The third consists at present of only two lads, one from the island of Mae, and one from that of Pasiko, New Hebrides. This is in charge of the Rev. Mr. Kerr, who is engaged in learning the languages of these two islands.
"There is another class of the Bank's islanders, which I have omitted; this consists of two lads from Avreas, a bay on the south side of Vanua Lava; two from Merigi, a small island to the south of Mota; and one from Santa Maria. This is usually taught by Harper, or in his absence, by one of the first class. The only remaining class is that taught by Wadrokel, consisting of his wife, Carry Molango, and two half-brothers of his. Poor little Mary, Harper's wife, has been unable to take any part in the school for a long time--she is lying gradually wasting away, in a consumption. I told you, I think, of her marriage to Harper at the beginning of the summer; soon after that, she and Carry were
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baptized, when everything seemed so bright and cheering before them. Harper's character has come out wonderfully under this, his trial: nothing could exceed the kindness and patience with which he has constantly waited upon his sick little wife.
"We have printed or hope to print this year: l, a Scripture history in the Mota language, from the Creation, with a brief account of all the Old Testament characters, whose histories more especially come in as types, etc., in illustrating the Christian teaching, to the time of our Lord and His Apostles; 2, a full set of questions on the same, for the use of teachers, especially those taken from among the first class scholars; 3, a short primer, containing the Creed, Lord's Prayer, Ten Commandments, and some hymns, and one or two parables from Holy Scripture; 4, the Catechism in full, besides great numbers of elementary cards and others containing stories suggested by the natives themselves about the new and strange things they had seen in New Zealand, the habits of the people there etc.: this is as light reading; so that, you see the Bank's islands will not be badly off for books this year. Besides these, parts of Scripture history have been translated into the Mae language and printed.
"Another year we hope some of the boys may begin to learn to print their own books--both of the teachers Wadrokal and Harper are tolerably expert in this work; the former having been taught by Mr. Nihill in old days, and the latter having since helped the London Society's Missionaries to print the Gospels in his own language.
"Our work here, as you may suppose, has assumed a much more definite form since we have had a Bishop of our own and more helpers. When the new vessel comes out we may hope for still more organization. As a matter of course, expenses increase in proportion as the work extends itself. The balance sheet for this year will probably shew this."
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OUR SCHOOLS--HOW TO USE THEM.
No. II. --AN ADDRESS TO THE PARENTS OF CHILDREN ATTENDING DISTRICT SCHOOLS.
WE endeavoured in our former article to point out how materially an unpunctual, and still more so an irregular attendance at school, must interfere with the progress of a child's education. Only too glad should we be to think that such an endeavour was unnecessary. Probably, however, there is not a district school teacher in the Diocese, but would find, more or less, in our former remarks, the echo of his own painful experience.
We come now to point out an evil, of the prevalence of which the teacher is perhaps the last person, generally speaking, to become aware, though it may have been to a great extent weakening his authority over the children he is required to teach, and robbing him of his rightful influence upon their minds. He has seen the effects, and deplored them, while perhaps at a loss to imagine the cause. We allude to the thoughtless and injudicious manner in which some parents accustom themselves, in the hearing of their children, to speak of those children's instructors.
It should be borne in mind, that for several hours of the day, the teacher is to the child the representative of his parents. For the purposes of instruction, and of religious and moral training, the parents have committed their child to his care; and have delegated to him, during the hours of school, so much of their parental authority as is requisite to enable him rightly to fulfil those purposes. When they send the child to school, they may be fairly supposed by that very act to say to the master or mistress as follows:-- "We are unable to instruct this child ourselves. Either we have not the requisite knowledge and ability; or else our hands are so full of pressing business that we have not time to devote to that object. At all events, we recognise the saving of time and labour which results when the children of many parents, situated like ourselves, are placed under the instruction of one person; and the advantages which are secured when that person has been especially gifted and trained for the work of teaching. We ask you then, to
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"step into our place, to become our substitute, to discharge our duty, during so many hours of the day. You will stand to this child, so far, in our stead; and we make over to you, so far, our parental authority.
The act of sending a child to school involves all this. It may reasonably be expected, therefore, that before such an act is resolved upon, every parent should ask himself, "Have I confidence in the teacher to whom I thus commit my child? is there reason to believe that religiously, morally, and intellectually, he is qualified to discharge such a trust? Am I warranted in delegating to him, duties, which, to their full extent, I find myself unable to perform in person?"
Let it be clearly understood, that we do not exonerate the parent from all personal responsibility in these matters, even though the school and the teacher should justly bear the highest possible character. We are only speaking of school education, but for the fireside education, for the home training of their children, particularly in religion, in morality, and in all decent and praiseworthy habits, the father and mother are still accountable. These duties they can delegate to none. It is but too necessary to make this reservation. Many seem to think that because they send their children to a Sunday or a week-day school, where they are taught the Scriptures and the Catechism, they need not trouble themselves further about that religious and moral instruction, which never falls upon a child's mind so powerfully and beneficially, as from the lips of an affectionate and exemplary parent. Monstrous indeed is the evil, where the training of the school is permitted to take the place of, rather than to aid, the "sweet discipline of home," the far more powerful training of parental influence and example.
Nevertheless, the case stands as we have put it. The teacher is, to some extent, and during certain periods of time, as the parent; vested with his authority, because doing his work. Can we, then, imagine anything more suicidal, than that the parents themselves should canvass the teacher's faults, real or imaginary, before their children--secretly encourage them to disregard his commands--question the wisdom and propriety of his school regulations--send him verbal messages of dissatisfaction, or of a disrespectful character, by the mouths of those he is to teach--or
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do anything whatever which is calculated to lessen his influence, and cause their children to think of him less reverently and submissively than they ought? Can it be reasonably expected that that child will treat his instructor with deference, whose parent openly speaks of him with indifference or disrespect, and practically sets at nought his arrangements or his wishes? The rightful authority and just influence of the teacher thus weakened, is it to be wondered at, if he fails to secure the results which were expected to follow upon his instructions?
It matters little to this argument --whether the complaints so made are just, or unjust, in themselves. In many cases they are grievously unjust. Parents do not, and cannot understand, in the generality of instances, all a teacher's motives, plans, or difficulties. They often think a course necessary, which his greater experience in the art of instruction has shown him to be needless, or even injurious. They do not always see at what he is aiming; they are seldom competent fairly to judge of his systems and modes of conveying knowledge; and they should be slow, therefore, to interfere in any way, unless they have first sought an explanation of those arrangements and plans, the drift of which they do not understand. A wise teacher will gladly avail himself of the opportunity thus afforded him to remove any misconceptions and prejudices which may have arisen. Indeed, if we might offer a suggestion, in passing, to teachers themselves, it would be this, that they should seek to know personally the parents of their scholars, and visit them occasionally, for the purpose of familiar conversation upon the children's progress and conduct. Many a misunderstanding might thus be prevented; many a child saved from the great evil of being sent to school after school, without staying long enough in any to gain real and solid advantage; much parental co-operation might thus be secured. Parents, moreover, must exercise patience as regards the visible results of a teacher's instructions. Let them reflect that the foundations of a building are secret and out of sight. So is it with the ground-work of instruction. When that is well laid, subsequent teaching will produce visible, solid, and lasting results. When that is neglected, all else must necessarily be superficial and fading. But while this groundwork is being laid, it will generally be difficult for the parents to discern the progress of the child. He is getting good at
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OUR SCHOOLS--HOW TO USE THEM.
school, but it is not of such a nature, for the present, as to be very manifest or striking. An experienced teacher might perhaps detect it, but an ordinary observer would probably fail to do so.
It is admitted, however, that sometimes just cause of complaint arises. What then? Are the parents to blazon the teacher's fault before their children's eyes--hold it up to view, expatiate upon it to neighbours and friends in their hearing, magnify it, perhaps send angry messages by the children to the teacher, respecting it? If they do take this course, let them not wonder if their children become disobedient, obstinate, impertinent, and idle at school. The teacher is fallen in their eyes; their father has blamed him, their mother has complained of him, and they, therefore, proportionately cease to respect him. His influence over them is now but the shadow of what it was. Those unguarded parental speeches live in the child's memory. They are uppermost in his mind whenever at school he is corrected for a fault, when he is urged to be more diligent, when a command is enforced which he is unwilling to obey. The spirit of rebellion feeds upon them, and grows strong. He is not over-ready to discriminate between that case and the present; wrong then, in his father's or mother's opinion, he is too willing to believe that his teacher is wrong now. And the mischief seldom rests with himself. To his school-mates the disparaging remark is soon confided, its effect upon them proving nearly the same as upon himself, unless they are under strong influences of an opposite tendency.
The circumstances will be peculiar and unusual which will justify the parent in expressing before the child any doubt as to the wisdom or the desirableness of the teacher's sayings or doings. We would not have him extenuate, or appear to countenance, any thing which is morally culpable, to the injury of the child's own moral sense. Such cases are not those to which we refer. We speak of hasty, thoughtless remarks, flowing from forgetfulness of the teacher's true position. We ask parents to regard him as their own agent, doing their work, and invested for that purpose with their authority. Let them in every possible way endeavour to strengthen his hands, and maintain his influence undiminished. Let them train their children to respect and obey him at school, even as they respect and obey their parents at home. If
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complaints must be made, let them be made to him privately, with candour and kindness; otherwise, he is shorn of his strength, by those very persons who will afterwards most bitterly complain of his weakness.
Few know the trials of patience, the wearying labours, the difficulties and discouragements with which the work of a teacher abounds. A little patient thought, however, may enable those to imagine these things, who are exempt from realizing them. We ask from parents, therefore, sympathy with the instructors of their children, and the manifestations of a desire to help rather than hinder them in their arduous duties.
Two Sections in Invercargill have been given by J. H. Menzies, Esq., for site of Parsonage House, glebe, and endowment.
H. Sewell, Esq., proposes to reserve on some land set apart for building near Christchurch a site for a Church, Parsonage, School, and some allotments for endowment.
RURAL DEANERY OF OTAGO.
In the beginning of the year 1861 the Church of England population in Otago and Southland probably did not exceed 8000, and there were only two Clergymen officiating among them. Exertions however were made to secure the services of three additional Clergymen, and for this purpose the Church members of three Districts guaranteed each £250 per annum for a period of three years, and on the part of two of the Districts there was also paid into the hands of the Treasurer of the Rural Deanery Board the sum of £100 each, to defray the cost of the passage of Clergymen from England. A Clergyman for the third district was procured from Wellington, and his travelling expenses from thence also paid by the district. The result is that there are now five Clergymen serving in the Deanery, who are severally stationed in the following districts:
At Dunedin where there is a parsonage with no debt upon it; and a temporary Church about to be replaced by a more substantial and churchlike budding of stone, the corner stone of which was laid by the Bishop of Christchurch, on June 3, last. The new Church will accommodate about four hundred worshippers. The population of Dunedin of all denominations is probably little short of 10,000; and the inhabitants in connection with the Church of England are becoming so numerous, that a second Church will soon be required. The services of a second Clergyman are already much needed.
WAIKOUATI where there is a parsonage and Church. Goodwood is included in this district, and in the course of a few months will be provided with a Church. The population of this part of the province, owing to the Highlay Gold Fields which are in the immediate neighbourhood, is rapidly increasing.
OAMARU:-- A pastoral district, including the township of that name, and the sheep and cattle stations in its vicinity. No Church or parsonage has yet been built, but sections in the township have been purchased as sites, and in the meanwhile, the Clergyman resides in a house at Oamaru, which has been taken for him by the members of the Church of England: for the services of the Church are held in a store.
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POPOTUNOA: --A pastoral district, including the country between the Molyneux and the Mataura. The Clergyman resides at Popotunoa, where there is a parsonage. No building for public worship has yet been erected. The services are held at the stations and houses in the different parts of the district.
INVERCARGILL AND RIVERTON, SOUTHLAND. --The Clergyman in charge of this district resides at Invercargill, in a house rented for him until a parsonage shall have been erected, for which funds are being collected. A Church has been built there which was opened by the Bishop for public worship in December last, and which already it is proposed to enlarge. A Church also at Riverton is being built, and the time cannot be far distant when it will have its own resident Clergyman.
Arrangements are also being made for the locating of a clergyman at Tokomairiro, a township to the south of Dunedin, on the road to the Tuapeka gold field. The population of the township and its immediate neighbourhood has more than doubled itself during the last year, and a Church and a parsonage have been already provided, together with 25 acres of land for endowment and glebe.
No regular provision has yet been made for ministering to the spiritual wants of the large population engaged on the gold-fields. But an application to the Society for the propagation of the Gospel has been responded to by an annual grant of 200l. There is little doubt that if an active and zealous clergyman were placed in the exclusive charge of the population on the goldfields, liberal contributions for his maintenance might also be obtained from the storekeepers and miners.
It is of the utmost importance that land should be obtained for Church purposes in the several new townships which are being formed in the province, and in no better way could churchmen employ some portion of that wealth which the providence of God has so suddenly given to many among them. A striking example of the benefit of such a course is shown at Waikouaiti. J. Jones, Esq., laid out a township there in 1860, and gave sixty-four quarter-acre sections in it: first, for the maintenance of clergymen and schoolmasters in that district, and secondly for the support of clergymen thoughout the Rural Deanery of Otago, including that portion which has now been separated from it under the name of Southland. These sections, worth when given, about ten pounds each, are now worth from fifty to two hundred pounds each, and will probably let in the spring at a very high rental. The members of the Church could now by a very small outlay secure very great and lasting good for themselves, as well as for those who shall come after them. Besides this, the time seems to have arrived when steps should be taken towards placing the Church of England populations of the Provinces of Otago and Southland under the charge of a Bishop residing among them, and for this purpose land endowment should immediately be secured. In all endowments for local Church purposes, care should be taken to give power to the trustees appointed under the General Synod to apply with the sanction of the Synod the rents and profits of such endowments to all local Church purposes. If, for instance, land should be set apart as glebe for the benefit of the Clergyman of any parish, power should be reserved in the conveyance to the trustees to let any portion of it, and to apply it for the benefit of the clergyman, either for his maintenance if necessary, or the building, enlarging, or repairing of the parsonage. The desirableness of such a provision is already apparent in the case of land given as glebe in a township of this Province, which is fast growing into importance. The glebe, consisting of ten acres, is in the centre of the town, and has become of considerable value, but according to the terms of conveyance it can only be occupied by the clergyman as glebe, and he will probably have to pay heavy town rates for it; whereas there is little doubt but that the frontage might be advantageously leased, and the income derived from it profitably applied to the purposes above-mentioned.
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COLLECTIONS FOR MELANESIAN MISSION.
Dunedin ..............£40 11s.
Waikouaiti & Goodwood...£7 0s.
Riverton ...............£13 0s.
Of the £13 collected at Riverton £4 17 was the contribution of the) children of the Sunday School in that township.
Bishop Patteson desires to thank those unknown friends in the Diocese who have forwarded to him by the Airedale, a box full of clothing for the Melanesians.
It may be seen by a reference to the Report of the second General Synod held at Nelson in February last, that the subject of a Hymn Book for the use of the congregations in the ecclesiastical Province of New Zealand was again referred to the consideration of the Bench of Bishops, with the request that they would supply, with as little delay as possible, the book required. The Bishop of Christchurch, in a conference with the other Bishops, agreed to accept and recommend for general use in his Diocese, the Hymnal compiled at Auckland, omitting in that collection certain hymns, and inserting others of his own selection. The hymnal thus altered has been sent to England to be printed, and will probably be ready for use before the end of the year. A certain number of copies with appropriate tunes adapted to the different metres, and selected from the most approved Hymnals now in use in England, will also be printed.
PARISH CHURCH GATHERINGS.
Two most succeesful Church gatherings have been held within the last few months at Lyttelton and Rangiora, We are sorry that want of space prevents us from giving reports of them.
CHRIST'S COLLEGE, CANTERBURY.
There have been 75 pupils under tuition during the past half-year, three of whom are scholars on the Somes Foundation. The value of these scholarships is £50 per annum, each. Besides these, there are two Rowley Scholarships' (value £20 per annum), two Buller and Reay Scholarships (value £15 per annum) and one on the Dudley Foundation (£15 per annum) being a Scholarship founded by the Rev. B. W, Dudley. The distribution of the Prizes after the midwinter Examination took place on the 19th ult., when the Reports of the Examiners were read. The examiners were, the Rev. H. W. Harper, B. A., and W. Rolleston, Esq,, B. A., (in Divinity and Classics), the Hon. H. J. Tancred, Esq., (in Ancient and Modern History), and the Rev. W. C. Fearon., M. A., (in Mathematics) who reported generally that satisfactory progress had been made. The Mathematical Examiner remarked "Many of the papers in Arithmetic and Algebra very much exceeded my expectations, and I question whether a better set of answers (on the whole) would be obtained from any equal number of boys of the same age." The prizes were adjudged as follows:
In the Scholar's Class, H. I. Dudley, Somes Scholar, Prize in Divinity and Classics.
In the sixth form, S. J. Stedman, (Buller and Reay Scholar,) first Prize in Divinity, Classics and Mathematics; F. H. Cotterill obtained a Scholarship as a prize, second in ditto., F. A. Baker, prize for History.
In the fifth form, G. Harper and C. Merton, equal prizes in Divinity and Classics, C. Merton, prize for history, F. Younghusband, for Mathematics.
In the fourth form, E. Dobson, for Divinity and Classics, J. Hall for History, W. B. Buller and J. W. Fisher for Arithmetic.
In the third form, W. Lambert and E. T. Mulligan, equal prizes in all subjects.
In the second form, S. R. Dransfield, prize.
In the first form, A. E. Chetham Strode, prize.
The Sub-Warden's prizes for Composition were awarded to H. T. Dudley, and G. F. Brittan.
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