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THE CHARACTER AND LABOURS
REV. SAMUEL MARSDEN,
SHORTLY after the decease of the Rev. Samuel Marsden, formerly senior Chaplain of New South Wales, it was proposed to erect a monument to his memory at the public expense. The proposal was highly commended on all sides, and subscriptions were promised to a considerable amount. Through causes, however, difficult to explain, the benevolent design has never been carried into effect; and now, not to the credit of those individuals who undertook the management of the matter, after six long years of anxiety and suspense on the part of the public, no steps whatever have been taken to gratify the feeling, and to perform the sacred and melancholy duty of erecting the monument. With a view, therefore, of bringing this subject again before the notice of his friends, and to assist in the erection of a most appropriate monument, viz., a new church in a district of which he was the pastor, we now venture to make a few observations on the character and labours of SAMUEL MARSDEN.
Mr. Marsden was "no common man," and he appears to have been raised up by Divine Providence for the purpose of accomplishing a great moral revolution in the Southern Hemisphere. To use the appropriate language of his friend, the Rev. Henry Tarlton Styles, M. A., "as Luther in Germany, and John Knox in Scotland, and Cranmer in England, were sent by the Head of the
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Church, and fitted with peculiar qualifications to unfold His glorious Gospel, when it was almost hidden in Romish darkness, so no less truly was Samuel Marsden raised up in this Southern Hemisphere, and admirably fitted for the work, and made the honourable instrument of diffusing the light of that same Gospel, and of bringing it to bear upon the darkness of Heathenism in New Zealand, and the isles of the sea; and upon the darkness too, no less real, of the depravity of society in early Australia." Mr. Marsden's character was, undoubtedly, well adapted for the situation in which he was placed. Possessing great honesty and integrity of purpose, and a firmness of mind which no difficulties and trials could daunt, he contended manfully against the gross abominations and iniquities of the early convicts and settlers in Australia; and, long before his death, he had the gratification of seeing the commencement of those institutions for which he had so strenuously laboured. At the period when Mr. Marsden arrived in New South Wales, which was during the administration of Governor Grose, morality was at a very low ebb amongst all classes of the community. Theft, profaneness, blasphemy, and insubordination prevailed to an alarming extent amongst the convicts; whilst, with a few honourable exceptions, the higher classes of society, the civil and military officers, too frequently "disregarded the sanctities of marriage, and lived in a state of loose concubinage." These manifestations of awful depravity had preyed so much on the spirits of the excellent Mr. Johnson, the first Colonial Chaplain, that his health was considerably impaired, and on the appointment of Mr. Marsden, he gave up his situation and left the colony. Before he quitted the scene of his painful and arduous labours, he printed and circulated a tract amongst the people, which for piety, simplicity, and good-feeling, has perhaps never been surpassed by any subsequent colonial publication. This pious man, as well as Mr. Bain, Chaplain of the New South Wales Corps, was indebted for his appointment to the eminent Mr. Wilberforce, who, from the commencement of the colony, was ever anxious to promote its moral and religious welfare. Devoted as these worthy men appear to have been to the propagation of the Gospel, they were, nevertheless, deficient in that degree of firmness and energy
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which constituted the main feature in the character of SAMUEL MARSDEN. Many an individual of a more plastic nature might have been moulded by the prevailing fashion of the age in which he lived, and instead of endeavouring to struggle against the tide of popular opinion, would have yielded, in all probability, to its seducing influence. Such was not the case with Mr. Marsden. When he was opposed on all sides, and even by the civil and military authorities of the day, he faithfully performed his duty, and, careless of the powerful coalitions combined for his destruction, "all the ends he aimed at, were his country's, his God's, and and Truth's." Educated in the school of the Milners, the Simeons, and the Fletchers, he was not disposed to flatter the vices of any man; but with plainness and sincerity of speech, he discoursed "of righteousness, temperance, and judgment to come." That such a man should raise up a host of bitter enemies is not to be wondered at, when we take into consideration the peculiar constitution of that society in which he was destined to move. It was to avert some impending storm, therefore, which he foresaw rising as a little cloud in the political horizon, that, not deeming himself safe in New South Wales, he determined on a voyage to England. During his absence, as he had all along anticipated, the whole face of society was agitated; but, by perseverance in the grand object of his undertaking, he was enabled to give much useful information to the Home Government, and to induce them to lay the foundation of many salutary regulations for the management of the prison population. Mason Good, his bosom friend and admirer, and who, by Mr. Marsden's instrumentality, was converted from the errors of Socinianism, notices in a very pleasing manner, his labours in behalf of the colony. "For our own parts, we expect that much good will result from the regulations lately recommended to our Government by the Rev. Samuel Marsden, senior Chaplain of New South Wales, regulations most of which have been adopted, and for the execution of which Mr. Marsden has just returned to New South Wales with ample powers. Scarcely anything is too much to expect from the prudence, activity, intrepidity, and piety of this excellent man, and we doubt not that unborn ages will
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revere his name, and rejoice in the blessings he was the means of bringing to the colony." Whilst in England, Mr. Marsden was made the honoured instrument of inducing several pious and exemplary clergymen and missionaries to embark for New South Wales. Of the former, two, the Rev. Dr. Cowper (father of the Rev. Macquarie Cowper, of Port Stephens, and Charles Cowper, Esq., M. C., for the County of Cumberland,) and the Rev. Robert Cartwright, of Yass, (father of the Rev. Mr. Cartwright, the well known Secretary to the Society for the conversion of the Jews, and also of Dr. Cartwright in this colony,) are still living, and notwithstanding their advanced years and increasing infirmities, there are few young men in the colony so zealous in preaching the Gospel, and in promoting the interests of the Church of England.
On the return of Mr. Marsden, who arrived about the same time as Governor Macquarie, he continued his labours as Colonial Chaplain, and prepared the way for future Missionaries in Polynesia, by establishing the Gospel in New Zealand, under the auspices of the Church Missionary Society. For this noble purpose he undertook several voyages to that Island, and submitted to great personal inconvenience and danger in accomplishing his designs. At a period when the natives were but little known, excepting as a race of barbarous cannibals, he boldly ventured amongst them, and preached "the unsearchable riches of Christ." Unconscious of fear, he lived for several months amongst the fierce New Zealanders, and accompanied them into the interior of the island, crossing mountains and rapid rivers at the risk of his life, and cheerfully suffering privation and fatigue. New Zealand was near his heart, and during the latter part of his life, he seldom spoke of it without being sensibly affected. On one occasion, when relating an anecdote respecting Mowhee, a converted New Zealander, he was completely overcome, and hurst into tears.
Mr. Marsden was the agent and friend of many excellent societies. For many years, he gave his cordial support to the London Missionary Society, and by his counsel and advice, assisted the early ministers of the Gospel in the Society Islands. He kept up a constant
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correspondence with them, and many of his letters are still extant, which demonstrate the lively interest that he felt for that distant mission. But, while engaged in the contemplation of foreign stations, he was not unmindful, in any way, of the spiritual wants of those who were placed more particularly under his care. He founded Bible and Tract Societies, encouraged Missionary Meetings, and was ever ready to support the cause of Benevolence. On many occasions he delivered interesting speeches at religious meetings, and not very long before his death, he presided at a Bible Society Meeting in Parramatta, and, in an affectionate address, alluded to his beloved New Zealand. In his discourses from the pulpit, he ever aimed at the inculcation of the main doctrines of the Gospel, "Repentance towards God, and faith in our Lord Jesus Christ," and when, from the dimness of his sight, he was no longer able to read his sermons to the people, he preached extempore. It is with pleasure, even now, that we reflect upon the genuine piety and unaffected simplicity of the venerable Minister, as he discoursed on one of his favourite parables or gave an outline of the Patriarchal History. Others more eloquent and more learned may have since occupied his place, but none have entered upon the exposition of Holy Scripture with more apparent delight and interest, or with a deeper anxiety to benefit the souls of the people. When speaking of the virtues of the Patriarchs and Prophets, he seemed to contemplate the history of his friends, and "by a general and continued acquaintance with the Bible, the train of his thoughts had been so long used to run in the right channel, that his mind, by habit as well as affection, was for ever united to those sound and glorious doctrines which contain the promises and the principles of an immortal life."
For a long time, previous to the arrival of the Rev. Messrs. Cowper and Cartwright, Mr. Marsden was the only Minister of Religion in the colony, and consequently upon him devolved "the care of all the Churches." Notwithstanding the heat of the climate, and the dangers to which he was exposed from bushrangers and wild natives, he performed Divine Service regularly every week in Sydney and Parramatta, frequently walking from place to place, whilst at appointed
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periods, he visited the different stations in the interior. Nor was he indifferent to the building of Churches and Schools, for under his direction, St. John's Church in Parramatta and others were erected, and he laid the foundation of that system of parochial instruction which was afterwards improved and extended by Archdeacon Scott. These schools (which are now generally known as exclusively Church of England institutions) engaged much of Mr. Marsden's attention, and when Archdeacon (now Bishop) Broughton went to England for the purpose of making representations of the Spiritual destitution of Australia, Mr. Marsden furnished him with documentary evidence on the great advantages which had resulted from these Schools. What became of the paper in question is not known, but there is every reason to believe that it was used in the proper quarter, and served the ends for which it was designed. Amongst the many schoolmasters appointed in the days of Mr. Marsden, there is one aged Missionary now living, the Rev. John Eyre, of whose piety and zeal is entertained a very high opinion. This worthy man went to Tahiti in the ship Duff, and after suffering great hardships from a civil war among the natives, was compelled to flee from the island, and subsequently to seek an asylum in New South Wales, The school over which he has presided so many years, as well as the excellent Institution for orphans, owed its origin to Mr. Marsden.
Sunday Schools also came under the peculiar notice of Mr. Marsden, and in conjunction with the Rev. Thomas Hassall, and Mr. Henry Byrnes, an exemplary young man, now dead, he commenced one in Parramatta, Which, for many years, proved exceedingly beneficial, So that it would not be difficult, even now, to point out individuals who received their first religious impressions from that or a similar school. One lady, Miss Mary Hassall, (afterwards the wife of the Rev. Mr, Lawry, lately appointed Superintendent of the Wesleyan Mission in New Zealand,) took too active a part in the foundation of the school in Parramatta to be passed over in silence. To this lady's exertions in behalf of Sunday Schools and pious institutions so much merit was attributed by Mr. Marsden and other ministers, that when the news of her death arrived in the colony, funeral
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sermons were preached in almost every Protestant place of worship in New South Wales. Mr. Marsden, in particular, was deeply affected, and so powerfully did the melancholy intelligence work upon his feelings, that he could scarcely command himself sufficiently to preach on the occasion. The Church Sunday School was, for many years, a most useful and flourishing institution in Parramatta, and at one period it numbered no less than 150 children on its books. At first the children used to assemble in Mr. Hassall's house, but after a time the school was removed to St. John's Church by Mr. Marsden's permission. The yearly examination, on Easter Tuesday, and the feast on the green before the Parsonage, were scenes which could not fail to rejoice the heart of every sincere Churchman, and to promote peace, harmony, and Christian feeling amongst the various classes of society residing in the neighbourhood. On more than one occasion, it was our good fortune to witness the interesting festivity of Easter Tuesday; and, even now, when contemplating the pleasing events of other days, we cannot but regard it as one of those verdant spots in memory's waste on which the imagination delights to dwell. The venerable Pastor and his respected family--the teachers of the school and their friends--the numerous and happy faces of the children, are still vivid in our recollection, and the voice of prayer and praise to the Almighty giver of all good things, as it ascended like the incense of grateful hearts before his throne, yet seems to echo on the hill. And whilst Mr. Marsden laboured with unceasing diligence for the interests of the Church of England, he displayed, on several occasions, an extraordinary degree of liberality towards Christians of other denominations. He was never backward in lending his aid towards pious and laudable objects, no matter by whom projected. He was a regular subscriber of £2 per annum to the Wesleyan Missionary Society, and contributed £5 towards the Chapel in Macquarie-street, Parramatta, and £2 towards the Baptist Chapel in Sydney; and when the Presbyterians, in Sydney, were unable to complete their building from some pecuniary difficulties, he generously advanced a considerable sum for that purpose. The
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Rev. Dr. Lang, in a work which he published in 1828, alludes to this spontaneous act of liberality on the part Of Mr. Marsden:-- "The author is happy to acknowledge the very opportune and liberal assistance which was afforded the Scots Church, on one occasion, by the Rev. Samuel Marsden, principal Chaplain of the Territory. For on hearing that the building was likely to be discontinued from the want of funds, Mr. M. called on the author's relatives a short time before his return from England, and told them, "that if the loan of one or two thousand dollars would enable them to go on with the work, he would be happy to accommodate them with that amount." How very different, continues the Doctor, has been the treatment which the institution has met with, from some of the author's own countrymen! We may well observe, therefore, with the Rev. Henry Tarlton Styles, "Yet though of a decided and most persevering character, he possessed at the same time, a truly Catholic spirit. His was no narrow and sectarian mind; though he loved the Church of England well, and he was right to do so, for she well deserves the affection of her sons; yet he also loved all those whom he looked upon as believers in the Lord Jesus Christ, by whatever name they called themselves. His long and steady support of the London Missionary Society, which is in the hands, for the most part, of dissenters from the English Church; his liberal pecuniary assistance to the building of the first Presbyterian Church in this colony; his readiness at all times to forward with his advice, or his money, the common principles of Protestant Christianity, sufficiently shew that he loved the image of his Saviour, whenever he could discover it, and would further the cause of that Saviour wherever it might lead him."
Mr. Marsden was possessed of much sympathy for those in distress, and on one occasion when a widow in Parramatta, whose husband had owed him upwards of £100 for a number of years, appealed to him on the subject, he freely forgave her the whole debt, and so little did he ever allude to matters of this kind in his domestic circle, that his own children knew nothing of the circumstance. Indeed (although the voice of calumny has sometimes attributed avaricious motives to
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him) he was remarkably careless and indifferent about pecuniary concerns. His possessions, it is true, had increased upon him, but he did not seek the acquisition of wealth, for "his treasure was in heaven." Those who knew him most intimately, and to whom he unburdened his inmost thoughts, are well aware that he was in no degree a worldly-minded man, and as he approached nearer to his end, he gradually weaned himself from earthly business, and neglected his affairs to an extent which some men might consider culpable. In public and private, he was truly a man of prayer, and those who had the privilege of hearing his extemporaneous prayers when engaged in devotion with his family and household, will not easily forget his fervour and piety. He seems to have entered fully into the meaning of the Apostle's admonition, "Pray without ceasing;" for after the decease of Mrs. Marsden, when his mind became more and more directed to spiritual exercises, he gave up much time to private prayer; and, even when mixing with friends in social intercourse, his lips might be seen frequently moving in prayer to God. In conversation, he was exceedingly interesting. Having been personally acquainted in his earlier years with those pious and evangelical men, whose preaching tended so much to awaken the slumbers of the Church of England, he was full of anecdotes respecting Newton, the Milners, Simeon, Fletcher, Wesley, Whitfield, Scott, Hill, &c; while his knowledge of the colony of New South Wales from its commencement, made him perfectly conversant with every event of importance in colonial history. He had a very happy method of drawing spiritual instruction from natural objects. When passing near One-Tree Hill, on his way to Hunter's Hill Church, he observed, that he never beheld the solitary tree without contemplating the case of the aged Christian, who, deprived of the companions of bis youth, feels himself but a stranger in the land of his fathers. But the topic, which above all others engaged his serious thoughts, was the patriarchal history. On this he delighted to converse, and wherever he could command the attention of his hearers, he was never tired of pursuing the subject; and even when reading the lessons in the Church he was sometimes so carried
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away by the thoughts which suggested themselves to his mind, that he commented at once upon them from the reading desk. At an examination soon after the establishment of the King's School, when the Rev. Mr. Forrest, the head master, requested Mr. Marsden to ask the boys some questions on Scriptural History, the old gentleman, forgetting the object in view, delivered a long and interesting discourse on some of the leading characters in the Bible. The end contemplated by Mr. Forrest was of course frustrated; but, we dare say, there are many young persons now growing up into manhood, who, to this day, remember the pious and excellent observations of the venerable man
Amongst Mr. Marsden's friends, there are now living the distinguished Daniel Wilson, metropolitan of India, and Dr. Dealtry, Chancellor of the Diocese of Winchester, to whom we believe, the Bishopric of Calcutta was offered on the death of Heber, and by him refused on the ground of delicate health. In the days of our youth, when listening to the excellent discourses of the humble and singularly devout Chancellor, little did we anticipate, that we should in after years have the pleasure of becoming personally acquainted with the wife of Mr. Marsden--a lady who it appears was at one period the object of Dr. Dealtry's affections. There is satisfactory evidence of such an attachment. With the Bishop of Calcutta, Mr. Marsden corresponded occasionally, and amongst the papers of the latter, there will be found one rather remarkable letter, which was a reply to a communication respecting the ordination of a young friend of Mr. Marsden's. No reply can show more clearly the high opinion which the Bishop entertained of Mr. Marsden's integrity, for his Lordship immediately consented to ordain the gentleman on the Trinity Sunday following.
A pleasing instance of Mr. Marsden's humility occurred, shortly after our present Bishop arrived in the colony. It had been customary in Parramatta Church for many years to sing one of Goode's Hymns after the celebration of the Lord's Supper. The Bishop happening to be in Church on the day when the sacrament was administered, objected to the custom as it was not
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required by the rubric of the Church of England. Mr. Marsden immediately bowed to his Lordship's wishes, and the practice was from that time discontinued. This little incident may serve to show Mr. Marsden's willingness to obey his ecclesiastical superior. It has been said, we know not with what degree of truth, that previous to his first arrival in this colony, the Archdeacon had been prejudiced against him, and that soon after he was settled in New South Wales, a curious correspondence took place between them. Be this as it may, it is very clear, that long before Mr. Marsden's death, his Lordship learned to entertain a very high respect for him, and on every occasion, whether in public or private, he has borne an honourable testimony to his piety and usefulness. This feeling of regard was mutual, for we have frequently heard Mr. Marsden speak in glowing terms of the great talent and good intentions of the Bishop. If any act on the part of the Bishop could prove the truth of our assertions, we need only to refer to the unsolicited appointment of the Rev. H. H. Bobart, M.A., Mr. Marsden's son-in-law, to St. John's Parramatta, on the decease of that venerable man. Mr. Bobart was originally intended for a more distant part of the Lord's Vineyard, having been sent out by the Church Missionary Society, to educate the children of the Missionaries in New Zealand; but through one of those mysterious dispensations of Divine Providence, which not unfrequently over-rule the wisdom of this world, he was induced to remain in New South Wales. In a review of Mr. Marshall's work on New Zealand, which appeared in a colonial paper of 1836, a passage of considerable interest occurs. "Our author dwells with much propriety on the necessity of establishing a Christian Institution in New Zealand, similar to that at Cotta in the Island of Ceylon, the main object of which is--to communicate to a few of the native youths, of good promise both for piety and capacity, such an education, by the blessing of God, as may render them useful schoolmasters, catechists, and assistant missionaries." The usefulness of such an institution cannot be denied. Under its fostering care many of the natives might be trained from their earliest infancy in the doctrines and
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precepts of the Gospel, as well as in those studies which shall be deemed conducive to the advancement of Christianity. Some such arrangement, we believe, has been already contemplated by the Church Missionary Society, and the appointment of the Rev. Mr. Bobart, M.A., has, in some measure, anticipated the suggestions of Mr. Marshall. The more immediate object, however, of Mr. Bobarts labours is to educate the children of his brother missionaries, in which, we have no doubt, he will render an important service to the mission" 1
Little did the reviewer of Mr. Marshall's book imagine, that in the course of a few years, New Zealand would be erected into an Episcopal see, and that its first Bishop, Dr. Selwyn, would establish a College at the Bay of Islands! Such we understand is the success that has attended the Bishop's efforts, that he has already laid the foundation of an Institution, which in years to come, may prove exceedingly beneficial to the interests of the Church, by raising up a supply of young men for the ministerial office. After a cursory allusion to the British resident in New Zealand, the writer remarks: "of the Rev. S. Marsden, and his zealous endeavours in the formation of the Mission, mention is made more than once. A native named Warepoaka, on being asked if he knew Mr, Marsden, instantly recognised the name, and, as if solicitous to exhibit the extent of his acquaintance with that aged friend of his country, informed us of his friend's residing at Parramatta. The mention of Mr. Marsden's name had touched a chord which responded to the touch with a note of joy; and it was easy to perceive that the memory of New Zealand's best earthly benefactor was carefully preserved in the mind of this chief." 2
As it is proposed to refer at some length to Mr. Marsden's connexion with the Church Mission and New Zealand, it will be necessary to state a few particulars respecting his earlier history, in order that the reader may see the remarkable manner in which he was led by Divine Providence to co-operate with his brethren at home for the conversion of the heathen. Mr. Marsden was appointed to officiate in this colony, as a clergyman,
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by his Majesty's Commission, bearing date the 1st of January, 1793. Before his final departure from England, a circumstance occurred, the mention of which, will, doubtless, be interesting to many individuals. While the vessel, in which he was about to sail for New South Wales, was lying off the Isle of Wight, he went on shore and preached in one of the Churches at Cowes, when he was made the instrument of converting "The Dairyman's Daughter." The Rev. Legh Richmond, in his popular narrative, gives the following particulars from the mouth of her father:-- "My daughters were both wilful, and like ourselves, strangers to the ways of God and the word of his grace. But the eldest of them went out to service, and some years ago, she heard a sermon preached at ----- church, by a gentleman that was going to -----, as Chaplain to the colony, and from that time, she seemed quite another creature." In Legh Richmond's account, no names are given, but we have been informed, upon respectable testimony, that Mr. Marsden mentioned the fact in confidence to a friend, and upon reference to the dates, the circumstance is highly probable, for the conversion must have taken place about the period of his departure.
Mr. Marsden arrived in New South Wales in the beginning of 1794, about six years after the establishment of the colony, and at the time of his arrival the settlement was in the greatest distress for want of the necessaries of life, there being but one cask of meat in the King's store! Governor Phillip had, at this period, returned to Europe after having laid the foundation of the colony amidst scenes of difficulty and trial which it is fearful to contemplate. In September 1795, Captain Hunter arrived, and following in the steps of his predecessor in the Government, displayed considerable energy in getting the land cleared of its heavy timber and bringing the country under cultivation. And in order to accomplish so desirable an end, he granted, as General Grose had done, to every officer, civil and military, one hundred acres of land, and thirteen convicts as servants, victualled and clothed from his Majesty's stores, to assist in bringing the lands into cultivation as soon as possible. Mr. Marsden, as well as several of the early
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chaplains, availed himself of the Governor's grant, and for reasons which cannot be stated more clearly than in his own words, zealously entered into his Excellency's views. "I did not consider myself in the same situation, in a temporal point of view, in this colony, as a clergyman in England. My situation at that period would bear no such comparison. A clergyman in England lives in the very bosom of his friends; his comfort and his convenience are all within his reach, and he has nothing to do but to feed his flock. On the contrary, I entered a country which was in a state of nature, and was obliged to plant and sow, or starve. It was not from inclination that my colleague and I took the axe, the spade, and the hoe; we could not, from our situation, help ourselves by any other means, and we thought it no disgrace to labour. St. Paul's own hands ministered to his wants in a cultivated nation; and our hands ministered to our wants in an uncultivated one. If this is cast upon me as a shame and reproach, I cheerfully bear it; for the remembrance of this never gives me any cause of pain or remorse." Mr. Marsden's agricultural pursuits have been urged against him as a want of respect for the ministerial office, but, considering the state of the colony under the early Governors and the long continued prospect of starvation to which all classes were subjected, there is no room for censure. Indeed, his exertions in behalf of the agricultural interest of the colony, were highly commendable, and tended, undoubtedly, to promote a spirit of industry and resignation amongst those around him.
In October, 1800, Captain Hunter retired from the administration of our colonial affairs, and was succeeded by Captain Phillip Gidley King. It was during this Governor's time, that what has been termed the "Irish Rebellion," occurred. This occasioned much alarm amongst the settlers, and Mr. Marsden's family and several others were obliged to flee to the military for protection. Several hundred convicts, attached to the establishment at Castle Hill, twenty-four miles from Sydney, struck for their liberty; but being armed only with pikes, they were discomfited by the military at Vinegar Hill, twelve miles from Parramatta, on the Windsor
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Road; a few were shot by the troops--some of the leaders taken and hanged immediately, and the rest returned quietly to their labour.
Two most extraordinary scenes occurred at Government House during Captain King's administration, which do not appear to have been noticed in any colonial publication. Mr. Marsden happened to be engaged in conversation with his Excellency, when an officer, holding a high and responsible situation, came to Government House to see the Governor. This gentleman had the reputation of being a devout worshipper of Bacchus, and on entering the room, it was very evident that he had paid his devotions to the god at an early hour that morning. The Governor in a quaint and abrupt manner said to him, "Sir, I am surprised that a person of your rank in society should give way to intemperance--you are drunk, Sir." The officer being rather warm and excited, denied the charge, but subsequently admitted that he was intoxicated, and apologized to his Excellency. On another occasion, a public officer, of rather a choleric nature, waited upon the Governor, and entered into a discussion with him on some matter of a public nature. An angry conversation ensued between them, until at length forgetting the respect due to his Majesty's representative, he seized the Governor by the collar of his coat. Mr, Marsden seeing that the contest was likely to terminate unpleasantly, had very prudently faced about and had begun to converse with a lady, with a full determination of not being a witness of anything that might occur: and when the Governor called out, in a loud voice, "Marsden, do you see that he is collaring me," Mr. Marsden coolly replied, "No! your Excellency, I do not see anything of the kind."
Mr. Marsden thought favourably of Captain King's administration, and remarks, "that he had not been long in his situation as Governor, before he saw the wisdom and sound policy of holding out encouragement to those who cultivated grain, as well as to those who turned their attention to the breeding of sheep and cattle." For reasons which have been previously stated, the Rev. gentleman now deemed it prudent to proceed to Europe, and accordingly he accompanied Captain King in 1807. When he arrived in England, the Church
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Missionary Society, which had been established about seven years before, seemed fully disposed to enter into his views for the evangelization of New Zealand, and accordingly in their eighth Report, we meet with the following passage:
"A proposal having been made by the Chaplain of the colony of New South Wales, to your Committee, for the establishment of a Missionary Settlement on one of the Islands of New Zealand, the Committee request the favour of the friends of the society, to point out any persons within the circle of their acquaintance, who may seem suitable for the formation of such an establishment.
"Many circumstances have induced your Committee to consider New Zealand as a promising sphere for the society's exertions. It is within ten day's sail of Port Jackson, and not more than 80 leagues from the settlement of Norfolk Island. One of the chiefs is well known at Port Jackson; is himself strongly attached to English improvement and civilization; and would yield, as there is reason to think, every possible protection and support to an establishment of Englishmen under his authority. The population is very numerous. The attention of Government has been recently turned towards these islands, in the hope of obtaining naval supplies; and there is little doubt, that both the Government at home and the authorities of New South Wales would protect and assist any establishment, formed at New Zealand, in connection with the Church of England. Government has very recently attended, in the most liberal manner, to the representations of the Chaplain of that colony, who came over to this country, some time since, for the purpose of obtaining the assistance of other Clergymen in his arduous labours, and of procuring schoolmasters; in which objects he has succeeded beyond his expectations. The only officiating Ministers in the settlement in New South Wales, are Ministers of the Established Church, and they would cordially co-operate with the Committee in forming and directing the settlement in question."
The communication referred to in the Church Missionary Report is the first letter of Mr. Marsden to that Society, and as it is a document of considerable importance, we shall insert it at full length. The
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sound and rational views entertained by that gentleman, commended themselves to the friends of Missions in England, so that before his departure for New South Wales, he had the gratification of laying a solid foundation for the civilization and evangelization of New Zealand.
"Rev. Sir,--In compliance with the request of the Society for Missions to Africa and the East, I respectfully suggest the following observations, relative to the establishment of a Mission to the Island of New Zealand
"It may be requisite to state that the New Zealanders have derived no advantages hitherto from commerce or the arts of civilization; and must, therefore, be in heathen darkness and ignorance. Though they appear to be a very superior people in point of mental capacity, so far as any judgment can be formed from those with whom Europeans have had communication, yet they must not be considered by any means so favourably circumstanced for the reception of the gospel, as civilized nations are, even, though strangers to the doctrines of divine revelation. Commerce and the arts, having a natural tendency to inculcate industrious and moral habits, open a way for the introduction of the gospel, and lay the foundation for its continuance when once received.
"Since nothing, in my opinion, can pave the way for the introduction of the gospel, but civilization; and that can only be accomplished amongst the heathen by the arts; I would recommend that three mechanics he appointed to make the first attempt, should the Society come to a determination to form an establishment on New Zealand. One of these men should be a carpenter, another a smith, and a third, a twine-spinner. The carpenter would teach them to make a wheelbarrow, build a hut, boat, &c.; the smith would teach them to make all their edge tools, nails, &c.; and the twine-spinner would teach them how to spin their flax or hemp, of which their clothing, fishing-lines, and nets are made.
"Though the Missionaries might employ a certain portion of their time, according to local circumstances, in manual labour, this neither would nor ought to prevent them from constantly endeavouring to instruct the natives in the great doctrines of the gospel, and fully
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discharging the duties of catechists. The arts and religion should go together. The attention of the heathen can he gained and their vagrant habits corrected only by the arts. Till their attention is gained, and moral and industrious habits are induced, little or no progress can be made in teaching them the gospel. I do not mean that a native should learn to build a hut or make an axe before he should be told anything of man's fall and redemption; but that these grand subjects should be introduced at every favourable opportunity, while the natives are learning any of the simple arts. To preach the gospel without the aid of the Arts will never succeed amongst the heathens for any time.
"Much of the success of a Mission depends upon the qualification of the persons employed in the work.
"Four qualifications seem absolutely requisite for a Missionary: piety, industry, prudence, and patience.
"It will be readily admitted that sound piety is essential; and that, without this, nothing can be expected. A man must feel a lively interest in the eternal welfare of the heathen to spur him on to the discharge of his duty.
"A Missionary should also be naturally of an industrious turn; a man, who could live in any country by dint of his own labour. An industrious man has great resources in times of difficulties and danger in his own mind. Great difficulties will always be surmounted by an industrious man, while very small ones will overwhelm an idle man with despair. It is worthy of remark, that in all my observations on mankind I have rarely ever known an industrious man become an idle one, or an idle one industrious. A Missionary's habits of industry ought to be fully established, or he will be found totally unfit for the arduous work of the Mission, in a country where nothing has been done before him.
"It will also require great prudence and circumspection in a Missionary, to govern a savage mind, upon which his own very existence will depend. His difficulties will, many of them, be new; and much greater and more numerous than he can possibly imagine or foresee. On this account he will require great patience and perseverance to bear up under them.
"The Society should have their Missionaries sent
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out under the sanction of the British Government in England, and with an official recommendation from Government to the Governor at New South Wales. From New South Wales they should proceed under the patronage and with a recommendation from the Governor to the Chief of New Zealand. On their arrival at New Zealand, they must place themselves under the protection of the Chief, as they will have no means of forming an independent body.
"A sufficient sum should be allowed for the passage of the Missionaries from Port Jackson to New Zealand, provided there were no vessels going at the time they wished to proceed to their place of destination. There should also he a certain sum allowed to pay the expenses of keeping up a regular correspondence with them for some time, at first, as circumstance might require. Their comfort and safety may depend upon this, till the real character and disposition of the New Zealanders are better known. A small vessel from twenty to thirty tons would be sufficient for this purpose, which must be hired, if a communication between the Missionaries and Port Jackson could not be maintained by any other means.
"I should not conceive that it would be necessary for them to take much wearing apparel, or any other articles of value. As whatever they have, as well as themselves, must be placed under the protection and care of the Chief, the less they possess the safer they will be at first. It is not possible to know what would be really necessary for them, till they arrive, and are settled upon the island. It would be proper for them to take from Port Jackson or Norfolk Island, hogs, poultry, grain, and flour; as this would contribute not only to their own comfort, but would be acceptable to the Chief.
"These are the most material points which occur to me at present. I shall feel a peculiar gratification in forwarding the benevolent wishes of the Society, so far as my means and influence may extend, should Divine Providence conduct me in safety again to New South Wales.
"As New Zealand is wholly untried ground, little can be said with certainty respecting the Mission, till
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an attempt is made. I think it highly probable that the Chief will be very anxious to keep up a communication with Port Jackson, and encourage some of his subjects to come over for the purpose of learning our arts."
I have the honor to be, &c., &c,
"To the Rev. J. Pratt. "
Mr. Marsden returned to the colony in 1810, bringing with him the Rev. Mr. Cartwright, and Mr. and Mrs. Hall and Mr. King, as lay missionaries for New Zealand. Owing to the melancholy business of the Boyd, the crew of which were all murdered with the exception of a woman, two children, and a boy recovered from the natives by Mr. Berry, the establishment of the mission was delayed for several years; for in consequence of the excited feelings of the New Zealanders at that period, no European would have been safe amongst them. It seems that the sad massacre arose from the injudicious conduct of the captain, in resenting some slight theft. The ship, says Mr. Berry, was taken the third morning after her arrival. Early in the morning, it was surrounded by a great number of canoes, and many of the natives gradually insinuated themselves on board. Tippahee, a chief of the Bay of Islands, and who had been twice at Port Jackson, also arrived. Tippahee went into the cabin, and after paying his respects to the captain, begged a little bread for his men; but the captain received him rather slightingly, and desired him to go away and not trouble him at present, as he was busy. The proud savage, who had been a constant guest at the Governor's table at Port Jackson, continues Mr. Berry, was highly offended at this treatment, immediately left the cabin, and after stamping a few minutes on the deck, went into his canoe. After breakfast, the captain went ashore, with four hands, and no other arms but his fowling-piece. From the account of the savages, as soon as he landed, they rushed upon him; he had only time to fire his piece, and killed a child. As soon as the captain left the ship, Tippahee, who remained alongside in his canoe, came again on board, A number of the sailors were repairing sails upon
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the quarter-deck, and the remainder were carelessly dispersed about the ship, whilst fifty of the natives were sitting on the deck. In a moment they all started up, and each knocked his man on the head. The scene which followed is too horrid to relate, for a most revolting feast on human flesh succeeded the massacre, and even the second mate, whose life was spared at the time, was killed and eaten a fortnight afterwards by the barbarous natives.
Under these circumstances, the Missionaries who were subsequently joined by Mr. Kendall and his family, remained some time in Parramatta, while Mr. Marsden, with much prudence and sagacity, endeavoured to conciliate the chiefs. In a letter dated June 18th, 1813, he speaks particularly of Duaterra, who had visited Port Jackson and become personally acquainted with the Missionaries; and in another letter written a few days afterwards, he notices the arrival of Captain Parker from New Zealand, who had been most kindly received by Duaterra and a great chief, named Terra, uncle to Duaterra. These chiefs expressed great anxiety for the establishment of the Mission, and promised to protect the Missionaries. Mr. Marsden's resolution to carry out the plan he had previously formed, may be inferred from the following extract:-- "I am fully resolved to open a communication, some way or other, with these natives. I have had much conversation with the Governor about it; and his Excellency, I am fully confident, will promote this desirable object. The connection which I have formed with the natives, from several living in my house, at different times, will open a way for a further intercourse with them in time."
In the following year, Mr. Marsden purchased the brig Active, a vessel of a hundred tons, in which he despatched Messrs. Hall and Kendall, to New Zealand, to inquire into the dispositions of the inhabitants, and the probability of succeeding in a Missionary settlement. Mr. Hall (who was recommended to the society by the Rev. Mr. Fawcett, of Carlisle, as a well affected and pious member of the Church of England,) had the honor of being the first Missionary who landed on the shores of New Zealand, and, having accomplished the object for which he and his colleague had gone thither.
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they returned to New South Wales, in the brig Active, On the 22nd of August, 1814, bringing with them six of the natives, and the chief Duaterra. Nothing could exceed the joy which Mr. Marsden experienced on the successful termination of the voyage, and being filled with an earnest desire to promote the dissemination of the gospel amongst the New Zealanders, he determined to accompany the Missionaries on their return to the Bay of Islands. Accordingly he embarked on board the Active, November 19th, 1814, on his first apostolic visit to New Zealand.
We must now introduce to our readers one of the most interesting documents which it has ever been our lot to peruse, Mr. Marsden's journal of his first visit to New Zealand. It is written in plain and simple, yet forcible language, and is characterized by that vein of good sense and practical knowledge which distinguishes all Mr Marsden's writings. There is no display of his own sufferings, trials, and privations--no affectation of laboured and studied expression--no highly coloured and partial representation of the savage condition of the natives. All his aim is to lay the truth before the Society, and in doing so, he has written with a degree of accuracy and honest feeling, which at once informs the understanding and touch the heart. If there were no other monument ever erected to his memory, this document is sufficient to rescue his name from oblivion; and while many a martial hero "shall sleep in dull cold marble where no mention of him more must be heard," the journal of Samuel Marsden shall hand down his fame to the latest posterity. Well then, if the Christian minister could adopt the ambitious flight of the poet, might it be said--
"Exegi monumentum rere perennius;
"Regalique situ Pyramidum altius:
"Quod non imber edax, non Aquilo impotens
"Possit diruere, aut innumerabilis
"Annorum series, et fuga temporum
"Non omnis moriar."
Mr. Marsden Commences his narrative by stating his reasons for accompanying the settlers to New Zealand, and, at the same time, expresses the confidence which he felt in undertaking so hazardous an enterprise,
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"I am happy to inform you of my safe return from New Zealand to Port Jackson, after fully accomplishing the object of my voyage to that island, having been absent four months; and have the honour to transmit to you the following account for the information of the society, which I am persuaded will be very gratifying to all who love Zion, and are interested in the extension of Christ's Kingdom and the salvation of the heathen nations.
"I communicated to you, on a former occasion, my full intention of accompanying the settlers to New Zealand; in order to aid them in their first establishment, and to give them as much influence as possible among the natives. I had, for many years, studied the character of the New Zealanders, having generally some living with me; and was under no apprehension of danger from them, so far as my own personal safety, and that of those who were about to go with me, were concerned. Many in New South Wales were of opinion, that we should never return; judging from the horrid massacres that have repeatedly been committed in that island, by the natives: but these persons had not sufficiently considered the provocations given to the natives by Europeans; as it is well known, that the Europeans have thought it no crime to murder and plunder these islanders upon the most trivial occasions, and often from mere wanton cruelty.
"We embarked on board the Active, on Saturday, the 19th of November, 1814, and sailed down the harbour early that morning; but were obliged to anchor again near the mouth, by contrary winds. Here we were detained nine days.
"On Monday, the 28th, we weighed anchor, and got out to sea.
"The number of persons on board the Active, including women and children, was thirty-five. Mr. Hansen, master; his wife and son; Messrs. Kendall, Hall, and King, with their wives and five children; eight New Zealanders, two Otaheitans, and four Europeans belonging to the vessel; beside Mr. Nicholas, myself, two sawyers, one smith, and one runaway convict, whom we afterwards found on board. We had also on board, one horse, one bull, and two cows, with a
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few sheep, and poultry of different kinds, intended for the island. The cows and bull had been presented by Governor Macquarie, from his Majesty's herd, as mentioned in my former letter."
Nothing remarkable occurred during the voyage, and on the 15th of December, they saw the Three Kings, some small islands which lie to the North of New Zealand. On the following day, Mr. Marsden opened a friendly communication with the natives of the North Cape. This day, he states, was one of the most interesting and pleasant days he had ever enjoyed, as he was highly gratified with the hospitable reception which he experienced from the natives, and the probability of accomplishing the object of his voyage. Proceeding from the North Cape, he arrived at Wangaroa, the harbour where the Boyd was cut off and her crew massacred. His account of several circumstances connected with that melancholy affair will be read with interest.
"Duaterra and Shunghee had often told me of the bloody war that had been carried on between the people of Wangaroa and the Bay of Islands, from the time the Boyd was cut off to that period. During their stay at Port Jackson, they were always apprehensive that the chiefs of Wangaroa would take advantage of their absence, and make an attack upon the people at the Bay of Islands. We here learned, however, that there had been no disturbance while they had been absent.
"After the Boyd had been cut off, Tippahee, a chief belonging to the Bay of Islands, and who had visited Port Jackson, and while there received great attention, was accused of being concerned in that dreadful massacre: in consequence of which, the whalers who were at that time on the coast, and came into the Bay of Islands shortly after, united together, and sent seven armed boats before day to attack the Island of Tippahee; on which they landed, and shot every man, woman, and child, that came in their way; in which attack Tippahee received seven shots, and soon after died.
"Duaterra and Shunghee always declared that Tippahee was innocent of the crime for which he suffered. Wangaroa is about forty miles to the northward of the Bay of Islands. Tippahee was in the habit of trading with the people of Wangaroa, and happened to go with
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a Cargo of fish the very day the Boyd was taken, The whole of the crew had been massacred when he arrived, excepting five men who were in the rigging. These he took into his own canoe, and landed them, with a view of saving their lives; but, being followed by the people, the five men were forcibly taken from him, and instantly put to death. This is the account given by those New Zealanders who first visited New South Wales. They originally declared that Tippahee was innocent of the destruction of the Boyd.
"The people at the Bay of Islands, in consequence of the death of their chief Tippahee, declared war against the people of Wangaroa: several desperate battles have been fought, and the war was likely to continue.
"I had often told Duaterra and Shunghee, that it would be for the interest of all parties to make peace; and that I wished to see it established before I quitted New Zealand. Duaterra expressed his doubts as to the accomplishment of this object. I told him, I thought, if I could obtain an interview with the chiefs, that I might bring it about; and that it was my determination to visit Wangaroa before my return, and try what could be done."
As Mr. Marsden's account of the destruction of the Boyd differs materially from Mr. Berry's, there is some difficulty in reconciling them. If the circumstances detailed by the natives be true, (and we fear from the subsequent conduct of Europeans in New Zealand that such is the case,) it must be evident that the English gave great cause of offence, and brought upon themselves the sad punishment already alluded to.
"One of the principal chiefs who had cut off the Boyd had been at Parramatta, and knew me. He had been on board the whalers for a considerable time, and spoke English well enough to be understood. He is known by the Europeans by the name of George. I made the chiefs a few presents; and, after some conversation on various subjects, and particularly on the occasion of my visit to New Zealand, I inquired how they came to cut off the Boyd, and to massacre the crew. Two of them stated, that they were at Port Jackson when the Boyd was there, and had been put on board by Mr. Lord, in order to return home; that the head chief
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(George) had fallen sick when on board, and was unable to do his duty as a common sailor; in consequence of which, he was severely punished, refused provisions, and threatened to be thrown overboard, and many other indignities offered him, even by the common sailors. He remonstrated with the master, and begged him not to inflict corporal punishment on him; and assured him that he was a chief in his own country, which they would know on his arrival at New Zealand. He was told he was no chief; with many abusive terms which he mentioned, and which are but too commonly used by British sailors. When he arrived at Wangaroa, his back was in a very lacerated state, and his friends and people were determined to revenge the insults which had been offered him. He said, if he had not been treated with such cruelty, the Boyd would never have been touched.
"From the accounts which these chiefs and their people gave of the destruction of the Boyd, Tippahee appears to have had no hand in this melancholy event: it was wholly their own act and deed. This being strictly true, and I see no reason to disbelieve their declaration, Tippahee and his people were innocent sufferers, and their deaths laid the foundation for much bloodshed. Many since that period have been cut off, both belonging to the Bay of Islands and Wangaroa. I never passed Tippahee's Island without a sigh. It is now desolate, without an inhabitant, and has been so ever since his death; the ruins of his little cottage, which was built by the kindness of the late Governor King, are still remaining. I would hope that those Europeans, who were concerned in that fatal transaction, were ignorant, at the time, that they were punishing the innocent. I think it probable that the mistake, if there were one, which I am inclined to believe, originated in the affinity between the names of Tippahee, and the chief of Wangaroa, who was principally concerned in the destruction of the Boyd, and whose name is Tippoohee. This chief I saw, and conversed with on the subject."
Being determined to establish peace amongst these people, he made up his mind to spend more time at Wangaroa, and with a degree of boldness and intrepidity which is truly astonishing, not only ventured on shore,
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but actually passed the night with the very savages who had killed and eaten his countrymen!
"Having fully satisfied myself relative to the loss of the Boyd, and explained to these people the reason of the Active coming to New Zealand, I found, as night was coming on, that I could not accomplish the grand object I had in view, of making peace, without spending more time with them, and therefore resolved to remain all night in their camp.
"Shunghee had given direction to his people to prepare supper for us, nearly a mile from where we then were. I told the chiefs we would go to visit Shunghee's people; and, when we had taken some refreshment, I and Mr. Nicholas would return and spend the night in their camp, in order that we might have a little more conversation with them. To this they readily consented; and with a view to shew some marked attention, they entertained us with a sham fight, war-dance, and song of victory, before we went to Shunghee's people.
"After these ceremonies were over, we took leave, and returned to the place where we had landed, attended by a very large number of natives. Shunghee's servants had got our potatoes and fish prepared. Duaterra, and the party who had come with us from the Active, now returned on board; leaving myself, Mr. Nicholas, and Shunghee, to spend the night on shore. We sat down upon the ground to supper; but were soon almost smothered with the natives, who crowded so close around us, that I was compelled to draw a circle, and to direct them not to pass it.
"We were much amused with these people; and they appeared equally so with us, and manifested every wish to serve us. After spending about an hour with them, we returned to the camp of the Wangaroa people, who had removed about a half a mile further from the place where we had had our first interview with them; and had taken their station in a level piece of ground, which I estimated to contain about one hundred acres. They received us very cordially. We sat down among them, and the chiefs surrounded us.
"I now renewed our conversation relative to the destruction of the Boyd, with a view of bringing about a reconciliation between them and the inhabitants of the
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Bay of Islands; as I considered it of great importance to the Mission to establish peace between these contending parties. The chiefs told me the state the Boyd was then in; and promised to give me the guns, and whatever remained belonging to her, if I would go into their harbour. They had got some of the guns on shore, and would get the rest. The chief (George) told me that his father and five others were blown up in the Boyd, when she took fire. His father had got part of the powder upon deck, and some of the muskets; and was trying one of the flints in a musket, whether it would strike fire or not, when a spark caught the powder and set the Boyd on fire, and killed all that were near. He pressed me much to go into their harbour. I told him I probably should before I left New Zealand, if the wind would permit; but I could not go at that time, on account of the stock, and the number of people on board the Active."
The following passage must be read with intense interest, as it at once demonstrates the undaunted courage and piety of Mr. Marsden.
"As the evening advanced, the people began to retire to rest, in different groups. About eleven o'clock Mr. Nicholas and I wrapped ourselves up in our great coats, and prepared for rest also. George directed me to lie by his side. His wife and child lay on the right hand, and Mr. Nicholas close by. The night was clear, the stars shone bright, and the sea in our front was smooth: around us were numerous spears stuck upright in the ground; and groups of natives, lying in all directions, like a flock of sheep, upon the grass, as there were neither tents nor huts to cover them. I viewed our present situation with sensations and feelings that I cannot express--surrounded by cannibals, who had massacred and devoured our countrymen. I wondered much at the mysteries of Providence, and how these things could be! Never did I behold the blessed advantage of civilization in a more grateful light than now. I did not sleep much during the night. My mind was too seriously occupied by the present scene, and the new and strange ideas which it naturally excited.
"About three o'clock in the morning, I rose, and walked about the camp; surveying the different groups
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of natives. Some of them put out their heads from under the top of their Kakkahows, which are like a bee-hive, and spoke to me. When the morning light returned, we beheld men, women, and children, asleep in all directions, like the beasts of the field. I had ordered the boat to come on shore for us at day-light: and, soon after, Duaterra arrived in the camp."
The confidence which Mr. Marsden placed in the natives, was now rewarded by the establishment of peace.
"Duaterra, Shunghee, and Koro-koro, all shook bands with the chiefs of Wangaroa; and saluted each other, as a token of reconciliation, by joining their noses together. I was much gratified to see these men at amity once more; and sincerely wish that the peace may never be broken; and considered the time well employed while we had been detained by adverse winds.
"The chiefs took their leave after this, much pleased with our attention to them; and promised never in future, to injure any Europeans."
One of the most pleasing passages of the narrative, relates to the observation of the first sabbath day in New Zealand--a day which will be ever memorable in the annals of that country. Whether we reflect on the marked attention of Duaterra, the genuine spirit of devotion which was manifested by Mr. Marsden, or the extraordinary nature of the scene, the subject is a most interesting one for our contemplation.
"Duaterra passed the remaining part of the day in preparing for the Sabbath. He enclosed about half an acre of land with a fence, erected a pulpit and reading-desk in the centre, and covered the whole, either with black native cloth, or some duck, which he had brought with him from Port Jackson. He also procured some bottoms of old canoes, and fixed them up as seats on each side the pulpit, for the Europeans to sit upon; intending to have Divine Service performed there the next day. These preparations he made of his own accord; and, in the evening, informed me that everything was ready for Divine Service. I was much pleased with this singular mark of his attention. The reading-desk was about three feet from the ground, and the pulpit about six feet. The black cloth covered the top of the pulpit, and hung over the sides. The bottom cf the pulpit, as
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well as the reading-desk, was part of a canoe. The whole was becoming, and had a solemn appearance. He had also erected a flag-staff on the highest hill in the village, which had a very commanding view.
"On Sunday morning, when I was upon deck, I saw the English flag flying, which was a pleasing sight in New Zealand. 1 considered it as the signal and the dawn of civilization, liberty, and religion, in that dark and benighted land. I never viewed the British colours with more gratification; and flattered myself they would never be removed, till the natives of that island enjoyed all the happiness of British subjects.
"About ten o'clock we prepared to go ashore, to publish, for the first time, the glad tidings of the Gospel, I was under no apprehension for the safety of the vessel; and therefore ordered all on board to go on shore to attend Divine Service, except the master and one man. When we landed, we found Korokoro, Duaterra, and Shunghee, dressed in regimentals, which Governor Macquarie had given them; with their men drawn up, ready to be marched into the enclosure to attend Divine Service. They had their swords by their sides, and switches in their hands. We entered the enclosure, and were placed on the seats on each side of the pulpit. Koro-koro marched his men and placed them on my right hand, in the rear of the Europeans; and Duaterra placed his men on the left. The inhabitants of the town, with the women and children, and a number of other chiefs, formed a circle round the whole. A very solemn silence prevailed--the sight was truly impressive! I rose up and began the service with singing the Old hundredth Psalm; and felt my very soul melt within me when I viewed my congregation, and considered the state they were in. After reading the service, during which the natives stood up and sat down at the signals given by Koro-koro's switch, which was regulated by the movements of the Europeans, it being Christmas Day, I preached from the 2nd chapter of St. Luke's Gospel, and 10th verse--'Behold! I bring you glad tidings of great joy,' &c. The natives told Duaterra, that they could not understand what I meant. He replied, that they were not to mind that now, for they would understand that by and by; and that he would
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explain my meaning as far as he could. When I had done preaching, he informed them what I had been talking about. Duaterra was very much pleased that he had been able to make all the necessary preparations for the performance of Divine Worship in so short a time, and we felt much obliged to him for his attention. He was extremely anxious to convince us that he would do every thing for us that lay in his power, and that the good of his country was his principal consideration.
"In this manner the gospel has been introduced into New Zealand; and I fervently pray that the glory of it may never depart from its inhabitants, till time shall be no more."
We now come to the main object contemplated by Mr. Marsden, the establishment of the settlers. Having prepared the way for their reception by conciliating the chiefs, he observes:--
"On Monday morning, previous to leaving the vessel, I had directed that the settlers and their families should be landed, with everything belonging to them, as soon as the building was ready for their reception. On my return I found Mr. Kendall and his family on shore, and every preparation made for Messrs. Hall and King."
The manner in which the first settlement was accomplished, deserves particular notice, and we have no doubt but that it will remind the reader of a similar transaction which occurred in another part of the world.
"Before my final departure from New Zealand, I wished to obtain and secure, as far as possible, a legal settlement for the Europeans whom I should leave upon the island. For this purpose, application was made to the two nephews of the late Tippahee, who were proprietors of the ground which the Europeans at present possess, and of the adjoining town of Ranghee-Hoo; to know if they would sell that piece of land upon which we had begun to build, and increase the quantity at first marked out for the buildings. They were related to Duaterra. I went along with them and the settlers, to point out the boundaries of the land which they were willing to dispose of, and purchased it on account of the Church Missionary Society. We could not ascertain the exact quantity, for want of proper measuring instruments; but, as it is situated between some natural
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boundaries expressed in the grant, I considered that circumstance of no moment. I apprehend it to contain more than two hundred acres.
"The grant was made out and executed, and the land publicly set apart for the Europeans, on Friday the 24th of February, 1815, in the presence of a number of chiefs from different districts, who were assembled at Ranghee-Hoo, to take their leave of the Active
Having now established the mission on a permanent basis, Mr. Marsden observes:--
"I had now completed everything relative to the establishment of the mission that appeared to me necessary, with regard to the intercourse of the settlers with the natives; and had opened a communication nearly 200 miles along the coast, and made the chiefs, in all the different districts, acquainted with our object. They all seemed sensible of the benefits which they are likely to derive from Europeans residing among them. A more promising prospect never could present itself for civilizing this quarter of the globe. It requires, however, to be closely followed up"
Mr. Marsden concludes his narrative with a firm conviction that the people of New Zealand were an intelligent and enterprising race, and that nothing but the introduction of the Gospel and the Arts was wanting to place them amongst the first nations of the earth.
"When I take into consideration what I saw of these islanders, and the frequent conversation which I had with them on various subjects, I am strongly inclined to believe, that they will soon be ranked among civilized nations, and especially if their wants in iron are supplied. I am also of opinion, that their own industry, in collecting timber and flax, or any other articles of commerce which their country may be found hereafter to produce, will contribute, in a great measure, to repay expenses: but I again assert, that, without iron, these people can never rise above their present situation. If means are adopted to furnish them with this essential article, then, indeed, their country will soon supply them with all the necessary conveniences and comforts enjoyed in civilized society; and as their comforts increase, so will their wants stimulate their industry, and will lay a solid foundation, not only for their civil-
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ization and improvement of arts, but for the introduction of Christianity--the grand final object in the contemplation of the Society, and the devout wish of all those who pray for the prosperity of Zion.
"From what I have stated, I trust that the Society will form a proper judgment of the situation and character of the natives of New Zealand; and that the British nation, while continuing to feel and enjoy the infinite blessings derived from the gospel, which renders England the glory and envy of all nations, will likewise commiserate these poor heathens, who are, literally, without God! I am confident that the Society, and all who aid their benevolent exertions, will feel a lively interest in the temporal and eternal welfare of so great a nation as New Zealand; and I have only to request, that you will present my respectful regards to the Committee, and assure them, that nothing shall be wanting, on my part, to second their benevolent wishes.
"I have the honour to be, dear Sir,
"Your most obedient humble servant,
In a subsequent letter, he alludes to the opposition which he had encountered in the New Zealand Mission, but so firmly was he impressed with a favourable view of the undertaking, that he regrets his own inability to proceed as a Missionary to that island. Those who were personally acquainted with Mr. Marsden, and knew the anxiety which he always manifested in propagating the gospel amongst the heathen, can fully appreciate the following passage:--
"The most benevolent undertakings meet with strong opposition. The pious Israelites could not build the walls of Jerusalem without holding the sword in one hand, and the trowel in the other. If we attempt, even in these pious days, to build the walls of Jerusalem, we must expect to meet with the same spirit of opposition. I have met with hard contests in digging the foundation, and laying the first stone of the Christian Church in New Zealand; but I hope that the building will proceed. I believe the work to be of God. It has as yet gone on slowly, but progessively. I have not had
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the means till lately to make the attempt; though I have wished most ardently to see the work begun. If the public prejudice had not been so strong against the natives of this island, the difficulty and expense of forming the settlement would not have been so great. This island opens a large field for the exercise of Christian benevolence, and for Missionary labours. Had I been a few years younger, and circumstances would have allowed me to follow my own inclination, I should have fixed my habitation among this people: but this cannot now be."
Mr. Marsden sailed on his second visit to New Zealand, July 26th, 1819, accompanied by the Rev. John Butler, and Messrs. Francis Hall and James Kemp. They arrived on the 12th of August, and Mr. Marsden left for New South Wales on the 9th of November, having spent about three months in New Zealand. Mr. Butler and others were, on this voyage, settled at Kidikidi, on land purchased of Shunghee. On Mr. Marsden's return, he brought five sons of chiefs with him. Mr. Samuel Butler accompanied them to Parramatta, and acted there as teacher in the seminary formed in that town, until the establishment of the settlement at Kidikidi. Mr. Marsden rendered a most important service to the Mission at this period by superintending the education of several New Zealanders who resided in the neighbourhood of Parramatta. This measure, which was dictated by sound policy, produced a most beneficial result; for when they returned to their native country, they carried with them a considerable knowledge of Christianity, as well as of the Arts. Nor did they forget the kind treatment and pious admonitions of their friend Mr. Marsden, but spread abroad in all directions the most pleasing accounts of his affection for New Zealand. Perhaps it was, in a great degree, owing to this judicious arrangement, that Mr. Marsden gradually acquired such influence over the natives, by which, on many occasions, he seemed to wield them at
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his will. In a letter addressed to the Society in England, he remarks:-- "After having natives living with me for more than four years, I cannot entertain a doubt of the success that will attend the establishment of a seminary here for them. I am now erecting a commodious building, on an estate which I purchased on the bank of the river, opposite to the town of Parramatta. The situation is very pleasant, and convenient in every respect. The estate contains upwards of one hundred acres of land; and every operation of agriculture, gardening, nursery, &c., may be carried on, together with the exercise of the simple arts." He then proceeds to state that, in this establishment they shall learn to plough, sow, and reap, with the management of horses and cattle, and when a chief's son has learned to plough, and has become acquainted with a team of bullocks, he shall take them home with him. Twenty-four young New Zealanders were under his care, for different periods of time, from August, 1817, to March 1819, and he bears the following honourable testimony of them.-- "They have all conducted themselves with the greatest propriety. There is not an individual in the colony, who can make, with justice, the smallest complaint against them. Some of them made considerable progress in English, and improved themselves greatly in the knowledge of agriculture, of which they are very fond. Various things here, which they had never before seen, furnish us with much conversation about the Maker of all. They see such a difference between our civilized and their savage state that they cannot be persuaded that the same God made both them and us. When I tell them that there is but one God, they advance many arguments to prove my assertion incredible." While Mr. Marsden displayed so much anxiety for their civilization, it must not be supposed that he was in any degree inattentive to their spiritual and eternal welfare. All his schemes for the promotion of the arts, all his endeavours to encourage commercial intercourse, all his plans for creating a thirst after European refinement and civilization--all, it must be said, had one grand object in view, viz., the dissemination of the gospel, and the salvation of the heathen. To use the appropriate illustration of an able modern
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writer, "like the lines which proceed from the circumference to the centre of an immense circle"--he regarded "all the moral arts and sciences which have been invented by men--every department of human knowledge, however far it may, at first sight, appear to be removed from religion--as having a direct bearing on Theology as the grand central point, and as having a certain tendency to promote its important object."
Having, therefore, laid a foundation for the future operations of the Missionaries, he entertained sanguine anticipations of bringing the natives into the Church of Christ. To show what his feelings were at the period of his second voyage, we need only quote a passage from a letter written a few months before he sailed "I believe that the time is now come for these nations to be called into the outward Church at least. The way is clear; and Divine Goodness will provide the means for their instruction. I admit that many difficulties will be met with on all untried ground; and that the wisest men will sometimes mistake, in their views of accomplishing their objects, with respect to a nation which has had no intercourse with the civilized world; yet these difficulties will be overcome, under the blessing of God, by constant perseverance; and I have no doubt but that this will be the case, in the present instance, with regard to New Zealand. Time will make this matter more easy. The work is now begun--the foundation is now laid--and I hope we shall soon see the structure rise." Since Mr. Marsden's first visit, a marked improvement had taken place in the conduct of the natives. Some of those who formerly used to break down the Missionaries' fences, abuse them, and steal and carry away every article that they could get hold of, were living at the settlement on the most friendly terms with the Europeans. An instance of Shunghee's good feeling may here be noticed. In the beginning of 1817, a naval expedition, under his command, sailed from the Bay of Islands. It consisted of thirty canoes, and about eight hundred men. Its object was to obtain peace with his enemies at the North Cape. The chief took an affectionate leave of the settlers, and told them that, if he fell, they must be kind to his children; and, if he survived, he would take care of their families
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when they should die. The expedition returned, however, in about a fortnight, his people having quarrelled with those of Wangaroa, into which place they had put for refreshment; and being afraid, he said, that the Wangaroa people would attack the settlers in his absence, he, for the present, abandoned the expedition. This great warrior, was much attached to Mr. Marsden, but his voyage to England, where he was treated with much distinction, and loaded with valuable presents, produced a very injurious effect on his mind. Dr. Lang, in his interesting work on the origin and migrations of the Polynesian nation, relates an anecdote respecting Shunghee, which we must be excused for inserting in this place. "When Shunghee, a New Zealand Chief, who had been in England, where he was taken much notice of in certain high quarters, returned to New South Wales, he happened to see Inacki, another chief, with whom he had had an ancient feud, in the town of Sydney. He there told his adversary, that when they got back to New Zealand, he would fight him. Inacki accepted the challenge; and Shunghee accordingly assembled, on his return to New Zealand, no fewer than two thousand men to attack Inacki. The latter was prepared to receive him, and for some time the event of the battle that ensued was doubtful. At length Shunghee, who had the greatest number of muskets, and who had arranged his men in the form called, in Roman tactics, the cuneus or wedge, placing himself at the apex and directing those behind him to wheel round the enemy from the right and left, or to fall back into their original position as opportunity offered, shot Inacki. On perceiving his enemy mortally wounded, the savage immediately sprang forward, scooped out the eye of the dying man with his English knife, and instantly swallowed it; and then, holding his hands to his throat, into which he had afterwards plunged his knife, and from which the blood flowed copiously, drank as much of the horrid beverage as they could hold." After this, in order to make some amends to his daughter for the loss of her husband, Shunghee immediately caused the captives to be laid with their heads over the gunwale of the canoe, and with his sword, which he received as a present in a high quarter.
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in England, smote off the heads of sixteen of them successively in cold blood. This anecdote may tend to show the character of the people amongst whom the settlers had to live; and that nothing but the most cautious and prudent conduct, on the part of Mr. Marsden, could have saved them from the fury of the contending natives. But such was the wisdom with which he planned and executed his projects for obtaining a permanent and secure settlement in New Zealand, that notwithstanding war and all its horrors continually hovered around the Missionaries, not one of them ever fell a victim to the natives! This is certainly most remarkable, and is perhaps a fact unparalleled in the history of Missions.
Before we proceed to the consideration of Mr, Marsden's third voyage, it may be proper to state, that in 1821, the seminary at Parramatta for New Zealanders suspended its operations, as the change of habits and climate was found injurious to the health of the natives, and they required a degree of attention which circumstances could not allow to be paid to them. Mr. Samuel Butler left in the beginning of March, and returned in the Hope to New Zealand. In the same vessel, Mr, James Shepherd proceeded with his wife to join the Mission, who having spent some time both in New Zealand and in the Society Islands, before he engaged himself in this work, understood its nature previous to entering on it. Very excellent instructions were addressed to him relative to his proceedings as a gardener and agriculturist. At this period considerable attention was likewise bestowed on teaching the natives the art of rope-making, and a Mr. John Cowell came from England for that purpose, having been sent out by the Church Missionary Society in consequence of Mr. Marsden's representation in his first narrative.
Mr. Marsden had entertained great hopes of raising up, under the Divine Blessing, some native teachers to instruct their countrymen. In two remarkable instances, however, he was grievously disappointed, for just as Mowhee and Duaterra were on the point of rendering important services to the Mission, they were brought to the grave by a premature death. They accompanied Mr. Marsden on his first voyage to New Zealand, when, ow-
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ing to great bodily exertions in endeavouring to civilize his own people, Duaterra brought upon himself a disease of a very painful character, which terminated fatally shortly after the Active sailed. Duaterra deserves particular notice, as he was the first who introduced agriculture into New Zealand, and paved the way for the progress of civilization. His death was deeply felt by Mr. Marsden, who thus writes of him:-- "Upon the wisdom, zeal, industry, and influence of this serviceable man, I calculated for many advantages to New Zealand. My hopes were now likely to be blighted, as I could entertain little expectation of his restoration. I know Infinite Wisdom cannot err. That the great Head of the Church ordains to be done, will in the end be best; David mourned for Abner--I shall long mourn for Duaterra, should he be carried off by death; for, as a great man fell in Israel, when Abner died, so will a great man fall in New Zealand, should Duaterra not survive his present affliction."
Mowhee, after having remained a short time in New Zealand, was moved with an ardent desire to visit England, and accordingly availed himself of the opportunity afforded him by the Jefferson whaler. On his arrival in London, he was placed under the protection of the Rev. Basil Woodd, who instructed him in the principles of the Christian Religion, and procured the assistance of masters to furnish him with such information as might prove useful on his return to New Zealand. The poor fellow, however, did not long survive to enjoy the benefit of Mr, Woodd's pious instructions, for, being seized with a most malignant putrid fever, he was carried off after a few days, on the 28th of December, 1816. He appears to have been a truly converted man, and, on his death-bed, when Mr. Woodd asked him what message he should send to Mr. Marsden, he replied, with much animation, "Oh! tell him I am under everlasting obligations to him, for his great kindness to me, and my poor countrymen." A few years before Mr. Marsden's death, we had the pleasure of conversing with him about Mowhee, and we shall never forget the burst of feeling and affection which he displayed on the mention of his name.
In reference to Mr. Marsden's second visit, there is a
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very pleasing passage in the 21st Report of the Church Mission Society, which it would be impossible to pass over in silence, inasmuch as it clearly shows the cordial co-operation of the settlers, and the indefatigable exertions of Mr. Marsden in their behalf.
"The settlers themselves, when Mr. Marsden was returning from this second visit, met on the occasion, and adopted unanimously the following resolution, which they have transmitted home, with a request that the Committee would make it public:--
"Resolved--That we, the servants of the Church Missionary Society, being sensible of the unwearied exertions of our beloved friend, the Rev. Samuel Marsden, during his residence with us, in promoting the temporal and spiritual welfare of the heathen in this distant land, and the general interests of the Church Missionary Society, do hereby present to him our sincere and hearty thanks; and unite in prayer to Almighty God, for his abundant success in all his arduous undertakings in behalf of the natives of New Zealand."
Of Mr. Marsden's last visit, Mr. Hall thus writes, in September, 1819:--
"Our dear friend, Mr. Marsden, has been in New Zealand since February, and is now about to return.
"We have been under alarm for the safety of this valuable man, for some days past; some natives having arrived from the eastward, and stated that he left His Majesty's ship Coromandel in the River Thames, and proceeded many days' journey up the country, and had been killed by the savages. His arrival, overland, at the Bay of Islands, in health, after a circuitous journey of about seven hundred miles, relieved our minds, and gave us additional cause to bless and thank God for his protecting care, and that He had again heard and answered our supplications. There is not one in ten thousand, I think, who could, or would, have borne the privations, difficulties, and dangers, which he has undergone. I pray that he may reap the fruits of his labours, by the New Zealanders turning from the degraded state in which they at present are, to serve the only living and true God."
Mr. Marsden's journal of his second visit is full of in-
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teresting matter. Amidst the gloom and darkness of heathen superstition, the writer evidently anticipated the dawn of better days.
"Sept. 5, 1819.--Sunday.--Early this morning arrived King George and Racow, Mowhee's cousin, with their relations; and at the same time, Pomarree, with part of his tribe. I was walking on the beach when they landed, and told them that it was the Sabbath day; and, on that account, we could not do any business with them. They said that they could not stop, as they had brought no provisions. We ordered them what was necessary, and afterwards performed Divine Service in the shed; where the four great men in New Zealand (Shunghee, King George, and Pomarree, with Racow, the young king) attended, and many other natives. All behaved with decorum: and we hope the day is not far distant, when they will know the joyful sound of the Gospel, and have the Lord for their God, in the fullest sense.
"In the evening, we had Divine Service; and, afterwards, the Holy Sacrament was administered in this distant land; the solemnity of which did not fail to excite in our breasts, sensations and feelings corresponding with the peculiar situation in which we were placed. We looked back to the period, when this Holy Ordinance was first instituted in Jerusalem, in the presence of our Lord's Disciples; and adverted to the peculiar circumstances under which it was now administered, at the very ends of the earth, where a single ray of Divine Revelation had never, till now, dawned on the inhabitants."
The following passages, relating to the labours of the natives, and their diligence in overcoming the various obstacles which then impeded their progress in civilization, afford a pleasing proof of the blessings which result from a knowledge of the arts. For, destitute of these, what is unenlightened man, but "a savage roaming through the woods and wilds," "devoid of every finer art and elegance of life."
"The principal inhabitants of Ranghee-hoo have their sweet-potatoe gardens here. We found numbers of them at work, in their respective allotments; some with spades and hoes which they had received from us; others with wooden spades, with long handles to them, the mouth made about the same size as an English spade; and such
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as had got neither spade nor hoe, turned up the ground with small spatulas, about three feet long. The wooden spades and spatulas can only be used where the land is light, and has been previously turned up. They have another wooden tool, about seven feet long, pointed like a hedge-stake, and a piece of wood lashed on about two feet from the point, to place the foot upon, to aid in thrusting the instrument into the ground. They call this tool Koko. They pull up all the weeds with their hands, and then cover them with the spatula or spade, as they proceed in digging.
"The natives were overjoyed to see us, and their universal cry was for spades and hoes. We regretted much that it was not in our power to gratify all their laudable wishes. We saw, with pain, the hard toil which they endured, and the little progress which they made in cultivation with their rude instruments; and were convinced, by ocular demonstration, that the earth can never be subdued, and made to bring forth its increase, to reward the sweat and toil of man, without iron; and that this valuable article is the only thing in the creation that can relieve the temporal miseries of this people.
"In passing over these potatoe-grounds, we were informed that Shunghee had an extensive allotment, and was then in his garden. We went to visit him; and found him in the midst of his people, who were all at work, preparing the land for planting. Shunghee received us with great kindness. I observed his head wife at work with a spatula; and her little daughter, between four and five years old, sitting on the bed which her mother was digging. I knew the age of this little girl, for she was born at Shunghee's Hippah (or Epah, a fortified place,) about thirty miles from Ranghee-hoo, the very night I slept there, when first at New Zealand. Shunghee's wife reminded me of this circumstance, and said that she had called the child "Marsden," from my being with them at the birth.
"This woman is about thirty-five years old, and is quite blind. She lost her sight from an inflammation in her eyes about three years ago. She appeared to dig the ground as fast as those who had their sight, and as well. She first pulled up the weeds with her hands, as she went on; then set her feet upon them, that she
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might know where they were; afterwards, she dug up the ground and covered the weeds with the mould, with her hands. I told her, that if she would give me the spatula, I would give her a hoe; which offer was accepted with joy; and her daughter was sent immediately with the spatula, along with Mr. Butler, for the promised hoe.
"We have found, in every district which we have visited, the body of the inhabitants industrious, so far as their means extended; but their industry is universally checked for want of agricultural tools. We need not adduce any other proof of their habits of industry, than what has been now stated. If a woman of the first rank, and, at the same time blind, can, from habit, labor in the field with her servants and children, what will not these people rise to, if they can procure the means of improving their country, and of bettering their condition! Their temporal state must be improved by agriculture and the simple arts, in connection with the introduction of Christianity, in order to give permanence and full influence to the gospel among them. It may be reasonably expected, that their moral and religious advancement will keep pace with the increase of their temporal comforts. They are, at present, naked and hungry; and if we should say unto them, "Be ye warmed and filled, notwithstanding we give them not those things which are needful to the body, what doth it profit?"
"The bowels of Christians would yearn, I am sure, over their temporal and spiritual miseries, were it possible to make them known. Our God and Saviour, who is loving to every man, and whose tender mercies are over all His works, is now, blessed be His Name! moving the hearts of His servants to send relief to the poor heathen, even to the very ends of the earth; which must cause the hearts of all who wish them well to rejoice."
Mr. Marsden sailed on a third visit to New Zealand in H. M. S. Dromedary, Captain Skinner, in February, 1820, and arrived on the 20th of that month. The Dromedary was directed by Government to proceed from
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New South Wales to the Bay of Islands, and subsequently with the Coromandel to the Thames, to take to England cargoes of timber for trial in that country. In an interview which the Secretary had with Sir Byam Martin, Comptroller of the Navy, who wished for information on the subject of New Zealand, Sir Byam agreed that Mr. Marsden should be requested to accompany the Dromedary, in order to facilitate the object of her visit to the Islands. He gladly availed himself of the opportunity of renewing his intercourse with the settlements, and of taking out supplies. A great difficulty occurred in obtaining the assistance of the natives at this period, as they had come to the determination of doing no work except for muskets and powder. This circumstance caused Mr. Marsden much uneasiness, and having held a meeting of the settlers on the 20th of March, he requested them not, on any account, to supply the natives with these articles. He also explained to all the powerful chiefs that the settlers and Missionaries had gone amongst them to preach the Gospel of Peace, and, therefore, it would be very improper in such individuals to furnish them with the means of destroying each other. In writing to the Society, he remarks, with the true spirit of an Apostle, "I think it much more to the honour of religion, and the good of New Zealand, even to give up the mission for the present, than to trade with the natives in those articles." With a view, therefore, of rendering the Missionaries independent of the natives, he sent to New Zealand, at different periods, horses, mares, and cattle. "A country," he says, "can never get forward without horses and cattle; and no expense should be spared in introducing them into a new colony as soon as possible." This visit occupied about nine months; from the end of February to the beginning of December, 1820. To give some idea of the activity which Mr. Marsden displayed, we shall give an outline of his proceedings. In March and April, he first walked from the Bay of Islands to the Gambier, on the west coast of the Island; and afterwards he accompanied Captain Skinner, in the Dromedary, by the North Cape, to the same place. In May, he visited various districts south-westward of Kidikidi. The Coromandel having arrived in the Bay for timber, Mr. Marsden proceeded
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in her to the Thames, and spent the months of June, July, and August, in visiting the inhabitants in the bays and creeks of that river--those of Mercury Bay, on the Ocean, south of Cape Colville--and those on the western coast of the Island, south-east of the Gambier. Returning to the Bay of Islands, he embarked for Port Jackson, in a Government schooner, on the 17th of September; but the schooner putting back, on account of bad weather, and being very deeply laden, Mr. Marsden determined to wait for the return of the Dromedary to Port Jackson. Finding that she would not sail for some weeks, he improved the interval in visiting the people on the Thames, and on the western coast of the Island. Returning by the way of the Gambier, he crossed the country to Wangaroa, and embarked there on board the Dromedary, on the 25th of November. These journeys were, in part, taken in company with other Europeans; but for many hundred miles, Mr. Marsden had no other companions but natives, and everywhere received from them the kindest attention. In this account, which is extracted from the twenty-second Report of the Church Missionary Society, it will appear that the good opinion which Mr. Marsden originally formed of the kind and hospitable treatment of the natives, did not diminish, but that, on all occasions, he trusted himself amongst them without any apprehensions of danger. Like Elliott, the venerable Apostle of the North American Indians, he went from tribe to tribe "doing good," accompanying them in their wanderings through portions of the country hitherto untrodden by the feet of Europeans, and dispensing around him the blessings which the Gospel is designed to impart.
At this period, the publication of Mr. Marsden's journals had excited much attention in England, and distinguished honours were conferred upon him. He was made an Honorary Life Member of the Church Missionary Society, and, at the annual meeting, the following resolution was proposed by the Rev. William (now Dr.) Marsh, of Leamington, and seconded by the late Rev. Charles Simeon:-- "That this meeting views with pleasure the prospect of ultimate good to New Zealand from the Society's exertions; and desires to express its particular acknowledgments to
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the Rev. Samuel Marsden, Principal Chaplain of New South Wales, and its thanks to the other friends of the Society in that Colony, for their kind assistance in the concerns of that distant Mission." These well-deserved encomiums must have afforded some consolation under the perplexing trials which he was called upon to endure in the prosecution of his arduous labours. Notwithstanding all his endeavours to promote peace amongst the New Zealanders, the fierce spirit of that people was still unsubdued, and war and devastation reigned triumphant amongst them, to the infinite danger of the Missionaries. Shunghee, whom we have already had occasion to bring so prominently before our readers, laid waste all before him, slaughtering and devouring his adversaries, and plundering their habitations. Rut nothing could subdue Mr. Marsden's undaunted spirit. He felt that his cause was good, and that truth would ultimately prevail. In a letter to the Society, he observes
"I greatly lament the evils which have taken place, but they do not make me despair. I have no doubt but that the New Zealanders will, in due time, become a civilized nation. God will deliver them from the dominion of the Prince of this World, and they shall see His Salvation. The way is still open, if labourers can only be procured fit for the work; and God will find these, and send them forth, when He sees meet. You have some very pious labourers, some excellent ones of the earth, in New Zealand, whom the Lord will assuredly bless. We must not sow, and expect to reap, the same day. When it shall please God to pour out His Spirit on the inhabitants of New Zealand, then will His Word have effect indeed."
And in another passage, when referring to the departure of the Rev. Mr. Leigh, a Wesleyan Missionary, who bad gone to New Zealand, he bears testimony to his piety and usefulness, in the following terms:--
"Mr. Leigh will be a great stay to the cause of God, when he is settled at his own station in New Zealand. Mr. Leigh always laboured hard and prudently, while stationed in this Colony as a Missionary, and was much esteemed."
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Mr. Marsden sailed from Port Jackson, on his fourth visit, in the Brampton, Captain Moore, on the 23d of July, 1823, and arrived in the Bay of Islands on the 3d of August. In a little more than a month, on the 5th of September, he re-embarked in the same vessel, with Mr. Kendall and his family, who were to return to New South Wales; but the ship was wrecked in the Bay on the 7th, without the loss, however, of lives or property. Mr. Marsden, in consequence, was detained in New Zealand until the 14th of November, when he sailed in the Dragon; but Shunghee having, in the mean time, returned from a war expedition, Mr. Kendall refused to leave the island. Several chiefs, who had been promised a passage in the Brampton, could not be accommodated in the Dragon; but six native youths, at their own earnest entreaty, were permitted to accompany Mr. Marsden, as they readily engaged to sleep on the deck. The Dragon arrived at Sydney in the beginning of December.
Before leaving New Zealand, he drew up some excellent regulations for the guidance of the Missionaries and settlers in their intercourse with the shipping which might visit the Bay of Islands. The object of these rules was to prevent the growth of that secular and commercial spirit which threatened to injure the cause of the Mission, and to frustrate the ends for which it was projected. When visiting Ranghee-hoo, he was pleased to find that a school had been established for the instruction of the natives. He remarks--"A school is now begun here. The natives are all quiet, and the settlers live in as much peace as they would in any civilized country. They assure me, that they have no trouble now with the natives." -- "I preached to-day (being Sunday) at Ranghee-hoo, both morning and evening. It gives me much pleasure to see a school at length begun. The children are capable of learning anything which we wish to teach them."
Mr. Marsden, anxious that the business of education should be prosecuted with all efficiency and despatch, took measures with that view before he left New Zea-
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land; and writes, in reference to Kidikidi, in September:--
"As no building had been erected for a public school, I told the Missionaries, that, as they were all comfortably provided with houses, there was no necessity for delaying any longer the erection of a school-house. They most readily offered to assist in the work. The foundation must be laid in the education of the rising generation. The children possess strong minds, are well behaved and teachable; and would make great improvement.
On the 10th of November, a few days before he sailed, Mr. Marsden adds--
"I took leave of Kidikidi this morning. I have no doubt but a Church will be raised there to the honour of the God of Israel. In time this will become a great settlement. It possesses many local advantages; and is one of the best Missionary Stations that I have met with for a principal settlement. Had I to select again, I should fix upon this spot."
The following passage, from the twenty-fourth Report of the Church Missionary Society, relates to the settlement of Mr. Williams, a gentleman well known in New Zealand as an able minister of religion. He and his brother are still residing there, and they have no doubt proved exceedingly useful to the Bishop, in forwarding his plans for the promotion of the Gospel. Mr. Williams is now Archdeacon of the East Cape:--
"It had been intended that Mr. Williams should settle at Wangaroa; but, as the Wesleyan Missionaries had fixed themselves there, Mr. Marsden chose a spot for a new settlement, at Paihia, on the south side of the Bay of Islands, about sixteen miles to the south-eastward of Kidikidi, and about ten miles across the Bay southward from Ranghee-hoo. The situation is beautiful, and the land good. The country is populous, and there are numbers of fine children. The inhabitants are orderly and well behaved. The chief has been at Parramatta, and is well known to Mr. Marsden. His son afterwards died at Mr. Marsden's house, which has much attached him and his wife to Mr. Marsden's family. Within a few miles of this station, there are ten or twelve large villages, the inhabitants of which are not only willing
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that Missionaries should visit them, but most gladly and thankfully receive their visits. The Committee extract some notices from Mr. Marsden's communications, a few days before he sailed:--
"Oct. 9, 1823.--This day I spent with the Rev. H. Williams. I rejoice to see him go on so well. He and his family are now comfortably settled, and are happy in their new situation. I think they will prove a great blessing to the Society. I hope he will be able to correct and remedy, in time, many evils that have existed; and also to set an example to the rest, what they, as Missionaries, should do
"Oct. 10.--Mrs. Leigh accompanied me to Paihia, on a visit to Mrs. Williams, who expected to be confined every day. The local situation of Mrs. Williams's station is most beautiful, and the natives are very well behaved. They are as quiet, and feel themselves as secure, as if they were in any part of England. I have no doubt but they will be blessed in their work.
"Nov. 2, Sunday.--I spent this Sabbath at Paihia, where I preached and administered the Sacrament, and baptized a little boy, born here since our arrival, son to the carpenter, Mr. Fairburn. Our congregation of Europeans was but small; only eleven, besides natives: yet we found it good to wait upon the Lord. I always feel comfortable at Paihia. A Church of Christ, I hope, will be raised here, against which the gates of hell will never prevail."
The Rev. Mr. Leigh's opinion of Mr. Marsden, and his labours, is highly gratifying, and not the less valuable, as coming from one who belonged to another Society:--
"The shipwreck which we have experienced will, I have no doubt, prove favourable to the reputation of the New Zealanders. For several days we were in their power, and they might have taken all that we had with the greatest ease; but, instead of oppressing and robbing us, they actually sympathized with us in our trials and afflictions. Mr. Marsden, myself, and Mrs. Leigh, were at a native village for several days and nights, without any food but what the natives brought us: what they had, they gave us willingly, and said, "Poor crea-
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tures! you have nothing to eat, and you are not accustomed to our kind of food." I shall never forget the sympathy and kindness of these poor heathens.
"I do hope that the Rev. S. Marsden will be successful in his endeavours to put an end to the frequent wars in New Zealand. I have heard many natives and chiefs say, "It is no good to go to fight, and eat men: we wish to cease from war, and retire to some peaceful place." I pray God that this object may be soon effected among this people.
"The Christian world, and especially the Church Missionary Society, will never be able fully to appreciate the valuable labours of the Rev. Samuel Marsden: his fervent zeal, his abundant toil, and his extensive charity in the cause of Missions, are beyond estimation. May he live long, as a burning and shining light in the Missionary world!"
It was in 1825, that Mr. W. Hall was compelled to leave New Zealand, having become wholly incapacitated for active employment, in consequence of an asthmatic affection, which had been induced by exposure to the inclemency of the weather whilst in the execution of his duty. Mr. Hall was one of those who had borne the burden and heat of the day in New Zealand, and Mr. Marsden always entertained a sincere respect for him, well knowing that nothing but dire necessity would have led him to forsake the objects to which he had been destined by the Church Missionary Society, and for the accomplishment of which so much expense had been incurred for the passage and outfit of himself and family. His eldest son, by the particular recommendation of Mr. Marsden, was sent to England, to be educated for the ministry under the Rev. Mr. Fawcett; but after having displayed the most premising abilities in the prosecution of his studies, he was brought prematurely to the grave by the small-pox. Mr. Marsden had shewn great affection for this young man, and Mrs. Marsden (who was his godmother) assisted in procuring his outfit for the passage, and took a warm interest in his welfare. For the last nineteen years, Mr. Hall has been dragging on a miserable existence, under sufferings of no ordinary character; but calmly and patiently anticipating that
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solemn period, when, being delivered from the burden of the flesh, he shall inherit the kingdom prepared for all them that love the Lord Jesus Christ ia sincerity and truth. 3
In 1826, a great change took place in the conduct of several chiefs towards the Missionaries in New Zealand; and during the bloody wars, in which Shunghee was engaged at that period, their property was frequently plundered, and their lives were exposed to imminent danger. The disturbances at Wangaroa, where the Wesleyan Mission was established, occasioned much uneasiness to the ministers of that denomination. The whole of their premises, which had been erected at great expense, were destroyed. The worst consequences were to be apprehended from continuing their operations during the unsettled state of affairs; and the Missionaries, receiving some warning of their danger from natives friendly to them, were in daily expectation of being stripped of every thing they possessed, according to the New Zealand custom. For a time, therefore, their labours were necessarily suspended; and the Rev. Mr. Turner, a pious and zealous Missionary, was, in a manner, compelled to proceed to Port Jackson. The Rev. Mr. Williams, in alluding to this, remarks:-- "The return of Mr. Turner will be a convincing proof, to the Society, of what are our feelings on this point: and, in the present unsettled state of things, we consider ourselves merely as tenants for the time-being, who may receive our discharge at any hour." A spirit of genuine piety and resignation seems to have consoled the Missionaries in their affliction; and the Rev. Henry Williams, in terms worthy of an Apostle, observes-- "The Lord will, doubtless, direct that which shall be right. We have seen Him, at all times, a present help, and He will stand by us." And his brother, in another communication, has the following resolute observation:-- "Whatever may
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befal our Mission, we are now prepared to depart or stay, according to the behaviour of the natives; but it is, I believe, our united determination to remain until we are absolutely driven away. When the natives are in our houses, carrying away our property, it will then be time for us to take refuge in our boats."
As soon as the painful intelligence reached New South Wales, Mr. Marsden determined to proceed to the Bay of Islands, and use his utmost exertions to prevent the abandonment of the Mission. He was under no apprehension of suffering any injury from the natives; and his long acquaintance with their character and habits, led him to anticipate, that the storm would soon pass away. Accordingly, he sailed for New Zealand in H. M. S. Rainbow, and arrived at the Bay of Islands on the 5th of April, 1827. Finding that the affairs of the Mission had taken a pleasing turn for the better, and that peace and tranquillity were once more restored, he remained only four days in New Zealand. During that short period, he conferred with the Missionaries upon the trying circumstances in which they had been placed, and strengthened them with his counsel; and, as far as the time would permit, reasoned with the chiefs upon the baneful consequences of the late war. In writing to the Society, he says-- "It gave me much pleasure to find the Missionaries so comfortable, living in unity and Godly love, devoting themselves to the work. I trust that the great Head of the Church will bless their labours." At this period, the beneficial labours of the Press reached New Zealand; and, through Mr. Marsden's co-operation with the Missionaries, Mr. Davis, during his visit to Port Jackson, carried through the Press a translation of the first three chapters of Genesis, the 20th of Exodus, part of the 5th chapter of St. Matthew's Gospel, the 1st of St. John's Gospel, the Lord's Prayer, and some Hymns. This was a great step towards the instruction of the natives, and prepared the way for a translation of the whole of the New Testament; which was carried through the Press, a few years afterwards, at the expense of the British and Foreign Bible Society. The importance of this work can scarcely be estimated, and it affords a striking example of the usefulness of that Society in promoting and facilitating the labours of the Missionary.
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In concluding this brief notice of the fifth visit; we present our readers with an extract from Mr. Bennett's journal, which gives a short outline of Shunghee's exploits and death:--
"On the 20th of April, 1829, a grand ceremony took place at Wangaroa, near the Bay of Islands, on the occasion of collecting the bones of the celebrated, but sanguinary chief, Shunghee. This chief was brought to England, and presented to His late Majesty, when Prince Regent. It cannot, however, be said that he derived much improvement from his visit to the metropolis of the British empire; for the numerous valuable presents that he received, on taking his departure for his native land, he disposed of on arriving at Sydney, New South Wales, and purchased arms and ammunition, with a good supply of which he returned to New Zealand. "As there is but one king in England, there shall be but one ruler in New Zealand!" exclaimed this despot, and on this principle he acted; and the sanguinary wars he carried on at the River Thames, the slaughter of tribes,: and the devastation he caused of villages and plantations, were very extensive; the ruins of many of which we had frequent opportunities of viewing. He had been severely wounded with a musket-shot in an engagement; and, after lingering for nearly fifteen months, expired on the 5th of March, 1828, at Wangaroa."
Mr. Marsden sailed from Port Jackson on the 16th of February, 1830, in the Elizabeth, Capt. Brown, accompanied by his daughter, Miss Mary Marsden, (now Mrs. John Betts, of the Vineyard, Parramatta.) After a very, tempestuous voyage, during which he suffered much inconvenience from sea-sickness, he came in sight of the land near Hokianga Bay on the 5th of March; and, having sailed round the North Cape of New Zealand with considerable difficulty, in consequence of unfavourable weather, he anchored in the Bay of Islands on the 8th of the same month. The Rev. Mr. Williams and Mr. Brown came on board, and were gratified beyond measure to meet their friend and patron; and, as soon
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as his arrival was known on shore, the Missionaries and a large body of natives assembled on the beach, and received him in a most enthusiastic manner. Mr. Marsden arrived at a most critical period, for, not many days before, a great battle had been fought, in which forty natives were left dead on the field, and it was anticipated that further hostilities would take place. In fact, when the vessel came in sight, the chiefs were haranguing their men and preparing for future scenes of bloodshed; but one great chief, as soon as he heard of Mr. Marsden's arrival, broke off in the midst of his speech, and exclaimed, "Keipuka, Keipuka; Mr. Marsden, Mr. Marsden instantly springing forward to welcome New Zealand's best friend. An eye-witness of what followed, remarks-- "The regard and esteem manifested towards Mr. Marsden, exceeds any thing I have ever witnessed." On the 10th, the Missionaries, perceiving that the natives were about to proceed to war, requested Mr. Marsden and Mr. Williams to use all their influence to prevent it. Accordingly, they went to the principal chiefs, and reasoned with them on the impropriety of slaughtering and devouring one another, declaring at the same time, that the religion which they were commissioned to preach amongst them, was one of peace. At first, all entreaties were ineffectual; and the Missionaries, anticipating the most fearful results from the horrors of the war, were contemplating the removal of their wives and children to Kidikidi, until more peaceable times. Nothing, however, could subdue the firmness and resolution of Mr. Marsden, and with a determination to carry his favourite object, he visited the natives once more. The time was certainly one of extreme difficulty, as there were already large numbers in the field, and a report was brought to the Missionary station, that fighting men, to the amount of seven hundred, were on their way from the North Cape to join the chiefs engaged in war. Indeed, the spirit of fear had not only possessed the Europeans, but many of the natives also, one of whom came to Mr. Marsden to beg that he might conceal himself in the hold of the ship until peace was proclaimed. On the following Sunday (14th), Divine Service was performed as usual, and the behaviour of the natives who attended was highly satisfactory.
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The boys were clothed in striped shirts and white trousers, and the girls in blue dresses and buff shawls. They joined with much apparent fervour in many of the prayers, and repeated the responses. In the morning Mr. Marsden preached an appropriate discourse; and, in the evening, Mr. Williams took the same text, and addressed the natives in their own language. In the course of his sermon, he asked them if they could give any reason for the present disturbances in the land; upon which Tywanga, a baptized native, replied-- "That the New Zealanders and the men belonging to the ships had but one thought, while the Missionaries had two. The former, he said, thought only of this world; but the latter, of the next, as well as the present state of existence." Mr. Marsden could not help remarking the pleasing change which had taken place in New Zealand since the first Sabbath which he spent there. Then the natives were all in heathen darkness, and the shadow of death; but now, notwithstanding the occasional wars which happened amongst the less civilized tribes, the knowledge of the Gospel was widely diffused, and many had been brought to renounce their former evil habits, and to receive Jesus Christ as their only Lord and Saviour. The Sabbath was now no longer a day undistinguished from the rest; but "the sound of the Churchgoing bell,"echoing through "the valleys and rocks," proclaimed the extension of the Redeemer's kingdom.
It was not until the 17th, that, after protracted negotiations, the chiefs agreed to terms of peace and dispersed their respective forces. This intelligence was received with much satisfaction by the Missionaries and their families, who regarded Mr. Marsden's arrival as a most providential cirmcumstance; for the establishment of peace was almost entirely attributable to his great influence amongst the natives. Immediately after the proclamation of peace, forty canoes filled with armed men were seen crossing near Motorooa, and proceeding to their respective homes. Thus ended all the fearful preparations for war, and the way was once more opened for the propagation of Christian principles. In reflecting upon a scene so pleasing to the ministers of religion and to all sincere disciples of the Lord Jesus
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Christ, the sublime language of Scripture forces itself upon the mind-- "How beautiful are the feet of them that preach the gospel of peace, and bring glad tidings of good things!"
Mr. Marsden was now enabled to visit the different Missionary stations, and to converse freely with the natives. In these excursions, he was frequently accompanied by Miss Mary Marsden, who was often recognised by the chiefs that had resided in her father's house at Parramatta, and was treated with much kindness by them. The natives in all parts, were so much rejoiced to see Mr. Marsden, that some danced and sang with joy, while others with muskets welcomed him with a perpetual discharge of artillery. On one occasion, there were more than two thousand present, all armed. In this manner, he went from place to place, sometimes surrounded by hundreds of natives:
"E'en children followed, with endearing wile,
"And plucked his coat, to share the good man's smile?
"His ready smile a parent's warmth expressed,
"Their welfare pleased him, and their cares distressed,
"To them his heart, his love, his griefs, were given,
"But all his serious thoughts had rest in Heaven."
On the 2nd of April, Mr. Marsden proceeded to visit the native village of Ranghee-hoo, which is pleasantly situated on a lofty hill. On the summit, Duaterra and his son are buried. The latter, a very promising young man, was to have returned to Parramatta with Mr. Marsden, but to the great sorrow of all the Missionaries, he died on the very morning that the Elizabeth anchored in the Bay. During his illness, he made frequent inquiries for Mr. Marsden, and appeared much distressed at the idea of his arriving whilst the natives were engaged in war. Every now and then, he exclaimed-- "Oh! what would Mr. Marsden say, were he to come whilst the New Zealanders are fighting? He would be very angry." Mr. Marsden, with his accustomed liberality, gave the natives a grand dinner on the beach, after which, he entered into a long conversation with the chiefs, whilst his daughter endeavoured to amuse their wives.
On the 11th, a most interesting ceremony was wit-
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nessed. A New Zealander, with his wife and another female, was publicly baptized during the celebration of Divine Service. The schools in this district were found exceedingly flourishing. Every individual attending them was tolerably well acquainted with the Church Catechism and the essential doctrines of the gospel, and many could write well, and pass a creditable examination in the first rules of arithmetic. It may here be remarked, that the New Zealanders manifest a considerable degree of aptness both for arithmetic and writing. About this period, Mr. Marsden was a severe sufferer from cold and fever, being confined to his bed for several days. The attack was occasioned, in a great measure, by overexertion and incautious exposure to the humid atmosphere of the climate. Being of exceedingly active habits, and disliking long confinement in the house, he soon made his appearance amongst the natives again; but his friends, fearing that any unforeseen calamity might happen to him in New Zealand, were anxious that he should return to Parramatta before the commencement of the winter.
On the 26th of May, therefore, he embarked in the Prince of Denmark for Port Jackson; but, owing to the unfavourable state of the weather on the 29th, the master deemed it prudent to bear away once more for the Bay of Islands. The vessel having sustained some injury, Mr. Marsden was detained until the following day, when he sailed again with a fair wind, and came in sight of the Heads of Port Jackson on the 16th of June. This voyage was altogether satisfactory, as Mr. Marsden had accomplished some very important matters. He had established peace amongst the natives--had investigated the affairs of the Mission, and prepared a full Report to send to the Church Missionary Society--and above all, had produced a most favourable impression on the minds of many natives. Nor should it be omitted, that he preached regularly every Sabbath day during his absence, and on other occasions when practicable, for he was not ashamed of the Gospel of Christ; knowing, by experience, that it is indeed the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth. His farewell discourse was from 2d Tim. 4th chapter, 6th and 7th verses--"For I am now ready,
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&c.;" and was a practical exposition of the main doctrines of the Gospel, as exemplified In the labours and preaching of the great Apostle of the Gentiles.
Although the affairs of the Mission were prospering, and hundreds of the natives were subjugated by the mild influences of Christianity, reports of an unfavourable nature to the general interests of New Zealand reached this Colony in 1834; and, amongst other cases which might be enumerated, that of Mr. Guard's excited particular attention in every quarter. This individual, who commanded the barque Harriet, in proceeding from Port Jackson to Cloudy Bay, was wrecked near Cape Egmont, but fortunately escaped a watery grave, together with his wife and two children, and all the crew, which consisted of twenty-eight men. At first, according to Guard's statement, the natives treated them kindly; but afterwards, being joined by two hundred men, they proceeded to open hostilities. In an engagement which took place, twelve Europeans and about thirty New Zealanders were killed. The latter, however, finally prevailed, and Guard and his party were compelled to surrender themselves as prisoners; but, on condition of returning to the natives with a cask of powder, as the payment for their ransom, he and five men were allowed to proceed, without further molestation, to Cloudy Bay. By the first opportunity, Guard came to Sydney, and laid the matter before Sir Richard Bourke, with a request that immediate steps might be taken to rescue his wife and children, and nine sailors, from the hands of the New Zealanders, who had expressed their intention to keep them as hostages until the cask of powder should be given. Relying on the accuracy of Guard's narrative, the Governor, with the advice of the Executive Council, requested Captain Lambert to proceed with H. M. S. Alligator, which happened to be lying in Port Jackson, to obtain the restoration of the British subjects then in the hands of the New Zealanders. Accordingly, on the 31st of August, the Alligator, having on board Lieut.
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Gunton and a detachment of the 50th regiment, weighed and made sail from Port Jackson, in company with the Isabella colonial schooner, on board which Capt. Johnson, of the same regiment, and another detachment of soldiers, were embarked to co-operate with Capt. Lambert. Sir Richard's letter to that officer is too fine a specimen of sound sense and Christian feeling, to be omitted in this place:--
"Government House, Aug. 23, 1834.
"SIR--I have the honour to submit for your consideration the narrative of Mr. Guard, who was master of the barque Harriet, when that vessel was wrecked on the northern island of New Zealand, near Cape Egmont, in the month of April last. In the history of the occurrences in that island, subsequent to his shipwreck, you will peruse, with indignation and regret, the account which Mr. Guard gives of the atrocious conduct of the natives towards the crew; and will perceive, that having lost twelve of his men by the weapons of the savages, Mr. Guard has been obliged to leave nine sailors, one woman, and two children, in their hands.
"Having brought these transactions under the notice of the Executive Council of this Colony, they have advised--and I fully concur with them in opinion--that an application should be made to you, Sir, to proceed with H. M. S. Alligator, to obtain the restoration of the British subjects now in the hands of the New Zealanders.
"Considering the existing relations of Great Britain and this Colony with New Zealand, and the number of British residents on the northern part of the north island, the Council are of opinion that it will be advisable to abstain from any act of immediate retaliation against the guilty tribe at Cape Egmont, lest it should excite a spirit of revenge or hostility in those tribes situated to the northward; amongst whom the British residents being placed, their lives and property are, in a great degree, at the mercy of the natives. It will, therefore, be proper to endeavour to obtain the restoration of the captives by amicable means; and to represent, to the tribe concerned in these outrages, that a recurrence of such conduct will lead to the destruction of all their vessels, houses, and settlements near the coast.
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"If the restoration of the prisoners should not be accomplished by amicable means, the Council recommend that force should be employed to effect it; and, if it shall appear to you desirable, I will direct a military party to embark on board the Alligator, to assist you in this proceeding.
"Having thus stated the course which the Governor and Council consider most proper to be pursued, under the circumstances detailed in Mr. Guard's narrative, I have to request of you to adopt the measure they recommend, by proceeding on the proposed service at your earliest convenience.
"I have the honour, &c.
To G. R. Lambert, Esq., R. N.
Captain of H. M. S. Alligator
Soon after the arrival of the party at New Zealand, Guard recognised the chief who was the proprietor of the woman and children; and the unsuspicious native rubbed noses in token of amity, at the same time expressing his readiness to give up his prisoners on receiving the "payment" guaranteed to him. This, however, was not the way in which the affair was to be settled; and, therefore, Guard and his sailors seized him as a prisoner, and dragged him into the whale-boat in which the party had gone on shore. The cruelty practised towards this unfortunate man, and the fearful havoc committed by the English, we gladly pass over, as such iniquitous transactions reflect but little credit on us as a Christian and civilized people, and they were, moreover, in direct opposition to the benevolent instructions of Sir Richard Bourke. The British subjects were restored (as, indeed, they might have been without the loss of a single life, through the intervention of the Missionaries, and Mr. Busby, the British Resident at the Bay of Islands), and the expedition returned to Sydney, perfectly satisfied with having accomplished its object.
This painful catastrophe, as well as other acts of alleged hostility on the part of the natives, occasioned much sensation at the time, and was a source of considerable uneasiness to Mr. Marsden. Great hopes had been entertained from the appointment of Mr. Busby;
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but, as the Government invested him only with the shadow of authority, he had no power whatever to restrain the infamous conduct of the runaway convicts who haunted the Bay of Islands, or to impress the natives with any idea of his dignity, as the representative of the British Government in that country. On many occasions he was exposed to great personal dangers, when in the execution of his duty; and, according to his own brother's published statement in a Colonial paper, "the very chief, who, for plunder, attacked his dwelling in the night, upwards of a year previous, when a musket ball struck a splinter into his cheek, while standing in his own door, lived to boast that he was the man who shot the British Resident in his residence." Mr. Marsden had paid much attention to all these circumstances, and although now seventy-two years of age, and suffering under bodily infirmities, he resolved once more to visit New Zealand, with a view of reconciling the chiefs, and establishing some fixed and well-digested form of government amongst them. On the 9th of February, 1837, therefore, he sailed for New Zealand in the Pyramus, accompanied by his youngest daughter, Miss Martha Marsden (now Mrs. Josiah Betts), and the Rev. Mr. Wilkinson and his wife, who were proceeding thither on their way to England. It was thought, at the time, that Mr. Marsden would never live to return to the Colony, as his age and infirmities incapacitated him for any extraordinary exertion either of mind or body. Having formed the resolution of paying a farewell visit, however, nothing could deter him from it; and he was consoled by the pleasing reflection, that, if he should die whilst endeavouring to disseminate the blessings of peace, he would die in the performance of his duty as a Minister of the Gospel. There were two grand objects which engaged Mr. Marsden's attention at this period; viz. the establishment of a code of laws amongst the New Zealanders, and the union of the tribes in the northern island under one chief. As the condition of the natives was much changed by intercourse with foreigners, and as a state of society had sprang up which their own laws were totally inadequate to supply, he thought that nothing would tend more effectually to promote the moral and political benefit of the people than
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the introduction of sound and equitable laws. And, moreover, in order to counteract the deadly influence of their desolating wars, by which whole tribes were sometimes exterminated, he proposed to invest one chief with supreme authority, limited, of course, by such regulations as might be deemed expedient to prevent the arbitrary or tyrannical exercise of power. Mr. Marsden's intentions were no doubt good; and, if he could have accomplished them, much future bloodshed might have been obviated. The state of Europe, during the middle ages, is sufficient to show the policy of uniting a number of petty princes under one head; for, so long as there are numerous jarring and conflicting interests amongst a people, there must be perpetual scenes of contention and bloodshed. All Mr. Marsden's benevolent designs were most unhappily frustrated; for, soon after his arrival, a misunderstanding arose amongst the chiefs, which prevented them from meeting in council to deliberate upon the important measures which he proposed to lay before them. He landed on the southern side of the island, at the river Hokianga, and remained amongst the Wesleyan Missionaries for about a fortnight; after which he crossed over to the Bay of Islands, carried in a litter by the natives. As on former visits, he went about in the most fearless manner, surrounded by natives, and had the satisfaction of visiting the whole of the Missionary Stations in the neighbourhood of the Bay of Islands, and also Kaitaira, a Station at the North Cape. On the arrival of H. M. S. Rattlesnake, he accompanied Captain Hobson (afterwards Governor of New Zealand,) to the river Thames and East Cape, returning to Sydney in that ship on the 27th of July, after an absence of five months. When entering the Heads of Port Jackson, one of the officers of the ship observed to Mr. Marsden, "I think, Mr. M., you may look upon this as your last visit to New Zealand;" upon which he replied, "No, I don't, for I intend to be off again in about six weeks. The people in the Colony are becoming too fine for me now, and I am too old to preach before them, but I can talk to the New Zealanders."
The regard which the natives always manifested for Mr. Marsden, was strikingly conspicuous during his last visit, and many pleasing instances of it are recorded.
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When he landed at the Thames, he met with an old chief with whom he had been acquainted many years before, on one of his former visits to New Zealand. The man was delighted to see him, and, seating himself at Mr. Marsden's feet, continued staring at him with the greatest intensity for about half an hour; and when one of the Missionaries gently reproved him for doing so, the aged chief replied, "Leave me alone, I will look at him; how do I know that I shall ever see him again?" About a year before his last visit, a war broke out at the Southward, which obliged the Missionaries to remove for a time from their station. A great deal of their property fell into the hands of the natives and was partially destroyed; and it is most remarkable that the only article which they recovered uninjured, was a likeness of Mr. Marsden, which they preserved with the greatest care, although they totally destroyed those of others which they carried off at the same time.
We must conclude our account of the last visit, with an extract from a colonial paper 4 of 1837:-- "So far as regards the Missionary Establishment at the Bay of Islands, we have the satisfaction to learn, that the Rev. Mr. Marsden, during his late visit to that part, had every reason to be pleased with the steady and unflinching exertions which have been made by the Missionaries. The Rev. gentleman, we understand, proceeded thither in very low spirits, anticipating, from the sad and unfavourable reports which had reached him in this colony, that the affairs of the Mission, were in an unprosperous state. He, however, upon an impartial investigation of the condition of the Church Missionary Establishment, was led to an opposite conclusion, and, now, it is said, that he bears a willing testimony to the progress and usefulness of the Mission."
In the same year, the Bishop of Australia visited New Zealand, and administered the rite of confirmation to several hundreds of the natives; and it is remarkable, that his Lordship preached at the Bay of Islands on Christmas day, 1837, which was exactly 23 years after Mr. Marsden had first proclaimed the gospel on its shores. By recent accounts from England, we perceive that the Bishop of New Zealand has made a very satis-
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factory report, to the Society in London, of the Missionaries' labours; and his Lordship mentions, with marked satisfaction, that he preached in Mr. Marsden's Church when in Parramatta. He also alludes to the kindness and liberality of Robert Campbell, Esq,--the old and faithful friend of Mr. Marsden, and the New Zealand Mission--in a manner which must be grateful to the feelings of that venerable and much-respected gentleman.
Mr. Marsden felt deeply interested in the proceedings of the London Missionary Society, in establishing a Mission in the South Sea Islands; and, for about thirty years, acted as agent for their affairs. The conversion of the islanders was seriously considered as early as 1791, by some zealous and devoted Christians connected with the Countess of Huntingdon, and it was proposed to send Missionaries to Tahiti, with Captain Bligh; but owing to some unforeseen difficulties, the project was abandoned. In 1794, the London Missionary Society was established; and, speaking of the design of the institution, and the principles on which they proposed to carry forward their operations, its founders observe-- "It proposes, as its first object, the Divine glory; and the salvation, temporal and eternal, of those whom hitherto no man hath cared for. Names, sects, and parties, have no place among us; we mean nothing political, partial, or exclusive. One is our master, even Christ; we desire to know and teach nothing but him crucified; to interfere in no contest, to disturb no government established, or introduce any peculiar modes of religious worship, but to leave every man to his books of truth for his guide, in the spirit of meekness; to unite in one centre Jesus Christ, the same yesterday, to-day, and for ever; and to love one another out of a pure heart fervently." Mr. Marsden entered most cordially into the views and principles of this Society, being persuaded that, in co-operating with Missionaries who were pledged to preach the Gospel faithfully to the heathen, he was in no way compromising his character as a Minister of the Established Church of England; even supposing, for the sake of argument, that they did not inculcate all things which are deemed essential to the perfect constitution of a 'Church'. His own opinion on the subject appears to
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have been very simple-- "God hath blessed their labours." Believing, therefore, that the majority of the Missionaries, although not members of the Church of England, were nevertheless sound in the essential doctrines of the Gospel, and, consequently, members of the Church Catholic, he saw no impropriety in forwarding their labours. Whether Mr. Marsden was right or wrong, in acting upon these charitable and expansive views, it is not the present object to discuss. Men will approve or condemn according to their own preconceived notions; and therefore, in a matter of this kind, it may be better to refer to the sentiments of some eminent Divines on such views, than trust to the partiality of friendship. "In the primitive Church," says Dr. Burton, each particular Church acted as it pleased, in matters which were not essential and whoever will read attentively the 21st chapter of the 5th book of Socrates Scholasticus, must perceive, that in a variety of matters therein specified, "the Apostles left free choice and liberty, unto every man, to addict himself unto that which seemed good and commendable." Upon this principle, our most eminent Reformers acknowledged the foreign Reformed Churches as true Churches of Christ. Grindal, in writing to Bullinger, says-- "We most fully agree with your Churches, and with the confession you have lately set forth." Jewell writes to Peter Martyr (letter 43, Parker Society)-- "As to matters of doctrine, we have pared away every thing to the very quick, and do not differ from your doctrine by a nail's breadth;" and Hooker, in defining the nature of the visible Church of Christ, says-- "It is a community of men sanctified through the profession of the truth, which God hath taught the world by his Son." Archbishop Sandys gives the following definition of the Church:-- "The Church of God is builded upon the doctrine of the Apostles and Prophets. The true Church hath her marks, whereby she is known; the gospel truly preached, the sacraments sincerely ministered, discipline duly executed." This comprehensive definition will, of course, recognise many Churches as true branches of the Catholic Church, which differ widely from the Church of England; and Bishop Burnet, in a similar charitable spirit, when explaining the 23d article of our Church,
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remarks-- "They who drew it had the state of the several Churches before their eyes, that had been differently reformed;" and "the body of this Church, for above half an age after, did, notwithstanding certain irregularities, acknowledge the foreign Churches so constituted to be true Churches, as to all the essentials of a Church." Archbishop Usher, in a sermon preached before the King, seems to intimate that men may differ in many things without destroying Catholic Unity. "That all Christians should uniformly agree in the profession of the truths that are revealed in the oracles of God, is a thing that rather may be wished than ever hoped for. Yet the varieties of men's judgments in those many points that belong to theological faith, doth not dissolve the unity which they hold together in the fundamental principles of the Catholic faith." In Usher's letter to Dr. Bernard, he says-- "I think that Churches that have no bishops are defective in their government; yet, for justifying my communion with them, which I do I love and honour as true members of the Church Universal, I do profess, if I were in Holland, I should receive the blessed Sacrament at the hands of the Dutch, with the like affection as I should from the hands of the French ministers, were I at Clarenton." Bishop Pearson considers the Church "to be disseminated through all nations, to be extended to all places, to be propagated to all ages, to contain in it all truths necessary to be known, &c." Archbishop Seeker, in his excellent work on the Church Catechism, expresses a like opinion:--"His Church, therefore, is the whole number of those who believe in Him. How much soever they may differ in some opinions and practices, yet they are one in all things essential." And again-- "What the Catholic faith was, we may learn from the writings of the Apostles, contained in the New Testament; and, at so great a distance of time, we can learn it with certainty no where else. Every Church, or Society of Christians, that preserves this Catholic and universal faith, accompanied with true charity, is a part of the Catholic or universal Church. And, in this sense, Churches that differ widely in several notions and customs, may, notwithstanding, each of them be truly Catholic Churches." The amiable Porteus, Bishop of London, inculcates the
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same principles:-- "Many opinions," says he, "may be true and useful; many practices may be innocent and edifying; but nothing can be matter of necessity, except what Christ and his Apostles have required as terms of salvation. Every person that complies with these is a true Christian: every Church that teaches these is a true Church: and neither ignorance nor error about any other matters can forfeit our title to everlasting life." Having quoted the opinions of some of the most learned and esteemed prelates of our Church, we must now conclude our references with an extract from a sound and excellent little tract, published in this Colony in 1833, and generally attributed to the Bishop of Australia--a divine for whose piety and learning the highest respect is entertained;-- "The Church is the Lord's house, including all who are called and rescued by Him through grace out of the present evil world." * * * * "Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God," was the rock upon which our Lord designed to lay the foundation of his Church, thus making himself to be "the chief corner stone." All who unite in that belief, as God hath dealt to every man the measure of faith, are members of the Church, Holy and Catholic; this is the distinctive rank of communion with it; these constitute the body of Christ."
Mr. Marsden, like those eminent men whose opinions on the point may be inferred from their writings, possessed a truly Catholic spirit; and, consequently, felt no scruple in holding out the right hand of fellowship to all whom he deemed true Christians. It is well known that he did not escape the voice of calumny, nor even the censures of others, who could not but acknowledge his preeminent usefulness in the ministry. But notwithstanding all that has been said, it must be stated, as a matter of fact, not of mere opinion, that there never was a clergyman in this colony more affectionately attached to the doctrines of the Church of England, as exhibited in the Articles, Homilies, and Liturgy of that Church, or one more zealous in upholding her true interests against the machinations of her enemies. So thoroughly did he manifest this, indeed, that at one period of his ministry he was considered a High Churchman, and a persecutor of Dissenters! The charge may seem ridi-
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culous to those who knew the catholicity of Mr. Marsden's spirit, and were aware that he did not refuse to subscribe towards the erection of Protestant places of worship belonging to different denominations, and to further the labours of Presbyterians Wesleyans, and even Independents, as far as he consistently could do so. Nevertheless, the charge was made against him; and, at one period, gave him considerable pain and uneasiness. He thus defends himself:-- "My interference in this matter (a matter which it is not thought necessary to enter upon now), amongst the Missionaries, created very unfriendly feelings in one person's mind towards me, and he did not fail to act upon them, by representing me, both in India and in England, as a persecutor of Dissenters; and I was informed, that his representations had produced their intended effect upon the minds of some individuals in the Christian world. If I was an enemy to the Missionaries, as my accusers wish to make the world believe, the Directors of the London Missionary Society cannot pass entirely without censure. They have placed the concerns of their Mission to the South Sea Islands in my hands for the last twenty-five years, during which period, God, in his infinite goodness, has greatly blessed the labours of the Missionaries, to the glory of his grace and mercy. Twenty-five years, in time, was more than sufficient for the Directors to have found out their error, and to have withdrawn their confidence from me, if I had done any thing to forfeit it." The Rev. Daniel Tyerman, and George Bennett, Esq., who came to this colony as a deputation from the London Missionary Society, thus bear testimony to the integrity and good intentions of Mr. Marsden:-- "We rejoice to take the opportunity to say, that the South Sea Mission, and all its Missionaries, have been and continue to be, exceedingly indebted to your singular kindness and persevering zeal in their behalf. No temporal reward, we are persuaded, would have been equivalent to the most valuable services which you have, so long and so faithfully, rendered to this Mission and its Missionaries."
The Mission to Tahiti was established in 1797, and the Missionaries who first went to that island were the Rev. Messrs. J. F. Cover, John Eyre, John Jefferson,
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and Thomas Lewis; Messrs. Henry Bicknell, B. Broomhall, John Cock, Samuel Clode, John A. Gilham (surgeon), William Henry, Peter Hodges, Rowland Hassall, Edward Main, Henry Nott, Francis Oakes, James Puckey, William Puckey, and William Smith. In order to facilitate the labours of the Missionaries, and to furnish them with supplies, Mr. Marsden was appointed agent; and, in the year 1800, shortly after the appointment, he sent letters, &c. to Tahiti, in the ship Albion. Through the instrumentality of Mr. Marsden, Governor King was induced to write a letter to Pomare, in which he observed-- "I cannot too much recommend to your Majesty's kind protection the Society of Missionaries whom you have taken under your care, which cannot fail of exciting their gratitude, and King George's friendship, which I shall always be happy to communicate to you." About the year 1804, the Society in England authorized Mr. Marsden to expend annually, for the support of the Missionaries, two hundred pounds, and had also sent out supplies. Unable to meet, in Port Jackson, any vessel proceeding to Tahiti, Mr. Marsden at length engaged the Hawkesbury, a small sloop of about twenty tons burden, to take out the letters and articles, that had been so long delayed. This vessel anchored in Matavai Bay on the 26th of November, 1806. About four years after this, several of the Missionaries who left Tahiti, came to Port Jackson, and were received with great kindness by Governor Macquarie, who promised to afford them the privileges of settlers, recommending them to engage as the instructors of youth in the colony. In a letter dated Eimeo, Oct. 21, 1812, the Missionaries allude to Mr. Marsden's attention to Mr. Nott:-- "The Rev. Mr. Marsden also treated him with like affection and respect, and manifested an ardent zeal for the success of the mission, and a hearty readiness to serve its interests."
And an interesting passage to the same effect occurs in the Rev. Mr. Henry's letter to the Directors, dated 17th June, 1813:--
"Mr. Marsden manifests the utmost readiness to render us every possible service, and is consequently entitled to your highest esteem, (which I am confident he always possesses) and your most grateful acknowledg-
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ments. I am happy to say, that his prospects of usefulness in this colony are brightening more and more, and his exertions to benefit the colony, both in a temporal and spiritual point of view, keep pace with his opportunities. The other Chaplains also, are truly evangelical ministers, and, blessed be God, good has been done here--he has a people to show forth his praise in this wicked colony. There are several schools established under pious masters: Mr. Eyre is over a very flourishing one, in a situation where he is very useful, and has the comfort of living near and upon the best terms with Mr. Marsden. Here I think it but justice to observe, respecting Messrs. Hassall and Crook, that they also, according to their ability, exert themselves to promote the interest of religion in the colony."
In the 22nd report of the London Missionary Society, there is the following allusion to Mr. Marsden:-- "Mr. Marsden being decidedly of opinion, that religion will never flourish in the islands without the encouragement of industry among the natives, and that commerce will prove the best stimulus to industry, has long expressed his earnest wish that a small vessel might be employed for the purpose of carrying on barter with the people: by which, thousands who are now idle, might be rendered active and useful; while at the same time, valuable facilities would be afforded for visiting the Missionaries, and conveying to them necessary supplies. Deeply impressed with this conviction, Mr. Marsden has purchased a small vessel, called the Active, which has already made three voyages to New Zealand, on account of the Church Missionary Society, and which he proposed should sail to Tahiti in August last. Toward the support of this vessel, Mr. Marsden proposed to the Directors, that this Society should pay £250 per year, for two or three years. To this reasonable proposal the Directors readily acceded: yet expecting that the finishing of the vessel at Eimeo, will hereafter supersede the necessity of employing any other." It was in this vessel, that on the 17th of November, 1817, the Missionaries were gladdened by the arrival of six additional Missionaries, viz., Messrs. Threlkeld, Barff, Williams, Bourne, Darling and Platt. Mr. Williams,
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who was cruelly martyred by the natives of Erromango, has rendered his labours exceedingly interesting by the publication of his "Missionary Enterprises"--a work of which the truly apostolic Bishop of Chester said, "He knew not whether he would not willingly put away at least half the folios which he possessed, rather than part with it."
In Mr. Williams's book, there are two passages in which the author acknowledges the value and disinterestedness of Mr. Marsden's services in behalf of the Missionaries in the South Seas. "At my own Station," says Mr. Williams, "being desirous of adding to the few articles which the natives were able to offer in exchange for European manufactures, I hired a person, at very considerable expense, to teach me the art of growing and preparing Brazil tobacco. Having obtained this information, we induced the natives to plant about a hundred and fifty acres, and made the necessary apparatus for pressing, &c.; and, as a vessel was sailing at this time for New South Wales, I wrote to inform our undeviating friend, the Rev. Samuel Marsden, of our proceedings. Delighted with the information, he inserted my letter in the Sydney Gazette. Some narrowminded merchants immediately took the alarm, and tormented the Governor, until a prohibitory duty of 4s. per lb. was imposed upon tobacco from the South Sea Islands." This narrow and illiberal policy in crushing the energies of an infant nation, so foreign to the character and disposition of the British people, gave Mr. Marsden heartfelt pain; for it was his firm and decided opinion, that Christianity would never become permanently established in the islands, unless the way was paved by the introduction of the Arts and Sciences. The other passage alludes to the cattle which Mr. Marsden sent to the Society Islands. "Cattle were left by Captain Cook at Tahiti, but they perished; and those from which the islands have been stocked, were conveyed by the Missionaries. When I visited New South Wales, his Excellency Sir Thomas Brisbane kindly gave me several. Some of these, our invaluable friend, the Rev. S. Marsden, exchanged for others of the best Yorkshire breed, which have multiplied exceedingly at Raiatea and Rorotonga."
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Another writer, of a very different profession from the person to whom reference has been made, hears a most pleasing and satisfactory testimony to the piety and labours of Mr. Marsden. Chevalier Capt. P. Dillon, in his interesting narrative respecting the fate of the eminent La Perouse, speaks of him as "the pious and indefatigable Missionary of the South, a man who practises the virtues he preaches;" and, when alluding to certain circumstances which had occasioned much uneasiness in the mind of the Reverend Gentleman, the Chevalier adverts, with evident pleasure, to the "Reverend and venerable Samuel Marsden, who, he remarks, has here for many years laboured so zealously in the cause of Christianity as to be justly considered THE APOSTLE OF THE SOUTH SEAS. As an individual, knowing the virtues of this truly pious and venerable man, I could not help feeling much for the cruel and unjust persecutions he has lately suffered." The remarks of Chevalier Dillon are highly important, as he had frequent opportunities of observing the conduct and proceedings of Mr. Marsden, when engaged in different services in New Zealand; and, moreover, he could not be supposed to have any predilection in favour of the grand objects contemplated in that part of the world, as he and his connections were members of the Roman Catholic Church. Dillon first visited New Zealand in 1809; and, in his second voyage, commanded the brig Active, in 1814, sent thither by the Rev. S. Marsden, for the purpose of conveying Messrs. Kendall and Hall to try the disposition of the natives, and ascertain if it were possible to establish a Mission among them with any degree of safety. He was also the first person who took Shunghee from his native island, and brought him to New South Wales; and several years afterwards, when on a visit to New Zealand, that distinguished warrior was exceedingly anxious that Dillon should become his son-in-law; stating at the time, that in consequence of the wounds which he had received, "he had not long to live, and wished to see his daughter settled before his death." The Chevalier, notwithstanding the charms of the lady, declined the proposal of Shunghee, and proceeded on his voyage.
As a specimen of Mr. Marsden's correspondence
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with the Directors of the London Missionary Society, the following extracts from his letters are selected. It would far exceed the limits of this narrative to publish all his letters to the Society:--
Extract of a Letter from the Rev. Mr. Marsden, to the Directors.
"New South Wales, June 24, 1813.
"DEAR SIRS--I transmit you, by this conveyance, a letter sent to me from the Missionaries at Eimeo, in case any accident should have happened to the first, sent by the way of India.
"It must fill the hearts of all real Christians with joy, to know that there is a prospect that the labours of the Missionaries will eventually be crowned with success. I have felt much concern that three of the female Missionaries are no more. Mrs. Henry was literally worn down in the work of the Mission; she was a most valuable woman, patient and resigned under all sufferings, privations, and hardships. No woman, in my opinion, could be more sincere, and more devoted to the work, than she was. Her natural disposition was amiable, her piety unaffected, and her love for the poor heathens unfeigned. I trust she is now resting from her labours in Abraham's bosom; and that some poor heathens, amongst whom she had lived, have gone before, and that some will follow after, to glory.
"Messrs. Henry, Davies, Wilson, Nott, and Hayward, are all choice men. I trust you will not attend to any calumnies that may be propagated against their character. I have seen some observations in the public papers that are very wicked and unjust respecting the Missionaries of Otaheite. I am persuaded they are men of sound piety, and devoted to the cause in which they are engaged.
"I have received very encouraging accounts from New Zealand of the disposition of the natives.
"I have the honour to be, &c.
"P.S.--When Mr. Tesseir, one of the Missionaries who had been living in the Colony for some time, heard that Pomare had embraced Christianity, he set off in a few days to Otaheite."
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Extract of a Letter from the Rev. Mr. Marsden, Senior Chaplain of the Colony of New South Wales.
"Parramatta, Oct. 2, 1815.
"The accounts I have received are very satisfactory, as far as the Mission is concerned. They have sent me a spelling-book to get printed, and wish to have a thousand copies. I shall have it done immediately. No doubt they will give you every information relative to their wants, and what hope they entertain of success in their labours. I believe much good has been done, and that God has been with them in a very special manner.
"There is war at Otaheite; but I think this will eventually turn out well. Pomare has no hand in the war, nor his people, who have renounced idolatry, and turned to the living God. The Missionaries appear to be very contented, and still anxious to promote the conversion of the heathen. They are all tried men, and have proved themselves, by their patience, perseverance, and labours, worthy of the confidence reposed in them by the Society. I shall be happy when the Missionaries arrive to join them, as it will give them courage, and animate them in their work.
"You will have heard by former letters of the death of Mr. Shelley. He was very desirous of going to the Friendly Islands, where he had resided three years, and begun the work of the Mission: but death has ended all his labours."
Extract of another Letter from the Rev. Mr. Marsden, dated Nov. 7, 1815.
"Since I closed my letter of Oct. 2, I have received more particular accounts from the Missionaries. I rejoice exceedingly that their labours are at length crowned with such wonderful success. Nothing can be more gratifying to the religious world in general, but more particularly to us on this side of the globe. They have their way now plainly opened. The natives in the Society Islands have literally "cast their gods into the fire; for they were no gods, but the work of men's hands, wood and stone." I am anxiously looking for more Missionaries. The harvest in these islands is truly plenteous, but the labourers are few. I think
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there will be little idolatry remaining, in a short time, in these islands, so many believe the Word, and are turned to the Lord. I am persuaded more is effected than was ever imagined by the warmest advocate of the Mission, in this limited time. What is twenty years for so great a work! The glory of the Lord has now risen upon these heathen; they begin to see His salvation. Pomare writes like an apostle. His heart appears to be deeply engaged in the work, and he is a true friend to the cause.
"The Mission had many enemies, and the character of the Missionaries was much traduced; but their adversaries must now be silent, for the Lord hath been on their side, and hath done great things for them.
"The natives have now private prayer-meetings in different places, and they instruct one another where there is no Missionary. I think the work of conversion is so real and deep, that the Gospel would spread among, the natives, even if there were no Europeans with them. But I trust the Society will send out some pious men and women, with all possible speed, to assist them. Mr. William Campbell, who commands a vessel from Port Jackson, has just returned from the Society Islands, and tells me they earnestly desire that Missionaries may be sent among them in all directions."
These are but a few of the many interesting circumstances in the life of the Rev. Samuel Marsden, yet they are sufficient, it is hoped, for every impartial reader to form an estimate of his worth, and may lead his friends to regard all apathy and indifference about him as little less than a gross act of injustice to his memory. Considering his labours as beneficial, not merely to this Colony, but as calculated to diffuse the light of divine truth through the Islands of the Southern Pacific, no monument either of marble or brass can transmit to posterity an adequate idea of the blessing which he conferred upon society. To use the appropriate language of Tacitus, we do not mean to condemn the use of statues, such as are framed of marble or brass; but, as the persons of men are frail and perishing, so are likewise the portraitures of men. The form
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of the soul is eternal, such as cannot be represented and preserved by the craft of hands, or by materials foreign to its nature, nor otherwise than by a similitude and conformity of manners. And a greater than the Roman historian, when referring, as Theodoret remarks, to the saints who were dead, observes:-- "Remember them which have the rule over you, who have spoken unto you the word of God: whose faith follow, considering the end of their conversation: Jesus Christ, the same yesterday, and to-day, and for ever." When, therefore, contemplating the faith of one, who (refusing "profane and old wives' fables," and having too much stability to be carried about by "every wind of doctrine,") preached the Gospel faithfully and affectionately to the people, let us study to imitate his virtues, and to secure, for generations yet to come, the establishment and support of those principles by which so eminent a man was actuated. And, perhaps, with a view of promoting the dissemination of Christian truth in Mr. Marsden's more immediate neighbourhood, and of preserving for our children the means of religious instruction, a better course could not be adopted than that of erecting and endowing a church in the parish of Marsfield. One of his last acts was to give a spot of ground for this purpose: towards which, he left the sum of £200. The Rev. H. H. Bobart, has further promised two acres of land for a parsonage &c. &c. By carrying into effect so pious and benevolent an object, his friends would, at the same time, rear an appropriate monument to his memory, and perpetuate the preaching of that Gospel which supported him in all the trials and vicissitudes of life, and proved his only consolation in the hour of death. And if, at the present period, it is found that the Legislative support bestowed upon public worship is inadequate to extend the usefulness of the church, and to raise the sacred edifice in the wilderness of Australia, how much more will the cordial assistance and co-operation of the pious and well-disposed Christian be needed when that support shall be withdrawn, or shall become less effective from the increasing population? Whether, therefore, the erection of a second church in Parramatta, is regarded as
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a monument to the late Mr. Marsden, or as accomplishing a sacred duty which the Government of the country can no longer perform, the public will he expending their substance on a most legitimate and praiseworthy object, In the town of Parramatta, there are nearly six thousand members of the Church of England; and to accommodate this vast body with the means of attending public worship, there are two buildings--a church in the parish of St. John's and a licensed school-house on the north side of the river. The congregation of the former, exclusive of the military, may average between three and four hundred, and that of the latter about fifty or sixty. There must, therefore, be a large majority of people, professing to belong to the Church of England, who never attend the services of their church at all. To meet the exigency of the case, another church is immediately required; and hence an appeal should be made, not only in this Colony, but in all parts of the world where there are any of Mr. Marsden's friends, to raise funds for the completion of the work. The inhabitants have already subscribed about £350 towards the erection of the church, which appears to be the extent of their ability. It might, then, prove the means of commencing an undertaking which has been so long delayed, were the friends of Mr. Marsden to form a Committee for the purpose of co-operating with the Rev. J. Walker, M.A., in his endeavours to build the church. This Committee should be denominated "The Committee of the Marsden Fund," and its object should be to collect subscriptions in behalf of the church in the parish of Marsfield. There are few of the late Mr. Marsden's friends in this Colony, who, under such circumstances, would refuse to subscribe; and if printed circulars were forwarded to all parts of the world, stating, in clear and comprehensive terms, the object contemplated by the Committee, a considerable sum might be raised in England, India, and other countries. In this Colony, the support of the Bishop of Australia, Judge Burton, and many distinguished and influential persons might be safely relied on; whilst in England, the friends of the Church and London Missionary Societies would regard it as a privilege
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to subscribe towards the memory of one whose name is so conspicuous in their published works, and who supported their ministers through good and through evil report. Nor need the application be confined to these Societies; for in the Diocese of Winchester, two eminent men, Dr. Dealtry, Chancellor of the Diocese, Mr. Marsden's particular friend, and Archdeacon Wilberforce, son of the great Mr. Wilberforce, another admirer and supporter, would in all probability interest themselves in the matter. Indeed, if Dr. Dealtry could be induced to exert his influence with the Bishops of Winchester and Chester, much assistance might be anticipated from these excellent prelates. In India, again, the Bishop of Calcutta, and the son of Chancellor Dealtry, would not be deficient in performing a sacred duty towards Mr. Marsden; whilst in New Zealand, the Bishop and Clergy, as far as their limited means would permit, might be regarded as interested in the proceedings of the Marsden Fund Committee. Some time must necessarily elapse before the feelings and intentions of the various parties can be ascertained, but zeal and energy in a good cause will accomplish a great deal--for the name of Marsden is so completely identified with many religious Societies at home, that little persuasion will be required to promote the object in view. In adverting to those individuals who would be likely to take an interest in the business, allusion has been made principally to the Clergy; but it will be found, should the experiment be made, that several distinguished Laymen still highly appreciate the worth of Mr. Marsden. Amongst these might be enumerated two of the former Governors of New South Wales; that gallant and Christian man, Sir Edward Parry; Sir T. Fowell Buxton, &c. &c. &c. With one of these gentlemen the writer had the honour of being personally acquainted, and, on more than one occasion, has heard him express sentiments of regard and esteem for Mr. Marsden.
There may be something perhaps a little too sanguine in these expectations, and, in the ardour to reach the desired object, the intervening obstacles may have been overlooked. Whether the experiment prove successful or not, one thing is very clear, viz., that all which has
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been suggested may be done at very little expense, and if their efforts should fail, the Committee may console themselves with the reflection that they have done their duty. Under existing circumstances, the public is verily guilty of an act of neglect, not to say ingratitude; for while they have paid a becoming mark of respect towards a former statesmanlike Governor of this colony, by expending £3000 on his statue, they have not taken any steps to honour the memory of one, who, in a moral and religious point of view, was eminently superior to any Governor that ever landed on these shores.
In laying before the public this brief, and, perhaps, imperfect sketch of a few passages in Mr. Marsden's life, the writer has had the satisfaction of drawing the attention of many individuals to a matter which has been much neglected, at the same time, that he has relieved his own feelings by paying a tribute of respect to the memory of one with whom he was personally acquainted, and whose unassuming piety and simplicity of manners, ever commanded his admiration. No intention has been entertained of writing Mr. Marsden's life. Upon so wide a field of colonial history, he has neither the ability nor the leisure to enter. The only aim has been to assist the Rev. J. Walker in raising the church ever the water, by bringing to view some prominent features in Mr. Marsden's character; and if the remarks which have been humbly offered should prove useful, the writer will not repent of his labour. Others more competent for the task, are about to publish the life of Samuel Marsden in three or four octavo volumes. One gentleman will print his work in the colony, if it should meet with the approval of his friends; and another, well qualified for the performance of so arduous a duty, the Rev. H. H. Bobart, M.A., his Son-in-law, is also composing a life, which he intends to publish on his return to Europe. For these gentlemen, therefore, the way has been prepared, and the public curiosity which has been excited by the present observations, will not be allayed until a full and particular account of the life and labours of Mr, Marsden has been faithfully laid before them.
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It is rather singular that this little work respecting Mr. Marsden, should have been printed at the very Press which that Rev. Gentleman introduced into New Zealand. The Press (in consequence of the arrival of others better adapted for the Church Mission,) was sold by the Society to Mr. Isaacs, who brought it with him to Parramatta. Two of the Compositors also, it may be stated, came to this part of the world in the same vessel with the celebrated Shunghee, to whom such frequent reference has been made.
PRINTED BY B. ISAACS, GEORGE-STREET, PARRAMATTA,
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