1845 - Wakefield, E.J. Adventure in New Zealand [Vol.I.] - CHAPTER II

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  1845 - Wakefield, E.J. Adventure in New Zealand [Vol.I.] - CHAPTER II
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Departure from Plymouth--Passengers--Voyage--First sight of New Zealand--Cook's Strait--Queen Charlotte's Sound--Ship Cove -- Natives --Village -- Wretched houses -- Dispute with Natives--Reconciliation--European settlement--Messenger sent --Returns with two Englishmen--Mountains--Forest--Scenery of Queen Charlotte's Sound--Tory Channel--Native Pa, or Fort--H. M. B. Pelorus-- Te-awa-iti--Richard Barrett--Tribes of Cook's Strait--Proprietorship of land unsettled--Vague notions of Natives--Plan of Native Reserves as real payment.

ALL our equipments and preparations being at length complete, we sailed from Plymouth on the 12th of May.

The ship was commanded by Mr. Edmund Mein Chaffers, of the Royal Navy, who had been acting master of H. M. S. Beagle during the survey of Cape Horn and voyage round the world, performed by Captain Fitzroy between the years. 1830 and 1836.

Besides Colonel Wakefield and myself, the following gentlemen were passengers on board: --Doctor Ernest Dieffenbach, a native of Berlin, who had been appointed naturalist to the Company; Mr. Charles Heaphy, the Company's draughtsman; Mr. John Dorset, who had been promised the appointment of colonial surgeon; Nayti, a New Zealander, who had been residing during two years in my father's house in London, and who was to act as interpreter; Mr. Richard Lowry, the chief mate; and Mr. George F. Robinson, the surgeon of the ship. The Rev. Montague Hawtrey, to whom I have already adverted as the writer of the admirable essay on the amalgamation of a civilized people with savages, was to have accompanied us as chaplain. He had actually received his

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outfit allowance from the Company, but was prevented at the last moment by unavoidable circumstances from carrying out his intentions.

In the steerage were--Robert Doddrey, who had formerly visited some parts of the coast of New Zealand in a trading schooner from Van Diemen's Land, and who was engaged as storekeeper and additional interpreter; the second and third mates; and Colonel Wakefield's servant, besides the steward and his cabin-boys.

Petty officers and foremast hands, among whom were a New Zealander and a native of the Marquesas Islands, made up our total muster-roll to thirty-five souls.

The Tory sailed remarkably well. We crossed the line, in 26 deg. 50' W. longitude, on the twenty-sixth day from Plymouth, passed the longitude of the Cape of Good Hope on the 10th of July, and saw the high land of New Zealand on the 16th of August, about noon. We established during the voyage a weekly manuscript newspaper, and a debating society. These recreations, and an ample supply of useful and interesting books, caused the time to pass cheerfully enough. Vocabularies of the Maori or New Zealand language were also constructed from Nayti's dictation; and lessons to him in English spelling, many a deep game of chess, and an occasional battue of the albatrosses and other marine birds, which abound in the high latitudes between the Cape of Good Hope and Van Diemen's Land, beguiled the leisure time. These battues partook of shooting and fishing; for sometimes we baited large hooks with bits of pork, and caught the gigantic birds by the beak. I remember one day seeing twenty-eight live albatrosses on the deck together, many of them measuring twelve feet

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from tip to tip of the wings. Once on the deck, they cannot escape, as they have great difficulty in first rising on the wing. Some of us stored the white feathers, supposing from Nayti's account that they would be highly valuable in New Zealand; others made tobacco-pouches of the web-feet, or pipe-stems of the wing-bones; the naturalist made preparations of skeletons and skins, to keep his hand in; and the sailors prepared the carcases in a dish called "sea-pie."

The land which we first sighted proved to be the western coast of the Middle Island, not far south of Cape Farewell. A remarkable white fissure in the mountains forms a distinguishing land-mark at a great distance.

Having fairly entered the middle of Cook's Strait by sunset, we hove to with a fresh N. W. breeze till daylight. Once or twice during the night we found soundings in about fifty fathoms. This was conjectured to be near the mouth of Blind Bay.

In the morning of the 17th we proceeded to the eastward. When I came on deck we had land in sight on both bows. Bearing away for the southern land, we soon made out Stephens Island, and passed within five or six miles of it. As we ran along the coast, D'Urville's Island, the Admiralty Islands, Point Lambert, and Point Jackson were successively recognized from Cook's chart. The high rugged land of the Middle Island, which had at a distance appeared barren and sprinkled with rocks, proved on closer inspection to be clothed with the most luxuriant forest. As we neared Point Jackson, the breeze died away, and we remained for a time becalmed in the entrance of Queen Charlotte's Sound. Cape Koumaru 1 (Koe-

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maroo of Cook) and the Brothers, Entry Island, and the mainland on the north coast of Cook's Strait, were now very distinctly visible; a bright warm sun gave the most charming appearance to the romantic shores of the Sound; and we exclaimed against the calm which seemed likely to detain us another night at sea. Two or three of the most impatient got into the cutter, and pulled towards Point Jackson, to try and catch some fish; but they had not got far before a light air sprang up, and we glided into the Sound. The tide favouring us, they had some trouble in overtaking the ship. The scenery became more and more majestic as we advanced into this noble estuary. Its outer mouth is nine miles wide. High wooded mountains rise on both sides; numerous islands and projecting points dot the expanse of still water which penetrates far into the interior; and a glimpse of the Southern Alps is obtained in the extreme distance. We proceeded between Long Island and Motuara. The former, a narrow ridge bare of wood, was crowned with native fortifications; a small pa or fort was also visible on the south point of Motuara. As we entered the Sound, we saw four canoes under sail, coming from the westward. Before we anchored for the night in the S. E. entrance of Ship Cove, another canoe came paddling off to us, containing eight natives. We at first thought they hesitated about venturing near us; but it turned out that they were only stopping to bale out their canoe, which was a very ill-constructed

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affair. As they came alongside the ship, which had almost stopped her way, the canoe was lashed to the chains, and the men scrambled on deck with great activity. We were at first startled by the quickness with which this was done, and by their wild, half-naked appearance. All our anticipations had not prepared us thoroughly for this first meeting; and our friend Nayti was so quiet and silent in his manners, that the contrast of their demeanour was striking. They ran about shaking hands with everybody they met, and seemed to consider their appearance as a matter of course. One of them, a tall muscular young man, ran to assist the helmsman, and seemed proud to display some knowledge of nautical terms and the manoeuvres of a ship. They all spoke more or less broken English, and chattered in a sort of authoritative way about the best anchorage, giving themselves quite the airs belonging to a pilot. They had brought on board some fish and potatoes, which we bought for a little tobacco. Night closed in as we let go our anchor, and they returned to their village.

August 18th. --This morning, at daylight, we had warped farther into the cove, and anchored in 11 fathoms, muddy bottom, within 300 yards of the shore, where we fastened a hawser to a tree; thus occupying probably the same spot as Captain Cook, in his numerous visits to this harbour. There were a good many natives on board already; but, eager to touch the land, I got into a small canoe with Nayti, who paddled me ashore. The hills, which rise to the height of 1000 or 1500 feet on three sides of the cove, are covered from their tops to the water's edge with an undulating carpet of forest. How well Cook has described the harmony of the birds at this very spot! Every bough seemed to throng with feathered musicians, and the melodious chimes of the bell-bird were especially dis-

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tinct. At the head of the cove is a small level space of land, formed by the alluvial deposit of three rills from the mountains, which here empty themselves into the bay. Landing here, I remained for some time absorbed in contemplating the luxurious vegeta- tion of grass and shrubs, and the wild carrots and turnips which remain as relics of our great navigator. Rich historical recollections crowded on my mind as I tried to fix on the exact spot where Cook's forge and carpenter's shop had stood; and I was only roused from my reverie by the arrival of some more of the party, bent on the same object. We collected some shells, pebbles, and plants, and returned to breakfast on fresh potatoes and some of the fish which had been caught in abundance from the ship in the evening.

The four canoes which we had seen yesterday arrived this morning, and came alongside the ship. They came from Admiralty Bay, and were bound to Cloudy Bay, with pigs and potatoes for sale. Having seen us stand in, they came in hopes of having a deal with us; and they also told us that they were going through the Sound, thus confirming Nayti's previous account that its eastern side consisted of an island. They had not abandoned any of their savage customs, and rubbed noses with Nayti instead of shaking him by the hand. They were also covered with oil and red ochre, and seemed much wilder in their manners than our friends of Ship Cove. These latter informed us that they had been lately visited by a missionary schooner, and that they shook hands because they were all "missionaries." We could not, however, discover whether Wesleyan or Church missionaries had converted them; and we soon found that they were not yet very attentive even to the forms of the new doctrine. They all wished to barter, although this was Sunday;

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and seemed much surprised that Colonel Wakefield declined the offer of one of their daughters to remain on board with him. This was no doubt owing to the vicinity of the whale-ships and whaling-stations in and near Cloudy Bay. They were all, however, told to return ashore, and bring what they had to sell the next day.

We went ashore again after prayers, and admired the luxurious vegetation. The wood on the sides of the hills appeared almost impenetrable from the thick web of supple-jacks and creepers. We found no natives, the cove being under tapu, on account of its being the burial-place of a daughter of Te Pehi, the late chief of the Kapiti, or Entry Island, natives. Those who visited us came from a cove a little farther north, called Cannibal Cove by Cook, and Anaho by the natives. They are called the Ngatihinatui tribe, and their principal chief was named Ngarewa, or "The Straight Trees."

August 19th. --The work of filling our water-casks and refitting the ship commenced to-day. The storekeeper was very busy laying in a stock of potatoes and pigs from the natives. A pipe bought a basket of potatoes weighing 20 lbs., and a red blanket bought three good-sized pigs. These terms, too, were considered liberal on our part. In the afternoon we went over in the boat to Motuara, the island on which Cook had his observatory and garden. It commands a fine view of the northern part of the Sound, Entry Island, and the high land near Cape Terawiti. The island had a very gay appearance, being covered with wild shrubs and flowers like an ornamental plantation. We fell in with plenty of pigeons, parrots, and other birds, which our guns soon made to contribute to the table and to the collection of the delighted naturalist.

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None of the natives live here; but they turn pigs loose on the island, and catch them as they are wanted.

The chief Ngarewa, with his wife, and his son Ehoro, a nice intelligent lad of thirteen, remained to dinner with us to-day. Their behaviour was very re- spectable: they ate heartily of everything, but drank little, the father warning Ehoro against too much wine.

Nayti seemed much pleased at our kind treatment of his countrymen. He was at first ashamed of their rude appearance, and often apologised to us for it. He seemed, too, suspicious and afraid of them, and inclined to cling to us in consequence.

During the next few days we made great friends with the natives. The barter went on alongside; Ngarewa remained on deck or in the cabin amusing himself with a pipe and a book of prints, or trying to understand and answer our inquiries about his place and people. He did not appear to have much influence on the latter, and at any rate never exerted it. Ehoro guided us on shooting excursions up the sides of the hills, or joined our fishing parties to the next cove to the south, where we always had a good haul with our sean. The women of the village had almost all removed to Ship Cove, where they eagerly undertook the task of washing our clothes.

On the 22nd we took Ngarewa home to his village in our whale-boat, after he had received from my uncle a gun and some other small presents. We found the village of Anaho in a level piece of ground at the head of Cannibal Cove, and were much amused by seeing the ware puni, or sleeping houses, of the natives. These are exceedingly low; and covered with earth, on which weeds very often grow. They resemble, in shape and size, a hot-bed with the glass off. A small

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square hole at one end is the only passage for light or air. I intended to creep into one of them to examine it; but had just got my head in, and was debating within myself by what snake-like evolution I should best succeed in getting my body to follow, when I was deterred by the intense heat and intolerable odour from proceeding. One large house in the village, with wattled walls plastered with clay, we were told belonged to an Englishman then in Cloudy Bay. The natives use it for a common habitation during the day, and assemble in it to prayers every morning and evening. They all came out to greet us with the constant shake of the hand.

A mischief-making native, belonging to the Kapiti tribe, but who has married a woman here, tried to annoy us by threats and extortions of payment for wood and water, on account of the tapu of Ship Cove. As, however, his demands were exorbitant, and renewed after the satisfactory settlement of the point by a small present, he was quietly and firmly refused by my uncle; who reminded him that the natives had themselves broken the tapu, large numbers of them having removed to the immediate neighbourhood of the burial-place in order to have the advantage of proximity in their dealings with us. He persisted in his violent demands; and early one morning came alongside in a canoe, and carried away our fishing-sean, having first pushed over one of the apprentices who was in the boat. Captain Chaffers went on shore with an armed boat to demand instant restitution of the net; and found that our tormentor had enlisted the feelings of the other natives in his favour. They were sullen and reserved, and refused to give it up at first. Their appearance, and the fact that many fresh natives were ashore, induced Captain Chaffers to

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return on hoard, and prepare the ship for an emergency. The guns were shotted, the crew armed, sentries placed at the gangways, and a spring put on the cable so that the ship's broadside might be brought to bear on the beach where the natives were encamped. During these preparations, one or two large war-canoes came round the northern point of the cove, and dashed in to the beach at great speed, the rowers singing in time with their paddles. A single canoe, full of natives, now came off to the ship. As they silently paddled round the stern, we observed that some carried their tomahawks and green-stone clubs or meri ponamu. The others kept their blankets and mats wrapped over everything but their heads. Our original persecutor was the first who attempted to ascend the ladder, tomahawk in hand; but he was startled to find at the top a sentry with musket and bayonet, and my uncle, who quietly but firmly told him to go ashore, and that he would allow no natives to come on board armed. "Dogskin," as we had nick- named him from his wearing a mat of that material, seemed inclined to persist in his intention of getting on deck; but the sight of the end of a pistol sticking out of my uncle's coat-pocket suddenly made him change his mind; and he descended into the canoe, which pulled slowly back to the shore. A smaller canoe next came off, with only a boy paddling, and an old chief whom we had not yet seen, who showed that he was unarmed, and requested to be allowed to come on board. This was complied with; and the old gentleman introduced himself as Te Wetu, or "the Star." He told us that he came from Rangitoto, which we afterwards discovered to be in D'Urville's Island, and that he was waiting in a bay north of Cannibal Cove for fair weather to cross the strait to

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Kapiti, in order to be present at a grand tangi, or mourning feast, over the death of a sister of Rauperaha, the great chief at that place. He explained to us that every one would cry very much, and that then there would be much kai kai or feasting. He was accompanied by a large retinue; some of whom had come with him in the morning to visit the Ngatihinatui. The war-canoes belonged to his party. He seemed much inclined to stop on board, and talked to us of the quarrel with great indifference. He asserted, though, that we ought to pay for the tapu, but suggested as an amendment, that the utu, or "payment," should be handed to him instead of "Dogskin." We therefore concluded that the demand was altogether unjust, and a mere bullying attempt at extortion,

Te Wetu appeared to be about sixty years old, but he was still wiry and strong. He was very amusing and fond of conversation. He told us all about his place, Rangitoto, which means "blood-coloured sky," and expressed his hope that we should pay it a visit. He declared himself "no missionary," and said he had four wives, the fifth having lately died. Having inquired how many the Kings of England had, he laughed heartily at finding that they were not so well provided, and repeatedly counted "four wahine" (women) on his fingers. We gave the natives a small present of tobacco, recovered the sean, and soon restored friendship, as they had become tired of being excluded from their market on board. Te Wetu took kindly to the cabin-table, where covers were always laid for him and Ngarewa's family, who had taken no part whatever in the disturbances. The natives were rather puzzled at our display of force, and my uncle's firmness on the occasion excited general respect among them. They had previously described us as a missionary ship;

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many of them having taken notice of our observance of the Sunday, and some having attended our service on that day. They now, however, said we were half-missionary, half-soldier. A native missionary teacher, named William, assembled the natives who were on board to prayers several evenings. Te Wetu always sat apart when this took place. No further attempts at extortion were made; and Te Wetu told a canoe-full of his people, who attempted to come on board one morning, that they were not wanted, and that he was very comfortable where he was.

On the 28th, my uncle sent Doddrey the store-keeper, with a native guide, to a village at the southern entrance of Queen Charlotte's Sound, which Nayti and also the resident natives described as containing a hundred White men, with three rangatira, or "chiefs." In the afternoon of the following day, he returned in a whale-boat with two Englishmen. One was named Williams, and was carpenter at the village in question, where he said there were about sixty Europeans or Americans living by whaling. The other was named Arthur, and owned the meeting-house in Anaho village. Both brought their native wives with them. That of Arthur belongs to the village, and he generally lives there in the summer. It was now, however, the season for whaling, in which pursuit we learnt that he was engaged; and he was in consequence living at Te-awa-iti, whence the boat came.

The crew of the whale-boat consisted of young native men, dressed in the costume of European seamen; and we heard that a great many of them are employed in the boats by the whalers.

The arrival of our countrymen produced a great change in the deportment of the natives. They now cringed to our new guests, who took but little notice

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of them; and the obnoxious "Dogskin" disappeared. The new-comers confirmed our idea that the demand of utu was a mere extortion, and were much amused at the relation of our alarm and warlike demonstration. They told us that the natives were always ready to take advantage of inexperienced visitors in this way.

We could do nothing here towards attaining our object, which was to select and purchase a location suitable for the emigrants whom we expected to follow us in January. Neither Ngarewa nor Te Wetu could give us any distinct information as to the ownership of the land in this neighbourhood. They both spoke of Rauperaha as the great chieftain to whom they were in a measure tributary; but they seemed to agree that Hiko, the son of Te Pehi, had the best right to the land here. Neither, however, was described as having an absolute right to dispose of land; and the vested rights appeared to us to be involved in much confusion. Our White friends could not clear up our doubts; and, moreover, it was plain that although the immediate vicinity of Ship Cove could boast of excellent harbours and sublime scenery, it was not at all suited for a large European colony. My uncle therefore determined to avail himself of the services of Williams and Arthur in piloting the vessel to Te-awa-iti, where we might acquire more information.

While we remained at anchor in Ship Cove, Dr. Dieffenbach had ascended two of the hills which bound the bay. On the first expedition he was accompanied by the artist and Ehoro. They emerged from the forest into a coppice of fern, ten feet high, which clothed the upper part of the hill. After a tedious scramble through this, they reached the summit, and were rewarded by a panoramic view of the numerous bays and coves of Queen Charlotte's Sound,

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dotted with many islands, and the northern shore of Cook's Strait. They calculated the hill to be 800 feet above the level of the sea. The second hill he ascended with a native guide only. He obtained no view from the summit, as it was covered with the loftiest forest-trees. He ascertained the height by boiling water to be upwards of 1500 feet. His guide was a good deal frightened, and tried to dissuade him from proceeding, before they had completed the ascent, by legends of fierce monsters whom they would be sure to meet. On one occasion I formed one of a party who ascended the hill to a considerable height, by the course of one of the streams. We climbed up the sides of some picturesque waterfalls, and attained the top of a ridge covered with the largest trees. The trunks of some of these reached to the height of seventy or eighty feet without a branch. This elevated part of the forest was almost free from underwood, and moreover quite silent, the birds appearing to remain in the lower and more lively regions. It was impossible not to be struck by the majesty of this primaeval forest.

August 31. --The weather, which had been very boisterous, with much rain, during the last few days, cleared up this morning. Having completed most of our refittings, and laid in a good stock of potatoes and water, we weighed anchor at 10 in the morning, and stood up the Sound with a light wind and favouring tide. We bade adieu to our friends the natives, and set Te Wetu and Ngarewa ashore as we got under way. We were, however, accompanied by the native teacher William, and by the native who had sprung to the wheel on our first arrival. The latter, whose native name was E Ware, had made himself a general favourite on board, and had apparently taken a fancy to the ship; for he installed himself among the men without any

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agreement, and joined in all the work without any recompense but his meals and a little tobacco. His activity and mirth, together with the rich humour which he displayed in executing some of the native dances, as well as in mimicking almost every one on board, earned for him the sobriquet of "Jim Crow," which he retained during the whole time that he stuck to the ship. He had acquired his nautical knowledge on board a whaling-ship in which he had served. I have often seen him, in the violent gales which we weathered on various parts of the coast, out on the end of the yard-arm doing the work of the best man in reefing, and cheering the sailors to exertion by some broad joke or irresistible grimace. He was fully competent to do the work of an able seaman; and his good humour under all circumstances was invincible.

In gliding up the middle of the Sound, we discovered a succession of bays on either hand, each in itself a harbour. One or two are as large as Plymouth Sound, easy of access, and perfectly safe in all winds. With the exception of a few level spots, like that at the head of Ship Cove, the wooded mountains rise from the water's edge, many of them to a considerably greater height than even Mount Dieffenbach, as we christened the hill which the naturalist ascended without falling a victim to the fabulous genii of the place. Nothing can be imagined more magnificent than the scenery, or, however, less suitable for cultivation. It forcibly reminded me of the wildest parts of the Highlands of the Hudson, with a greater expanse of water. At 3 p. m. we reached the entrance of the channel which joins the Sound with Cook's Strait to the eastward. The entrance is about a mile wide; and the channel, which was christened Tory Channel after Captain Chaffers had surveyed it, turns first to the

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east, and then to the north-east, thus insulating but a narrow strip of land, and running nearly parallel to the Sound for the greater part of its course. As we left the main arm of Queen Charlotte's Sound, we saw at its southern end, some six or seven miles from us, a tract of level land apparently two or three miles wide, from which a grove of high trees rose up.

The effect of the scenery was heightened by the remarkable clearness of the atmosphere. The distant land shone forth with distinct outline and brilliant colours. When we were at Ship Cove, the wooded edge of Entry Island, which is at least thirty miles distant, was generally plain to the eye, relieved against the snowy mountains of the North Island. As we entered into the narrow channel, the wind died away; but a tide, running four or five knots an hour, drifted us along. Eddies were formed on the shores, and we were obliged to have boats towing a-head in order to keep the ship in mid-channel. In most parts of the sound and channel the depth of water is from thirty to forty fathoms, even close in to the shore; but the numerous bays afford more secure anchorage, out of the influence of the tide. About half-way through the channel a small island lies in the mouth of one of these bays, crowned by the palisadoes of a native fort. The inhabitants eyed us eagerly from the shore, and one or two canoes approached the ship. They seemed cautious of too near intercourse. This was soon explained to us by our pilots. In the year 1838, the Pelorus, English brig-of-war, visited different parts of Cook's Strait, and did great service here by rendering justice to the injured party in many cases where complaint was made to the commander. After a display of gunnery close to this very pa, the commander demanded and obtained restitution of many articles stolen

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from the whalers for a long space back. The chief, named Huriwenua, and his people, had distinguished themselves by their dishonesty and harassing conduct towards the Whites, and some of the guns were in consequence pointed against a stack of wood for fencing, which they knocked to pieces. This harmless show of strength produced an excellent effect; and the visit was so recent that their respect for our flag still existed. This fortified island is named Mohio by the natives.

At sunset we anchored off the village of Te-awa-iti, or "The Little River." The whalers, who have a rough way of pronouncing the native language, have hardened this name into Tarwhite.

As soon as we arrived, Mr. Richard Barrett, who was at the head of one of the whaling parties, came off in his boat to us. We had been highly amused at the comfortable obesity of Williams, and considered him a promising sample of the good effects of New Zealand feeding. What was our surprise on finding Dicky Barrett, as he is generally called, as much stouter in person as he was shorter! Dressed in a white jacket, blue dungaree trousers, and round straw hat, he seemed perfectly round all over; while his jovial, ruddy face, twinkling eyes, and good-humoured smile, could not fail to excite pleasure in all beholders. And a merry party it was to look upon, as we sat round a bottle of grog on the cabin-table, listening to the relation of the wild adventures and "hairbreadth 'scapes" of Barrett and his two fellow-whalers.

Barrett had been in New Zealand for ten or twelve years: first as a flax-trader at the Sugar-loaf Islands near Taranaki, or Mount Egmont, where, with ten other White men, he joined the native inhabitants in their desperate resistance to the invasion of the Waikato tribes; and during the last five years as a whaler

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at this spot. On the retreat of the invaders, the Ngatiawa, or aboriginal tribe, determined on seeking1 a new country, free from the incursions of the enemies whom they had only repulsed with great loss to their own ranks. Barrett had married the daughter of one of their principal chiefs, by whom he has several children. He and his comrades accompanied the Ngatiawa in their migration to the shores of Cook's Strait, which Rauperaha and Te Pehi had conquered and depopulated when those chiefs migrated from Kawia about the year 1825. This was about the year 1834. Some of the Ngatiawa had settled on the shores of Queen Charlotte's Sound, some in Blind Bay, others at Port Nicholson, and along the coast of the North Island, between that and Kapiti. Constant quarrels had occurred between the original conquerors, who chiefly belong to the Ngatitoa tribe, and their more numerous successors. Rauperaha's party took up their residence chiefly at Kapiti, Admiralty Bay, Mana, or Table Island, and Cloudy Bay. They are often called the Kawia; and they had been assisted, we learnt, in their attacks on the Ngatiawa by a tribe of natives called the Waikorapupu, or "boiling-water," who live on the mainland north of Kapiti. The acquaintance and assistance of Dicky Barrett promised to be most advantageous to us, as he was related by his wife to all the influential chiefs living at Port Nicholson. This was one of the spots to which the instructions of the Company particularly directed the attention of their agent, as being likely, from the description given by Nayti and other persons who had visited it, to prove a suitable spot for the establishment of the future colony. Barrett's account fully confirmed this idea; and he, after having been made acquainted with our views and projects, expressed himself willing to

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second them with all his ability. He was thoroughly acquainted with the feelings and customs of the natives, as well as their language; and his constant intercourse with them had produced in him a worthy admiration of the good points in their character. He knew them too well, however, to give them unlimited praise; but was delighted at the prospect of a regular English colony, which might cherish and benefit them, while it should prevent the disastrous effects often arising from the intercourse between the most ill-disposed among them, and some of their White guests who, outlaws from civilized society, had degenerated into something more brutal than the savage. We also learnt from him in how unsettled a state was the proprietorship of land about Cook's Strait. The country had been conquered about fourteen years before by the Kawia tribe. They had almost exterminated the Muopoko, Rangitane, and Ngatiapa, who were the original occupiers. And even the spots now occupied were in dispute between the conquerors and the Ngatiawa, who followed nine years afterwards in their track. The very superior number of the Ngatiawa seemed to constitute their only right to supplant the conquerors. We learned that a war in consequence of some such dispute had been only recently concluded in the north end of Queen Charlotte's Sound, and that the forts on Long Island were the remains of this war. It seems that Rauperaha had crossed the strait a year or two previously in canoes, and had established, vi et armis, his claim to that island and Motuara, which the Ngatiawa had disputed at the cost of eight men. The Ngahitau, too, who had originally occupied Cloudy Bay, had frequently followed their chief Tuawaiki, or "Bloody Jack," in expeditions to recover their settlements; and it was not many years since

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Rauperaha had succeeded in driving them away, and establishing some of his relations in Port Underwood or Wanganui, the ship-harbour of Cloudy Bay. Thus it seemed, plain that, even with regard to the ownership of their villages and potato-gardens, might constituted the only right. As to the parts lying waste, we collected that they were not thought of or claimed by any one. Many White men had cleared and cultivated patches of land without bargain or interruption. These natives had not, like those in the neighbourhood of the Bay of Islands, learned that White men were willing to pay a high price for desert land; and there did not seem to have ever been any written bargain for land before our arrival. We had become aware, from the evidence of missionaries given before a Committee of the House of Lords in 1838, that a very different state of things prevailed in the northern part of the islands; but it was to be remembered that there, so early as 1814, Mr. Marsden, the founder of the Church Mission, had brought a formal deed from Sydney, in order to complete an agreement for the land on which the Mission buildings were to stand; and that, since that time, numerous similar purchases on a large scale had been made by the missionaries as well as by lay settlers, who created a considerable demand for land in that portion of the country. Dicky told us plainly, that our wish to purchase a large district of waste land would be looked upon as a novelty by the natives here. From the information which we gathered from him and other persons, I feel convinced that a large body of settlers might have pitched their tents in many parts of the neighbourhood entirely without interruption, and without being regarded by the natives as intruders on their rights.

As, however, we did not propose to take possession

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of any territory without a positive sanction on the part of the natives, it was determined that Barrett should explain our views to them. He confessed that they would be sure to accept a payment, and that certainly they had a right to it, as we should probably include, villages and cultivations in such large districts as we proposed to buy.

A very important part of our projected plan was, to reserve a tenth portion of the land bought by us for the benefit and use of the natives. We had it in view thus to secure a valuable property to them, which might preserve their chiefs in circumstances equal to those of the higher order of settlers in future times. We had looked forward to the time when the value bestowed on these native reserves, by the improvement and cultivation of the other lands with which they should be intermingled, and by the presence of a large and thriving civilized community, might afford the means of furnishing the natives with abundant revenue to support the dignity of their chiefs, with improved clothes and food, with houses like those of Europeans, with cattle and agricultural implements, with education and the means of religious worship; in short, with all that might make them respectable in the eyes of the future colony. It had of course been provided that these reserves, although tapu for the natives, should be inalienable by them, as it was foreseen that, without such a precaution, the natives would part with their reserves for a nominal value, as soon as they should acquire a real one in the eyes of speculating colonists. It had also been provided that the defects of the system of Indian reserves in North America should be avoided. There the reserves have been selected in huge blocks which lie unimproved themselves, and which, while they produce no benefit

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to the natives, impede the cultivation and consequent rise in value of all the lands in their neighbourhood. They have been found to produce there the same evils which arose from the excessive grants made to individuals at the first foundation of the colony of Swan River. The Indian reserves in Canada would doubtless become of real value to the Indians, if small portions of them could be given away to bona fide settlers, able to bring labour and capital to bear on their land. The intervening parts of the great desert would then acquire more value, and produce more revenue, than the whole of it while it remained tapu to any but the Indians.

On a similar principle we proposed to confer a greater value on the reserves for the natives in our colony than could belong to the whole district while lying waste; for which, nevertheless, we proposed to give them an immediate, ample, and satisfactory payment. In order to understand our provisions for this purpose, it is necessary to know the plan which the Company had projected before our departure, for the distribution of the land among the intending colonists.

In the first place, in accordance with the system then adopted in all our colonies, the land was to be sold in England, at the rate of 100l. for each section, consist- ing of one acre in the site of the town, and a hundred acres in the surrounding country; and three-fourths of the proceeds were to be expended in carrying out labourers to the colony.

The first colony was to consist of a town of 1100 acres, and a corresponding country district of 110,000 acres.

As soon as the list of purchasers of 1000 sections should be filled up, a lottery was to be formed in England, by which 1100 orders of selection should be drawn, corresponding to the sum of the 1000 purchased

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sections, and the hundred sections reserved for the natives. To exemplify this, let us take an instance of what actually took place when this plan was carried into effect. Thus, upon the name of Mr. Duncan Dunbar being drawn, a ticket was drawn from another wheel, and turned up No. 1, giving him the right of the first choice of one among the 1100 town sections, and one among the 1100 country sections, as soon as they should be surveyed and marked on a map. The first native reserve drawn came up No. 7, thus securing the seventh best choice of one town and one country section, out of the same 2200 sections, to the native estate.

In this way the native reserves were sure to be well scattered among the lands occupied and owned by White men, and of fair average value. This system held out the brightest hopes of success: the value of the lands was thus secured, and it was also provided that such portions as the natives might select for their residence should be interspersed among the residences of White men, instead of being so isolated as to preserve their rude and uncivilized habits. Nothing can be a more degrading sight than the exclusively Indian villages of Canada. The defective habits and inclinations of the savage are preserved, and his existence as an isolated and inferior being is encouraged and perpetuated. They are visited as curiosities by the White inhabitants and travellers, and are preserved in that light, like wild beasts in a show, devoid of comfort or improvement. The miserable appearance of the native villages which we had seen in New Zealand, tended in the strongest manner to confirm these views. Crowded together, as the natives were, in small, filthy, and unwholesome huts, we found that the animal heat, unpurified by ventilation, forced them to sleep quite naked, and that

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both sexes and all ages lay thus huddled together, like dormice in a nest. Without a great reform in this particular no one, however well-disposed to do so, could hope to effect a change in their morals, or to raise them up to the level of White people. In order that they should be better and more decently clothed, it was necessary that an improved process of agriculture should enable them to produce more than they consumed, without taking all their time; so that they might set aside some hours for the cultivation of their intellect and their religious education.

It was hoped that these preliminary changes, absolutely necessary to their effectual civilization, and yet mere steps towards that end, might be in a great measure assisted by means of dispersing their residences and their cultivations among those of the superior race, because the constant example before their eyes, and consequent emulation to attain the same results, would naturally lead the inferior race, by an easy ascent, to a capacity for acquiring the knowledge, habits, desires, and comforts, of their civilized neighbours.

This was what many sincere well-wishers to the natives had contemplated in their opinion, expressed in England before we left, that civilization should go hand in hand with, and in some degree precede Christianity among savage tribes. Perhaps the most interesting part of our undertaking was our acquiescence in this principle, and the interest which we felt in calculating on its expediency from what we observed of the natives while in their wildest state.

Dicky Barrett, who was an excellent whaler, but no political economist, did not see the whole bearing on our theory of the system of native reserves; but he agreed that it was a noble and just provision against

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the chance of want coming upon them when they should have expended the original payment.

We looked much further; and considered the real payment to be made to them to consist in the confer- ring on them the great boon of civilization by such degrees as to secure its permanency; and, moreover, in the preserving for them a property of sufficient value to allow affluence and comfort to wait on the process, and crown its final completion. Such were the thoughts that passed through my mind after the whalers had returned on shore for the night; and I felt happy in supposing, that the humblest share in the execution of so great an enterprise might be envied by the most ambitious of men.

1   It becomes necessary to mention that the Maori or New Zealand language, as reduced to writing by the missionaries, gives a distinct sound to each vowel, similar to that which it would have in the Continental languages. Thus maori is sounded like "mowree;" muka, like "mookah;" here kie kie, like "herray keeay keeay;" and Koumaru, "Ko-oo-mah-roo:" and I have maintained the or- thodox orthography throughout, and have made such words as "taboo" tapu. Every word to be so sounded is therefore printed in Italics.

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