1878 - Wells, B. The History of Taranaki - CHAPTER XXIV: THE RENEWAL OF HOSTILITIES

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  1878 - Wells, B. The History of Taranaki - CHAPTER XXIV: THE RENEWAL OF HOSTILITIES
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ON Monday, May the 4th, 1863, a party consisting of seven armed men of the 57th Regiment, in charge of a prisoner, left the Tataraimaka Camp for town. Knowing nothing of the warnings which had been given to the Government, they marched on regardless of danger. They had not proceeded far on their way when Dr. Hope and Lieutenant Tragett of the same regiment overtook them on horseback, both being unarmed. The officers passed the party and proceeded onward at a walking pace, about 200 yards in advance, until nearing the Wairau stream, when they came to a sudden halt, and awaited until the party on foot came up to within five yards of them, when a shot was fired from the bush which at that spot slopes downward to the river, and runs parallel to the beach. So sudden and unexpected was the report, that the man Kelly, who alone escaped to tell the tale, turned round and enquired of Sergeant Ellers, who was immediately in front of him, if his piece had gone off by accident. The question was scarcely answered in the negative when another shot brought poor Ellers to the ground, and another Color-Sergeant Hill. In front Dr. Hope was lying in the stream, having fallen wounded from his horse. Private Flynn, on being requested to aid in the defence, stated his inability to do so from a wound which he had received in his arm. Private Banks, the prisoner, was also prostrate on the ground. While matters were in this state, Lieutenant Tragett, instead of riding off and saving his life, dismounted from his horse and joined the three survivors, remarking, as if speaking to himself, "What is best to be done." Florence Kelly replied, "We had better retire firing." The noble officer replied, "We cannot leave our dead and wounded," so he took a rifle and accoutrements to aid in the defence. After continuing the fire for some time and receiving a wound, he gave his white pocket handkerchief to Kelly with directions to place it on his bayonet, and use it as a flag of truce. Kelly obeyed this order, but the call for mercy was unheeded. The little party again opened fire, which was answered with telling effect by the ambuscade, Kelly alone being left alive. A Maori now, in attempting to take Sergeant Hill's firelock, was shot dead by the survivor. Kelly then retreated towards Tataraimaka, but a Maori trying to outflank him, and the strings of his shoes which were of flax breaking, he kicked off his shoes, threw away his rifle and belts, ran for his life, and escaped. The names of the victims of this massacre were:--Staff Assistant-Surgeon William Astle Hope, M.D.; Lieutenant Thomas Heathcote Tragett, 57th Regiment; Color-Sergeant Samuel Ellers; Sergeant Samuel Hill; Private Edward Kelly; Private John Flynn; Private Bartholomew McCarthy, and Patrick Egan.

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That night the Militia and Volunteers again mounted picket, and occupied their old posts around the town. What were the feelings of Governor Grey when the real object of the Maoris, whom he supposed to have crept through the bush with "the most laudable intentions," was thus vividly brought before him we cannot say, but General Cameron was heard to say to him that he would not have his men cut to pieces in that fashion with impunity.


On the 11th, the following extraordinary proclamation was issued by the Governor:--

"By His Excellency Sir George Grey, K.C.B., &c.

"Whereas an engagement for the purchase of a certain tract of land at the Waitara, commonly known as Teira's block, was entered into by the Government of New Zealand in 1859, but the said purchase has never been completed.

"And whereas circumstances connected with the said purchase, unknown to the Government at the time of the sale of the said land, have lately transpired, which make it advisable that the said purchase should not be further proceeded with.

"Now, therefore, the Governor, with the advice and consent of the Executive Council, doth hereby declare that the purchase of the said block of land is abandoned, and all claim to the same on the part of the Government is henceforth renounced.

"Given under my hand at New Plymouth, and issued under the Seal of the Colony of New Zealand, this 11th day of May, 1863.

"By His Excellency's Command,
"God Save the Queen."

On the night of the 24th, two militiamen, Ward and Wolfe, were posted together on the edge of the gully near to the Carrington Road Blockhouse, when by a mistake Ward fired at Wolfe and wounded him in the wrist.

On the 29th, as Lieutenant Waller, 57th Regiment, was riding from St. Andrew's Redoubt to Poutoko, he received a volley from a party of natives in ambush, which killed his horse. While disengaging himself from the fallen beast a native leaped out with a tomahawk to despatch him, when Lieutenant Waller shot him with his revolver, and succeeded in escaping to the redoubt.


On the 3rd of June, a force under the command of General Cameron marched from New Plymouth by the Great South Road, and received reinforcements at Poutoko and Oakura, and continued

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its march in silence to Tataraimaka, where it was again reinforced.

At about 6.15 on the following morning the force advanced to the attack, the course taken being to the left of the redoubt over Bayly's farm. After marching about 400 yards the Armstrong battery halted, and was posted on the edge of the ridge overhanging the Katikara river. Fire was immediately opened upon the native redoubt, about 800 yards distant, and directly inland, the 57th at the same time doubling down the valley in single file to attack the rifle pits to the right of the enemy's position. After dashing across the stream and ascending the opposite height, the advance under Lieutenants Waller and Brutton, with their Colonel in command, immediately charged the rifle pits to the right, and drove the rebels from their position above the mouth of the river, thereby opening up the road to the reserves which came rapidly up. Meanwhile the supporting party, under Lieutenant-Colonel Logan, having been fired upon from the redoubt, turned to the left, and running over an open space of 300 yards with fixed bayonets stormed the place, killing every native within it. Captains Shortt and Russell, with their parties, charged the redoubt almost simultaneously, while Ensign Duncan was coming over at another part. The men behaved well and charged impetuously. The natives were at once driven to their holes, and the bayonet then did its work. On the right Colonel Warre's party cleared the rifle pits, and pursued the flying enemy southwards and inland. The General was highly pleased at the gallant manner in which the enemy's works were carried. Twenty-four bodies of natives were taken in carts to the Tataraimaka Camp and buried. Several guns and a fine taiaha were taken.

H.M.S. Eclipse was anchored off the mouth of the valley, and threw some shells while the troops were advancing to the attack. The ship lay about a mile from the rebel redoubt, and threw a shell into the middle of the works which killed at least one Maori, for a piece of the fuze was found in one of the bodies.

The loss on the side of the British was 1 private killed and 2 mortally and 2 severely wounded of the 57th Regiment, and 1 private severely wounded of the 70th Regiment.

The most interesting of the spoils taken by the troops on this occasion was the list of tolls which was set up by the rebels near to Te Ika roa a Maui, the great assembly house at Kapoaiaia, near Warea, but which was afterwards brought up to Puketehe, just beyond Tataraimaka.

The following is a translation of this singular notice:--

"Taranaki. Te Ika a Maui. The house where lie the laws which are in force here of King Matutaera Potatau, near the gate for payment of offences which stands here.

£ s. d.

1. Minister of the Gospel

50 0 0

2. Newspaper Mail

300 0 0

3. Maori Disciple of the Governor

200 0 0

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4. Wealthy Pakeha--don't let them go through the gate, if they do

5 0 0

5. Pakeha Policeman

500 0 0

6. Maori Policeman

5 0 0

7. Maori Assessor

5 0 0

8. If he comes as a Kingite

0 15 0

9. A King's Letter in the Mail

0 5 0

10. A Letter against the Authority of the King

1 0 0

11. Letters from Kinsmen Outside

0 5 0

12. Letters Tempting the Tribe

0 15 0

13. Letters not sent by the Mail

1 0 0

14. A Neutral coming as a Pakeha

0 5 0

15. A Preaching Maori Minister

55 0 0

16. Letter Badly Tempting the Tribe, seize it and make the bearer pay...

0 5 0

17. The above is the Law for the Pakeha Tolls of the Maori.

1. A Cart of Wheat or other things ...

0 1 0

2. Things carried on a man's back

0 0 1

3. A Pig carried in a cart

0 0 6

4. A Pig driven

0 0 6

5. A Cow or Horse each

0 0 6

6. There are no rules referring to neutrals outside,
but a load carried from inside the gate

0 0 1

7. Money of the tribe for purchasing, free

8. The Law of the Maoris inside and outside of the gate

9. Do not Steal, O Man (or evade the tolls) if you do you will pay

5 0 0

By authority of the Keepers of the gate of Matutaera,
KERE, Policeman,
ROPOMA, Policeman.
8th July, 1862.


On June the 25th, Hapurona sent a challenge addressed to the Governor, the General, Mr. Bell, and Mr. Parris. It was written on half a sheet of account paper, and signed by "Hapurona, the General of the Maoris." He said that he and all his people were ready to fight by the light of the sun. He also desired that the troops would go and fight him, stating that if they did not he should have to make them by occupying land at Bell Block. Hapurona had not been in town since the 25th of January, 1862, when he was arrested by the police for riotous conduct in the streets. He was at that time in the receipt of £100 per annum as commandant of the Matarikoriko Blockhouse, which he threw up in consequence of his having been apprehended, or, as he termed it, made a slave of by the police.

On the 27th, H.M.S. Eclipse arrived with the intelligence that

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the Waikato tribe had risen in rebellion, and that troops were needed for the defence of Auckland. On the same evening she returned to Manukau with detachments of the 40th, 65th, and 70th Regiments. The Governor and General were at this time in Auckland.

The insurrection in Waikato revealed the cause of the renewal of hostilities in Taranaki. The Maoris who crept through the forest at the back of the settlement, as the Governor supposed "with the most laudable intentions," were emissaries from Waikato sent to stir up the rebels to active measures in order to divert the attention of the Government from what was taking place in the Waikato, and it was a fortunate thing for Taranaki that the rebels received a check at the Katikara before the troops were withdrawn to the North.

The policy of the Maoris was revealed by the following letter found by the Bushrangers at Parakamahoe, when that place was destroyed in April, 1864:--

"Huiterangiora, February 1st, 1863.

"To Parenga Kingi, Minarapa, Hoani, Inaraira, Aperahama Ngatawa, Totaea, to all the runanga of King Potatau. Friends, greeting to you all, the tribes and the people of the canoe of my ancestors. Do you listen, I am living here with the object of your respect--the King. Listen; Te Ia has been occupied by the soldiers. If the road crosses the Maungatawhiri there will be war; if the war does not begin here it will begin where you are, at Taranaki. Take care what you do. My word to you is--go carefully. This is what your King says, "Leave it to the men of the canoe (Waikato) to say how it is to be steered, whether to go with the waves or to turn its head towards them. If they say 'put its head to face them,' then do it; if they say 'give way' then give way.'

"Enough of that. Friends, do not be troubled at what I said to you about the road for the mail--let it be open--and Pakeha travellers let them go to and fro. Be careful in what you do, so as to leave the Governor to bruise the nose of the King's runanga-- that the other tribes may see clearly that we are in the right. Enough of that. This is another thing concerning Taranaki; leave it as it is. Tataraimaka and Waitara, let them both be as they are. If what the Governor says about Waitara is satisfactory, there will be no difficulty about Tataraimaka. The satisfactoriness of what the Governor says must consist of this--the giving back of Waitara into our hands, and then it will be right about Tataraimaka. Leave the Pakehas to begin the war that the Governor's fine words may be laughed at. Enough; it is finished,


The southern rebels now established themselves on the northwestern spur of the Kaitake Ranges, and on the 27th Colonel Warre, who, in the absence of the General, had been appointed Commandant of the garrison, commenced to shell them with the Armstrong batteries.

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On the 30th, Tataraimaka was evacuated for the second time. Bush parties of Volunteers were at this time organised under the command of Captains Atkinson and Webster, for the purpose of attacking the rebels in the forest, and intercepting their communications with the northern and southern parts of the Province.

On the 11th of July, the Governor, by proclamation, threatened the confiscation of rebel native lands.

On Sunday, September the 13th, T. Langman, J. Sole, and W. H. Rowe were attacked by a party of natives on the Frankley Road, and Langman's arm was badly fractured by a ball. This event was followed by skirmishes on either side of the settlement.

On the 15th, at 3 a.m., Captain Russell, with Lieutenant Manners and Ensign Powys, and 75 men of the 57th Regiment, left the Poutoko redoubt, and leaving 25 of his party in the empty redoubt at Oakura, crossed the river, and turning inland a little way up the road from Wairau to Kaitake, planted an ambush in three parties. The men lay in the scrub beside the road till about eight o'clock, when a body of natives approached from Kaitake. They were headed by an old chief, square shouldered, and with grizzled hair, carrying a handsome taiaha, who, when he came opposite to Lieutenant Manners' party, seeing tracks on the road shouted he pakeha! The old man was immediately shot with such others as were within reach, but the main body of the natives had not come up to the ambush. Seeing what had happened, the rebels at Kaitake and Ahuahu rushed down from the hills in force for the purpose of taking possession of the redoubt in order to cut off Captain Russell's retreat. Their dismay, when they discovered that it was occupied by soldiers, may be easily imagined. Sergeant Hackett hit one rebel at the distance of 300 yards, who fell and rolled down the steep bank. After this the return to Poutoko was effected without molestation. The loss of the enemy was not exactly known, but Captain Russell stated that he saw seven bodies on the ground, and two men wounded, who were led away.

On January the 18th, 1864, at a Skirmish at Sentry Hill, Hone te Horo, an active rebel of the Puketapu hapu was killed, and several other rebels wounded.


On Sunday the 28th of February, several settlers tempted by the beauty of the day roamed abroad on a visit to their once happy, but now desolate homes. The first that proceeded on the Frankley Road was one of Mr. Dingle's sons, who was in the habit of daily visiting his father's farm. This morning he found one of the horses entangled in the supplejacks. Having set the animal free, he returned unharmed. A party of four on foot soon followed, accompanied by Mr. George Patterson, on horseback, who passed on some 300 yards in advance. When the four on foot reached the hill near to where Mr. Dingle's house formerly stood, they saw Mr. Patterson wave his hand as a signal for them to return, and at the same time several

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natives, armed with guns and tomahawks, appeared on the scene and shot Mr. Patterson. The four on foot seeing this, and having but one gun and five rounds of ammunition, retreated towards town, W. Bishop turning and firing occasionally on the pursuers. When the news reached town Col. Warre collected a force and went out and recovered the body, which was found lying on some logs by the side of the road with three bullet wounds in it, one through the heart, and frightfully mutilated with tomahawks. Mr. Patterson's boots and hat were gone, and his horse lay shot and tomahawked. Mr. Patterson was a native of Northumberland, and by profession a steam and civil engineer. He had performed some professional service in Spain, and in Taranaki erected and worked a saw mill. He was a most energetic settler, and was much respected. He left a widow and several young children.


On the 12th of February, W. Richards, jun., reported that rebel natives were on Mr. T. King's farm at Mangorei. At 2 p.m. two parties of Bushrangers started for that locality, one party going by Ratanui, and the other by the Avenue Road. When the latter party got into the neighborhood of Mr. King's farm, they saw a column of smoke before them in the bush, and about the Mangorei Bridge they found tracks of natives, and marks of sheep having been dragged. The party that went by Ratanui came up about 5 p.m., and then an advance was made. Following the tracks a Maori was seen fishing in the river, and was fired at, but made his escape into the bush apparently unharmed.

Crossing the river an encampment was discovered, which had the appearance of having but very recently been abandoned. Here were eight very large Maori ovens, from some of which meat had just been taken and laid upon branches; some were still unopened, and contained a barrow-load, or more, of mutton each. A number of kidneys had been reserved in a heap uncooked, and these the men appropriated, and conveyed to town for their suppers. Potatoes, kumeras, and apples were also at hand, as well as a quantity of that Maori delicacy, rotted maize. From the fact of twenty skins being found in a neighboring clearing, and from the number of tracks seen, it was judged that a large number of natives intended to partake of the preparing feast.

The camp was about three-quarters of a mile from the Meeting of the Waters, and about 300 yards beyond the site of an old pa, called Papamoa, but on the eastern side of the Waiwakaiho River. The rebels appeared to have intended to stay there for some time, for they had commenced to build whares.


On Friday, March the 11th, an alarm was given in town by two settlers, who had been out on the Frankley Road, that the rebels were out in that direction. Bush parties were sent out in pursuit in

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various directions, and Major Butler, with a company of Volunteers advanced towards Kaitake. Captain Corbett left Pahitere, a singular mount on the east of the Oakura, and made his way with his men to the left of the Kaitake spur, on which the rebels had their stronghold, while Major Butler advanced straight for the spur, with a force consisting of 84 men of the 57th, and a small detachment of the Royal Artillery under Lieutenant Larcom, with a 24-pounder howitzer and a cohorn mortar. On advancing to within 500 yards of the lower pa firing was opened upon the position. The natives replied by a weak and desultory fire, and the British advanced to a rising ground within 200 yards of the pa, and here the gun was again got into position. This had scarcely been done when the enemy opened a heavy cross fire from three different directions. In this predicament there was no choice other than to retreat, and this was effected in good order, the men retiring skirmishing. The greatest number of casualties occurred in the neighborhood of the gun, at which the rebels chiefly directed their fire.

In the midst of the engagement, Antonio Rodiquez De Sardinha, a member of the Royal House of Portugal, and one of the mounted orderlies, displayed great gallantry by conveying two of the wounded men to the rear under fire. Major Butler also manifested cool courage throughout the affair.

The casualties of this engagement were:--Lieutenant Larcom, R.A., wounded severely; Private Michael Kennedy, No. 1 Company, 57th Regiment, killed; Privates William Henry, Martin Stagpoole, James Adley, John Chamberlain, and Charles Keane, 57th Regiment, wounded.

On the 20th of March, the villages of Ahuahu and Te Tutu were taken with trifling loss.


On the 6th of April, in compliance with orders, Captain Lloyd of the 57th Regiment left the Kaitake Camp in order to effect a reconnaisance of the site of the Ahuahu Village. At 6 a.m., Lieutenant Cox, with a party of the 57th, and Captain Page, with the Melbourne Volunteers, crossed the Oakura River from the camp on its banks, striking inland by a newly formed road up the river towards the ranges. Here they halted until joined by Captain Lloyd and his party, the force then consisting of one captain, one subaltern, two sergeants, one drummer, and 53 rank and file of the 57th, with Dr. Jones, and one captain, one subaltern, two sergeants, and 41 rank and file of the Melbourne Volunteers; the united numbers making a force of 101. The march was continued as near to the foot of the ranges and towards the south as the broken state of the country would admit, the men having to toil through a dense and luxuriant growth of fern, tutu, and manuka, up one hillock and down another. On a portion of table land, on a rise to the left, a small plantation was met with. Captain Lloyd gave orders that

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this should be destroyed, handing his sword to Sergeant Anderson for the purpose of cutting it down, and taking in exchange the Sergeant's rifle and ammunition. Whilst this work was proceeding, Lieutenant Cox, with the right sub-division of the 57th, advanced up another rise to a flat piece of land, posting sentinels near to the ruins of a number of whares, which were destroyed by the soldiers on a former occasion. Afterwards six men under Sergeant Anderson fell back as a picket on the outer spur of the range, carefully searching all around, Hemi, the native guide, having reported that he had heard a call, and that the party had been discovered by the enemy.

Captain Lloyd then passed to the front, descending the hill on to a flat near to a series of rifle pits, the men, after an interval, following down the hill, leaving a rear guard of ten men on the look out. The word was now passed to light pipes, and for the men to make themselves at ease, and the soldiers and volunteers began to congregate about the cart road leading to the beach. Ten minutes had scarcely elapsed, when from the thick fern on the spur the natives poured in a volley, wounding one man. Captain Lloyd then leaped into a rifle pit, ordering his men to seek cover as quickly as possible, and open fire towards the enemy, the Captain himself firing as rapidly as he could with the Sergeant's rifle, which he still retained in his possession. After firing for a quarter of an hour the word was given to retire. In the retreat Captain Lloyd with several of the 57th and Volunteers fell.

When it was known in town that some disaster had befallen Captain Lloyd's party, Colonel Warre despatched a force consisting of the Bushrangers, and a large party of the 57th under Major Butler. When the orders came the Bushrangers were on their way to attend the funeral of Sergeant Appleby, of Captain Corbett's Company of Volunteers, who had died of the wound he received at Kaitake. They immediately fell out, got their arms, and proceeded to Oakura, and from thence by Wairau to Ahuahu. Colonel Warre, with an Armstrong gun, went to Hauranga, and from thence by the road to the ranges, and when pretty near to the foot of the spur he ordered two shells to be fired. This had the effect of rousing the men who were still hiding in the fern. Two men where picked up by the Bushrangers, and one by Colonel Warre's party. An advance was then made to the little plateau where the tragic event of the morning took place, and there a fearful scene, presented itself. Six bodies were found by the rifle pits, stripped nearly naked and decapitated, and their heads taken away. Another man, whose body could not be found, appeared to have been viscerated, some intestines being found on the ground. Iho bodies were placed in two carts and covered with fern, and conveyed to town.

The casualties in this affair were:--57th Regiment: Captain Lloyd, decapitated; Privates Jeremiah Dooley, decapitated; George

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Sadler, decapitated; Andrew Collins, wounded; Lawrence Cronin, wounded; John Kirby, wounded; P. Murray, wounded; and Isaac Smith, wounded. Militia: Corporal H. Banks, decapitated; Privates James Nagles and H. Bartley, decapitated; John Gallagher, missing; Color-Sergeant George Bentley, wounded; Corporal Robert Stokes, wounded; Privates Francis T. Tomlins, wounded; Edward Whatmore, wounded, and James McKenna, wounded.

About this time the rebels threw off all pretensions to Christianity, and practised fanatical rites called Pai Marire, and called themselves Hauhaus. For some occult purpose the heads of the unfortunate persons killed at Ahuahu were dried after the native fashion, and conveyed from one native settlement to another by these fanatics.

On the 21st, Lieutenant Hirst found the missing man Gallagher on the ranges, decapitated, and part of his breast and one leg cut off.


Sentry Hill is a mount near the termination of the Waiongona and Mangoraka Rivers. After the second rebellion of Hapurona, Wi Kingi's fighting general, it was taken possession of by the British, a redoubt formed, and a blockhouse erected on it which was strongly garrisoned.

From an early hour of the morning of Saturday, the 30th of April, the men in the fort heard the rebels shouting and chanting their war songs at Manutahi. The sounds gradually drew nearer, and at 9 a.m. it was evident that the rebels were in force at Waiongona ford, which is nearly opposite to Sentry Hill. Shortly after they were seen by the sentries to be emerging from the bush which lies in the river valley between the ford and the hill, and distant about 800 yards. About 300 of them advanced along the road, and made slowly and steadily for the redoubt. Captain Shortt of the 57th, who was in command, ordered his men, 75 in number, to lie down under the breastwork of the redoubt, and kept the sentry marching to and fro as usual, as if no danger was expected. The rebels advanced till they were about 150 yards off, but then halted as if rather doubtful. Then Captain Shortt gave the word of command, and the men sprang upon their feet, and opened a murderous fire upon the rebels with their rifles and two cohorn mortars. The rebels drew back a little, but stood the fire remarkably well, taking such cover as the high fern and irregularities of the ground gave them. They returned the fire, but only succeeded in hitting Drummer D. Hurley in the shoulder. One rebel came up to the redoubt, and was shot within 20 yards of it. Major Butler came up with reinforcements from Mahoetahi, and ordered a charge, when the last of the rebels ran, leaving 34 dead and wounded, two of the wounded dying shortly afterwards. A flag of truce was then hoisted at Sentry Hill, and a native messenger despatched to Manutahi to tell the natives to come and bury their dead. The

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messenger found a large number of Ngatiawa, Taranaki, and Ngatiruanui natives there in a great state of grief at the loss they had sustained, but he could not persuade them to come up for their dead. On the messenger's return the flag of truce was hauled down and the Union Jack hoisted.

Among the rebels who fell on this occasion were Parenga Kingi, chief of Taranaki; Manahi, of the Ngamotu hapu of Ngatiawa, whose defection at Ratapihipi at the commencement of the war we have alluded to, and who was concerned in the Omata murders; Tupara Keina (Tubal Cain), chief of Ngatiawa; and Tamati Hone, head chief of Ngatiruanui.

During the time in which the foregoing events were taking place in Taranaki, General Cameron was engaged with a large force in quelling the insurrection in the Waikato, and no sooner were the northern rebels defeated than those around Taranaki began to slink back to the remoter parts of their districts.

In August, the Maori King with some of his chief people came to reside at Hapurona's pa at Te Arei, Pukerangiora.


Intelligence was received in New Plymouth on the 7th of October that the Puketapu section of the Mataitawa natives were desirous of making peace, that Wi Kingi's own people had removed to the east side of the Waitara, and that there would be no difficulty in taking-possession of Manutahi and Mataitawa. Accordingly, early on Saturday morning, the 8th, a force consisting of 200 men of the 70th, under Major Ryan, two field guns in charge of Captain Martin, R.A., the Bushrangers of Captains Good and Jonas, numbering 100 men, under Major Atkinson, and Captain Mace's mounted men, started northward. At Mahoetahi they were reinforced by 150 men of the 70th, under Major Saltmarsh, the whole being under the command of Colonel Warre, C.B., who was attended by his staff, and also by Colonel Lepper and Mr. Parris. The force halted for a short time at Sentry Hill, while messengers went on to Manutahi, and shortly afterwards Colonel Warre ordered the advance, and in doing so addressed the Bushrangers telling them that as they had been often disappointed he would give them the post of honor that day, although he did not suppose it would be one of much danger. Some friendly Puketapu natives went first to see if the pa was evacuated, but when some of them were within a few yards of it they were fired upon, and retired.

In front of Manutahi there was at that time a plot of open fern land nearly surrounded with forest, and the pa was built at the south end of this where the open land was about 150 yards wide, the two ends of the pa resting on the forest. Colonel Warre divided Major Atkinson's men into two parties, sending one into the bush on the right, and the other into the bush on the left, and ordering the 70th to advance in the open land as a support. The natives in the

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pa fired briskly as the Bushrangers approached, but finding themselves outflanked on both sides, they broke and fled, and two of them fell as they ran out of the back of the pa, while a third was wounded and escaped.

The pa was of a very singular shape, being, as has been already stated, 150 yards long, but in the shape, of a double concave lens, 20 yards wide in the middle, but expanding in a curve towards the ends. The ditches were deep, the banks high and 12 feet thick, and had it been adequately garrisoned it would have been hard to take.

The loss on the side of the British was but slight--Private Scammel of the Bushrangers being shot through the upper part of the arm while looking through the palisading of the pa; Private Henry Turner had a very narrow escape, part of the socket of his bayonet being shot away, and the end of his revolver preventing the ball entering his hip. He and a rebel had a duel from opposite sides of the palisading.

Leaving the Bushrangers to destroy Manutahi, Colonel Warre went on with Major Saltmarsh's party of the 70th, and the mounted men and friendly natives, to Mataitawa, but no resistance was attempted there. No fortifications were found at this place.

On Tuesday morning, the 11th, at daybreak, another expedition started from Mahoetahi, where it had encamped the night before, for the purpose of taking Te Arei, Hapurona's stronghold. It consisted of 350 men of the 70th, under Majors Rutherford and Saltmarsh, and Captains Backhouse and Ralston, a detachment of Artillery under Captain Martin, Captain Mace's mounted men, and about 100 friendly natives, the whole under the command of Colonel Warre. The force crossed the Waiongona and passed No. 6 Redoubt, where a picket was left, and soon afterwards divided, one party going to the right over the burnt hill and the long hill next to it, and the other keeping straight on till some of the leading files were little more than a hundred yards from the palisading. As the troops advanced the natives were heard going through their karakias, and as soon as they had done these they opened fire, and after firing about twenty shots retired to safer quarters. In the meantime the force on the right, led by native guides, crossed the gully between the long hill and Te Arei, and coming up through a piece of bush entered the pa at the back without firing a shot. The pa was strong against an attack in front, having two lines of palisading, with a considerable space between them, in which were two lines of deep trenches, and a high bank which at one time formed part of the old Pukerangiora pa. But at the back the pa was so constructed that an assailant would have been under cover while the inmates of the pa would have had no shelter at all. This is the position which General Pratt endeavored to take by means of advancing redoubts, and one of the longest saps on record, and after losing a number of officers and men did not succeed in capturing it.

In a flat open space at the back of the pa a pole was standing with two circles round it, made by the feet of the Hauhaus in the practice of their Pai marire rites.

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After resting awhile the friendly natives, Captain Mace's men on foot, and Captain Backhouse's company of the 70th, under Major Saltmarsh, went over the hill to the village of Pekatu. While yet a long way from this place it was observed, by the help of glasses, that there were four or five natives there performing their religious exercises round another pole. When the British got near to the village the rebels fired off their guns and retired to the little village of Pukemahoe, about 400 yards farther off across a small valley, where they got into the whares and commenced firing again, but after a short skirmish retreated again, taking with them one of their number wounded, as was shown by the blood along the road. They were followed by a few men for half a mile farther, but without effect. The people of this village, before their perversion to the Pai marire fanatacism, were probably of the Roman Catholic faith, for a portrait of St. Clotilde, a Roman Catholic Catechism, in manuscript, and other similar matters were found there. It was situate in the Waitara Valley, not far from the junction of the Manganui, After burning the whares, and picking up a few trifles, the force returned to Te Arei, where a large redoubt was in course of construction, and was shortly afterwards garrisoned by 150 men of the 70th, under Major Rutherford, No. 6 Redoubt being occupied by Captain Page's company of Military Settlers.

On September the 17th, Maxwell Lepper, Esq., late Major in the 14th Regiment, was appointed Colonel of the Taranaki Military Settlers. Mr. Lepper entered the 86th Regiment on 13th August, 1847, as ensign, and became lieutenant, by purchase, on 23rd February, 1849, and purchased his captaincy on 25th September, 1855. In 1858 he went with his Regiment to India. He was present at the siege, storming, and capture of Chandaree, and of the town and fortress of Jhansi, also at the battles of Betwa and Golowlee, the action of Koonch, and the capture of the town and fort of Calpee. Between the 15th and 21st of May, 1858, he was present during the operations before Calpee, and commanded the European infantry in the pursuing columns from Calpee. He was engaged in the battle of Morar, and in the battle before and capture of the town and fortress of Gwalior. He was thrice mentioned in despatches, and was promoted to the brevet of Major. He possessed also a medal and clasp. On the second battalion of H.M. 14th Regiment coming to New Zealand Major Lepper exchanged into it.

In October, the old Taranaki Militia was disbanded.

On the 25th of October, the Governor issued a proclamation offering a pardon to all such persons implicated in the rebellion, other than the persons charged with murdering the settlers, who should surrender themselves and take the oath of allegiance before the tenth of the succeeding December, and cede such territory as might in each case be fixed by the Governor and the Lieutenant-general commanding the forces in New Zealand.

On the 19th of November, General Cameron arrived in New

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Plymouth with a reinforcement of the 43rd and 70th Regiments, and ordered the re-occupation of Tataraimaka, The General's stay was short.

On the 28th, Private Hartley of the 70th, who had gone out unarmed from the Mataitawa Redoubt was met in the bush by the rebels and decapitated.

On the 19th of December, His Honor the Superintendent returned from Auckland, whither he had been attending the session of the General Assembly, bringing with him Mr. Doyne, a civil engineer, who had served in the Army Service Corps in the Crimea, for the purpose of obtaining his opinion respecting the formation of a harbor in the Taranaki roadstead. Mr. Doyne was subsequently joined by Mr. Balfour, a marine engineer, in the service of the Provincial Government of Otago, and the two prepared a preliminary report on the subject.

On the 31st of December, Henare Ngatoke, a Urenui native, left Waitara, where he had some cultivations, to go to Kaipikari, a place on a forest covered ridge to the eastward of Waitara. His chief object in going was to see some of the people there, and to let them know of the arrival of Te Rakatau and others from the Chatham Islands. He had some misgivings before starting, for he said to his friends at leaving that if he were not back on the following day they might conclude that he was dead. He went, and on arriving near to Kaipikari he met some of the men of the place unarmed, among whom were his relatives Pitiroi and Te Retiu. When these men saw him they immediately ran for their guns, and fired at him, wounding him in the arm. He fell from his horse and attempted to run, but was fired on again and was killed. After waiting a week for his return, his wife Rina, and an adopted child, in desperation, whaka momori, went after him to ascertain what had become of him. On arriving at Kaipikari they were treated with far greater barbarity, being wounded, thrown into a hole and killed. The murderers were some of them the relatives of their victims, and belonged to the Manukorihi, Wi Kingi's own hapu.

In January, 1865, General Cameron, at the request of the Colonial Government, proceeded to attack the rebels at Wanganui, leaving orders at New Plymouth for Colonel Warre of the 57th to operate from Taranaki towards the south. In obedience to this instruction a force left New Plymouth on the 23rd, for the purpose of occupying Te Ngaua, on the Hangatahua, or Stony River.

On the same day, Private Frank Roebuck, of the 9th Company of Military Settlers, was wantonly shot dead at the Camp at Mataitawa by a comrade named John Harris, who was afterwards convicted of manslaughter.

On the 2nd of March, the Rev. Sylvius Volkner, of the Church Mission, and formerly assistant to the Rev. J. Reimenschneider, at Warea, was barbarously murdered by the Maoris at Opotiki, on the East Coast, at the instigation of some Pai marire fanatics from Taranaki,

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On the 13th of March, General Cameron, having arrived at Patea, ordered the whole of the available force there to march on Kakaramea. The 57th, under Major Butler, led the advance, followed by detachments of the 50th and 68th. When within a short distance of the pa the natives opposed their further march. After a short engagement the enemy was completely routed, leaving 33 dead. The casualties of the British were one killed and three wounded. The soldiers rushed into the pa, and found a quantity of food just cooked. They also found pork, fowls, bullocks, and about seven tons of flour.

On the 19th, a skirmish took place at Kaipikari between some friendly natives and the rebels.

On the 21st, a force embarked at New Plymouth in the s.s. Ahuriri, for Patea, consisting of 158 non-commissioned officers and men of Nos. 8 and 10 Companies of Taranaki Military Settlers, and a company of Volunteer Bushrangers, composed partly of Taranaki Bushrangers and Volunteers, and partly of Military Settlers, raised by Colonel Lepper, all armed with breech-loaders and revolvers, also the following officers:--Captains Brassey and Pennefather, Lieutenants Kirkby and Wilson, Ensigns Dalrymple and Beer, and Assistant-Surgeon Luther. The whole were under the command of Captain Hirst, who had for his subalterns, Lieutenant W. Newland, and Ensign Chapman. The steamer was not able to land the force at Patea owing to the weather, and took them on to Wanganui in order that they might march overland to Patea. The men, however, were detained at Wanganui for some time, and most of them subsequently volunteered for the East Coast, where they were joined and commanded by Captain Stapp, and performed important services.

While the General was operating on the coast he ordered several surf boats to be conveyed to the coast for the purpose of holding communications with steam vessels bringing supplies.

On the 30th of March, a boat was launched at Manawapou to go out and under-run the mooring buoy. In going out of the creek it was struck by three successive seas, and dashed to pieces against the cliffs. The crew fortunately escaped after incurring considerable danger. On April the 2nd, another boat went off from the same place to the s.s. Ahuriri with despatches, and brought ashore some cargo. The crew on landing told Major Locke that there was too much sea on to allow of the boat going off again. Shortly afterwards the steamer Gundagi arrived, and ran up her ensign "Union down." It being thought there was something the matter, at imminent risk the boat went off. All the captain wanted was to land passengers and cargo, and he adopted this ruse to induce the crew to launch the boat. Just as the boat, left a sea swept the decks of the steamer. The boat succeeded in reaching the surf warp when she was struck by a sea and took a run. Before she could recover herself the chock was carried away, and the next sea turned her bottom upwards. Seven lives were lost. The names of the boatmen

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drowned were Francis McGuire, and William Craul alias Scotty. Of the rest, two were men of the 57th, one of the 50th, and two of the Colonial Transport Corps. On the 12th another accident happened to a surf-boat at the same place, by which three more lives were lost.


On the 22nd, early in the morning, Major Colville, commanding the Camp at Stony River, directed four mounted men---Baddeley, Hawke, Reynolds, and Clements--to proceed in the direction of Warea in search of some of the Commissariat bullocks that had strayed. The party after crossing the river detected the tracks of the animals, and followed them as far as Mokotunu, where six soldiers, who had left the camp without permission, were fallen in with. One of the soldiers, named Jury, was mounted on a borrowed horse. The united parties then proceeded as far as to Waiwhiriwherua, where they turned up for a mile and a half inland. Seeing some horses they made an endeavor to capture them, but the animals taking fright, started off rapidly towards the forest. Presently two cows and a calf were met with. The cows ran towards the beach, but Hawke and Clement succeeded in making the calf fast by means of a tether line. The calf then got into a swamp, and while the men were occupied in trying to get it out some rebels appeared and fired at them. Hawke fell, and Jury rode inland and was never seen again. The rest of the Europeans, having only three revolvers amongst them, retreated, and reached the camp.

On the following day, Major Colville, with a party of the 43rd, went out to reconnoitre, and found the body of Hawke shot in several places, and with the left eye gouged out. It was conveyed to town and buried with military honors.

On the 22nd, the following force embarked in the s.s. Phoebe for the White Cliffs:--Colonel Mulock (in command), Captains Ralston and Cay, Lieutenants Gilbert and Bally, Ensign Pierson, Lieutenant and Adjutant Fenneran, 8 sergeants, 2 buglers, and 144 rank and file of the 70th Regiment; A.D.C.G. Castray, Assistant-Surgeon Jones, Lieutenant Ferguson, and 2 gunners of the Royal Artillery; Captain Jonas, Lieutenant Free, Ensign Lawson, 5 sergeants, 4 corporals, 2 buglers, and 49 rank and file of the Taranaki Bushrangers, and Mr. Parris. Owing to a storm the Volunteers and Bushrangers were not landed, but were taken on first to Auckland, and afterwards to Patea.

General Cameron did not advance northward of the Waingongoro River, but Colonel Warre took possession of Opunake, expecting the General to join him there.

An explanation of the General's slow advance may be gathered from the following memorandum by Mr. Weld, Colonial Secretary:--

"In reference to certain statements made by Lieutenant-General

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Sir Duncan A. Cameron, which have been communicated by the Governor to his responsible advisers, Ministers express their regret that the Lieutenant-General should have thought fit to attribute base and unworthy motives, and a culpable disregard for the lives of British officers and men, to the Ministry of New Zealand, and by implication to Her Majesty's representative in the Colony.

"They believe that having regard to the character of the Colony, which it is their duty to uphold, and to their own, which as public men is the property of the Colony, it is impossible longer to accept assistance so unwillingly rendered. Nor, indeed, can it be hoped that the zeal and energy which alone can secure or lead to any useful results in operations in the field will be displayed by any officer, however distinguished, in support of a cause which is branded by him with such severe reprobation.

"April 8th, 1865."

At this time the Colony was placed in a dilemma. On the one hand it had a savage and unconquered foe to deal with, and on the other an unwilling General, and a demand by Mr. Cardwell, the British Minister, that the troops should be paid for. As a solution of this difficulty, Mr. Weld recommended that the Colonial Parliament should undertake a reasonable liability for troops engaged in the field, and that to the 6,000 Militia and 4,000 Military Settlers then in the North Island, a force of 1,500 Armed Constabulary should be added.

In May, a scheme for the settlement of Tikorangi was published by Major Atkinson. Two companies of Bushrangers were to be formed under Captains Jonas and Armstrong. The men were to occupy the district against the enemy till September, 1866, and were then to receive each 50 acres of rural land and a town allotment. Until put in possession of their land they were to receive 2s. 6d. per day, but after they were put in possession of their land they were to receive rations for six months longer. Afterwards it was found that there was only land enough for one company, and the other had to take land at Patea.


On the 1st of June, Lieutenant-Colonel Colville, of the 43rd Regiment, went down from Opunake to Whatino, a distance of five or six miles, with an escort of the Mounted Corps. While there some of the men expressed a wish to go a little inland to see what they could in that direction. The Colonel having no objection to their fulfilling their wishes, a small party consisting of Cornet Johnson and six men--J. Johnson, O'Neill, Olson, C. Curtis, J. Hoskin, and A. Harrison--started accordingly. After proceeding about a mile they saw six Maoris, and supposing them to be decoys the party halted, The Maoris then challenged them to come on, in

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abusive language. The party then put spurs to their horses and rode up to the rebels, who fired one volley at them as they advanced, and another when they closed on them. The revolvers of the British, however, did their work, and soon put the rebels to flight. On the side of the British Private O'Neill fell mortally wounded, Of the six rebels, three were left dead, or dying on the ground, and one or two of the others who escaped were wounded. Besides their wounded comrade, the party brought away three guns and a mere pounamu.

On the 13th of June, Colonel Warre proceeded to attack the Taranaki natives in their settlements inland of Warea. With commendable humanity, he first released a prisoner and sent him up to tell them that if they came and met him at Te Puru they would not be hurt, otherwise they must take the consequences. The ambassador was intrusted with the watch of Mr. Edward Stockman, the interpreter, in order that he might not mistake the hour allotted for his ambassage and return. As nothing was seen of the messenger or the people after the appointed time, Colonel Warre proceeded to carry out the plan of attack which he had previously arranged. The force was divided into three parties. The main division, consisting of a detatchment of the 43rd Regiment, under Colonel Colville, and the Bushrangers under Captain Jonas, went up the road from Te Ikaroa; the second division, under Major Holmes of the 43rd, went straight up to Te Puru from Warea, Colonel Warre accompanying it; and the third, consisting of a party of the 70th, under Major Russell of the 57th, went up on the north side of Warea to a village called Ngakumikumi, after destroying which this party joined the centre one. Colonel Colville's party, who were in front, passed through a mile or two of light bush, and then came upon a village, known as Okeanui. A skirmish took place here; some guns and other things were taken, the houses burnt, and the party went on through a mile or more of heavy bush and up a steep hill, when they came all at once upon Nekeua, which was an old pa with a deep trench round it, and had been recently occupied. It was palisaded against an advance from Te Puru, but not on the other side where the bush came right up to the trench. So sudden was the advance of the 43rd and the Bushrangers, that they surprised a native, named Te Meiha alias Big Jack, who was quietly looking through a telescope at Colonel Warre's party at Te Puru. At the first shot he jumped down into the gully, leaving his telescope and a loaded rifle behind him. The other natives fled to the bush, excepting two, who ran to the whares and closing the doors fired out through the rush walls at the British. The whares were then set on fire, and one old man was dragged out from the burning huts and saved. In the meantime Colonel Warre had advanced to Te Puru, and found the rebels running round a Pai marire pole; a slight skirmish took place, and the village was destroyed. Colonel Colville, after the destruction of Kekeua, joined Colonel Warre, and the whole force returned to Warea.

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At some of the villages whares were found filled with the plunder from the Lord Worsley.


"By His Excellency Sir George Grey, Knight, &c.
"Whereas by Proclamation, bearing date 25th day of January, 1860, His Excellency Colonel Thomas Gore Browne, the Governor of the Colony of New Zealand, did proclaim and declare that Martial Law should be exercised throughout the Province of Taranaki from the date of the publication of the said Proclamation within the said Province, until the relief of the said District from Martial Law by Public Proclamation.

"And whereas it appears unto me expedient to Revoke the said Proclamation: Now therefore I, Sir George Grey, the Governor of the said Colony, in pursuance and exercise of all powers and authorities in this behalf enabling me, Do hereby declare the aforesaid Proclamation of the 25th of January, 1860, to be and the same is hereby revoked. And I do further Proclaim and declare that this Proclamation shall take effect on and after the first day of August, 1865.

"Given at Wellington, ke,
"This first day of July, 1865,
"G. GREY."


On Friday, July the 28th, Captain Close of the 43rd Regiment, stationed at the Warea Redoubt, went with a party of 40 or 50 men into one of the forest clearings, inland of Warea, for the purpose of getting firewood, when he was suddenly fired upon by a party of rebels in ambush. Captain Close and Corporal Hanaghan fell mortally wounded, and a private and a native named Hemi, who was with the party, were slightly wounded. The troops immediately opened out in skirmishing order, and drove the natives back. On the following morning, a force of 300 men left New Plymouth for the purpose of chastising these rebels.

On Wednesday, the 2nd of August, a party paraded at Warea, at 3 a.m., consisting of 100 men of the 43rd and 140 of the 70th, under Lieutenant-Colonel Colville and Captain Cay, Lieutenants Bally, Tylden, and Howard, Surgeon Turner, 43rd Regiment, Captain Mace of the Volunteers, and 150 men of the 70th Regiment. The Hon. Captain Harris, Lieutenants Talbot and Langley, and Assistant-Surgeon Grant, 43rd Regiment, also accompanied the force. The party proceeded as far as Kapoaiaia, where it separated into two divisions, that under Major Russell turned inland and took the track for Okea, and that under Colonel Colville proceeded down the coast and turned inland for the purpose of reaching a place billed Kairuru, where it was supposed the natives were. It was believed that a track ran from Kairuru to Okea, and the plan was

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that after Colonel Colville had driven the rebels out of Kairuru, they should be cut off by Major Russell's party. Major Russell reached Okea about 7 a.m., and going to the top of some high hills that commanded the flat, smoke was seen in the dense scrub at a distance of about 500 yards. Captain Cay was at once sent with 60 men to reconnoitre; and after getting through the bush, found himself close to about twenty whares. The natives were completely surprised, and at first made no resistance. Eleven Maoris were bayonetted in the open, and a large number more must have fallen in the dense scrub and in the whares. Five were taken prisoners. The loss the 70th sustained in this place was one man shot dead, and Lieutenant Tylden severely wounded in the hand and face. Captain Cay's party then returned to the reserve with their wounded and prisoners. Whilst Dr. Turner was examining the wounded, the natives exchanged a few shots with the party, and a skirmish ensued, the rebels fighting with determination and aiming with remarkable precision.

After destroying the native position the force retired, but was galled in its retreat by swarms of rebels on its flanks, who sought utu for their slain. During the retreat Lieutenant Bally, while in command of the rear guard, fell, a bullet entering his side, and causing almost instantaneous death. The troops retired to camp at 1.30, and during the march three of the prisoners, in attempting to escape, were shot.

Colonel Colville, hearing the firing, forced his way through a narrow track, guided by Minarapa, and having got on the same road as Major Russell had traversed, fell in with six natives, and shot five of them, two of whom were recognised by Minarapa as chiefs. The casualties of the British on this occasion were as follows:---Killed--Lieutenant Bally, Privates Smith, Brown, and Ralph. Wounded--Lieutenant Tylden, severely; Privates Laughton, severely; Royal, severely; Saville, severely; Ward, dangerously; Maley, dangerously.

On the following day. Colonel Colville with his party returned to the scene of the engagement, and burnt some whares, during which the rebels killed Private S. Bolton, one of his outlying sentries.

On the 1st of August, Lieutenant-General Sir Duncan Cameron resigned the command of the Army in New Zealand, and was succeeded by Major-General Trevor Chute. This resignation had become necessary by the strange conduct of General Cameron in remaining for a long time inactive with a force of 10,000 men under his command, writing secret despatches to the Imperial Government, and complaining that the Colonial Government were regardless of the lives of the officers and men of the Army.

On the 9th of August, the Colonial steam transport Alexandra, having sprung a leak by striking on a rock, was beached at the White Cliffs, where she became a total wreck.

On the 2nd of September, the Governor proclaimed peace to all

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the Maoris who had taken part in the rebellion on the West Coast, excepting the murderers.

On the 4th of September, Mr. H. R. Richmond was elected Superintendent of the Province.

On the 14th of October, the New Plymouth Building Society was established.

On the 20th, Captain Mace, with a small party of the Mounted Corps, was fired on by an ambuscade of about thirty rebels at the three hills between Warea and the Hangatahua River, which slightly wounded him, and struck W. Bullot in the neck, and W. Oxenham in the foot.

On the same day, Major-General Chute arrived in New Plymouth in order to consult Colonel Warre as to a plan of operations.

On the 22nd, before day-break, Colonel Colville, with a force of 83 men of the 43rd, Captain Hon. J. Harris, Lieutenants Langley and O'Brien, and Captain Mace and a party of the Mounted Corps, marched out to chastise the rebeles who had fired on Captain Mace's party on the 20th at the three hills. A skirmish ensued, in which Sergeant Clifford and Private Pratt were killed, and Colonel Colville and Sergeant Dyer were wounded.

On the 9th of December, Major Stapp returned from Opotiki, having resigned the command there to Colonel Lyons, on whose assumption of command the following orders were issued:--

"Lieutenant-Colonel Lyons has much pleasure in publishing the following communication received from the Hon. the Defence Minister, dated Wellington, 13th November, 1865: 'I am at the same time to request you will convey to Major Stapp the thanks of the Government for the zeal, ability, and discretion with which he has performed very arduous and important duties, from the time he joined the force, and especially since he assumed the chief command.'
"J. Holt,
"Captain and Under Secretary."

"In giving over the command of the Expeditionary Force, I feel it incumbent on me to express my thanks to the officers and men composing it for the ready manner in which they have co-operated with me on all occasions in the performance of very arduous duties, and more particularly for the gallantry they have displayed whenever engaged with the enemy. I sincerely regret parting from a force with which I have served for upwards of three months, with great satisfaction to myself, and in doing so heartily wish it every success in the future, whether with the sword or the plough.

At this period the embarkation of the Imperial Forces for England commenced, the first regiments to leave being the 70th and 65th. At the end of the year the Imperial force in the Colony consisted of

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ten regiments, embodying 10,000 men; the regiments being the 12th, 14th, 18th, 40th, 43rd, 50th, 57th, 65th, and 70th, two Batteries of Field Artillery, with Engineers and Military Train. There were also at this time four ships of war in New Zealand waters, namely: the Curacoa, Eclipse, Esk, and Miranda.

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