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MY reason for writing about a country concerning which, as may be seen in the bibliography appended, ninety volumes, two hundred pamphlets, and nearly a hundred-weight of parliamentary papers have been already printed is this.
On embarking to join the 58th Regiment, of which corps I have been surgeon for thirteen years, I could find no book containing a general history of the colony; and, at present, several professing to be accounts of New Zealand limit their information to one settlement and one race, while others are evidently written for political, colonising, or religions purposes, and not a few are flattering mercantile advertisements.
In the hope of filling up this literary gap, I occasionally amused my leisure hours in collecting materials for the present work, and my means for doing so were considerable. During eleven years' residence I saw much of the country; held intercourse with representative men; sojourned for months among the aborigines in the interior; was permitted by Dr. Sinclair, the late Colonial Secretary, to consult many unpublished official docu-
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ments; and enjoyed the rare privilege of hearing the true manner in which New Zealanders talk over passing events among themselves, from my enlightened friend Wiremu Maihi te Rangikaheke. This man, who lived for several years in my house, was a chief among the turbulent warriors of Rotorua, and a valuable contributor to Governor Grey's "Traditions and Chaunts of the New Zealanders."
From personal observation, and materials culled from these sources, I have endeavoured to sketch the natural history of the country; to narrate the story of its people, their spiritual conquest, and the dawn of civilisation amongst them; to show how a few Anglo-Saxons planted and managed a colony in the midst of cannibals; and to describe their bygone dangers and difficulties, their present efforts to render a theoretical constitution practically useful, and the progress they have made in developing the resources of England's most distant colony.
November 10. 1859.
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THE FIRST VOLUME.
THE COUNTRY AND ITS NATIVE INHABITANTS.
GEOGRAPHY AND NATURAL HISTORY.
Area and shape. -- Name of islands.--Physical description of North Island.--Description of Middle Island. -- Stewart's Island. -- Harbours. -- Tides. -- Earthquakes. -- General rising of country. -- Geological curiosities. -- Flora of country. -- Number of plants.-- Description of Flora. -- Use of Flora to natives. --Use of Flora to settlers. -- Fauna of country. --Mammalia. -- Dogs and rats not indigenous. -- Birds.-- Notes on birds. -- Necessity for collecting birds. -- Amphibia. -- Fish. -- Insects. -- Shells. -- Wingless birds supply the place of quadrupeds. -- Resemblance between New Zealand and other islands with large wingless birds. -- Decay of wingless birds..........Page 3
Remarks on temperature. -- Solar rays. -- Rain. -- Moisture in air. -- Winds. -- Hot winds. -- Atmospheric pressure. -- Other elements.-- Influence on vegetation. -- The seasons. -- Influence of climate on settlers. -- Station for invalids from India........36
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MIGRATION OF THE ABORIGINES TO NEW ZEALAND.
Two races on islands in Pacific Ocean. -- Malay origin of Polynesians. -- Polynesian ideas of geography. -- Evidence of the Malay route to Polynesia. -- Date of Malay migration to Polynesia. -- Proof of Malay origin of New Zealanders. -- New Zealanders migrated from Navigator's Islands through Rarotonga, &c. -- History of migration. -- Arrival in New Zealand.--Probability of traditions. -- One migration to New Zealand. -- Date of arrival in New Zealand. -- Number of settlers from Hawaiki----Value of traditions............Page 51
PHYSICAL FORM, DISFIGURATIONS, LANGUAGE, MENTAL FACULTIES AND CHARACTERS OF NEW ZEALANDERS.
Physical form. -- New Zealanders a mixed race. -- Strength. -- Deformities. -- Disfigurations. -- Tattooing. -- Mode of tattooing. -- Objects of. -- Perforating the nose. -- Depilation. -- Cutting the flesh. -- Muscular contortions. -- Other disfigurations. -- Language. -- Mental faculties. -- Imagination. -- Reason and judgment. -- Character..............69
DIVISIONS AMONG THE PEOPLE.--PROPERTY. -- LAWS.
Divisions. -- The nations. -- The tribes. -- Ranks in life. -- Chiefs.-- Property in land. -- Mode of government. -- Influence of oratory. -- System of tapu. -- Things sacred. -- Effect of the tapu. -- Punishments for violating the tapu. -- Mode of removing the tapu. -- Tapu unjustly decried. -- Present state of tapu..............88
MYTHOLOGY AND SUPERSTITIONS.
Origin of the world. -- Origin of gods and men.--Prayers addressed to gods. -- Not idolaters. -- Origin of Hawaiki. -- Deified men. -- Religious belief. -- Deified men revisit the earth as spirits. -- Priesthood. -- Sorcerers. -- Ceremony of Iriiri. -- Remarks on Mythology...................107
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CUSTOMS IN WAR. -- CANNIBALISM.--SLAVERY.
Frequency of wars. -- Causes of war. -- Running a muck. -- Gods consulted. -- War parties. -- Dutch courage.--Battle orations. -- War-dance. --The conflict. -- Human heads preserved. -- Mode of preserving heads. -- War pas. -- Mode of attacking pas. -- Canoe conflicts. -- Canoe chants. -- Peace preliminaries. -- Weapons for distant conflicts. -- Weapons for close conflicts. -- Cannibalism. -- Origin of cannibalism in New Zealand. -- Prevalence of cannibalism. -- Customs connected with the eating of human flesh. -- Motives for cannibalism. -- Human flesh not eaten for food. -- Cannibalism extinct in New Zealand. -- Slavery. -- Present state of slavery.................Page 122
FOOD AND HUSBANDRY.
Ancient food. -- Fish. -- Fern root. -- Birds. -- Dogs and rats. -- Seals, &c. -- Sweet potatoes. -- Other plants. -- Introduced food. -- Mode of cooking. -- Mode of eating.--Peculiar taste....................152
Remarks. -- Laments. -- Love songs. -- Time chants. -- War and jeering songs.--Stories.--Fables.--Proverbs....................162
DOMESTIC CEREMONIES AND FAMILIAR USAGES.
Marriage. -- Punishments for infidelity. -- Polygamy. -- Legend of Hine Moa. -- Ceremonies after death. -- Hahunga. -- Respect for the dead. -- Hakari feast. --Amusements. -- Talking. -- Tobacco-smoking. -- Reading and writing. -- Chewing substances. -- Singing. -- Musical instruments. -- Riddles. -- Poi. -- Maui. -- Ti. -- Other games. -- Mode of reckoning time. -- Mode of salutation. -- Mode of carrying burthens. -- Personal ornaments. -- Fishing ceremonies. -- Arithmetic. -- Mechanical skill. -- Catching birds. -- Dress. -- Flax mats. -- Standard of measure. -- Other customs. -- Where ancient customs are still seen...........176
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THE DISEASES OF THE NEW ZEALANDERS. --THEIR CAUSES AND PREVENTION.
Remarks.--Fevers.-- Consumption. -- Bowel complaints. -- Head affections.--Dropsies.--Rheumatism.-- Abscesses and ulcers.-- Scrofula. -- Other diseases. --Leprosy. -- Parturition. -- Introduced diseases. -- Native modes of curing disease..........Page 211
HISTORY OF THE DISCOVERY OF NEW ZEALAND BY EUROPEANS.
FROM DISCOVERY OF NEW ZEALAND UNTIL 1810.
Claimants to discovery.-- Similarity between Spanish and New Zealand words.--Tasman's discovery.--Cook's first visit.--De Surville's visit.--Marion's massacre--Native account of massacre.-- Massacre caused by superstition.--Two natives taken to France.-- Cook's second visit.--Cook's last visit.--Social state of natives in 1780.--New Zealand excites interest.--Terror of cannibalism.--Events which led to intercourse.--Natives kidnapped to Norfolk Island.--Intercourse with sealers and whalers.--First settler.--Effect of civilised customs on natives. -- Social state of natives in 1808. -- New Zealand harpooners. --Massacre of the Boyd. -- Revenge taken for the Boyd...............225
NEW ZEALAND FROM 1810 TO 1838.
Evil effects of the massacre of the Boyd. -- Life of Hongi. -- Anxiety to get fire-arms produces commerce.--Increase of strife. --War checked by fire-arms. --Trade in human heads. --Rauparaha massacres natives. -- Ideas of property. --Land purchasing commences. -- Attempt to form a colony in 1825. -- Rumour of a French colony in 1831.-- British Resident appointed. -- New Zealand flag. --First campaign in country. --De Thierry's declaration of sovereignty. --Declaration of independence. --Constitution of United Tribes. --Absurdity of consti-
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tution. --Arrival of De Thierry. --Rumour of a French colony in 1836. -- Sayings and doings of travelled natives. --State of New Zealand in 1838. -- Rise of Kororareka. -- Kororareka Association. -- Consul recommended...............Page 252
PIONEERS OF CIVILISATION.
Origin of pioneers. -- Influence of early ships. -- The sealers. -- The whalers. -- Whalers' wives. -- Social state of whalers. -- Beneficial influence of whalers.--Accusations brought against whalers. -- Pakeha Maoris.--At first useless. -- Became valuable. --Decline of influence. -- Number of Pakeha Maoris. -- Specimen of Pakeha Maori. -- Civilising effect of Pakeha Maoris...............289
INTRODUCTION OF CHRISTIANITY.
South Sea Missions. -- New Zealand Mission. -- Reception of missionaries. -- Maori tongue reduced to grammar. -- Scriptures translated. -- Rise and progress of Christianity. -- Reasons of conversion. -- Causes favourable for spread of Gospel. -- Conviction not deep. -- Hostilities between Christians and Heathens. -- Awful fate of the Te Heu Heu.--Christians murdered.--Sectarian disputes among natives. -- Disputes among missionaries. --Religious state of natives in 1850. -- Native teachers. -- Civilising influence of Christianity. -- Personal influence of missionaries. -- Marsden and Selwyn...............305
Page 48 line 19 for "cent.," read "thousand."
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ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE FIRST VOLUME.
WAR-DANCE, from a Sketch by Lance-Serjt. J. Williams, 58th Regt....frontispiece.
INTERIOR OF PA: Wooden Gong being struck, from a Sketch by Col. Bridge, 58th Regt......title page.
TERRACED MARBLE STEPS AND GLASS-LIKE BASINS FULL OF WARM WATER, extending from the Hot Lake to one of the boiling Geysers on the surrounding Hills, from a Sketch by the Rev. John Kinder, New Zealand .......to face page 13
MOA, WITH FEET LIKE AN ELEPHANT, from a Photograph by R. Fenton: height of skeleton, 5 feet 6 inches......32
MAP SHOWING THE ROUTE BY WHICH THE MALAYS MIGRATED TO NEW ZEALAND........51
NATIVE LITTER FOR THE CONVEYANCE OF THE SICK AND WOUNDED, from a Sketch by Lieut. Grant, 58th Regt............129
NATIVE VILLAGE, WITH SWING AND PA IN THE DISTANCE, from a Sketch by Col. Bridge..........209
WAIMATE MISSION STATION IN 1815, from a Sketch by Col. Bridge..........330
MAP OF NEW ZEALAND, WITH ITS SEVEN PROVINCES DEFINED........end of vol.