1870 - Strachan, A. The Life of the Rev Samuel Leigh - [Front Matter]

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  1870 - Strachan, A. The Life of the Rev Samuel Leigh - [Front Matter]
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Missionary to the
Settlers and Savages of Australia and New Zealand.

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IT did not fall within the province of the author of this volume, either to expound the constitution of your Society, or to analyse the principles on which its affairs have been conducted. His object has been, 1. To give a comprehensive view of the moral degradation and social wretchedness of the settlers and natives of New South Wales and New Zealand; to point out the means that have been established, and maintained from year to year by your generous contributions, for their civil and religious elevation, and to mark the effects of those means upon their principles and habits: 2. To supply such information as should enable you to form a just estimate of the privations, labours, and appalling dangers to which many of your foreign agents have been subjected, while endeavouring to carry out your benevolent purposes, and to secure the higher objects of their mission: 3. To show

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you that, having succeeded in putting down cannibalism, infanticide, and polygamy, and in organizing churches, setting up educational institutions, and advancing the interests of civilization, commerce, and Christianity, wherever you have planted your missionaries, it is now your imperative duty to send your system into the interior of those colonies, and, by a simultaneous and vigorously-sustained effort, establish amongst the savages that roam in these "dark places of the earth" the means of grace, and opportunities of salvation. I have presumed to inscribe this volume to you, being persuaded that, as members of the Wesleyan Missionary Society, you feel a deep interest in the subjects on which I have written.

I am, Gentlemen and Christian friends,
With sentiments of sincere regard,
Respectfully yours,


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BY a mysterious arrangement of Divine Providence, the writer of this volume was brought into personal intercourse with the Rev. Samuel Leigh during the last year of his life. He stood by his side at a public meeting, when a sudden attack of congestion of the brain interrupted his speech on the Australian mission, and plainly indicated that his days were numbered. A friend of his, alike distinguished by eloquence in the pulpit and ability as a writer, said to him one day, "Mr. Leigh, your life has been such an eventful one, that I should like to record the main facts of it, and give them to the church." This spontaneous offer, from one of whom he entertained the most exalted opinion, greatly affected him. After alluding to it on the following day, in terms of respectful affection, he looked at the author, and said, significantly, "I have confidence in you." The writer excused himself, on the ground that no person, in his judgment, was qualified for such an undertaking, who had not made himself thoroughly acquainted, either by personal observation or a laborious process of reading and reflection, with the geography of the countries in which he had laboured, and with the genius, habits, and pursuits of the natives of those countries. As every day diminished the hope of Mr. Leigh's recovery, and enhanced the responsibility of the writer, he felt compelled, by the force of circumstances, to yield to what had obviously become his duty. Every desirable facility was kindly afforded: free access to Mr. Leigh himself at all times, the use of his own journals and those of his early coadjutors, as also an extensive foreign and domestic correspondence extending over a period of thirty

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years. The Wesleyan Mission-House offered to submit to his inspection the valuable and confidential communications of its foreign agents. The privilege of examining those documents might, very properly, have been accompanied with an intimation that prudence and discrimination would be expected in making selections for publication; but no such intimation was given, and the occasion only supplied additional evidence of the integrity, honour, and fraternal kindness which characterize the brethren at the head of that establishment. It is equally due to the secretaries of the Church Missionary Society, thus publicly to acknowledge the frankness and courtesy with which they offered to place within the reach of the author any of their documents that might be selected as calculated to afford assistance in the prosecution of his work. The materials for this volume being chiefly derived from those original and authentic sources, the work does not, in any degree, interfere with the interesting narratives of the Rev. Messrs. Waterhouse, Lawry, and Bumby.

In forming an estimate of the character and acts of public bodies and private individuals, the writer has been influenced solely by the concurrence of circumstances, or the evidence of facts; and, having no interests to serve but such as involve the public good, or the progress of religion in the world, he has endeavoured to write with candour and impartiality. Few examples have been recorded in the annals of the church, since the apostolic age, more strikingly illustrative of the providence and grace of God than the Life of the Rev. Samuel Leigh.

In this edition the translations from the native tongue have been examined and corrected by a Maori scholar, long connected with the Church mission in New Zealand.


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IN HIS LIFE..............................................Frontispiece

NEW ZEALANDERS .......................................... Title-page

AUSTRALIAN BLACK AND FAMILY........................to face p. 37

CARVED HOUSE, NEW ZEALAND ........................ " 80

NATIVE HUT, AUSTRALIA ................................. " 115

NEW ZEALAND FEMALE SLAVE........................... " 126

TONGAN DOUBLE CANOE.................................... " 136



AUSTRALIAN GROUP.......................................... " 230


MISSION HOUSE AT HIHIFO, TONGA..................... " "

SWAN RIVER FEMALE AND CHILD ..................... " 256

HINDLEY STREET, ADELAIDE.............................. " 270


DANCE ................................................... " 308


FEAST...................................................... " 345


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INTRODUCTORY OBSERVATIONS--Birth and early Life of Mr. Leigh--His Conversion--Becomes a Member of the Independent Church--Begins to preach--Enters the College at Gosport--The Origin and Principal of that Establishment--Collegiate Associates, Dr. Milne, Le Brun, and Dr. Thom--Expresses his Dissatisfaction with the Calvinistic Theory of Dr. Bogue, and avows Arminian Sentiments--Withdraws from the College--Enters the Wesleyan Church at Portsmouth--Becomes a Candidate for the Ministry--Is approved by the Conference, and appointed to the Shaftesbury Circuit--Offers himself as a Missionary--Is appointed to North America--His last Interview with his Mother--His Passage taken--Letters from Montreal prevent his sailing--The Ship and all on Board, except four, lost on their Passage--An Appeal from New South Wales for a Missionary--Mr. Leigh is appointed to that Colony--Obtains a Licence from the Lord Mayor of London--Is ordained by Dr. Clarke, &c.--Correspondence between Dr. Clarke and Lord Sidmouth relative to the Mission--Mr. Leigh sails from Portsmouth in the Ship "Hebe"--A Storm separates them from the Convoy--Expected Attack from two suspicious Sails--The Decks cleared and the "Hebe" prepared for Action--Mutual Explanations prevent Hostilities--A Storm destroys their live Stock, and forces them into the Bay of Biscay--Religious Services on Board--Day-School taught--In Danger of being taken by Cruisers and Privateers--Observations of the Crew respecting the Weather and the Missionary--Brief Extracts from Mr. Leigh's Journal--Mr. Leigh and the Doctor, on Christ's Miracles--The Baptism of Hebe, an Infant born on board Ship--They arrive in Port Jackson, and take an affectionate Leave of each other ..................................................................Page 13


MR. LEIGH'S first Night in Sydney--Introduction to the Governor--The Establishment of the Colony--Hostilities with the Natives--Anticipated Greatness of the Country--Social State of the European and native Population--The Colonial Government--A Night-Scene in Sydney "Rocks"--The Burial of Jane, the unfortunate, in the "Sand-Hills"--The Police Courts--Mr. Leigh opens his Mission--Juvenile Depravity--A School established--Premises purchased for the Use of the Mission--He visits Castlereagh--Remarkable Account of John Lees--The Missionary and his Horse in Danger from a large Snake--He visits Paramatta--Its Scenery--The first religious Service held in the Town, and its Effects--The female Convicts and the Factory--Institution for the Civilization of the Children of the Natives--Great Meeting of Chiefs and Natives in the Market-Place--Their Interview With the Governor--The senior Chaplain and Dr. Lang--Mr. Leigh preaches in a private House--Forms a Class of invalided Soldiers--

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J. W., a Convict, is speared by the Natives--Recovers--Joins the Missionary Church--Commences the first public Conveyance in New South Wales--Windsor--Its Appearance and State when visited by Mr. Leigh--Liable to frequent Inundations--The Loss of Life and Property they occasion--The Missionary preaches in a "Skillion"--The Death of a profane Hearer from the Bite of a Snake--The Settlers, in the Neighbourhood of Portland Head, assemble in the Woods to hear Mr. Leigh--He rides twenty Miles on the Lord's Day, and holds four religious Services--Richmond--Its Vicinity described--Profligacy of the People--Mr. Leigh preaches, and next Day holds several Meetings while travelling along the Banks of the River Nepean--A Journey of thirty Miles through the Forest--Directs his Course by the Sun--Frequently dismounts to cut a Passage, with his Axe, for his Horse--Visits Liverpool, and preaches in a small weather-boarded House--Tremendous Thunder-Tempest--Takes Refuge in the Hut of an Irish Emigrant--Scene in the Hut--He rides through a Tribe of native Savages--Itinerancy essential to the Christianizing of the Country--His first Communication to the Committee........................Page 34


THE Figures employed in Scripture to describe the Enlargement of Christ's Kingdom--Origin of Sydney Asylum for the Poor--Noble Generosity of J. Jones, Esq.--Lord Bathurst's Dispatch relative to the Asylum-- Mr. Leigh visits every House in Sydney--Only one Bible to ten Families--New South Wales Bible Society formed--Unexpected Arrival of Bibles and Testaments--It is proposed to send Mr. Leigh to work in the Chain-Gang--The Governor's Reply--The Rev. J. Y. complains of Mr. Leigh to the Governor and senior Chaplain--Mr. Leigh explains the Objects of his Mission at the Governor's Levee--He visits Newcastle--State of the Prisoners there--The Governor builds them a Church--Desires Mr. Leigh to supply it--John Lees builds a Chapel, and gives an Acre of his best Land to the Mission--Mr. Leigh's appeal to his Correspondents--Eats Indian Corn with the Fowls at a Stockman's Hut--Attends the Execution of four Irish Roman Catholics--Affecting Scene in the Criminal Court of Sydney--Governor's Allusion to the Mission in his General Orders--The Rev. John Williams and five other Missionaries visit the Colony--Messrs. Leigh and Gyles lost in the Woods--In Danger of being shot, at Midnight, as Bushrangers--Sugar-Mill made and shipped for Tahiti--Letter from King Pomare--Removal of Troops to India--They build the first Wesleyan Chapel upon the Territories of the East India Company--The Spirit poured out upon the Sydney Society--Mr. Leigh's Health fails--Is advised to go to New Zealand--The Rev. Samuel Marsden's Account of his first Connexion with the Savages of that Country--Mr. Lawry arrives in New South Wales--His opinion of Mr. Leigh's Labours and Sufferings--Mr. Leigh sails for New Zealand, and lands at the Bay of Islands.................................................................Page 61


THE Church Mission in New Zealand--Gibbon's Opinion, that Man was originally a Savage, refuted--The spiritual and secular Systems contrasted--Their Order not to be inverted--Mr. Leigh unites the Lay Settlers, and directs their Labours--Twelve human Heads exhibited in the first Village he enters--Finds a Child lying between two Stones on

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the Floor of the Queen's Hut--Expostulates with the People for working on the Sabbath--They accuse their Gods of Cruelty--He forms six Villages into a regular Circuit, and establishes religious Worship in each--His Health does not improve--He leaves New Zealand, and sails for Sydney---Derives a little Benefit from the homeward Voyage-- The State of the Mission in New South Wales--The Congregations and Schools much improved--The senior Chaplain offers Ground for a Chapel in Windsor--His Testimony to the Efficiency of the Mission--Mr. Scott expends £500 upon a new Chapel in Sydney, and gives it to the Mission--The Work still extending, Mr. Leigh lays the Foundation of a large Chapel on a Site offered gratuitously by His Excellency and T. Wylde, Esq.--Ground given by the Governor for new Premises in Paramatta--Mr. Leigh supplies the Church at Newcastle, at the Request of the Governor--Being Ill, he returns to Port Jackson--The Physicians recommend a Voyage to England--Official Opinions of Mr. Leigh and his Labours--The Ship by which he returns calls at Cape Horn--Notices of the Country, the Slave-Market, and Popery--Anecdote of a wealthy Lady-Passenger, who had been transported for Horse-Stealing--Mr. Leigh lands at Portsmouth improved in Health--His Account of the Australian Mission--The Injustice of determining the Success of a foreign Mission by numerical Data--Mr. Leigh urges the Establishment of a Mission in New Zealand--A Debt of £10,000 urged against it--He proposes to raise the Means himself--He visits Louth--Obtains the Sanction of the Conference to his Scheme--Makes a Tour of the Provinces--Obtains Goods to be used in Barter--Meets 'Hongi and Waikato in London--They assist Dr. Lee to prepare his Grammar of the Maori Language--They are introduced to the King--They receive Presents from the Committees of the Church and Wesleyan Missionary Societies--The great Warrior sleeps on the Floor with Mr. Leigh--Mr. Leigh receives the Thanks of the Committee of the Church Missionary Society ....................................Page 83


COMMUNICATIONS from New Zealand, Van-Diemen's Land, and New Holland--Mr. Leigh marries, and leaves England--Calls at Van-Diemen's Land, and establishes a Mission--State of the People there--Mr. Leigh arrives at Port Jackson--Mr. Marsden's Reply to the Inquiry of Joseph Butterworth, Esq., M.P., relative to the New Zealand Mission--Religious Condition of New South Wales--First Anniversary of the Australian Wesleyan Missionary Society--Speech and Contribution of John Lees--Singular Occurrence at a Meeting of the Committee of the Bible Society--The Missionary to the Aborigines introduced to the Governor--Appeal to the Governor in their behalf--Their physical Aspect--Their Character and Habits--Their Claims upon the British Government--The colonizing Policy of Great Britain censured--First Interview between the Missionary and the Natives--A Scheme for the secular Improvement of the Natives submitted to His Excellency--War in New Zealand, and great Destruction of Life--Mr. Leigh dissuaded from leaving New South Wales--Mrs. Leigh urges him to go, and leave the Issue with God--He takes his Leave of the Governor, preaches a farewell Sermon, and sails for New Zealand--His Reception on landing--Singular Recovery of two Jackasses which had been banished to a desolate Island--State of Religion in the Settlement--Origin of the War--'Hongi marches, with three thousand Men, against the Tribes on the River Thames--Hinaki, their principal Chief, shot--

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'Hongi drinks his Blood--One thousand of Hinaki's People killed--Three hundred of the Slain eaten on the Field of Battle--'Hongi returns to the Bay of Islands--Cuts off the Heads of sixteen Captives hefore he lands--Twenty Slaves roasted and distributed amongst his Men--His Daughter, having lost her Husband, shoots and then strangles herself--Mr. Leigh speaks to 'Hongi about these Atrocities--His Reply--The Rev. John Williams arrives--His Opinion of the State of Things at the Bay of Islands--The Natives treat the Missionaries with contempt--Mr. Leigh claims the protection of 'Hongi--'Hongi's Opinion of Christianity--Mr. Leigh opens his Breast to receive the Spear of one of 'Hongi's Warriors--'Hongi interferes-- The War prosecuted for five Years--It leads to the rapid Diffusion of evangelical Truth ...................................................Page 104


THE singular Adaptation of Agents for the Missionary Work--Mr. Leigh sails on a Voyage of Inspection--Is driven by a Storm amongst the Savages of Wangaroa--They consult, during the Night, about his being killed and eaten--Te Ara's Account of the Destruction of the "Boyd"--The ingenious Method by which Mr. Leigh and his Men escaped from those Cannibals--He sails for Ho-do-do--Interview with the Natives--The Ship "St. Michael" calls, on her Way to Tongataboo-- The Establishment of the Mission there--Mr. Leigh's Views of Missionary Fidelity--He visits the Timber-Country--Incidents of the Journey--Preaches his first Sermon in Maori--Risks his own Life to prevent the Body of a young Man from being eaten--His last Visit to a dying Chief--Sails, in the "St. Michael," to Wangari--The Ship gets upon the Rocks, and remains in extreme Danger until Midnight--Sails for Wangaroa--Ascends the River to the Residence of Te Ara--Claims the Protection of Te Pune, and proceeds to establish his Mission--A Slave killed and roasted on the first Sunday--The first religious Service--The Conduct of the Natives--They are disturbed by the Arrival of a War-Party--The Terror and Danger of the Mission-Family--Melancholy Death of a hopeful young Savage--A Chief's Opinion of capital Punishment--The Purchase of the Land at Wangaroa ratified--Mechanical Labours of the Missionary--Mrs. Leigh commences an Institution for training native Females--First Instructions in the Art of Sewing--A new Era in the History of Woman in New Zealand--Anecdote of one of Mrs. Leigh's Pupils--Moral Results of the Teaching of the Lay Settlers of the Church and of the Wesleyan Missionary--The Lay Settlers vindicated--New Zealand won to the British Crown by the Church and Wesleyan Missions.........Page 130


MR. LEIGH interposes to prevent War--Is seized and thrown down a Hill--Mrs. Leigh presents Utua, or "Satisfaction," and prevents bloodshed--The Tapu an Instrument of political Power--Curious Experiments in Agriculture--The first native Harvest--Priests and Baptism--Domestic Training of Boys--Habituated to Cruelty--Prevalence of Infanticide--The Expedient by which Mrs. Leigh checked the Evil--An empty Wine-Pipe converted into an Hospital for the sick Missionary--Arrival of Messrs. Marsden, Turner, and Hobbs--Part of a new Building falls upon the Missionaries--Mr. Marsden inspects their Premises,

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Grounds, and Schools--He inquires into the Temper of the Chiefs, the State of the Natives, and the Progress of the Brethren in Maori--He urges the Removal of Mr. Leigh to New South Wales--He administers the Lord's Supper, and gives an Account of his first Interview with the Natives--The Distress of Tepui at parting with Mr. and Mrs. Leigh--They are detained at the Bay of Islands--Mr. Marsden's interviews with 'Hongi--Messrs. Marsden and Leigh, with Mrs. Leigh, and several Chiefs, sail in the Ship "Brompton" for New South Wales--The Ship strikes upon a Rock, and becomes a total Wreck--Mr. Marsden and Mr. and Mrs. Leigh landed upon an Island--A Canoe, driven by Stress of Weather to the Island, supplies them with Potatoes--Remain on the Island three Days--Are taken off by the Friends of the Church Mission--The Intelligence of this Disaster carried to Wangaroa--The Opinion of the Natives as to the Cause of Affliction--A Missionary wounded with an Axe--Incidents illustrative of the native Character--The shipwrecked Party sail in the "Dragon" for Port Jackson--The Brethren at Wangaroa assaulted--A Chief levels his Musket twice to shoot one of them--The savage Conduct of this Chief to his Daughter--The Missionaries take a human Body out of the Fire--Alarmed for their Families--Altercations with the Natives--They preach to Mudi Wai and his Men--Friendly Interview with Tepui--The first Te Hakari, or "Fair"--State of the Aged and Afflicted--The Year closed with a Watch-Night, the Covenant, and Sacrament ..................................................................Page 153


DOMESTIC Condition of the Natives--Tepui's Entertainment--The Wife of Huru strangles herself--Is restored--The Wheat-Harvest--Massacre at Tawiti-rai--Acts of Cruelty by E'i Too and Rua Tarra--Reproved by the Missionaries--Examination of the Schools--The Arrival of the Church Missionaries--They visit Wai Tangi and other Places--Nearly drowned by the Upsetting of their Boat--Ceremonies connected with the Dead--The Brethren preach the Resurrection--'Hongi and his Warriors invade Wesleydale--They plunder the People--Dishonesty and Violence of the Chiefs--They offer a Hog as a Reconciliation--Christ preached to an afflicted Chief and his Family--Atrocious Conduct of Te Ara and Tepui--A Case of Insanity--Singular Ceremony by a native Priest--First religious Service at Pu Puke--Female Degradation--The Ship "Endeavour," having on Board the Rev. D. Tyerman and G. Bennett, Esq., anchors in the Harbour--The Vessel is seized by the Natives--Passengers and Crew overpowered, and made Prisoners--Liberated and saved by Te Ara and one of the Missionaries --The Passengers visit the Settlement--Opinion of the Brethren respecting those Transactions--A Body of Fighting-Men enter Toropapa--Tepui addresses the Warriors--Barbarous Practice at Marriages --Inquiry about the true God--An Attempt to interfere with the Tapu --Signal Encouragement--The Natives instructed to cultivate their Land--Slow Progress of the Children in the Schools--Tattooing a Chief's Wife--Important Discussion at Toropapa--Polygamy and the Resurrection--The Ship "Endeavour" returns, and is boarded by the Natives--Altercation with the Captain and Officers--The Missionaries arrive, preach on the future Judgment, and save the Ship ...Page 173

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SCARCITY of Provisions in Wesleydale--The Brethren sail to Ho-do-do for a Supply--Incidents of the Voyage--State of Ho-do-do--After a Voyage of four hundred Miles, they return disappointed--Interesting Meeting at Tepui's--Kia Roa's Dream--An Expedition leaves for Hwa Roa-- The Missionaries preach, for the first Time, at Taka Pau--Appearance of the Country--They visit Matandi--Are seized with Numbness in their Limbs--Reach Home with Difficulty--Reflections upon the Journey--George arrives with a Bill-hook to kill the Boys--Returns without accomplishing his Object--Discussion at Tepui's on Cause and Effect--Terrific Thunder-Storm--Desperate Exploit of George and his Fighting-Men--Assembly of the Natives at Tepui's--Kia Roa's Application of the Sermon--A native Woman's Vision of the Reinga-- Christmas-Day--The State of the native Mind--Progress of the Mission--The Mission-Boat seized at Sea--The Brethren landed in the Midst of an Army from Hokianga--Detained as Prisoners--Hold a religious Service with the Warriors--Sail with the Fleet at Ten o'clock at Night--Arrive at Home in Safety--Murderous Attack upon the Missionaries--The Ship "Mercury" boarded by the Nga-te-po Tribe--The Brethren interfere--The Rashness of the Captain creates a Disturbance--The Ship plundered--The Missionaries return on Board--The Ship given up to the Brethren--They man her, and steer for the Bay of Islands--Being disabled, they abandon her at Sea, and escape in their Boat--They land on a strange Part of the Coast--Remain all Night--Are robbed by the Natives--Their Lives saved by a Chief--A Body of Natives arrive to kill David, and plunder the Mission Settlement--The Appearance of Te Pune restores Peace--Kia Roa's Opinion of their Situation--The Females and Children removed to Kiddu-Kiddu--The Death of George--Extreme Danger of the Brethren--Tepui saves them--The Friends of George are satisfied with the Life of a Duck--The Mission Females and Children brought back to Wangaroa --'Hongi defeats the Kaipara Tribes in Battle--He marches upon Wangaroa--His military Operations--Dines with the Missionaries--Makes Peace with Tepui, and withdraws--State of the Mission-Schools--Marriage of Shari--A sick Woman and native Priest--Watch-Night--The Harvest--Manufacture of Salt--Death of Teuna--A hostile Message from 'Hongi spreads Alarm throughout the Settlement--Tepui proposes a general Massacre--State of Wesleydale--The Taua, or "Fight," comes by Sea, and lands--Three hundred Fighting-Men spread themselves over the Settlement--They tear up the Kumara and Wheat, and threaten to spear or shoot the Missionaries--Tepui makes Peace--'Hongi himself, and a Fleet of armed Canoes, enter the Harbour--The Chiefs and Inhabitants of Wesleydale flee to Hokianga--'Hongi drives the Nga-te-po Tribes from their Fortress--A Detachment of his Army attacks the Mission-House--The Brethren escape--Account of their Journey to Kiddu-Kiddu--The Mission-Premises burned to the Ground--'Hongi shot--The Missionaries sail to New South Wales--Close of the Mission ..............................Page 191


The New-Zealand Missionaries arrive in New South Wales--The State of the Mission in that Colony in 1823--The Importance of a colonial Missionary Press--The Status which Mr. Leigh claimed for Methodism

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vindicated--The existing Arrangements on foreign Stations not to be hastily superseded--A Chief from Tonga is introduced to the Governor--His Return Home, and Description of the Country--Medical Consultation on Mr. Leigh's Health--His State of Mind--Brief Extracts from his Journal--Discovery of new native Tribes--The Difficulty of religiously impressing the Minds of the Aborigines--Their social Condition--Liberality at the Missionary Meetings of Windsor and Castlereagh--The ingenious Methods by which Mr. John Lees raised his Subscriptions--The Rev. Daniel Tyerman and George Bennett, Esq., Deputies from the London Missionary Society, land at Sydney--They visit the Barracks, Prisons, Hospitals, and Schools--They propose the Establishment of a Mission amongst the Natives of Moreton Bay--The Governor sanctions their Scheme--The Rev. W. Threlkeld appointed to the Office of Native Teacher--The Deputation attend the Anniversary of the Wesleyan Missionary Society--An Agent sent, under the Protection of the Government, to ascertain the State of the Natives in Wellington Valley--His Report--A Teacher appointed to those Savages--Mr. Leigh visits the native School at Black Town--The Aborigines of Jervis Bay--The Brethren leave the Colony, to resume the Mission in New Zealand--Mr. Leigh's Review of the principal Events of his own Life--An Appeal in Behalf of the Australian and South-Sea Missions--Suggested Means for their Enlargement ...............Page 216


THE Aborigines of New South Wales--Bishop Broughton--Threlkeld's Account of the Natives--Specimen of native Language--Scheme for their Elevation--Expense of Missionary Institutions--Expedients of the Government for the Improvement of the Aborigines--The native Children escape to the Woods from the Church and Wesleyan Schools--Original Letters from the Kings and Chiefs of several Islands--Religious State of the Islands--Remarkable Displays of Divine Grace in Tonga--Melancholy End of an unfaithful Missionary--Mental Improvement and the Ministry--Anniversary of the New South Wales Auxiliary Missionary Society--Mr. Leigh's Appeal in Behalf of the South-Sea Missions--The Appointment of four additional Missionaries--The Swan-River Colony founded--Description of the Country and People-- District-Meeting in Sydney--General State of the Mission--Communication of the Rev. John Williams to Mr. Leigh--His Narrative of a Voyage of Inspection and Discovery to the Islands of the Pacific--His Testimony to the Utility and Efficiency of the Tonga Mission...............................................................Page 238


AN Epidemic of great Malignity visits New South Wales--Mrs. Leigh falls a Victim to the prevalent Malady--Expressions of Sympathy with Mr. Leigh--The Labours of the Australian Tract Society--Mr. Leigh's Health declining, he leaves the Colony--The State of the Wesleyan Church at that Period--Appeal for additional Help--First Missionary Visit to Bathurst--Notes of the Journey--Establishment of public Worship in the Town--Cruelty of the Settlers towards the Aborigines--Public Remonstrance--Effects of the Gospel in several Islands of the Pacific--The Colony of Victoria formed--Its Progress and present State--Extension of the Work in New South Wales--The Establishment of the South Australian Colony--Its vast Extent and the Appear-

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ance of the Country--Its Population, Wealth, and Institutions--Attempt to establish the Irish System of Education in New South Wales--Efforts of Popery in the Colony--Protestantism spreads--Missionary Labour--Death of the Rev. Samuel Marsden, the Apostle of the South Seas--Improvement in Adelaide--Government Patronage of Popery--Its Effects in the Colonies--Official Note from Mr. Waterhouse--Extension of the Work of God in the parent Colony--Native Institution at Geelong--The Injustice of "the Squatters' Act"--The Legislative Assembly censured--Missionary Party of Discovery in Western Australia--Perilous Journey--Condition of the Natives--A new Chapel opened in the Morning, and the Foundation of an additional one laid in the Afternoon, of the same Day, in Paramatta ..................... Page 260


INTERVIEW of the Missionaries with the Governor of New South Wales, on the State of Tonga--Affecting Narrative of the First Lieutenant of the Ship "Favourite"--The Rev. John Waterhouse returns from a Series of hazardous Voyages in the South Seas--An experimental Training-School established in Feejee--Tour through Van-Diemen's Land--Death of the Rev. John Waterhouse--Notes of the Rev. Joseph Orton--He dies at Sea--Prosperity of the colonial Churches--Arrival of the Rev. Walter Lawry--Swan-River Institution for the Improvement of the Natives--Rev. William B. Boyce assumes the Direction of the Mission--The Sphere of his Labour--First Missionary Visit to Goulbourn--State of Things in South Australia--The Lord Bishop examines the Children at the Native Institution--A touching Scene at the Death of a native Convert--Discovery of Gold by Mr. Hargraves--Its probable Influence on Commerce--Viewed in Relation to Religion and Morality--England made the Recipient of this Wealth--The probable Reason--The Time when this Discovery was made--A special Call to the Protestant Churches of Great Britain--A Call to the Imperial Parliament to make some suitable Provision for the Natives--"Sydney Gazette"--The Question, Who should emigrate? answered--General Condition of the Colony--Additional Labourers appointed--Scene at the Mines--Proposal to invest the Australian Churches with the Prerogatives of Self-Government--All colonial Missions should anticipate the same Result--Deputation appointed to visit the Country, and make preliminary Arrangements--Wesleyan Census for 1852............... Page 278


THE New-Zealand Mission re-established at Mangungu--Character of the Natives--The first Ship enters the Hokianga--The Officers and Crew saved by the Daughter of Wainga--The chief Officer marries her--He settles in the Country--His Wife renounces savage Life--Last Illness of 'Hongi--Affecting Interview between Patu One and 'Hongi--The Death of the great Chief--Four hundred Warriors arrive from the Bay of Islands--They demand Satisfaction for the Death of Pomare's Son--They require Blood--The Chiefs of Hokianga assemble their Fighting-Men--The Battle fought near the Mission-House--Messrs. Williams and Davies, of the Church Mission, enter the Pa of Waima at the Risk of their own Lives--Peace restored--They visit Mangungu--The Ship "Enterprise," with Stores for the Station, totally lost, and all on Board--The Natives seize and plunder the Ship "Herald"--The Crew and Mr. Fairbourn, of the Church Mission, saved--Native Festival--Native

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Views of the invisible World--Muri Wai's Death--The domestic Scene that ensued--The Missionaries preach to nine hundred Warriors--Mr. Leigh's Appeal in behalf of the Mission--Four additional Missionaries and Printing-Press sent--Thirty-four young Persons placed under regular Training--Delightful Death of Hika--Tungahe dies at Tonga--Visit to Wesleydale--First native Class formed--Sudden and remarkable Movement on the native Mind--The Chief Hae Hae dies in the Lord--Singular Effect produced by the Liturgy--State of Education--The Conversion of Katia--Progress of the Work generally--One thousand Natives attend the Examination of the Children--Efficiency of the Press--Melancholy Catastrophe--The Native Ovens filled with human Flesh--Matangi converted--Specimen of the Maori Language--Demand for Teachers--Destruction of the Mission-Premises by Fire--Unprecedented Outpouring of God's Spirit upon the Country...........................................................Page 303


STATE of European Society in New Zealand--The Arrival of the Baron De Thierry--Schemes suggested for the Improvement of the Country-- These Schemes opposed--Dr. Lang and the Earl of Durham--The Governor of New South Wales and the New-Zealand Missionaries--The sacred Character of the Missionary--The Gospel the Instrument of national Regeneration--France sends a Popish Hierarchy to New Zealand--Their Proceedings--Activity of the Wesleyan Press--Arrival of the "Triton" with Missionaries and Stores--Death and Character of Mr. Bumby--Translation of the Old Testament commenced--Intense Desire for Instruction--Upwards of two hundred Adults and Children baptized--Perilous Journey to Port Nicholson--The Honourable H. W. Petre and the New-Zealand Company--Mission commenced at Taranaki--Haupapa and its magnificent Scenery--State of the People, and Feelings of the Missionaries--British and Foreign Bible Society send ten thousand Copies of the Maori Testament--Eagerness of the People to possess the Word of God--Its Effects upon Popery--Arrival of five thousand Copies additional--Works published by the Missionary Press--Progress of the Natives in Intelligence, Civilization, and Wealth--Zeal of the native Converts--Appointment and Conduct of Bishop Selwyn--His Reply to the Remonstrance of the Wesleyan Missionaries--The Consequences of his divisive Proceedings--The Key to his Success--The true Cause of the present Impotency of Christianity--The Political State of New Zealand--The Policy of the Government censured--Basis of the Treaty of Waitangi--Consequences of its Violation--Massacre of Wairau--Meeting of the Governor and Rauparaha--British Troops defeated--Kororarika burned--Three hundred Refugees and Wounded sent to Auckland--Peace restored--Trying Condition of the Missionaries--The Governor and the Missionaries vindicated from the Aspersions of Hursthouse and others--New-Zealand Company defeat their own Object--Sir Edward N. Buxton's Opinion of these Transactions--General State of the Mission--Native Festival--Religious Services--Seminary for the Education of native Youth established at Auckland--Government patronizes the Institution--Arrival of the Wounded from Kororarika--Great Sensation--Town fortified--The Natives attack the Military on the Hut--An Appeal for more Help--Stability and Loyalty of the Christian Natives--Lovefeast in Auckland--Public Worship conducted by the

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Natives--Sabbath-Morning Scene described by Angus--Surprising Change in the social Condition of the People--Deep religious Concern amongst the Youth in the Schools in Auckland--The Native Institution--Governor--Feejee District-Meeting...............Page 320


The Town of Wellington destroyed by an Earthquake--Loss of Mission Property, estimated at £1,000--Effects of the Calamity upon the public Mind--Establishment of an Academy for training native Youths--Religious State of Taranaki, Kaipara, Waima, and Waimate--Great sacramental Meeting at Katotauru--The "John Wesley" in Danger of being seized by Pirates--The Governor spends a Sunday at the Waipa Station--Report of the Academy at the Three Kings--The Governor orders the Enlargement of the Establishment--Extension of Religion in Auckland and its Neighbourhood--Death of Wharerahi and Family--The Stability of the native Converts tried by the Profligacy of the Colonists--Notices of Waikowaiti--A Body of Waikato Warriors invade Kawia--The Missionary preaches to them-- They are entertained at a Feast--Fighting prevented--Missionary Woon's Account of Waimate--The State of New Zealand in 1822 contrasted with its Condition in 1852--Sir George Grey's Dispatch, on the relative Strength of the European and Maori Races--Summary of the Results of the Mission ........Page 352


MR. LEIGH returns to England--Is Supernumerary at Liverpool--Resumes the Itinerancy--Letter from the Author of the Life of Captain Cook, P.R.S.--"The Missionary and the Mariner"--Mr. Leigh's Marriage--The Failure of his Health--He retires to Reading--Continues to labour with untiring Zeal--Is seized with Congestion of the Brain while addressing a public Meeting--His last Illness--Death and Funeral---Some of the most distinguishing Excellences of his Character--His Qualifications as a Missionary--His unaffected Piety--Moral Rectitude--Punctuality--And catholic Spirit--CONCLUSION......Page 377

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