CHAPTER VIII. PROGRESS OF THE MISSION.
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PROGRESS OF THE MISSION.
HAVING followed the footsteps of our friend until he was removed from us, nothing now remains for the writer but to give a brief outline of the subsequent course of the Mission. From the time of his death, the influx of settlers and land-speculators was constant and rapid; and in equal proportion the natives were excited, and led away from their ordinary pursuits, and their regular attendance upon the means of grace. Many of these persons, finding the influence of the Wesleyan Missionaries with the natives to be a formidable obstacle in the way of the accomplishment of their selfish schemes,
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contrived to get insinuations published as to the questionable sincerity of their motives; and even in this country it was given forth, that they had availed themselves of their position to obtain land from the native Chiefs. No charge could be more groundless, as was shown at large by Dr. Beecham, in his most lucid evidence given, in 1840, before a Committee of the House of Commons. There the purity and disinterestedness of the brethren are most triumphantly vindicated; and it is shown, in particular, that they never purchased land from the natives, except for Mission purposes, and then only in quantities merely sufficient for those purposes; and that, for the Missionaries to buy land for themselves and families, and thereby involve themselves in the cares and perplexities of secular life, was contrary to those instructions which were a part of the compact entered into between the brethren and the Society.
The Conference, which was the original directing power, had taken the decided and tenable ground, that Ministers and Pastors must be, by New-Testament authority, separated from secular concerns; deeming that, to a Missionary among the Heathen especially, these words of the Apostle are applicable: "No man that warreth entangleth himself with the affairs of this life." A person had been
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connected with the Mission, as a Teacher, in former years, who was subsequently separated from it, because he fell into this very temptation. The native Chiefs knew how clear the Wesleyan Missionaries stood in this respect, or otherwise their deference to them would not have been so manifest. Emigrants who had, as they thought, bought land of the New-Zealand Land Company, did not find it so easy to get settled upon it; and this involved them in disputes with the local government and with the natives: all of which circumstances tended greatly to harass and perplex our brethren. In the mean time, the Roman Catholic Bishop and his adherents did their utmost to promote their cause with the aborigines; but their success was very partial: and when the two Missionary Societies received the noble boon, in 1842, of ten thousand copies each of the New Testament, and distributed them among the tribes, such an impulse was given to scriptural reading, that a deep natural Protestantism was infused into the mind of the people, and they became proof against the pictures, trinkets, and sophistries which were brought by the Priest's and Teachers of the Pikopo's religion to delude them.
The Mission-band, however, did not allow their faith to fail, but entered with redoubled ardour into their work. Miss Bumby, after
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she had partially recovered from the shock of bereavement, became united in marriage to the Rev. Gideon Smales, and evinced all those excellencies in her new relation which she had done before. Mr. Hobbs, by direction of the Committee, was Acting Chairman. The Rev. John Whiteley, who was now becoming a most devoted and efficient Missionary, was making, in connexion with Mr. Turton and his other excellent fellow-labourers, a great impression in the south; and every month they had to rejoice over natives rescued from degrading Heathenism, and brought to sit at the Saviour's feet.
About the middle of 1842 the Rev. Dr. Selwyn arrived in New-Zealand, after being in England consecrated the first Bishop of that territory; the friends of the Church, and chiefly through the aid of the Propagation Society, having endowed an episcopate there. Being a person of great energy, and of many accomplishments, he was much welcomed by most classes of European society in the land, to whom the arrival of such a man was a great acquisition; but as he was known to profess high Church principles, the Missionaries, and especially our own, foreboded evil from the possible rise of new controversies in the infant community. These forebodings were too soon realised; for the Bishop began to teach and extend the doctrines of baptismal regeneration,
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and of apostolical succession in the ministry, as they are understood and explained in the High-Church school; thereby casting discredit upon all Ministers not episcopally ordained, and by implication denying the validity especially of the pastoral acts of the Wesleyan Missionaries. The same teaching, of course, gave increased importance to the Christian profession of those who were taught and baptized by the Church Missionaries, and who adhered to the Episcopal system; which system, let it be said, had never in word or deed been impugned by the Wesleyans. This was a bait which the vanity of many of the half-taught natives could not resist, especially as some of them in the south had been desired to separate themselves from Wesleyan worship, on the very grounds referred to; and it would sometimes happen that an ignorant native lad, under clerical sanction, would pour forth a load of nonsense to a group of surrounding auditors, in the place of that clear, connected, and powerful teaching which had been in the lips of our Missionaries the means of grace and salvation to so many of his countrymen, while the Missionary himself was hard by. Thus disputes arose amongst people of the same village, as to who belonged to the true and safest church; and natives who owed, in some instances, their liberty and their all to the Wesleyan Missionaries, were induced to
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look upon their former friends and Pastors with coolness and contempt.
This was a serious hinderance to the work of God. The Missionaries of our Society and the Church brethren had laboured together hitherto, as we have seen, in the utmost harmony and love; and it was hateful to Mr. Whiteley, Mr. Turton, and their friends, to appear to be driven in defence into a position of hostility to that Church which the Bishop represented. Still more hateful was it to enter upon the inane controversy at that time so unhappily rife in England, respecting apostolical succession and its concomitants; for had not the great Head of the church put His hand and seal upon their labours? Could they not turn to thousands of converted New-Zealanders rescued from cannibalism and sin, and say, "Ye are our epistles?" Still, as the evil was great, and the Wesleyan flock was disturbed and scattered by these dissensions, the Rev. H. Hanson Turton, at Taranaki, deemed it his duty to address a spirited, and yet most Christian, remonstrance to Dr. Selwyn on the subject, in three letters, published some time afterwards in one of the country newspapers. There was no great amount of sympathy with this exclusivism, however, in the colony generally; and as mutual difficulties multiplied, Dr. Selwyn acquired juster views of the Wesleyan cause, and these ill-
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judged and divisive proceedings were gradually abated,--not, however, without weakening that blessed bond of attachment and respect which had formerly united both Societies.
On the 30th of March, 1842, the Rev. John Waterhouse, of Hobart-Town, the General Superintendent, and Mr. Bumby's friend, was summoned to his eternal rest. His last affliction was brought on by exposure to the heavy rains of Van-Diemen's Land; but his death was eminently edifying and triumphant. The sacred passion of his life seemed to kindle up into a flame more than usually ardent; for, a short time before his death, he exclaimed, with all his remaining strength, "Missionaries! Missionaries!"
At the south District-Meeting, held at Waingaroa, September 8th, 1842, the Rev. H. Hanson Turton had preached an eloquent and impressive sermon to the brethren and Europeans present, in which he introduced the following remarks:--"We are induced to perseverance from the present condition of the natives. The land is now comparatively at rest; the dismal howl of war is now no longer heard; and the branch of peace is everywhere displayed. Their wandering habit is in a great measure subdued, and the mutual existence and intercourse of tribes are established on lasting principles. And, reluctant as some may be to
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make the concession, yet concede it they must, that this change of habit and feeling is solely the consequence of Missionary effort; and that the British colony of New-Zealand has to thank the Gospel, and the Gospel alone, for its present implantation in this island." 1 The Preacher proceeded, and said: "O, solemn thought! but whether in favour of the cause, or in opposition to it, we cannot tell. God knows. But there is the late awful death of the promising and indefatigable BUMBY, whose quenchless zeal carried him into the very foremost of the field, where he fell honourably and victoriously at the very commencement of the Missionary campaign: and, more recently, there is the bereaving death of the ever-to-be-honoured and much-lamented Waterhouse, that veteran Ensign of our battalion; who, with the most dauntless intrepidity, carried the banner of our Saviour's love and mercy into the very thickest of the enemy's ranks; and who only retired into the camp to tell of his exploits, and to die of his wounds! O, my brethren,
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let us imitate such bright examples of fortitude and perseverance, and prove ourselves worthy of so good a cause!"
In this year, August 10th, 1842, among the Christian natives, Thaka Patuone, brother of Thomas Walker, and son of Patuone, Mr. Turner's defender, departed this life, and died in the faith and hope of the Gospel. Governor Hobson also died, and was succeeded by Captain Fitzroy. The seat of government was now transferred from the Bay of Islands to the new town of Auckland, which was being founded on the bank of the estuary of the Thames, or Hauraki Gulf, and not very far from the place where Mr. Bumby was lost. This change drew a great part of the population away from the Bay of Islands, and greatly limited the operations of the Church Mission there.
In order to supply the place of the lamented Mr. Waterhouse, the Missionary Committee sent out in September, 1843, the Rev. Walter Lawry, an experienced Minister, who in early life had been himself employed in the South-Sea Missions, and was every way well qualified for the arduous charge of visiting the stations, and superintending the Missionary operations in this remote part of the world. This willing and excellent servant of Christ arrived safely at his destination; and as a few communications from his journal contain the
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consecutive details of the Mission, we cannot do better than prosecute the narrative by introducing them.
I weighed anchor at Gravesend, on board the "Bucephalus," October 1st, 1843. The wind being contrary, we had to beat down the Channel, which occupied nine days, all our friends less or more sea-sick.
Sunday, 15th.--I read the service, and preached to a very serious audience. The solitude of the ocean makes religious services specially cheering to such as are able to leave their berths. To me it was delightful, to see the streaming tears from both passengers and crew. While engaged in preaching Christ, six-and-twenty years ago, on board the convict-ship in which I sailed to New South Wales, seventeen persons turned to the Lord, and united together in church-fellowship. "Cast thy bread upon the waters: for thou shalt find it after many days."
November 17th.--We are under a vertical sun; the heat is intense; the sea is high; the Cape-pigeons and albatrosses about. These water-fowl remind me of former days, and so do the ordinances of heaven. In this part of the world Jupiter is nearly vertical at ten o'clock P.M.; Mars a few degrees below him; and Saturn still further below; Venus is just above the horizon, near the sun-setting. Those beautiful nebulae, the Magellan clouds, appear; and the Southern Cross mounts the sky; but the North Star and Ursa Major have dipped below the horizon, and I never expect to see them any more, unless it be in "the new heaven and the new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth shall pass away; and there shall be no more sea." I find, looking at the large Pointer in the Southern Cross, through my telescope, with the two hundred power, that this is a treble star. This hemisphere brings out a new world of minute and
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magnificent wonders to the lovers of God's works. These "works are great, sought out of all them that have pleasure therein."
December 28th.--We are now about midway between the Cape of Good Hope and Australia. We saw two whales, and hauled on board six albatrosses, each weighing two-and-twenty pounds, and measuring ten feet six inches from tip to tip across the wings.
January 15th, 1844.--We completed our passage through Bass's Straits. The islands in the Straits look very interesting, the day lovely, and all hands cheerful.
21st.--We landed at Sydney; having been four months, within two days, at sea. How altered is this place since I left it twenty years ago! It was then of wood, now of stone; then only small buildings stood here and there, now the whole is built upon, and the houses generally are large and handsome. There is, however, an air of meanness, intermixed with grandeur and pomp, which offends many a new comer. When I left New South Wales, it was rapidly increasing, and almost everybody was getting rich; but now the insolvency list indicates a general wreck of property. Out of this colonial crisis we may hope for a more steady and healthful state of commercial prosperity.
I was not a little pleased at the state and progress of our Missions in New South Wales. The chapels, which are somewhat numerous, are very good; and unite, in true Wesleyan taste, dignity and simplicity: the same may be said of the congregations, to five of which I preached, in Sydney, Paramatta, and Windsor. There I saw the springing fruit of seed sowed by my own hand in the days of my youth. The labours of my brethren also yield a luxuriant harvest; and I was pleased to hear so many inquiries after my old friends, Carvosso and Horton. The day is near when "they who sow and they who reap shall rejoice together." While there, my
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feelings of pleasure and satisfaction were of the highest order; and rarely do events turn up in human affairs so thoroughly joyful, as those which awaited me during my visit to the Australian colonies. The Master has not sent me forth without consolation. May I, though unworthy, never prove unfaithful! The excellent brethren, M'Kenny and Draper, in Sydney, with several others in other stations, showed me no little kindness.
March 17th.--I landed at Auckland, having touched at the Bay of Islands. More than two-and-twenty years ago I was here on my way to Tonga. Since then, what alterations have taken place in this people! Many of the lions have become lambs. Their civil and social condition has also greatly improved. Then they were at war, and we saw many of their slaves brought into the Bay, under the grasp of Shungee, some of whom were killed and eaten on the beach. Now they crowd to market with their provision; such as pigs, fowls, potatoes, melons, peaches, onions, and abundance of fine fish: and, better still, they crowd the house of prayer, and eagerly read the word of God. Much, however, remains to be done; for many of them are still in the darkness of Paganism, and in the degradation of savages. The climate, the soil, and the wood of New-Zealand are favourable to its colonisation; and now the thing is begun, the more it shall be extended over the whole country the better. The natives see this, and are calling out for the Pakeha to come and buy their lands, that they may be on a level with others: in the Mission-stations they are generally advanced, in knowledge and morals, far above others, who, in some instances, I fear, have only copied the bad things introduced by foreigners. It is certainly among our mercies, that the Governor and his lady set the best example before their observers, whether they be Europeans or natives. This will greatly assist the Missionaries; who, in turn, will help the
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Government, by disseminating those great principles on which, under God, the stability of political institutions and the welfare of society mainly depend.
April 28th.--Messrs. Hobbs and Buller arrived here from Hokianga and Wairoa; one three, the other two hundred miles hence. Let those who can, enter into the feelings of brethren met under such circumstances. A few days after came Messrs. Whiteley, Wallis, and Buddle, from an equally long distance, and not knowing of each other's coming; but they accompanied their spiritual charge, lest any evil should befall them at the great feast here. From what I saw of these excellent and devoted men, I feel compelled to congratulate the Society on their having such as their Missionaries in New-Zealand, The enemy is busy sowing bad seed, and there are more forms of Popery than one even in New-Zealand; but the real Christian character of the work, already deeply rooted in many hearts, will not, I trust, be overrun by any noxious trash which may be introduced. May God protect the right, and uphold His own truth!
The principal thing which had brought these brethren together was my arrival, in connexion with a great native feast given by one tribe to another. Those who came from Waikato, accompanied by their Pastors, were said to be about three thousand. The provisions were laid out for them many days before their arrival: a hedge or wall of potatoes, in native flax-baskets, reached more than a quarter of a mile, five feet high, by three feet thick. Twenty thousand baskets, containing more than one hundred tons of potatoes, were there; and on a pole, placed exactly over them, hung about twenty thousand sharks. They had long been in that situation, and were therefore somewhat tender. The Governor paid them a visit, accompanied by many officers and persons of distinction. A war-dance took place; but not by the wish
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of the Governor. I hope this war-dance, so every way objectionable and demoralising, will not be repeated. The ferocious savage came out in this dance. It was however, very gratifying to see the bulk of the Christian natives stand aloof from the wild, roaring, and half-naked Heathen. The Missionaries, of course, were among them, and used their influence on the side of decency. But I am sorry to add, that some Europeans marvelled that they ran not with them to the same excess of riot.
Sunday, May 12th.--Our chapel has been filled three times to-day, morning and evening, by a very serious and respectable congregation; and in the afternoon by native members of our church, who partook of the Lord's Supper together. They were of different tribes, who had assembled at the great feast, and had not met before on such an occasion: their former meetings were to kill and eat each other. Mr. Whiteley delivered an appropriate and energetic address, and Mr. Hobbs read the service. They were then joined by the other Missionaries, and administered the bread and wine to those tattooed sinners saved by grace. I never attended any Missionary Meeting half so telling as this was in favour of our Missions. Such savages, so tamed; such proud and haughty warriors, so humble at the Master's feet; made its own appeal, without the aid or magic touch of platform eloquence. They showed most clearly that they both knew and felt what they were about. And while the validity of the Wesleyan ministry is being denied by two Bishops in New-Zealand, here were the seals of their ministry shining in hundreds of happy faces; "epistles known and read of all men." Several adult and infant baptisms also took place. Altogether it was one of the most happy and interesting demonstrations of the power of the Gospel and unquestionable success of the Missionaries that I had ever witnessed. Many beside myself
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saw the grace of God, and were glad. This Sabbath has been indeed a high day in Auckland.
14th.--We held a public Meeting here with a view to feel the pulse of the colonists on the question of establishing an Institution or Training-school for the instruction of the most hopeful of our native converts. The following Resolutions were passed with the greatest cordiality: the Editors of the three Auckland papers were there, and offered to advertise them gratis: they all, though differing in other points, agree in the goodness and expediency of this object, which is no small recommendation of it.
Moved by Dr. Martin, Member of Council, seconded by Dr. Johnson, and supported by the Rev. John Whiteley,--
"1. That it appears to this Meeting very desirable to instruct a selected number of the natives of New-Zealand in our language, with a view to their having access to the stores of English literature, and also to their becoming more efficient Teachers of their countrymen in matters of religion and civilisation: to be called the Wesleyan Native Institution."
Moved by the Rev. James Wallis, seconded by W. E. Cormack, Esq., and supported by Thomas Cleghorn, Esq.,--
"2. That, as the vicinity of Auckland is deemed the most eligible locality for the commencement of such an Institution, an early application shall be made to the Colonial Government for a suitable piece of land. And also, that application be made for the appropriation of a fair and equitable proportion of the funds arising from the Native Reserves."
Moved by W. S. Grahame, Esq., and seconded by Mr. Robinson,--
"3. That, as funds will be required to commence and carry on such an Institution, Alexander Kennedy, Esq.,
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be requested to act as Treasurer, and the Rev. Thomas Buddle as Secretary."
Moved by the Rev. Thomas Buddle, and seconded by George Grahame, Esq.,--
"4. That a Committee (to act for one year) be appointed for the purpose of raising funds and controlling the same: that Dr. Martin, Messrs. Brown, Cleghorn, Cormack, W. S. Grahame, G. Grahame, and Vayle, with the Wesleyan Missionaries, and Treasurer and Secretary, (ex officio,) be the Committee for this year."
Moved by Mr. H. H. Lawry, and seconded by Dr. Martin,--
"5. That, for the purpose of securing an early commencement of the Native Institution, a subscription be forthwith begun."
I had previously learnt from Messrs. Hobbs and Whiteley that the Missionaries earnestly desired such a thing, and believed that the natives were quite ripe for an Institution, many of them being eager for instruction in English. It was stated at the Meeting by one of the colonists, that he believed he spoke the minds of the people generally, when he said that the continuance of the native race depended upon their being instructed as we propose doing, and that the prosperity of the colony also very much depended on their elevation. But though we have the public feeling with us, there are many difficulties to be surmounted, arising from the want of funds. The colonists have very little money indeed: most of them have spent their all, and are in a state of destitution, while living in one of the finest countries in the world. It is hoped that things will mend; but "disappointment laughs at hope's career." The Government is placed in difficulties for lack of funds, and less will come from that source than might be desired. We must look to you for some aid at first; but we will do our best to economise in this matter, as in all others
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connected with our Missions in New-Zealand. We must have erections; and at first there will be a small outlay for native food, till we can cultivate our own on the land appropriated to the Institution.
I have several times met with a fine Chief, about thirty-five years of age, who for many years has been baptized into the Christian faith, and has walked uprightly. He told me he had prayed to God ever since I was here two-and-twenty years ago, and even before that period. He is a fine person, has agreeable features, is not tattooed, and generally appears in good European clothes. His wife rides on her horse and saddle, and he on his: probably they are the only example of this advance in civilisation in New-Zealand. About one hundred and fifty of his people have been baptized from time to time, and he has built a good chapel near Manukau, in which he ministers the word of life to his tribe. But for a long time this people have had no Missionary, owing, I believe, to the pressing calls from other quarters. Under these circumstances Jabez Bunting (for that is his name; may he never be a dishonour to a name so eminent and so deeply imbedded in the hearts of tens of thousands! The natives pronounce his name Abeesah, placing the accent on the A) was sought after by a great man, (Bishop Selwyn,) who left no means untried to make him, what he thought he should be, a Churchman; but Jabez said, "No; I will adhere to my own people: I have waited a long time for a Missionary, and shall wait till I get one." A Minister was then offered from another quarter, but not accepted. "Let me, then, baptize you," said the gentleman, who knew of his previous baptism; to which Jabez replied, by asking a question which probably was not expected: "How many times was Jesus Christ baptized? only once, or more than once?" "Only once," was the answer. "Then once will do for me," said Jabez, "as I wish to imitate
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His example as closely as possible." This, of course ended the matter. I am happy to say that after encountering several serious difficulties, we have been able to appoint a Missionary to this tribe, whose labours shall also extend beyond them. Jabez has signified his wish to be admitted for instruction into our projected Institution; and who can deny to such a mind the aid of cultivation?
25th.--Auckland is situated on the banks of a fine harbour, the Waitematta, perfectly land-locked; and the scenery from the town rendered beautiful, not merely by the relief of water and shipping, but also from the islands and volcanic pyramids which everywhere meet the eye. The ground is very uneven, and the streets therefore hilly, in some cases reminding me of Portland in Bristol. The laying out of this place is very fanciful, and just as far away from the dictates of common sense as could be devised. The whole of Auckland and its suburbs affords you not the sight of a tree, except the young ones lately planted. This gives an appalling baldness to the place at first; but the defect will be quickly remedied, as the mimosa grows up in two years as high as the houses, and almost every tree yet introduced thrives well here. The soil and climate are quite surpassing. As Mr. Hobbs was walking with me one morning at day-break, after we had been taking a view of Jupiter and Saturn, with their rings, belts, and satellites, he said, "How different is this place now from what it was when I came here in search of the body of poor Mr. Bumby, which sank near that island," (pointing to Rangi-toto,) "when the day was fine and the water smooth! But 'His footsteps are in the great deep.' At that time there was not a house in Auckland, where now two thousand persons live."
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EXTRACT OF A LETTER FROM THE REV. WALTER LAWRY, DATED AUCKLAND, DECEMBER 18TH, 1844.
By the Divine blessing, we are all well, so far as I am informed, throughout all our Mission establishments in this land; and, indeed, in the islands also, up to September 22d, when I last heard from them, with a slight interruption in the cases of Mr. Kevern and Mrs. Wilson. The "Triton" is not yet come in from the Feejees, though over due by at least a fortnight. I shall do my best to induce Captain Buck to retain the command, at least another voyage.
I have been favoured with letters from you, several of them in duplicate. Accept my sincere thanks for so much attention. And it affords me very high gratification to inform you, that I shall be able to carry out your views, as fully explained in your letter of March 7th, 1844. At least I have entered upon the new scale, and see no very great or insuperable difficulties in the way of keeping quite within your limits.
We are nearly out of paper again, at a time when I am very anxious to have the press going more rapidly than usual. Sin, in every form, has to be met and rebuked from the press. The ignorance of the natives, the wickedness of the emigrants, the assumptions of Puseyism, (rampant here,) and the daring blasphemy of "the Man of Sin," all call upon us to witness for God and His Christ. But the lack of paper cramps our operations. I trust you have sent off, long since, the two hundred reams of demy printing-paper which former letters have strongly urged as needed here.
I feel very deeply the importance of our new Training-school, or Native Institution; but I also feel its pressure and weight. We are all of one judgment here as to its being the design of the Lord, that persons so well qualified, in many respects, as these hopeful natives are,
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for giving religious instruction to their countrymen, under the care and direction of the Missionaries, ought to have all the preparatory training and advantages within our reach. The Governor has given us a suburban allotment of seven acres, close by Auckland; that is, within one mile; and about five miles off he has given the Society a fine piece of land, somewhere about two hundred acres, not yet surveyed, for the purpose of cultivating their own food. The buildings I will pay or beg-for; so that, while they are secured to the Society for ever by grant from the Crown, (I have it already in my iron chest,) these fine premises will cost the Wesleyan Missionary Society nothing. At the same time, we cannot avoid expense in clothes, salt, soap, and, now and then, a little rice and flour. If you could let us have £200 a year, for the entire expenses of this Institution, I should feel my heart glad and grateful before the Lord and His servants. Flannel or cotton shirts will be very acceptable. Jackets, trousers, and shoes will be of great consequence to them, when they feel the winter wet and cold. Twenty men are either already on the spot, working as native carpenters, or are soon expected from end to end of New-Zealand, the cream of our churches, and very hopeful characters.
July 24th, 1844.--I left Auckland for Hokianga, and was ill nearly all the way to the Bay of Islands; not from sea-sickness, but from a spasmodic affection; and, as the accommodations on board were not very good, this part of my journey was very trying. A thorough storm of wind and rain detained me two days at the Bay, where I was quite at home in the house of Mr. and Mrs. Addeman, who were members of our society in England, and who are found faithful in New-Zealand; but they talk of leaving this colony for some other, a step which I
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shall be glad if they do not one day see cause to regret. We can ill afford to part with such well-tried Christians.
29th.--I started in a boat up the Kiddy-Kiddy river; but, after hard toiling for seven hours, the gale, which threatened our destruction every moment, drove us into a creek on the north side of the river, where two natives undertook to guide me by the light of the moon, over hill and bog and four rivers, to the point I had arranged to reach that night. I was carried across the rapid streams, now swollen by the late rains; and it was just as much as the strong New-Zealander could do to stand against the rush of waters, taking him far above the middle; and had he made only one false step, we must have gone over the falls, with little chance of escape from the foaming torrents. I trembled, and prayed that the Master would care for us. And so it came to pass, that, after hard toiling, we saw a glimmering light in the house of Mr. Kemp, an excellent man connected with the Church Mission here. Never was I more grateful than at this cheering prospect. Having tasted nothing during the last twelve hours, I was prepared to enjoy the fireside and suitable repast of a Christian family, whom I had not seen for some three-and-twenty years, when we met each other in New South Wales.
30th.--By the grey light of the morning, and while the ground was covered over with hoar-frost, I set off, with two natives and one European, to cross the island of New-Zealand in one day, and in the depth of winter, being bound for the Mission-station at Mangungu, to join the Missionaries at their Annual District-Meeting.
About one half of our way was over a barren waste, on which grew here and there a few ferns only. But at our left lay the Waimate, where there is some cultivated land, a few buildings, and a lake of several miles' extent. Bishop Selwyn lives here, and has what is called a Cathedral and a College. At two o'clock we
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got into a dense forest, the horrors of which will never be forgotten by me. We were threading our way through this wood till some hours after dark, and had to cross one river ten times, and creeks without saying how many. I have not the least hope of giving anything approaching to an adequate idea of bush-travelling in New-Zealand; but let the reader try to imagine hills so precipitous that walking gives way to all-fours; for this is a singularly rugged and broken country: many of the mountains have been thrown up by volcanic action, and are very difficult of ascent. The appearance of the country, from one of these lofty cones, is not unlike a multitude of tents, pitched near together, each one rising from five hundred to several thousand feet high. At the foot will generally be found a bog. The roots of the trees are generally thickly webbed upon the surface, and tend greatly to obstruct the traveller; the trees, with underwood and various vines, are so close together, that a passage through is a tedious and difficult matter. The clay below is seldom dry, and yields to the foot: so that one is in no small danger of being made fast at both ends at once; the feet in the clay, and the head entwined with vines and woodbines. It is here that honesty is no protection from being hanged. The knife or axe came often into play among these various obstructions of our rude paths. Riding in such a place is out of the question; and yet it is truly astonishing to see how expert the unshod horse becomes in climbing the rugged steeps, and hobbling over the roots and fallen trees of the forest. The worst part is, that one cannot travel here without being thoroughly wet from head to foot; and at night you have ferns for your bed, and in the morning your wet clothes, unless you carry a change. Food for the journey is conveyed by the natives, and also a tent, with all things needed by the traveller: these burdens cost very considerable payment, and are a heavy
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tax upon the Missionaries. Such travelling is wasting and cheerless beyond all the power of graphic delineation: there is, however, nothing better for these devoted men, who, year after year, wander up and down these hills and woods, seeking that they may save souls. And, thank God, they have not laboured in vain: for them the wilderness and solitary place are often glad, because the moral impression which they have succeeded in making, by the Divine blessing, is so manifest, that all men see and admire it. Their preservation, too, is only to be attributed to the care of Providence, always watching and guarding His honoured servants. In the next world a faithful New-Zealand Missionary will be no ordinary character. About an hour before sun-down, we crossed a river, and landed amid a few native sheds, where I was surprised to see the smile of recognition on every countenance, which, though deeply tattooed, was lighted up with glowing benevolence. Two fine Chiefs were among them, Tomate and Patuone, who pressed us to stay for the night; but cheerless was their tenement; and therefore, having drunk water out of their calabash, we urged them to be strong in the Lord, and pursued our wretched path towards the Mission-station, where these Christian natives worship on the Lord's day. I was glad to observe that they had wheat growing, and some peach-trees, with poultry, and a few domestic animals, around their village, among which were some good horses. All these things have followed in the rear of the triumphing Gospel; and more are yet to follow. I could not utter half the delight that I felt while comparing these things with what I witnessed here two-and-twenty years ago, when war was rife, and man ate man without a shudder: I saw them do it. But since then,
"Our conquering Lord hath prosper'd His word,
Hath made it prevail,
And mightily shaken the kingdom of hell."
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From early dawn till eleven at night, we continued our journey, the last seven miles of which were performed in a boat down the river Hokianga. Being wet and wearied enough, I was quite willing to lay me down to rest, though the Mission-families got up and half roasted us with large wood-fires on the hearth, and in every possible way showed how glad they were to see a friend from home. Mr. Woon ran out in undress, while Mrs. Woon, who is an old friend of mine, came quickly after in full attire. Mr. Hobbs, with Dr. Day, and my son, were soon on their verandah; and very great was our mutual joy at meeting under such circumstances. At this our oldest Mission-station in New-Zealand, there was exercised a sound judgment in the selection of the locality; but the land in all these parts, so far as I went, is not good, and the few settlers who have come to it are suffering from a long and deep depression. Indeed, as a settlement, this part of New-Zealand has only one advantage, which is its lofty and valuable timber; but at present they meet with only a few who purchase from them. Better days, I trust, await them at an early period. The few improvements on the Mission-lands show that the brethren here have been devoted to some other kind of cultivation; and the moral state of the natives clearly indicates the presence of labourers in the Lord's vineyard. I saw, however, nothing of which the Missionaries had any cause to be ashamed, as to temporal things. The station is on a bed of clay, and very dirty in wet weather. Their roads, I hope, will be improved when I see them again. Just behind the station is a deep, dense wood, which will probably so remain till the earth is burned up. There is an air of poverty about the natives, in some instances, which is truly deplorable, and may perhaps be accounted for on the ground of their having lost the timber-trade, which, when it flourished, was the source of considerable gain; and new wants
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arose, and new habits were formed,--smoking among the rest; their own flax-mats were but rarely manufactured, because the blankets and European clothing were preferred; but now they feel the absence of means to buy what they can no longer do without; and thus their transition-state is accompanied by difficulties and disappointments, of which they loudly complain. Christianity alone could restrain those people, even in this advanced stage of instruction. But for the Missions in New-Zealand, there could have been no colonisation otherwise than by exterminating, or at least crippling, the aboriginal race.
After sitting twelve hours every day in the District-Meeting, we were glad of the approach of the holy Sabbath; and to me it was peculiarly interesting to witness the fleet of canoes nearing the station on the whole of Saturday. At early dawn on the Lord's day the native prayer-meeting began, which was attended by about one hundred persons, notwithstanding the frost. They sing very badly, but with evident interest and devotion. At ten o'clock the large chapel was crowded with natives. Mr. Woon read the abridged Service, and at the request of the brethren I preached in English, Mr. Hobbs interpreting. Immediately after the public service ended, the lovefeast began: nor was any time lost; for the biscuits soon disappeared, and the speaking of the native Christians was very earnest and uninterrupted for about an hour and a half. At my request, Mr. Buller took down several of their speeches: they were the following:--
Hakopa Taitua:--"This was the thought of my heart when Mr. Lawry was preaching this morning: 'I surely shall not live on account of my ignorance, my darkness, my slothfulness.' In the Scriptures I see many wonderful things recorded of God. Although man cannot see my heart, yet God knows it."
Mary Ann Woonoi:--"The Spirit of God showed me
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all the sins of my heart, and my heart became dark and pained. I thought all things here were perishing, and I cannot live by them; but the word of God endures for ever. This was my thought when I heard the word of God: therefore I gave my sins to Christ, and consented unto Him; and if I be obedient unto Him till death, I shall live."
Tipene Toro:--"I did not formerly know that I was a sinner. I worshipped long before I felt a sense of my sins; but then I felt great pain in my heart, and sought mercy of God. I find great comfort from the words of Christ to Peter, 'I have prayed for thee.' It is my desire not to trust in my own righteousness, but to the righteousness of Christ."
Edward Marsh (Patuone):--"This is my thought: I am from the seat of wickedness. When I heard of the Gospel, I thought to myself, I would recline upon it. God hath made the world, the trees, the grass; and He has given us His word; and I will seek to be saved by it. This is all I have to say."
Manoi:--"When I first worshipped God, I was ignorant of the nature of sin. By and by I learnt that disobedience was sin; that rebellion against God's servants was sin; that falsehood was sin. Then I reflected upon my own conduct, and I saw that if these things were all sinful, then I must be a very great sinner. Then I felt great pain in my heart, and was greatly afraid. I feared greatly, and sought unto God for mercy, and prayed for strength, that I might believe; and this I continue to do even to this day."
Paul Matangi:--"My thoughts are little to-day, because I have sinned in those days that are past against my heavenly Father. But I have again entered into covenant with God. My thoughts now recur to my father, the father of my body, and my relatives who have died in the faith. They were not left to die in their
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sins, but they departed in the faith of the Gospel; and I desire to follow them by fulfilling the injunction of the Apostle Paul to the Ephesians: 'Stand therefore, having your loins girt with truth, and having on the breastplate of righteousness; and your feet shod with the preparation of the Gospel of peace; above all, taking the shield of faith, wherewith ye shall be able to quench all the fiery darts of the wicked. And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God: praying always with all prayer and supplication in the Spirit, and watching thereunto with all perseverance and supplication for all saints.'"
The first who spoke was deeply tattooed, and clothed with dog-skins of many colours: the second was wrapped round with a blanket, and the third with a counterpane. This may be taken, not as an inventory, but as a fair specimen. It is pleasing to see that, while the middle-aged and old people are disfigured by the tattoo, the young folks are uniformly without it, except in the case of one tribe, in the vicinage of Auckland: these are again taking up their heathen custom, a striking illustration of the moral results of bad associations. But for these sad obstacles, one generation would scarcely have had to pass away before the tattoo would be a rare thing in New-Zealand.
At half-past two the English service began; the congregation, composed of the Mission-families, and the few settlers up and down the river, amounting to about fourscore, some of whom had come in their boats from several miles' distance, and from many a creek and river branch. Some of the natives who knew a little English also attended. I was much impressed and gratified, while I observed the proper Christian way of the natives, to a man, in keeping holy the Sabbath-day. In the evening the chapel was again filled with natives, when, at the request of the brethren, I ordained, by imposition
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of hands, those of them who had not been so ordained in England: the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper was then administered to the Society, and an address delivered to the natives, after they had been at the Lord's table. This was a high day at Mangungu; and richly was I repaid for my toils across the great wilderness. Thank God for the moral triumphs which I have witnessed over some hundreds of these cannibal warriors! I could not help wishing that my fathers and brethren at home, with the collectors and subscribers to our Missions, could see the cheering harvest which here presented itself as the result of their combined and Christian labours in the name of the Lord. The crowded assembly of subdued and devout worshippers, with benevolence in their fine open countenances, formed a striking contrast to that which I witnessed here less than a quarter of a century ago. To their Missionaries, whose crown of rejoicing they will be in the day of the Lord Jesus, such a sight must be one of no ordinary interest.
Our District-Meeting had begun at the same hour that the Conference met at Birmingham: only here it was nine o'clock at night. We united in earnest prayer for our honoured and beloved brethren, at home and abroad, and did not forget the excellent Barnsley family, with whom I was lodged so comfortably at the first Birmingham Conference, and with whom I should have been happy again had I remained in England. But I feel myself at home in New-Zealand, because I am fully satisfied that I am here by the will and appointment of Christ and His church.
August 6th.--Having finished the business of the District-Meeting, I prepared for my bush-journey; but not without some, perhaps unnecessary, dread. During the sittings of the brethren, nothing occurred to interrupt for one moment the high Christian feeling of brotherly love with which we had bowed together at the
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table of the Lord. It is delightful to review such scenes as had passed before me and the brethren, while we had the pleasure and benefit of mingling together at this our first station in New-Zealand.
As the weather was threatening, we pushed on with vigour till night-fall, and then made our fern-bed in the tent, the natives kindling a large fire. We soon made an end of our frugal meal, and commended ourselves to the care of our ever-present Lord and Master. A letter just received from my son, who is staying for a few weeks at Mangungu, for the better acquirement of the native language, informs me that we had been pursued, on the day of our starting, by several New-Zealanders, not now, as formerly, with hostile purposes; for they said, "Great is our love to him; and, to prevent his walking over the land, we wish him to take our horses." They, however, did not overtake us. While pulling up the river, I observed a fine-looking and very powerful native making extraordinary strokes with his oar, and soon found that at the time of his baptism he had chosen the name of one of the greatest, best, and most useful men I know upon earth; for, upon my asking him his name, he pronounced, with a full, clear voice, "Robert Newton."
7th.--We were in motion at day-break; and, having passed over a dreary waste of some fifteen miles, reached again the house of our kind friends, Mr. and Mrs. Kemp, where I was refreshed, and felt myself at home. But some of the bogs and precipices were to me thoroughly frightful and dismaying. I shudder when I think of them; but the cloud of His presence was our protection.
In passing over the sixteen miles of water between the Kiddy-Kiddy and Russell, we encountered a heavy gale from the north: the sea rolled awfully, and broke over our boat, on one occasion bringing on board a small sword-fish. The natives fell sick, and were useless; but,
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by God's mercy, we escaped the Bampton reef on our lee, on which had we struck, nothing remained to us but a watery grave. I am not sure but our perils by water were quite as great as those of the mountain woods and passes, although they were of shorter duration. When I got in safety to Mr. Addeman's, I was quite prepared to inscribe another line in my "book of mercies," saying, "Bless the Lord, O my soul, and forget not all His benefits." This reflection, too, was fixed upon my mind: "I have now had a taste only of what my brethren, the Missionaries throughout New-Zealand, have to pass through from year to year, for life! Surely they should have an interest in the prayers and Christian sympathy of God's people in all lands."
12th.--I landed at Auckland, where many things called for my attention, because a few days only remained before I was again to start for my long journey to meet the brethren of the southern division of the District at Kawhia. Having seen the most unquestionable proofs of a work of God among the natives, I am well satisfied, and even delighted, in the review of my northern journey; but nothing less than this could satisfy me, and no earthly consideration would induce me, at my time of life, to engage in such violent and wasting travels.
18th.--I preached to a full chapel of very attentive hearers in the morning; and in the evening Mr. Buddle and I set apart, by the imposition of hands and by prayer, the Rev. J. Aldred, whose testimony before the congregation was received with delight, as it well might be; for it exhibited one "called, and chosen, and faithful."
19th.--The Rev. Thomas Buddle and I started with six natives for the south, each man loaded with a full burden, carrying tent, food, blankets, and changes of clothes. The first night we were lost on the banks of the Tamaki; but all was right after a night in the ferns. The next day we were overtaken by a torrent of rain,
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but reached a native pah, and stayed there till three in the morning. At this place Mr. Buddle preached and catechised till a very late hour; the natives, in their usual way, bringing their New Testaments, and asking for explanation where they found any difficulty.
20th.--At three o'clock in the morning, the tide serving, we left Pukaki in a native canoe, which I very much disliked, as the mere hollow tree is easily upset, having no keel; and we had to cross a part of Manukau just after a storm, when the agitation was very considerable. The morning was dark and dismal, and the fate of the lamented Bumby was not forgotten; but, trusting in God, we launched forth, and in about nine hours reached the head of the river Taheke, and proceeded over land to the Waikato. The population was very thin and scattered; but all the people that we met with possessed and read the New Testament, and called on the name of the Lord.
22d.--I entered the fine river of Waikato, and in a canoe proceeded up its powerful stream, a journey of four days. The native villages were more numerous on the banks of the river than in the inland districts. The soil from the harbour of Auckland to the Waikato is by no means unfit for agricultural purposes; and on the river-banks the many thousands of acres of rich alluvial soil invite the hand of industry, and promise an ample bounty. After hard pulling all the day, our cheerful natives would land us among the fern, prepare the food, (in general potatoes,) and then lie down around our tent, having first sung a hymn, read the Scriptures, and prayed. I certainly never was more delighted with any set of men than with these strong, cheerful, kind-hearted, and intelligent natives. What a triumph of Christianity have we in these Christian New-Zealanders! I must not, however, omit one circumstance in connexion with these people, and my journey with them for eight or nine days.
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Mr. Buddle was their Pastor; and, by his general expertness in native affairs, and great readiness in speaking their language, beside being their spiritual father, had acquired corresponding influence with them, and indeed could do anything he desired; for "the art of governing," we know, "is governing by love."
23d.--While at our first meal, (for we generally took one about two hours after our journey commenced, and the other at the close of day,) our seven natives were relating portions of their own history, when we found that every one of them was an orphan; two of them had their fathers eaten by the men of Waikato, and two others were slaves, or men taken in war: but, what is best of all, they all read the Scriptures, and are men of prayer.
24th.--We landed at Wakapaku for our first meal, and found that the Romish Bishop and one of his Priests were there. They soon got into their canoe, having saluted us from a distance as they embarked. Our people of the pah told us they were frightened when they saw the men of a strange face come among them; but our arrival cheered them again. In reply to a question from the natives, how there came to be two roads to the Christian home, the Priests replied, that about three hundred years ago Martin Luther committed adultery, and the Roman Church turned him out, and he began a religion for himself; since which there had been two roads; but theirs was the true road. This story is told wherever they go; and I was surprised to find that the natives were no ways staggered by this falsehood. Probably they had learnt the truth of the case from their Pastors. We had now entered the waters of the Waipa, and were nearing our Mission-station on this river.
26th.--Having spent the Sabbath at Watawata, and held five services with the natives, we came, late on Monday evening, to Mr. Buddle's station at Kopua, and
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found ourselves thoroughly at home, after travelling eight days in the bush or on the rivers, through bogs and swamps, sleeping on a bed of ferns each night. But there is not so much suffered as some might suppose, the climate being very agreeable.
The natives here showed that they had been well instructed in Gospel truths. The chapel and Mission-house are built of mere flags and small cane; but such houses only last about four or five years, and then are by no means wind-tight, and are very liable to be burnt down in a few minutes of time.
We have here about one hundred and sixty members, and a large chapel, filled with serious hearers. The soil about this station is very good, but the climate is not so healthy as on the coast: being near the centre of the island, and on the banks of a river, the fogs lie long and heavy in this neighbourhood. I was surprised to find that water freezes even in the bed-rooms. Mr. Buddle has succeeded in making a deep impression during the three years of his stay here. Almost all the natives keep the Sabbath-day holy; possess the New Testament, which they read and study very attentively; and some of them are consistent Teachers of their less-instructed brethren.
28th.--I started for Kawhia, accompanied by Mr. Buddle and a few natives: the journey was a day and a half long, and one of the most disagreeable I have had during this trip. In the night I slept but little, on my scanty bed of fern; and, owing to the violent perspiration caused by the excessive toil of the preceding day, my thirst was intense: but in the mountain-wood there was no water available; so I lay there listening to the drops as they fell from the forest-trees on my tent, and to the occasional cry of some night-birds. But while all around was gloom, all was light and peace within. For what is conscience?
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"The mildest balsam, or the sharpest steel,
That wounds can wish, or the unwounded feel;
The softest pillow, or the sharpest rod;
The balm of blessing, or the scourge of God."
29th.--We arrived at Kawhia, the residence of Mr. Whiteley, by whom and by Mrs. Whiteley we were cordially received. The station is situated at the head of a large sheet of water, opening into the ocean over a bar, and looks well at high water; but at other times the mud-flats are unsightly objects. The aspect of the country is generally that of high, broken hills, partially covered with wood; but near the house I saw, for the first time during a journey of several hundreds of miles, an acre or two of beautiful English clover and other grasses, green and flourishing, notwithstanding the very depth of winter. A horse and cow, with a few goats and sheep, were grazing here, and may be reckoned among the blessings which follow the Gospel; for the native wars did not allow of such things till they gave way before the Gospel of peace.
31st.--The canoes and boats approached the station from many a creek and river, preparatory to the Sunday services: they have their small huts, ready for their few wants, in a reserve near the large weather-boarded chapel.
Sunday, September 1st.--At early dawn the bell rung, and the muster was strong at the prayer-meeting. At ten o'clock the chapel was full, mostly of natives; but there were a few Europeans. Mr. Wallis preached in the native tongue, and I followed in English. In the afternoon we held a baptismal service, when seventeen persons were publicly baptized, and the service closed with a lovefeast. There were a goodly number present, who behaved in the most proper and solemn manner. The spirit of Christian devotion was present among these
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tattooed men, clothed with mats, blankets, and dogs' skins. At my request, Mr. Whiteley wrote down some of their testimonies, which were to the following effect:--
Paul.--"I only was the man pursued by sin: long, long was I pursued by all sorts of evil. At length I heard of the things of God: then I thought, 'This is the side on which I shall find life, this is salvation's side.' I yielded to the Gospel, and began to pray. I prayed to God, and pleaded His Son, His baptism, His death, His merit: I prayed, and found liberty in believing: let me be faithful, and I shall live."
Te Kanawa (The Governor).--"The evil of our hearts cleaves to us, and there is no shaking off sin. I remember, however, that the Apostle Paul said, 'Moreover, brethren, I declare unto you the Gospel which I preached unto you, which also ye have received, and wherein ye stand; by which also ye are saved, if ye keep in memory what I preached unto you, unless ye have believed in vain.'" (1 Cor. xv. 1, 2.)
Matin.--"It is not for us to judge who are believing men, and who are not: we cannot see into each other's hearts; but when a man professes to be a Christian, he must show the fruit. It is not in our power to destroy sin; but when God begins, He makes perfect work. I know this, I have found this out. I know but little about the things of this world; but if I cleave to faith and godliness, I shall be saved."
Clarke.--"When I was in my mother's womb, I knew not sin, I knew not that there was sin. After I was born, I still was ignorant of sin; but I was born in sin, and in sin grew up, and in sin I delighted. Sin was my work, and sin was my food. 'The wages of sin is death;' and in death and blood I delighted. But I could not be happy: the 'good news' came, the Preachers of the Gospel urged us to leave off our wicked ways, and now I am resolved to be a Christian."
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Arona (Aaron).--"I was long held halting between two opinions: one thought came into my heart, and said, 'Do not turn to that religion: it is a new upstart.' Another came, and said, 'Adam got wrong, and all have been wrong ever since.' There have been great doings in the world, and in this land, by sin; but now the Gospel has come, and I am resolved to be a Christian."
Hall.--"I look round about me, and I see this man and that man all for sin and for the devil; but let me not say to any one, 'Let me pull out the splinter out of thine eye,' while the beam is in mine own eye. I see it is of no use to apply to man for deliverance from sin; but the Holy Ghost can destroy it. I have learnt from the Catechism, that this is the work of the Holy Ghost, and I give my heart to Him. 'What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound? God forbid. How shall we, that are dead to sin, live any longer therein?'"
Ihaka (Isaac).--"From the field of blood and sin and death I came. The fight came, and I was made captive, and brought to bondage; but the Gospel came, and I lived. You all know where I am from" (Taranaki); "but I am now happy, 'looking unto Jesus, the author and finisher of our faith; who, for the joy that was set before Him, endured the cross, despising the shame, and is set down at the right hand of the throne of God.' In this I rejoice."
Nathaniel.--"In my former days, I saw dancing, and heard native singing, obscene songs, and witnessed much iniquity. I approved of it all, and learnt it all, and delighted in it all, till, by and by, the Preachers of the Gospel came. I listened, and heard my practices condemned. I heard that 'the end of these things is death;' but still I held them fast. Then the Book was laid before me: I learned to read it, and I found this word there also, and I found that there would be no end to
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the pain of this death. I saw also the word, 'Depart, ye cursed, into everlasting fire.' I thought, 'This will be my lot.' I cried and prayed, and was dark indeed. I cried, and cried to God. I thought on Christ, the payment for my sin; and then there came a light heart into me, and then I was happy; and that is the reason why I am happy now. It is not food merely that has kept me alive till now: I should have been dead long ago, but for this: this I rejoice in, and you will all know that this is my life."
Apairama.--"'Hear, O Israel! hear, O Israel!' was the word in former days: 'The Lord our God is one Lord.' And now God's Ministers are saying to us, 'Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God is one Lord;' and we believe that He is the only God. But what are we? Who knows our hearts? The word of God exhibits the tares and the wheat growing together. But who of us are wheat? Who of us are tares? Good and evil are struggling together in the same heart. Let our hearts decide for good. Let us look to Christ, and He will save us."
Waterhouse.--"The Missionaries have come among us, and we live. If they had not come, and we had gone on in our old ways, we should all have been dead long ago. Now we have engaged to leave all the evil of the world; and let this be our riches, the riches of godliness. I was a dead man belonging to sin; but God has sent His Son to seek and to save that which was lost. He has sent His Gospel to us, and I am resolved to be on the Lord's side."
Maunsell.--"Yes, we have all seen the evils of Heathenism; we have all seen the consequences of sin; and now we all turn; but it is for this man, and that man, each one for himself, to pray and believe. This man does not see the faith of that man's heart, whether it be strong or weak. I feel that I must look to my own
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heart, and take care of my own soul. Well, why should we not pray to God, and put our trust in Him? Can this new religion, can faith and godliness, can Christianity, be overturned? Our religion has been set aside and destroyed; but this will remain for ever. Let us cleave to it. That is all my speech."
Jabez.--"Sin is not of to-day, nor yesterday: it is of old growth, and cannot be destroyed by us. It is deep-rooted, and cannot be torn up. But let us pray to God. I pray for its destruction: but it is not dead yet. 'The natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God: for they are foolishness unto him; neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned.' That is all."
John Eggleston.--"I will not talk the thoughts of others, but will tell you my own. When the Gospel came, I was in the house of bondage. I listened, and heard that the new religion was a good thing. I received this as truth, and consented to Christianity, and began to worship. Then I thought, 'This is life and salvation.' But, no. I went to the class-meeting, and thought, 'This will save me.' But, no. Then I sought for baptism, and supposed that would save me. But, no; though I thought I should now be delivered from sin, and be happy. I hoped now all was right, but found I was still wrong. I went away to Hokianga, and came back, but was still ignorant. Then I saw by the Book, and the teaching of the Spirit, that a man is not to be saved by outward ceremonies, but by heart-work. Great has been my wickedness. My sins would fill this chapel quite full; and if there were many large ships in the harbour, they would all be filled and sunk by the number and weight of my sins. But I believe God can pardon and wash them all away; and though He has not done so yet, I believe He will do so very soon. Finished here is my talk."
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In the evening I preached to them, Mr. Whiteley interpreting; and the Lord's Supper closed the services of the day: and a good day it was; for the Master was present with His servants. In our congregations at home, I have witnessed some touching scenes at the departure of a Christian Minister, or at the return of one whose labour had been greatly owned of the Lord; scenes where all eyes and hearts were filled to overflowing, and such speaking eyes as might well call up the Apostle's question, "What mean ye to weep and to break mine heart?" But never did I see, even in my old and Christian father-land, more glowing countenances, filled with benevolence, and often swimming with the tear of joy, than the congregation after the service that evening, when they crowded round us, each individual greeting with a cordial shaking of hands, and the salutations of respect and peace, Te na iako coe. Their daily walk, and every part of their conduct, especially their love of the Scriptures, evince the true Christian character of these people. But much remains to be done.
2d.--Our District-Meeting began, and ended the following Saturday, the whole of the time being fully occupied therein, save the short intervals for sleep and meals. It was truly cheering to witness the very hearty greetings of the brethren, some of whom had travelled eight hundred miles to be present. Their spirit was excellent throughout the sittings of this weighty and important District-Meeting.
Sunday, 8th.--The brethren accompanied me to the opposite shores of Kawhia-Bay, where we opened a neat chapel. I preached to the English, and collected £10 from about thirty persons. Mr. Ironside then preached to the natives, while I proceeded on foot to Aotea, distant about twelve miles, accompanied by Messrs. Turton and Smales. About five o'clock we reached the station; and, having taken nothing, were ready for our
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dinner, which Mrs. Smales had kindly prepared for us. But first we had to shake hands with a multitude of natives, drawn up in a long line to receive us, which they did with floods of tears: some sobbed aloud, and all shook hands in right good earnest, bidding us a cordial welcome. I was both weary and hungry; but this extra work was so heartily gone through, that I must say the whole scene was not a little refreshing to me. As Mr. Turton had formerly occupied the Aotea station, and was now for the first time come to see them since his removal to Taranaki, it is fair to conclude that a large amount of the excitement and sympathy was owing to this circumstance. His labours here had been crowned with God's blessing, and many call him their spiritual father. He whom the Master owns and honours thus may well afford to be told by certain of his fellow-servants that he is not in the apostolical succession. At six o'clock the chapel was crowded with blanket-clad worshippers, who appeared earnest and devout. After a short sermon from Mr. Turton, I baptized fifteen persons, whose answers to the searching questions put to them by Mr. Wallis showed that they were expert in the Scriptures: many, both male and female, repeated, in the full congregation, by the request of Mr. Wallis, the first chapter of the Epistle to the Hebrews, with remarkable accuracy and readiness.
Aotea is an interesting station, rather more densely peopled than any place I have yet seen on the west coast: the land is fertile, and the native cultivations rather extensive: the wheat looked green, and the flax luxuriant.
9th.--Mr. Wallis and I set out for Waingaroa, and were surprised to meet two good horses, with bridles, saddles, and two careful natives, sent from four days' journey by the Chief, Jabez Bunting. This was designed by him to ease my fatiguing journey to his pah, or native
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fortress. Jabez is considered, and I believe justly considered, to stand among the first and most civilised of our New-Zealand Chiefs; and, what is far better, he is a man of decided piety. In the evening we reached Waingaroa, having passed over the only land-journey made by the late excellent Mr. Waterhouse, and one of the most easy to travel over, because much has been done in clearing a path, and making temporary bridges, by Mr. Wallis, whose cheerful and energetic wife, and a fine, healthy, clean family of children, met us at the door with many a smile and a good old English welcome. If any one wishes to judge of the fine climate of New-Zealand, let him only see the Mission family at Waingaroa, and all further inquiry will be unnecessary. The blooming faces here will soon put doubt to flight.
The chapel is large, but not quite finished. In the evening we held service with the natives, and administered the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper to the church-members. The head Chief of this place is called William Naylor: I suppose after my old friend of that name at home. For general information and weight of character, William stands among the first of his class. I brought with me his son, who also is a Local Preacher, to enter the Native Institution at Auckland.
12th.--Leaving this interesting station, we journeyed over the most fearful hills it ever fell to my lot to ascend and descend; but there was no escaping them; so we girded on our travelling costume, and, dispensing with coats and many other things, passed on very slowly over those awful precipices, the careful natives placing themselves in situations where they might be most useful. Every now and then we were at a full stop, on the edge of a great gulf. The guides, under these circumstances, would give directions in this way: "Hold fast by that bush; fix your staff here; put your right foot there; now leap; try again: there are much worse places yet to
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be encountered." Having succeeded in getting over one mountain, nothing remained but to cross the river or bog below, and immediately ascend the next cloud-capped hill. This is the general character of many hundreds of miles in New-Zealand. Wild goats might "walk up and down" these places, but surely they are ill-adapted for the path of men. And yet these hills are securely held by parchment-deeds, and the money paid for them, or for others like them, by some of my countrymen, who have acted upon the representations of "the Company," and of other land-jobbers, but who never saw New-Zealand, where their lands are as firmly secured as the hills which cannot be moved nor improved. This, however, must not be taken as a fair representation of all the land in New-Zealand,--far from it: there are many places where the English farmer would succeed admirably well, both the soil and climate being very good.
13th.--Having crossed the Waikato river yesterday in a native canoe, we pitched our tent upon the sand of the sea-shore near the mouth; but in the night the rains fell and the winds blew, and the tent came down about our ears. Both Mr. Wallis and I were fully aware of our situation: such, however, was our fatigue, that we took things as they came until the dawn of day, when we started on the sandy beach towards Manukau; and while we were preparing our wood, and boiling the kettle, a little distance from the rolling waves of the ocean, up came Jabez, well-mounted and well-dressed. He was to be our escort to his pah, about four hours' journey; which, after singing, reading, prayer, and provender, we accomplished without much difficulty. At his pah, called Pehiakura, I found a very good and large chapel, to which all the people repaired; and an excellent young man, going to the Institution, called Samuel, sang, prayed, and addressed the congregation, who, for the most part, were professed Christians. I baptized five
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persons, and then proceeded towards Manukau, which we crossed in about seventeen hours in a native canoe; or, in other words, in a hollow tree. Jabez took charge of the helm, and brought me safely to the shore, only six miles from the waters of Auckland; which we soon entered, I in my shirt-sleeves, and my faithful natives with my tent and other burdens on their backs. It need scarcely be said, that I was very glad once more to be at home, and thankful to a kind Providence for my preservation. Many a time during this journey did the sweat stream from my brow with a copiousness to which I was before a stranger. This, however, is the work of the Missionaries in New-Zealand. In general they look old for their years; and how can it be otherwise, amid such violent and wasting toils, often wet for days and nights together, without a single comfort?
During this journey I had, at one time or another, as my fellow-travellers in flood and field, a rare assemblage of ancients and moderns, mostly men of renown: these were Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; David, Saul, and Samuel; Nicodemus, Matthew, John, Peter, and Paul; Adam Clarke, Richard Watson, Jabez Bunting, Robert Newton, William Naylor, William Barton; and others, without saying who or how many.
In the choice of their names at baptism, they generally select an honoured one, either from the Scriptures, or from the wise, and good, and great, of whom they may have learnt something that has pleased them.
All the way as we passed through the woods, or plains, or villages, I was cheered with the sight of all the natives without exception; and, whether they travelled with us or not, all united in morning and evening devotion. The hymn was sung, the chapter was read, and prayer was offered up to Almighty God. This is now the general practice in those parts where the Missionary influence has been brought to bear; and small indeed is the part
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where it has not reached. At the same time, I am afraid that many of them are only nominal Christians, and not saved from sin. In their domestic worship they do not change their attitude, but squat upon their hams all the time; only at prayer they hide their faces with their blankets or their mats.
Another thing struck me very forcibly; and that was their truthfulness and honesty. This was the more remarkable, as the very opposite was their character formerly. I did not hear of any departure from truth or honesty in the case of a single individual of our people with whom I travelled, or was at all associated, during a journey of about seven weeks; and reviewing what has passed under my own observation, I am exceedingly gratified to observe the advanced state of Christianity in some individuals, and its general influence upon the New-Zealand population throughout; but the labour of the Missionaries, and their exposures, are often distressing, arising from the scattered state of the people, and the rough character of this country, where there are no roads.
A sketch in this place of the toils and dangers of Mr. Turton, may likewise serve to connect the narrative.
NEW-PLYMOUTH, March 20th, 1845.
OVERLAND JOURNEY FROM AOTEA TO NEW-PLYMOUTH.
IT having been determined at the District-Meeting that we should be removed to New-Plymouth, as no suitable opportunity occurred for our coming by ship, we resolved at last to effect the journey overland, leaving our luggage to be taken round in a small cutter,
Sunday, February 18th, 1844.--I therefore preached my farewell sermon to a large and weeping auditory, and
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urged upon them especially the transfer of their respect and affection to my successor, their present Missionary. And this they faithfully promised to do.
20th.--Having engaged twenty natives to carry Mrs. Turton and the two children, with the clothes, food, and bedding, I sent them off in a canoe. We had then to tear ourselves away from the embraces of our people as well as we could; and, leaving Mr. Wallis on the beach, who had kindly come over to see us set out, we stepped hastily into the boat. Never shall I forget the lamentable howl which the people set up as we pulled away from the shore, and which was continued without abatement so long as we were in sight. It was an affectionate farewell; for, though the New-Zealanders can, at any time, weep as mechanically as a Popish statue, yet I believe, on this occasion, their tears were tears of sincerity, and their love "without dissimulation."
21st.--The whole of this day was spent in crossing the forest-hills, which divide Waipa from the coast. At night we pitched our tent near the outskirts of the bush. The hot days of a New-Zealand summer are succeeded by cold nights, on which account we were afraid because of our children, the youngest being only a few months old.
22d.--By breakfast-time we reached the Mission-station, where we were most affectionately received by our worthy friends, Mr. and Mrs. Buddle, in whose agreeable company we spent the four following days, to our great comfort. I found the work steadily advancing under Mr. Buddle's charge, and was more pleased with the good conduct of his natives, than on former visits.
27th.--We set off in two canoes up the Waipa, Mr. Buddle kindly accompanying us three days until we reached the confines of his extensive and scattered Circuit. After much difficulty in bringing our heavy canoes up the shallows, we encamped for the night on the riverside.
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28th.--From an early hour we pulled up the stream until we reached the landing-place at two o'clock P.M. Here we dined, and proceeded three hours overland to Pukamapau, where there are about fifty natives. With them we spent a good portion of the night in Divine service and conversation.
29th.--After travelling for about nine hours along a circuitous valley, we arrived at our station of Wakatumutumu about five P.M. This is one of the outposts of the Kawhia Circuit; and here we found Mr. Miller, the salaried Teacher, partly engaged in completing his house. He seems to be a good, simple-hearted man, and will doubtless, if diligent, be made useful in his neighbourhood.
March 1st.--After holding morning service, and exhorting the Chief to treat his Teacher kindly, Mr. Buddle and I separated; he returning home by another route, whilst we pursued our journey towards the Mokau, where we arrived, (that is, at Motukaramee, the landing-place,) after a very hard day's work, about eight in the evening.
2d.--The canoe which we had previously ordered from the Heads having arrived, we started early, being obliged to send most of our party over the mountains, for want of more canoes. The whole day was spent in pulling down the stream, and passing over the rapids of this romantic river, until seven o'clock, when we pitched our tent ashore on an awkward declivity on the mountainside.
In this solitary place we spent the Sabbath, engaged in our usual services, and in giving suitable advice to my Native Teachers, as to the manner in which they were to conduct themselves to my successor, their present Missionary, on their return.
4th.--Another day's pulling down the river brought us by six o'clock P.M. to our Mission-station at the
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Heads, where I immediately held Divine service, most of the Pikopo natives coming to hear me. Mr. Schmachenberg is expected here with his wife in a few days. He was lately married at Sydney, and is now returning to his former station, with every prospect of success. He is a very pious man, well acquainted with the language, and much interested in the duties of his station. His wife also seems well adapted for her present position.
5th.--This day we travelled many miles on the beach, fixing our tent at night in as sheltered a situation as we could find.
6th.--By eight o'clock we reached the Parininihi cliff, where travellers have to lower themselves down to the beach by means of a rope. The height is about eighteen feet, many parts of which are perpendicular, so that the rope is your only dependence; and as it is simply tied to a stake driven into the top of the cliff, if that gives way, the common law of gravitation soon brings you to the bottom. The natives now fastened on some new flax ropes, which they had twisted the night before; and, taking the children in their arms, soon landed them safely on the beach. Mrs. Turton was soon after them. They had proposed letting her down in a basket; one obliging creature kindly offered to carry her safely on his back; but, seizing hold of the rope with both hands, she soon let herself down without assistance and without accident, to the great merriment of them all. The tide was now flowing; but it was still low enough, we conjectured, to allow us to get past a long range of shelving rocks upwards of two miles in extent. This we very narrowly effected, though we ran as fast as our dripping clothes would let us. By the time we reached the last rock, the spring-tide had risen so high as almost to preclude all hope of getting round it, the sand having been greatly washed away by the recent bad weather. To climb the rocks was impossible, to go back was hopeless;
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so there I was, with my wife and children and people, up to my breast in water, hemmed in with the sea, with but the bare possibility of an escape, which my already exhausted strength was only just sufficient to attempt. O the feelings of that moment! Poor Bumby drowning in the Thames, and Peter sinking in Tiberias, both flashed across my mind; but I saw by faith the invisible hand of Jesus stretched out to me, and I determined to make the venture. Thrice was I thrown off my feet by the rebounding waves, and was only saved from being washed out to sea, by fixing my spear firmly in the sand, and holding on by the base; but the third wave had passed, so that I had just time to struggle out of danger, before the next arrived: and there I found my children wet through, and crying most pitifully. But Mrs. Turton, with her eight carriers, were still behind the rocks. When they saw me washed down, they set up a dreadful yell, thinking I was lost; nor were their fears diminished on seeing my cap floating by, on the top of the surf, expecting to see my body next. "Let us all die together," they exclaimed: "why should we live after our father is drowned?" and they relaxed their efforts immediately. I sent more natives back to help them, when, on hearing that I was safe, they made one general effort, lifted up my wife on the chair as high as their hands could raise it, and rushed through the surf, sometimes rising above their heads, until at length they rounded the rock and reached us in our place of safety, where we returned thanks to God for His merciful deliverance.--This place is called, Te matenga o te Tatona, "The Turton's death," to this day.
After staying here about two hours to dry our clothes, we proceeded on our journey. The children we were obliged to wrap up in shawls, &c., as all their spare clothes had been washed into the sea. By five o'clock we reached Urenui, where we were met by Mr. Skeving-
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ton, and three horses, by the help of which we were enabled to reach Oranoi, where we stayed for the night, truly grateful for the mercies of the past day.
7th.--We set off by starlight at four o'clock, so as not to be hindered by the tide. This we found to be miserable work for our young children, who felt the cold severely. By eight o'clock we arrived at Waitara, where we breakfasted, and then journeying ten miles on a good English road soon brought us to the settlement of New-Plymouth, our present station. The Mission-house is situated in an isolated spot, about two miles from the town; which is a great disadvantage, both for the native and European work; but as the station was selected before the English settlement was thought of, of course no blame can be attached to any one.
In this district there are about one thousand Europeans, and six hundred natives; but many more intend returning hither shortly from the southward, having been driven away by the Waikatos. The land in this neighbourhood is as level and fertile as most visiters have described it, and indeed is better suited for agriculture than any other district in New-Zealand. I was sorry to find the natives in a state of great excitement about their claim to the land, as to the validity of which, according to real native usage, I have not yet made up my mind. There are many intricacies connected with the question, which require to be duly considered by persons well acquainted with Maori as well as civilised law; but the great difficulty, in my opinion, arises from the almost impossibility of reconciling the two systems, and of deciding in what particular cases to apply the one, and when to apply the other. To require either the European or the native implicitly to submit to the usages of the opposite party, would be most unreasonable; and still it
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appears to be the opinion of each that it ought to be so, which therefore becomes the source of much misunderstanding, and much bad feeling. Without proper consideration, each party looks upon his own claim as the best; and so the worst feelings towards each are engendered, whilst the settlement of the general question is thereby retarded. I think it would have been greatly to the benefit of the colony, and especially for the aboriginal part of it, had Governor Hobson been directed to hold a general convocation on his first arrival in the country, and before he had involved himself in difficulties by any official acts. Such a meeting might have comprised all the officers of the Government, the oldest or most intelligent of the Missionaries, together with the most impar-tial and judicious gentlemen from the various settlements; (of whom, I am happy to say, we have a goodly number;) and under their united consideration might have been brought nearly every point of perplexity which can possibly arise between the two races, with suggestions of the most valuable character as to the best means of their removal, &c. In such a case, a well-digested code of laws, suited to the transition-state of the New-Zealanders, might have been adopted, and acted upon from the first; and thus that system of ever-changing policy, which is so much to be regretted, would have been avoided by the Government at the very outset of their career; nor, under the circumstances, would such a course have been at all dishonourable.
At New-Plymouth, we have a good small stone chapel; but it is still unfinished. In this place we have two services on the Sabbath. The want of a church is at present supplied by a temporary raupo building. The natives are supplied twice on the Sabbath, and visited regularly during the week, though I can neither attend to them nor the Europeans with any degree of satisfaction. "Where the work is divided, it appears to me that
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it must necessarily be defective. I shall, however, do my best to promote the spiritual interests of both, and, if possible, to induce a better feeling and a stronger connexion between the two races of this settlement. At present, all is fear, distrust, and jealousy; and in such a soil, the Gospel cannot fully thrive. At any rate, the Committee may rest assured, that if I can do no good, I will at least endeavour to do no harm. I am sorry to say, that the presence of the military is now absolutely necessary to the continuance of peace in New-Zealand, and to preserve our past labours from being entirely destroyed. We dread the immoral influence which they will probably exert on our people; but we cannot help it. Their presence may be better than the destruction of many, and the eventual annihilation of this interesting community. The Europeans are in a state of danger without protection, which of itself is enough to tempt the natives to acts of plunder and hostility. It is my firm conviction that, unless assistance be speedily rendered, this promising colony will, ere long, become the scene of bloodshed and every calamity. Under our present Governor, there is no fear of any abuse of military power. The very display of it would, in my opinion, be sufficient to prevent its use; but without that display, there is no calculating how soon our most distressing fears may be realised: let a systematic warfare be once commenced in New-Zealand, and farewell to every hope of spiritual and civil advancement for twenty years to come. May God support us in our difficulties, and dissipate the gloomy fears which becloud the prospects of this Mission!
It would appear that under the later administration of Governor Hobson, and his Secretary and assistant, Dr. Shortland, some smouldering discontent was latent among a
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few of the Chiefs, with regard to restrictions imposed upon the sale of land, and other fiscal regulations which appeared at that time to impede commerce. They could not understand the complicated difficulties which a new Government, operating in a community which was composed partly of civilised and partly of uncivilised people, had to deal with, and they were naturally impatient of any law the general bearing and result of which they could not perceive, but which they did think might at present prove unfavourable to themselves. Among these was John Heki, a Chief of the Bay of Islands, and formerly a warrior under Shungee. He was a nominal Christian, and had been Mission-lad at Paihia, under Archdeacon H. Williams, and grew up restrained and directed, in some degree, by Christian truth; but, like many others, he had become sophisticated and injured by the political excitements and questions of his time; and being encouraged by some interested settlers of his neighbourhood, he began to manifest his opposition to the British sway. There happened to be a dispute with the settlers of the Bay of Islands respecting a native woman, which led to no small tumult; and, before it was over, the British flag-staff was cut down by Heki, to show his contempt of the authority which it represented. This indignity was resented by
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Thomas Walker, the Wesleyan Chief, who was firmly attached to the Government, and the result was a general rising among Heki's people, and some subordinate Chiefs; which, besides impeding Missionary operations, resulted in the total destruction of Kororarika, and many other lamentable consequences, both near and remote, involving serious loss of property and life.
The military force in the country was then small and insufficient, and the government of His Excellency Captain Fitzroy was indebted, in the highest degree, to the faithful Thomas Walker; by whose perseverance and energy, at the head of his well-affected natives, Heki was finally reduced, and peace restored. This war, and several others of similar character, taken together, lasted a considerable time, greatly trying the faith of the Missionary body, and fully verifying the predictions which they had uttered respecting the colonisation of the land. The next extract from Mr. Lawry's communications refers to this collision.
AUCKLAND, April 8th, 1845.
I WRITE you the more frequently on account of the extraordinary circumstances into which this colony is brought by the total destruction of Kororarika, or Russell, by the natives. Very full accounts of this catastrophe were sent home direct by the ship "Matilda," which sailed on the 23d ult.
Nothing very important has since transpired. H.M.S.
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"North Star" has just come in from the Bay of Islands, bringing up about eighty refugees, consisting of out-settlers and Mission-families, but none belonging to us.
Mr. Hobbs wrote to me on the 29th ult. from Hokianga, stating that all were quiet, but trembling, there. Tamate, the native Chief, had returned at the earnest request of the white people, that he and his men might be a sort of protection to them. He is come home somewhat ashamed of his people, who robbed at the Waimate those whom they went professedly to protect. Alas for those who have no better protection!
We are endeavouring to comfort ourselves in the Lord, and to put our trust in Him. Here all is bustle and warlike preparation, fortifying the infant town, training to arms, and many are going off to the neighbouring colonies: more would do so, had they the means, or were they at liberty. Almost all confidence is now lost in the professions of the northern natives. Indeed, very little is known of the effect which this entirely new class of circumstances may produce on the native mind generally. Our soldiers beaten and driven away; a whole town plundered, and much property falling into their hands; while the Government is perfectly powerless, and obliged to intrench itself for the present, without madly attempting to take the field against the rebels;--these are new things in New-Zealand, which the natives are discussing; while the colonists are looking here and there for help, and full of apprehension of what may happen before the adequate succour can arrive from England.
Mr. Hobbs says, in his letter of the 29th ult.: "Our lives will very much depend on the measures which may be taken by the Governor, and his plans respecting the Bay of Islands. I think that if the Governor attempt to take Heki and Kawhiti without two or three thousand troops, he will be likely to find himself mistaken. The natives will not respect a small force; but if a large one
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come, it would prevent hundreds, if not thousands, from joining the rebels who are now undecided."
I have named this to the Colonial Secretary, who will convey it to Government. He says, that no movement will be made upon the rebels until we have the requisite means. The thrilling question is, Will the rebels (as they are called here) sit still? or, if we are invaded by them, can we defend ourselves? The answer to this may be read in many a pale face. I call my flock to imitate King Jehoshaphat, who said, under somewhat similar circumstances, "O our God, wilt Thou not judge them? for we have no might against this great company that cometh against us; neither know we what to do: but our eyes are upon Thee."
I am sure we shall have an interest in your prayers; and God is our Sun and Shield.
AUCKLAND, April 16th, 1845.
AS almost all communication is cut off between this place and those tribes who have destroyed the town and settlements about Kororarika, very little is known of their proceedings, further than that they say they will do the same at Auckland as they have done at the Bay. Here all is preparation for defensive war. Of Thomas Walker and his war with Heki, nothing is yet known, further than that a few shots were fired, and two men killed; but that Thomas consented to be still for a time at the earnest request of the white people, especially the Missionaries. There now remains no doubt whatever that the Popish Priests have had their hand in this native movement. But they are not men to be easily convicted, and they feel that they are strongly backed by their "grand nation." They deny that they are Antichrist; but their deeds are worthy of the great apostasy.
The colonists are moving off to Sydney and elsewhere, as fast as ships are found to carry them. Out-settlers
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are not safe, as the natives (that is, the bad ones among them) come and plunder them with impunity, shooting their cattle, and riding away their horses. They root up their young fruit-trees, and set fire to their houses. These things they have done in the Bay of Islands; and it is said that the Popish natives are foremost in these atrocities. Up to this date, I have not heard that any of our people have disgraced themselves, or any of the Mission-stations been injured.
How trying it is to the friends and supporters of Christian Missions, that as soon as they succeed in taming the savage by the spread of Christian truth, in comes colonisation, and in comes Popery! How deep is this mystery of Divine Providence, that the boar out of the wood should be permitted to root up His newly-cultivated and flourishing vineyard! It is with difficulty that I have been able to dissuade persons from attempting to colonise the Feejeean and Tonga isles. They reason very much as Lot did: "And Lot lifted up his eyes, and beheld all the plain of Jordan, that it was well watered everywhere, even as the garden of the Lord, like the land of Egypt, as thou comest unto Zoar." But Lot did not so well consider what kind of neighbours he should have. "But the men of Sodom were wicked and sinners before the Lord exceedingly." What a lesson to emigrants, who keep their eye on the grass of the plains, and forget the moral infection of Sodom, does the case and catastrophe of Lot afford! A rapid fortune was the golden expectation, while the loss of all was the result. Persons of whom I should have thought better and wiser things, continually apply to me for a passage in the Missionary vessel, that they may settle and be quiet in the distant isles of the Pacific Ocean. Of course, my answer in every case is the same: "The vessel is set apart for Mission purposes exclusively; and if it were otherwise, I should strongly advise you, both for your
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own sake, and for the sake of the natives, to lay aside all thought of settling among them until you can be sure of protection and a maintenance."
It had been, even up to the present time, a source of solicitude to the Missionaries, that although they had no reason to doubt the reality of the change which had taken place in their converts, they had not often witnessed that painful and contrite repentance, that distressing depth of sorrow for sin, which it might be supposed a barbarous people, just awakening from their wickedness into the light of the glorious Gospel, would feel. To this solicitude Wesleyan Missionaries would be peculiarly liable, both from the stress which they lay, in their teaching, upon deep and sincere repentance, and from the recollections they cherish of the results which have everywhere followed the introduction of Methodism among a previously unawakened and unevangelized race; and hence our New-Zealand brethren, while rejoicing over whole tribes that had abandoned their superstitions, and taken up the profession of Christianity, and over individuals in particular who were truly brought to Christ, were made anxiously to pray and look for that more glorious effusion of the Spirit, which should produce general conviction for sin, and penitential distress, among the nominal converts: so leading them to true conversion, and a deepening of the work of
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grace in the hearts of those who had already believed to the saving of their souls.
In the years 1845 and 1846, notwithstanding the social troubles and wars of the country, these anxious petitions seemed to be graciously answered. A more than ordinary spirit of devotion rested upon the congregations, and great power accompanied the ministration of the word. In the English congregations, many colonists, who had been careless about their eternal interests, came to the Mission-chapels, and for the first time in their lives were cut to the heart by the sword of the Spirit, and subsequently healed by the balm of the Gospel: a change, too, seemed to come over the natives; for they not only evinced, on turning to God, the usually-observed desire of possessing and pondering the holy Scriptures,--but the more practical desire, accompanied with crying and tears, to flee from the wrath to come. The same gracious spirit of awakening had spread over all the Wesleyan stations in the South Seas; the work was making rapid progress every way in the Feejee and Friendly Isles; and a great extension of the Redeemer's kingdom was the consequence. The brethren gave themselves to their work with redoubled ardour; and yet, notwithstanding their wasting labours and perilous journeys, not a life was sacrificed. God reproved Kings for their sakes, and seemed
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to say, to all the elements of physical nature, as well as to all hostile intelligences, "Touch not mine anointed, and do my Prophets no harm." From this time they began to reap a richer harvest of souls; and to observe, with holy joy, the attainment, on the part of the natives, of a Christian experience which, for life and power, was more upon an equality with that of God's people in this country. The Chiefs, especially, took a higher tone of thought and feeling, and then reflected the influence of their improved character upon their countrymen.
Mr. Creed was now labouring, with devoted fidelity and success, at Waikowaiti, Port-Otago, in the Middle-Island. To many wicked settlers in the place, and to several small tribes of benighted Heathen around, he was the messenger of mercy and salvation. But at and around Auckland the work of conversion was proceeding with most cheering rapidity. The following extract from a letter addressed by Mr. Lawry to the Secretaries is inserted, giving an account of a lovefeast held there about this time, and showing the real and spiritual aspect of the work:--
AUCKLAND, September 19th, 1846.
No one could have witnessed our lovefeast, on the afternoon of the last Sabbath, without glorifying God in the converted New-Zealanders. Many baptisms had taken place in the morning, administered by the Rev.
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Thomas Buddle, and several marriages, all at the Institution. Among these were Ralph Scurrah, Elijah Hoole, William B. Boyce, George Allen, (ex-Mayor of Sydney,) James Byrnes, and many other names dear to me, assumed by these new disciples, who soon changed them so much, that my old friends would not be likely to answer to them, as pronounced by those who bear them in New-Zealand; but they chose them because I could tell them these were men of God, and my friends. The chapel was crowded with members; and as the natives chiefly spoke, Mr. Buddle interpreted, and Mr. Watkin wrote down what was said by a few of them, which I send you as a specimen of their testimony for the Lord Jesus Christ. About one hundred and fifty of these tattooed men of savage birth were present. Such a breaking down and weeping I had not seen before among their race; and Mr. Watkin says the same. Before the service began they were, in several instances, weeping and sighing before the Lord, mostly tears of joy.
Abraham spoke as clearly of his faith as any one could desire; while his dark tattoo was radiant with delight, and his black, full eye shot forth beams of light.
Samuel was full of love, and burned with Christian zeal. He is a rare character, and one of our Institution.
John White said,--"I was praying last Friday, and God met me. He answered my prayer, and I was not able to sustain myself, but fell flat among the fern, overwhelmed with joy. I am often very happy, and shall hope only to live that I may serve God." This lad spoke with floods of tears: the feeling throughout the chapel was very great.
Jabez Bunting (Chief of Pehiakura) said,--"For eighteen years I have been called a Christian, but was a name only. I did not enjoy the salvation of Christ; and this was the case up to the present year. A short time ago I heard Mr. Henry Lawry preach from, 'Ye will not
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come unto Me that ye might have life.' He said, 'Those who come aright shall be received, and such alone.' My fear began when I heard this word, and remembered what the lads" (students at the Institution) "had testified; and I resolved to seek that which many of them had found. I prayed to God, but felt my heart grow hard; I determined to spend a week in solemn, fervent prayer; during one whole day I prayed, and then saw what a great sinner I was. I could neither eat nor sleep, day or night; I was in an agony." (Here he sobbed and was speechless for some time, his manly chest heaving with emotion, his manly face bathed in tears. After a while he resumed,) "This knowledge and sorrow did not come from myself, but from God, whom I sought, and found, and now had peace and constant joy. I found the Lord at the Lord's table. He was made known unto me in breaking of bread. And now my heart cries to the Lord night and day. I wish to tell my countrymen everywhere of these things, which the Lord hath wrought."
Timothy.--"I have just escaped from the belly of hell: I resolved more than ever to flee to Christ when I heard the sermon last evening." (Saturday night.)
Paul.--"I have seen that I am lost as a sinner, but have determined to trust in Christ."
Matthew.--"Long ago I embraced Christianity, but went astray in the war. Then I saw God looking upon me, and I was afraid. I was sorry for my sin, and felt more than I can tell at the last sacrament, when the great weeping took place." (Referring to a most signal season of Divine power which had recently occurred at the Institution, when the native members of the Pehiakura tribes had received the Lord's Supper.)
James.--"The way in which I was brought to repentance, was by hearing a sermon delivered by Mr. Buddle. I was then like the man described in Rom. vii. Great
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was my sorrow; and I cried, 'O my Father, my Saviour, turn unto me, and forgive me my sin!' Hell appeared open, and great was my distress; but God answered my prayer, and light, light brighter than day, spread over my heart: the joy of my spirit continues with me always." (Here he wept profusely, and looked the things he could not utter.)
William King.--"This is my thought: in this way I began to serve the Lord. I went to worship, but did not think God was the true God. Mine was a name, a fashion; but I was ignorant until I came from Taranaki to the Institution, where I began to feel that I was a sinner. My sins were not set on one side of me, but they were set before my eyes, and they looked me straight in the face. I then prayed all Saturday, Sunday, and all the next day: great was my sorrow, heavy my burden. But early the next morning I found peace, and was very happy in God's love. I felt that I was a child of God." (This lad has travelled five to six hundred miles, to tell his friends that God has saved him from sin, and to exhort them to believe in Christ.)
Thomas Chapman.--"Sickness came upon us, and I was afraid to die: I thought upon God, and saw that the wages of sin was death. I could not rest, but sought unto Jesus. I did seek Him in right earnest, and found Him; yea, I tied myself fast unto Him, and unto His people."
The gradual development of our Native Institution is daily becoming more satisfactory and delightful. The lads get soundly converted, deeply pious, and well trained. The results are being felt far away; and when we have the first race of lads mature for their future work, we may be sure of happy fruit from these plants in the Lord's vineyard.
We now see the need of more schools, more training, more printing; and no effort shall be spared on our part to secure these.
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We are in great straits for want of a thorough good boarding-school for the children of our Missionaries. Will no good man and his Wife, properly qualified, come out to us for this purpose? We greatly need school-material, such as may be had of the British and Foreign School Society. I should like a copy of their publications. A few pounds laid out with Mr. Dunn, [the Secretary Of that Society,] would be of great use here.
October 18th, 1846.
OUR annual District-Meeting, held at Auckland, has just concluded in great peace and harmony: the Missionaries are gone to their homes, which several of them may not be expected to reach for a fortnight, their burdens being heavy, the weather wet and stormy, and there are yet no roads in New-Zealand. People in a civilised land have little knowledge of the real life of such men as these. But they are gone to their homes encouraged; for God is saving sinners, and we are witnesses that even the New-Zealander is heard bearing his testimony to the grace of God; his ignorance is instructed, his pride is humbled, and he is seen earnestly seeking Christ in prayer, with devout contrition and a broken spirit. This mighty work of the Holy Spirit is not confined to one or two, but many of these Maori (natives) are as clear as ourselves in the evidences of Christ's work in their hearts, and shown in their holy lives. One of our Institution-lads, William King, walked more than five hundred miles to proclaim the love of Christ, which, he said, constrained him to make this long and wearisome journey, that his friends might find mercy and be saved, through faith in Christ, as he and several others had been while at the Institution. These things greatly cheer the Missionaries, who are gone home full of gratitude and hope.
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At our lovefeast held here October 5th, 1846, many of the natives were quite melted down to weeping and sobbing; the tears freely flowed down their tattooed faces; and powerful warriors, some of whom are just come from the battle-field, where they engaged in deadly fight, were seen struggling in the pangs of godly sorrow, and eyes unwont to weep were weeping tears of love, because Christ had made His mercy known to them.
Mr. Kevern observed, during the weeping struggle which was in progress before us, "This is like what we have been accustomed to witness in the Friendly Islands. Our King George, and many of his people, are used to weep, and pray, and praise like this."
Such a scene, witnessed by a dozen Missionaries, cannot fail to give an impulse to the work of God among us. But I will give a few specimens of what the natives said in their own tongue, which Mr. Whiteley there and then took down and translated.
Hone White.--"It was the death of Mr. Skevington that first led me to think in my heart. I saw if I were to die I should not go to heaven: then I began the exercise of prayer; I prayed night and day. One Sabbath Mr. Buddle preached, and told us to finish the cultivation of our own garden, before we went to help others. I felt that I was wrong, and had great darkness of heart. On the 24th of October, Samuel (one of the students) preached on the text, 'Here we have no continuing city, but seek one to come.' I fell from my seat; went out, and could not speak. I went to secret prayer; became as one dead; God showed me the greatness of my sins, and hell opened before me; I prayed all day, and cried, 'Why dost Thou spare me? why not send me to hell for my sins?' For three days and three nights my heart would not rest, or its trouble subside, because of the greatness of my fear. On Thursday night at the class, Mr. Buddle urged me to pray to God for
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forgiveness. On the following Friday the Spirit led me into secret to pray; and then and there I received forgiveness. I heard the Spirit witness, 'Thy sins are forgiven thee; all thy sins of theft, lying, adultery, fighting, and rebellion!' He washed my heart from all. His manifested love to me was so great, I could not understand it; but it has led me constantly to cleave to Him. On the 1st of February last, while at secret prayer, I had such great rejoicing in the overpowering love of God, that I fell to the ground; so great was the manifestation of Divine light to my soul, that the water of my eyes flowed abundantly. Great is the pain of my heart for the love I feel to the souls of my relations. This my experience continues."
Abraham.--"This is my thought. I am astonished at the greatness of God's work of love in my heart, banishing the darkness, after which I received the light and exceeding great joy. My heart cleaves to this night and day."
Matu (Matthew).--"I remember my work in days gone by. I embraced Christianity, went to worship, heard preaching, met in class, was baptized, and received the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper. I thought this was religion. Not till I came here" (Institution) "did I know the truth, or see the greatness of my sins. But here the word came home to my heart; and I was afraid, and went to pray in secret. You spoke about men going to preach who had not received forgiveness themselves. At this I was alarmed. When the power of the Holy Ghost came, then the preaching entered my heart. Whether I went to bed or to work, my constant prayer was, that God would take away my sin, until I obtained forgiveness."
Hone.--"I am not able to speak of all my sins; but I will speak of the love of God. I was formal in my worship, and served God with my lips; but this year I have found the love of God. The beginning of my
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concern for salvation was the sermon in which we were exhorted to finish the culture of our own garden before we went to assist others. The darkness then came to my heart, and I then saw that my work was not right. God showed me hell, the darkness, and my sins of many years. I had heard that man was not able to contend with God; that he cannot stretch out his own hand to heaven, and blot out his own sins from the book; and I felt that I could not contend with God. I said, 'It is enough: I will make peace with God, and give up my heart to Him.' September 9th, I found the great peace of God: a voice called to my heart, 'Why tarriest thou? why wander about unpardoned? go and pray in secret for a new heart.' I obeyed, and God manifested His love to me. I heard a voice, saying, 'You have lived long enough in sin;' and thus my heart was fully constrained to love God. My joy now is the love of God in my heart, and I am for Him as long as I live."
Such is their own account of what they now experience, and we could easily add many more such-like testimonies. I wish I could stand on your platforms as a witness that Jesus Christ is saving sinners through the instrumentality of the Gospel preached by your Missionaries in New-Zealand. But my business is to abide where I am, and labour, and report, and delight in the showers of blessings which come down in their season. Many Kings and righteous men have desired to see the things which we see, and have not seen them.
The principles and conduct of these new-born babes in Christ will be severely tested by the ordeals arising out of the peculiar character of society in this newly-colonised and lately-heathen country.
Here are men of the world, seeking their fortune; far more males than females.
Here is an array of military and naval men; and are there not "the English abroad?"
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Here are some heathen natives, and many who are merely nominal professors, sunk low enough in the works of the flesh.
Here is "the Church," whose head tells us, and tells the natives, that the Wesleyan Missionaries are not Ministers, and, consequently, ours is no church, and its members are being deceived and deluded. And the natives of " the Church" are not slow to lay hold of such a statement, to "exalt themselves and despise others." And if their "head" be right, who can prove that they are in the wrong?
Here is Popery direct from France. It, of course, unchurches all the other Churches, and serves the Bishop of New-Zealand as he serves us: puts him, also, without the pale of "the Church."
Surrounded by such a state of things, are not these young disciples overtaken in a storm? Surely, if they come up at all, they must come up through much tribulation. They have not all our helps; the New Testament only is rendered into their tongue; they have not our admirable Magazine, nor the sublime Hymns used in our assemblies. Who can make or translate hymns in their poor language? So that our pastoral efforts must be more than doubled, and your Missionary zeal must not wax cold.
All the evils which the Rev. Dr. Beecham had predicted as likely to result from premature and forced colonisation, were being realised, both in the case of the natives and of the settlers; and, from Heki's outbreak until now, wars and outrages on the land-question, and on misunderstood law, were continually taking place: but as a new state of society had been introduced in spite of the Missionaries, and as
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the change must needs spread over the land, the only course left for the brethren was to rush into every opening, promulgate the truths of the Gospel, gather serious and prepared natives into orderly societies, and put them under training and care. They had to fight against Heathenism on the one hand, and Popery on the other; to contend often with the prejudices of unreasonable men; and, in St. Paul's sense, to become all things to all men, in order that they might save some.
An official dispatch from the Right Hon. Earl Grey, Her Majesty's Secretary of State for the Colonial department, to His Excellency Governor Grey, the successor of Governor Fitzroy, in 1847, was published in New-Zealand, giving directions as to the management of disputed land-claims and the like. This document, for a while, produced great alarm amongst the Missionaries and their people; for, according to their interpretation of its leading clauses, they apprehended that an infraction of the treaty of Waitangi might be practically involved; and that then, not only would great injury and oppression result to the native tribes, with a prospect of the prolongation of their wars, but the character of the Missionaries, who used their influence on the side of that treaty, would be compromised, and their power to do good proportionally weak-
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ened, if not destroyed. On the particulars of this subject we cannot here enter: but a correspondence took place between the Rev. Dr. Beecham, in the name of the Missionary Committee, and the Colonial Office, respecting this apprehended breach of the treaty of Waitangi; and an explanation was given by Earl Grey, the noble Secretary of State for the Colonial department, sufficiently satisfactory to allay the fears of the Committee, as his Lordship pledged Her Majesty's Government to the strict maintenance of that important treaty, as understood and explained by the Committee themselves. 2 From this time greater tranquillity began to prevail. We have seen from Mr. Lawry's journal, that, at a public meeting held at Auckland, in the year 1844, a "Wesleyan Native Institution" was formed at Auckland, with a view of instructing the aboriginal inhabitants in the religion and literature of our own country and denomination. To this Institution the Missionaries attached the utmost importance: its great influence was foreseen both by themselves and by the wise and good among the colonists. His Excellency Governor Grey warmly supported the scheme by his influence and personal contribution; and the house soon received its complement of natives. There was
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a splendid Popish chapel hard by, and a College was being instituted under the auspices of Bishop Selwyn, both in Auckland; and it was only fitting that the Wesleyan Mission, which had been so long and laboriously breaking up this field, should garner its own fruits, and furnish its quota towards the enlightenment and Christian elevation of the native community in this way. According to an arrangement of the Missionary Committee, first suggested at the New-Zealand District-Meeting, a "Wesleyan College and Seminary" was likewise built and instituted at Auckland: partly with a view to the education of the children of the Missionary brethren who are stationed in Australia, New-Zealand, and the islands of the South Seas, and partly to benefit the youth of such colonists as were desirous to avail themselves of the Wesleyan teaching and order; and possibly train some of them for the ministry, should they be called to it. The Rev. Alexander and Mrs. Reid were sent to take charge of the Native Institution at Three Kings, and the Rev. Joseph H. and Mrs. Fletcher to conduct the College and Seminary. They sailed together, December 22d, 1848. Both Institutions soon became most popular and most efficient.
The brig "Triton," which, in some respects, had become unfit for the purposes of the Mission, had been disposed of; and, then, a fine
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new brig, built by Messrs. White, at Cowes, in the Isle of Wight, called the "John Wesley," was sent out in 1846, with a noble reinforcement of Missionaries for the South Seas, to serve instead. She arrived safely at New-Zealand in April, 1847. This beautiful vessel was likewise placed under the direction of the General Superintendent, to run between New-Zealand and the Islands, as well as make occasional voyages home. From this time the New-Zealand people began to introduce wheat, and other articles of English produce, into their system of native culture; several mills were set to work, and flour was obtained by our own ready and efficient process; live stock was reared, and vegetables were grown by the country tribes, for the town settlements; blankets were less demanded, and complete garments more sought after; slaves who were willing to go were sent to their homes, and slavery in Christian families was abolished altogether; the face of the country around the great centres began to wear a changed aspect, and the usual progress of a colony was most evident. Christianity, notwithstanding a thousand discordant elements all at work, was the presiding spirit of the scene; that is, a free intelligent Protestant Christianity; for the Scriptures were so extensively circulated among, and read by, the people, that Popery could hardly take hold of any
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but the immigrant Irish, and the most superstitiously inclined of the natives. At the Conference of 1850, the ministerial arrangements stood as follows:--
Auckland and Pehiakura, Walter Lawry, General Superintendent; Thomas Buddle.
Wesleyan College and Seminary, Joseph H. Fletcher.
Native Institution, (Three Kings,) Alexander Reid.
Manukau, Henry H. Lawry (son of the General Superintendent).
Mangungu and Wangaroa, John Hobbs, Deputy Chairman of the Section.
Waima and Newark, John Warren.
Wairoa, (Kaipara,) James Buller.
Kawhia, John Whiteley, Deputy Chairman of the Section.
Aotea, (Beecham-Dale,) Gideon Smales.
New-Plymouth, Henry H. Turton.
Waingaroa, James Wallis.
Waipa and Wakatumutumu, George Buttle.
Waimate, William Woon.
Waitotara, George Stannard, Assistant Missionary.
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Wanganui and Taupo, William Kirk.
Wellington, James Watkin, Deputy Chairman of the Section; John Aldred.
Nelson, (Middle Island,) Samuel Ironside.
Waikowaiti, near Otago, (Middle Island,) Charles Creed. 3
Neat and commodious chapels were raised in all the peopled localities around the principal stations, and thus those stations became Circuits, as in England; native young men, in greater numbers, as soon as their piety and intelligence were of an order to warrant such an arrangement, were sent forth among their heathen countrymen, to lead them to the knowledge of the truth. All this tended powerfully to arrest the tone and practice of public immorality; to produce a general respect for religion; to deepen the work of grace where it had been begun; to extend the observance of public and private worship through the land, even the interior parts; and to lay the foundation, both deep and broad, for a great Christian social edifice of the future. An awful earthquake which happened in Wellington, October 14th, 1848, destroying some lives and much property, even Mission property, was the means, in the Divine hand, of greatly deepening the tone of serious religion.
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Such are the present results and aspects of the New-Zealand Mission. It is a territory which has been won for Christ by the united exertions of the Wesleyan and Church-of-England Missionaries. The former chiefly by their powerful evangelical ministrations, and the latter by their literary labours and efficient teaching, have taken hold of the spirit of the population: though now the educational institutions of our own brethren are as influential and efficient as those of their Episcopalian neighbours. To the Wesleyan people especially, it has been a sphere of unparalleled toil, carried on for thirty years, at a cost, most economically distributed, of several thousands per year; and yet yielding glorious fruit. The fields are white unto the harvest, and Christian reapers are filling their arms with the sheaves. O, what hath God wrought, that this land, which was almost unapproachable through its wars and cannibal atrocities, should now be the abode of a rising, intelligent, and peaceful people; and, perhaps, eventually another Britain hard by the side of another, the Australian, continent! With regard to the character of our Christian labourers in this field, the words of Mr. Lawry in reference to the Feejee Missionaries, are true also of them. I give these words entire from his journal.
Our Missionaries here are hard-working men, and
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men of all work. They rise early, and translate the Scriptures, or prepare other good books; they teach the natives useful arts, and guide them in all they do: one part of the day is devoted to native schools, and another to the schooling of their own children. They preach the Gospel to all who will hear it, morning, noon, and night. They administer medicine to the sick, and settle disputes for all parties. They are consulted about every important enterprise, and have their hand in everything that is going on. They are lawyers, physicians, privy-councillors, builders, agriculturists, and frequent travellers on the high seas in the frail native canoes. They are men
"Whose path is on the mountain-wave,
Whose home is on the sea!"
They study hard, that they may give a faithful translation of the word of God; several of them daily read Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, for this end; beside their constant application to the perfecting of their knowledge of the native language, in which they preach and converse daily with ease and fluency. These things they do in the ordinary course of their regular labour as Pastors of the flock of Christ; beside the oversight they are obliged to take of their own domestic affairs, where the busy housewife plies her care, and where the tedious natives crowd around.
Such is a very faint picture of the devoted men employed in these Missions, of whom it would be wise to say, what we often hear said in a very different sense, "They may do to go abroad; they may be fit for the Mission-work." Whoever has been tempted to think that inferior men are good enough to send out as Missionaries, cannot have estimated the cost of sending them, the mighty obstacles they have to overcome, the versatility of gifts and graces they need, and the untold
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evils which must result from an unqualified standard-bearer. Let no young Superintendent propose, nor any Quarterly-Meeting pass, a candidate for the Christian ministry, of slender abilities, and questionable qualifications, under the absurd and inexcusable impression that such a man, though not fit for the home-work, "may do to go abroad." Our work abroad requires men of all the wisdom, courage, and piety that can be obtained. No man is too good for the Mission-work. This field will give full scope to all his energies and powers, no matter how much they may have been cultivated, improved, and refined. If possible, the man who is to spend his life in learning a strange language, and in raising and ruling new churches, far away from the wise counsel of his fathers, should have his full time in one of our admirable Institutions, and there be instructed in those things which may prepare him rightly to discharge the duties of the pastoral office. These are not mere probabilities: I write the observations which are pressed upon me in my every-day movements, in the discharge of my duties, among the South-Sea Mission-stations.
With regard to the aboriginal inhabitants, it remains to be seen whether they will be borne down and lost under the surging tide of colonial immigration, or whether they will stand like a rock amidst it all. Native tribes have generally disappeared wherever mere aggressive or commercial colonisation has taken place; but here, where cupidity has received a check, where the clear lines of right have been revealed, where the native mind has been elevated, and the trading spirit overawed by a more than usual amount of Christian influence and appliance;
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the results may prove far more cheering. Wise and experienced men, such as the senior Missionaries, give it as their opinion, that the slave-population of New-Zealand, the lowest in the physical scale, will die off, and become extinct; while the Chieftain families, changed in their habits, and raised by religion and educational training, will be preserved and increase, partly and for a while as a separate race, and then perhaps, ultimately, as commingled with the Europeans of the country.
In the mean time numbers are rescued from sin and misery, nurtured in faith and holiness, and ushered into everlasting life. Dark and untutored, though powerful, minds, which revelled in conceptions of cruelty and blood, have been filled with the peace of God, with holy affections, and absorbed with the contemplation of truths so great and hopes so glorious, as to make them tremble at the vastness of their new vision, and the depth of their new emotions.
Their euphonious but poor language is now impressed with great Gospel conceptions, with words that shall stir the hearts of generations to come. With them the Sabbath is a delight and honourable; and, notwithstanding the number of those who still walk according to the course of this world, there is nothing to hinder the ordinary progress of the Gospel
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through this fine and interesting country, or to prevent it from becoming a fair, prosperous, and Christian land. And when the time shall come, when civil and educational institutions shall flourish, and wealthy society is gathering around; when dignified Churchmen shall follow their tranquil course by the side of the hardworking and aggressive Wesleyan; when commerce shall thrive, and godliness is found to have the promise of this life as well as of that which is to come, and New-Zealand has become the mistress of the southern sea;--then let the man who participates in these blessings reflect how and from what source they were obtained; that, unless there had been a Marsden, a Leigh, a Morgan, a Turner, and others of like temper, to wrestle with the horrors of cannibal Heathenism and overcome them, there would have been no dignified Christianity; indeed, no colonised New-Zealand at all. The nation would still have been the terror of the seas, or else have perished, a gigantic suicide, by its own wars. "Not unto us, O Lord, not unto us, but unto Thy name give glory, for Thy mercy, and for Thy truth's sake."
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TABULAR VIEW OF THE NEW ZEALAND DISTRICT.
TABULAR VIEW OF THE NEW ZEALAND DISTRICT.
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TABULAR VIEW OF THE NEW ZEALAND DISTRICT, CONTINUED.
TABULAR VIEW OF THE NEW ZEALAND DISTRICT, CONTINUED.