CHAPTER V. OCCURRENCES FROM QUEEN CHARLOTTE'S ISLAND TO NEW ZEALAND, AND AT THAT PLACE.
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OCCURRENCES FROM QUEEN CHARLOTTE'S ISLAND TO NEW ZEALAND, AND AT THAT PLACE.
15th October 1827. -- Moderate trades with gloomy weather. Latitude observed, 12 deg. 21' S., longitude 164 deg. 28' E. The only occurrence to-day was the addition of two more to the hospital list. Thermometer in shade 81 deg.
19th. -- Fine trade weather. Supposing the ship not far distant from the Holy Shoals, I hauled to the eastward at 8 P. M. for the night.
Yesterday morning I was seized with the disease now raging on board, and have since been confined to my bed. All my efforts to counteract sickness by cleanliness and fumigation proved ineffectual.
Latitude at noon, 19 deg. 55' S., longitude by observation 159 deg. 59' E. At midnight stood to the southward.
20th. -- Trade weather as usual. At 7 1/2 A. M. a shoal was discovered from the ship bearing S. S. E. two or three miles: at 8 A. M. it bore per compass E. S. E. distant off two miles. This is the Minerva Shoals of Captain Bell, discovered in A. D. 1819. It may be a hundred and twenty fathoms long, lying north and south, and appeared very narrow, not more than three or
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four feet above the level of the sea, with the water breaking on it lightly.
The latitude observed at noon was 20 deg. 51' S, longitude 159 deg. 12' E. At this time the thermometer in the shade stood at 72 deg.
30th. --Fine trades. The sick still continued in a very bad state. The surgeon observed to me to-day, that he was apprehensive, if the ship returned within the Tropics towards Tucopia under the vertical rays of a scorching sun, the sickness on board would increase, and endanger the safety of the ship and the lives of all on board. As I considered it proper to attend to his suggestions, I desired him to address me officially on the subject, He replied, that he should consider himself as failing in the principal object for which he engaged in the service if he delayed doing so; and that he would have written to me already in his official capacity, but wished first to communicate with me verbally. I shortly after received the surgeon's certificate, as follows:
I, the undersigned, do hereby certify, that in my opinion this ship ought to proceed immediately to a port in New South Wales, or New Zealand, for the purpose of procuring refreshments for the sick now on board, as well as to give them an opportunity of recovering from the diseases under which they labour. I also certify that it is my opinion, if the ship should immediately proceed to the northward into warm weather towards Tucopia, that the diseases now raging on board cannot be got rid of, without running the risk of
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losing several lives, and by that means endangering the safety of the ship.
(Signed) John Griffiths, Surgeon.
On board the H. E. I. C. ship Research, at sea, the 30th of October 1827.
On receipt of such a document I considered myself bound to abide by the tenor of it, in order to avert the calamities which a neglect of the advice it contained might entail on all concerned.
There being now only one person on board in good health who was capable of navigating the ship, and he as liable to be attacked by disease as those in the surgeon's list, it became incumbent on me to lose no time in making for a port where my crew might recover and the ship refresh. But the enormous expense attendant on putting into a port at New South Wales deterred me from going there; and as the Bay of Islands in New Zealand lay in my track for the islands, in a climate more salubrious than New South Wales in summer, which was now setting in, and as I could obtain refreshments, fire-wood, and water in abundance, I determined on steering for that place, where, during the time I should be employed in recruiting my stores, the sick could be put ashore and recover sufficiently to allow of my proceeding for the islands to land my interpreters, and from thence pursue my voyage for Calcutta through the straits of Manilla.
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3d November. --Strong trades throughout the day: the wind blew from N. to N. W. the first part strong breezes with cloudy weather; the latter part, light airs with rain. Our run up to noon was 166 miles, on an 84 deg. course S. E. I expected to have seen the Three Kings at 9 A. M., the well known islands situated to the north westward off Cape Maria Van Diemen on the coast of New Zealand. Their latitude by Captain Cook is 34 deg. 12' S., longitude 172 deg. 12' E. Noon approached without discovering land, and on observing the latitude my disappointment was accounted for, the ship being set by a current twenty-five miles to the southward of the islands during the last twenty-four hours. Throughout the afternoon and night I took advantage of every favourable shift of wind to get to the northward.
4th. --First and middle part of the day strong gales, with rain; towards noon the weather cleared up a little, but throughout the afternoon and night was exceedingly squally and unsettled. At 3 A. M. the wind shifted from N. to S. S. W., where it settled. I took advantage of this change and steered to the northward, shortening sail as necessary in the squalls. At 8 A. M. got sight of the Three Kings bearing S. E. by E., distance off six leagues. At 10, got sights for the chronometer, which brought forward to noon gave the longitude the same as Captain Cook's, viz.
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172 deg. 12' E., and the latitude 34 deg. 10' S. At noon the centre of the largest of the Kings bore per compass E. by S. 1/2 S. three miles. At 5 P. M. the weather cleared up a little, which gave us a view of the North Cape of New Zealand, bearing S. E. five or six leagues, and at 8 P. M. it bore S. E., distance two or three miles. I stood along the coast steering S. E. by E. the remainder of the night.
5th. --Fine weather, with wind from the southward: thermometer in the shade 64 1/2 deg.. At 5 A. M. it was clear daylight, our distance off shore being five or six miles: the extremes of the land in sight bore from N. N. W. to S. E. by E. At 6 1/2 we passed close to the eastward of the most eastwardly of the Havalley Islands, and stood on for Point Pocock; and at 9 we hauled into the Bay of Islands.
In consequence of being exposed for the last two days, I had a return of my illness, and was obliged to quit the deck. Not having any person on board sufficiently acquainted with the port to undertake the pilotage of the ship to her anchorage, I ordered half-hour guns to be fired as a signal for a pilot, and at 1/2 past 5 P. M. one came on board. Soon afterward the captain of a whaler called the Indian, which was lying in the harbour bound for England, visited me. At 7 P. M. we anchored in six fathoms, with the village of Carroraricka bearing N. E.
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1/2 E., and distant from half to three-quarters of a mile.
The captain of the Indian was accompanied on his visit by Captain Duke, part-owner of a whaler, which had sailed six weeks before for the fishery off Tongataboo, but being ill he was not able to proceed on the voyage, and was now busily engaged erecting a dwelling-house on shore, close to the village off which we anchored. The daughter of king George undertakes the management of this gentleman's household affairs, her father affording him protection for his property, chiefly consisting of ships' stores.
There were several of our countrymen residing in the vicinity of the bay, employed as missionaries to instruct the natives; and although these gentlemen possessed numerous flocks and herds, they were too much occupied by their spiritual avocations to allow us to derive any benefit from them -- too deeply immersed in the theoretical parts of Christianity, to emerge into the ordinary practice of its most essential dictates, to succour the helpless and visit the sick. Most willingly would I have paid them any price for a daily supply of fresh meat for the use of the sick, but could not obtain it.
Captain Duke, from a feeling that did him honour, sent on board two fat wethers, six fowls, and a dozen of wine, observing, in allusion to our failure in meeting with such supplies from
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the saintly preachers of a doctrine they refused to practise, "that sinners could not expect to participate in the good things of this earth, which were reserved solely for the elect." This timely supply from the christian son of Neptune was of real service to us, considering that all my officers except one were sick and off duty, and the hospital list included an aggregate of twenty-two persons.
I inquired of Captain Duke if he entertained no apprehension for his personal safety whilst residing among the islanders, with so much property as he possessed. He replied that he did not now, but that on his first arrival, being very ill, and obliged to remain on shore for a few months to recover his health, he was then under some fear, and therefore applied by letter to the Missionaries for an asylum. They in reply excused themselves by saying he lived an immoral life, cohabiting with one of the native females. Now at New Zealand this sort of intercourse is not only lawful, but considered by their friends as highly honourable, and tantamount to marriage with us. In fact, these children of nature adhere to her primitive rules, which did not prescribe those ceremonies and rites since introduced. In a country that requires the performance of them, it is perfectly right and politic that they should be complied with; but it is unnecessary and absurd to insist on
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them among people, who consider the mutual consent of parties as sufficiently valid and binding.
Had Captain Duke applied to the Missionaries to be united to king George's daughter according to the christian rites of matrimony, he would have been denied; as they had explicitly declared, on two former applications of a similar nature, that they would not sanction by their consent any union of the kind between Europeans and unchristian females. The cases were those of two sawyers in their employ, who cohabited with native women, at which they were offended, and exhorted them frequently to dissolve the connection. This the men refused to do, and expressed their willingness to be lawfully married to the objects of their affection; but the Missionaries, notwithstanding their abhorrence of concubinage, positively refused thus to remedy the evil. They severely rebuked the Rev. Mr. Kendal for marrying a Mr. Tapsel, an officer of a South-sea whaler, to one of these women. This seems to spring from the doctrine, that marriage is a religious sacrament and not a civil contract.
6th. --To my surprise we had only one canoe alongside soon after daylight, whereas on former voyages I had generally about twenty or thirty each day. On inquiring into the cause, I learnt that this being the season for planting a species of potatoe called the comulla, all the natives
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residing about the bay were absent at their plantations in the interior.
The doctor recommended that the sick should be landed, if a proper place for their reception could be procured. Though ill, I went on shore for that purpose, and met with a man named Johnson, who resided here with his wife, a New Zealand woman, and two children. He informed me that he had completed a house for his own use, with the exception of doors and hinges, which I might take possession of, if I thought proper to fit up the doors and windows. I viewed the house, and finding that it would answer, engaged it.
Upon my return on board, the Marquis of Wyemattee, king Charley, Ellis Moyhanger, and Phelim O'Rourke, requested permission to quit the expedition, as I was going shortly to the white men's country, where their services would be no longer required. I of course complied; and am happy to bear testimony to their good behaviour and utility while on board, being continually on the alert, and watchful to guard us against surprise from other islanders.
At parting, I rewarded their services to the full extent of their wishes. The Marquis and Phelim O'Rourke were ill of the disease prevailing among the crew, and in a very weak condition. The Tucopian and Tongataboo interpreters were much affected at losing their
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New Zealand shipmates, and inquired when they should be relanded in their native islands. I told them that when the sick officers and seamen recovered, our ship would sail with them. They replied, "The sick will die, and no person be left to conduct the ship to our country; we shall then be left here, and if the New Zealanders do not eat us, we shall at least be compelled to remain in a land where there are no cocoa-nuts, yams, bananas, or sugar-canes." I desired them not to be down-hearted, assuring them that if I lived they should be conducted in safety to their respective homes, and if I died the ship would still be under orders to take them there. Some of them wept, saying if I died they should never get back, as the officers on board had never seen their country, and did not, like me, know the way thither.
I conversed with some of the officers on board to-day as to getting one of the whalers that might touch here to take the interpreters on board for a trifling sum, and land them as they passed their respective islands on the way to the fishery. To this arrangement the interpreters objected, saying that if they went in any other ship than the Research, the crews, being strangers to them, would not treat them well, and that perhaps the officers might put them ashore on some strange island, from whence they would have no opportunity of getting away.
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The Church of England Missionaries settled here had a small schooner at anchor in the bay, built out of the wreck of the Brampton, which was lost here in 1823. It therefore occurred to me that if I could procure her to proceed with the interpreters, it would save a considerable expense to the Bengal Government, and enable me to reach Calcutta three months sooner than if I were obliged to sail in the Research with them, after myself and crew should be sufficiently recovered to allow of our resuming the voyage. I communicated this idea to Captain Duke, adding that I intended to write to the head of the mission on the subject; but he told me I should not succeed, assigning as a reason, that formerly the schooner had to pay port charges, on entering Port Jackson from New Zealand, on which a complaint was made by the Directors of the Church Missionary Society to the Secretary for the Colonies in London, who sent out orders to New South Wales, prohibiting such exaction for the future upon the missionary schooner Herald, so long as she was engaged in carrying supplies for the mission; but that this prohibition was not to extend to her when she entered the mercantile service, in which event no distinction whatever was to be made between her and other vessels.
As Captain Duke formed his opinion on no other ground, I gave little weight to it, and
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wrote a letter on the subject to the Rev. Mr. Williams, formerly a lieutenant in the royal navy, and now actually on the half-pay list, who has the principal management in the direction of the English Church Missionary affairs here. In my letter I explained the particulars of our expedition, the present condition of my crew, and engagement to return the interpreters to their native island, with assurances of remuneration by the Bengal Government for the use of the schooner.
7th. --The day having a damp rainy appearance, the surgeon did not deem it safe to land the sick. The wind was from N. W. to N. N. W.; thermometer at 63 1/2 deg.
I found the Otaheitan alluded to in a former part residing here, whom I despatched with my letter to Mr. Williams; and being entirely out of port wine, I applied to the missionaries for what they could spare for the use of the sick, promising to pay for the same, or to return an equal number of bottles to them from Port Jackson. They sent one dozen and a half, which was very acceptable in our present debilitated state.
8th. --The wind continued in the N. W., with rather a sudden vicissitude from heat to cold; thermometer at noon 71 1/2 deg. in the shade. We took advantage of the weather, and sent the sick on shore to the house engaged for them.
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9th. --The wind prevailed from the N. W. throughout this day. The poop deck being leaky, so as to admit the water upon our arms and bedding, I engaged two caulkers who resided on shore to make the necessary repair, and perform other jobs required on board. These men were part of the crew of the Rosannah, which was fitted out by a company in London to establish a factory in New Zealand, an account of the failure of which project has been noticed.
This afternoon, while sick on board, I received the following reply from the Rev. Mr. Williams to my letter of the 6th instant, dated Hakiangha, Thursday, November 8, 1827-
Sir: --Your letter of November 6th I have just received; but, from the nature of our situation here, it will be impossible to comply with your request respecting the Herald. There are two vessels here, which might wish to accept your offers; a brig commanded by Captain Kent, and also the little schooner which was built here. I remain, &c.
(Signed) Henry Williams. To Captain Peter Dillon.
The laconic style of this answer surprised and vexed me. Had the reverend lieutenant been endowed with a moderate share of humanity, he might have shewn it in his answer; for, though he thought proper to decline acceding to my request regarding the schooner, he might have qualified the refusal by expressions of regret at our ill state of health, and offered such assistance to re-establish it as was in his power. Had he
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excused himself under the pretext that the brethren might be short of provision before the return of the schooner, I would have removed the difficulty by supplying sufficient to guard against want or scarcity till the vessel's return; but in fact the vessel had arrived from Port Jackson only a few days before, deeply laden with provisions. Had he urged that the vessel not being his own, he could not take upon himself to risk her on the service for which I asked her, surely the Committee of the Church Missionary Society would not have been displeased at his performing an act of charity, by which they could sustain no loss, since they profess to exercise those Christian virtues of which charity is the mother. Nor could he urge the want of means; for they had from sixty to eighty head of choice black cattle, and a proportionate number of sheep, the original stock of which was bestowed upon them by the pious and indefatigable missionary of the south, the Rev. Samuel Marsden, a man who practices the virtues he preaches. Had the Directors of the Mission Establishment in London, or Mr. Marsden, been in the Bay of Islands at this juncture, twenty-two of their fellow-countrymen would not have been suffered to lie on the shores of New Zealand a prey to disease, destitute of solace, mental or bodily, and gasping for a little fresh meat or a bowl of nutritive broth.
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Now contrast the conduct of these enlightened professors of the reformed doctrines of Christianity with the really christian conduct of the benighted ministers of the catholic religion at Lima. As soon as the news reaches these venerable padres of the arrival of a vessel, they repair on board, and with the benignity of habitual Charity, inquire after the health of those on board. If any are sick, they immediately remove them to the hospitals, with which every convent is provided, and the utmost care and attention is paid till health be restored to the patient; or, should death be approaching to terminate his sufferings, his bed is watched with paternal anxiety, and spiritual consolation is administered to his departing soul. They will not accept any remuneration for their disinterested care, feeling themselves amply compensated by an approving conscience; nor do they inquire of what country or religion the invalid is, or whether he be a saint or a sinner: it is sufficient for them that he stands in need of aid, and therefore do they administer it.
10th. --Finding from the tenor of the reverend lieutenant's answer that I had nothing to expect from that quarter, I wrote a letter on the subject to Captain Kent.
On examining the dry provisions on board, I found there was not more than four or five weeks' allowance of biscuit remaining; I there-
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fore reduced the ration of that article, substituting flour in its stead.
13th. --Nothing remarkable occurred since the 10th instant till to-day, when at an early hour I was visited by Fingal, the Marquis of Wyemattee, who being aware of the sick and debilitated state in which he left the crew from a want of fresh provisions, brought me five large hogs, some of which weighed 168 lbs. when killed and clean, and nearly a thousand pounds of potatoes. In return for his very seasonable present, I sent him a half-barrel of gunpowder, which however he refused to accept, till I insisted upon it, and then he received it rather in compliance with my commands than as a remuneration.
Contrast, reader, the generous, sympathizing, and disinterested conduct of this heathen, with the unfeeling selfishness of the saintly preachers who undertake to convert him from the error of his ways! And if the conversion of the New Zealanders is to pervert their social worth in the same degree that these soi-disant apostles themselves exhibit in their own actions, I am persuaded that every genuine Christian will heartily rejoice with me at the failure of the mission in these regions.
About 10 A. M. I was visited by Shonghi, the powerful chief who visited England a few years ago, and had the honour to be introduced to,
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and kindly treated by his present majesty, to whom he promised that on his return to New Zealand he would abolish cannibalism. This however he has forgotten to do, as he has since aided in killing and eating many human beings. He arrived at the ship accompanied by his chiefs and family in two splendid war canoes. Though labouring under the effects of a wound that is fast sinking him to his grave, his frame being already reduced almost to a skeleton, his manner is still commanding. Ferocity and cunning twinkle in his piercing eyes, while his curling lip and short teeth proclaim him a genuine savage, but one in whom traits of intellect are manifested.
His wound is singular, a bullet having passed through his lungs, whence a hole appears upon his breast and back, through which latter the wind issues with a noise resembling in some degree that from the safety-valve of a steam engine; which, however, he himself makes a subject of merriment. Although he does not experience much pain, it is evident he cannot last long, and of this he seems fully aware, by the haste with which he is preparing to take the field in a few weeks, as generalissimo, to a general gathering of the chiefs of the north, the object of which is an attack on the river Thames.
I was the first person who took Shonghi from his native island, on the brig Active of Calcutta, to New South Wales, in July 1814: he remained
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in that colony for some time with the Reverend Mr. Marsden, and returned the same year to New Zealand. In January last he had a war with the Wangeroa people: the ferocious and treacherous tribe who cut off the ship Boyde in 1809, and eat several British seamen; who murdered the French navigator Marion du Fresne many years ago, and who seized another ship in 1824 called the Mercury, alluded to in a former part of this work. In the war with this perfidious tribe, in which he received his present wound, Shonghi totally exterminated them and took possession of their country, where he now resides.
While on board, Shonghi embraced Brian Boroo in the most tender manner; he expressed his regret in moving terms at being obliged to go to war with his father, who he said was a good man, but that Boo Marray's death must be revenged, and nothing less than blood for blood would do.
After a mutual interchange of New Zealand compliments, I presented Shonghi with a stand of arms, the most acceptable offering I could make him, for which he returned me many thanks, and regretted it was not in his power to make a suitable return, being so far from his own home and territories.
Just as he was about to leave, he pointed to his daughter, an interesting girl about thirteen,
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who was sitting upon the hammock rail with a cloth in her hand, staying the issue in her father's back. He whispered to me that he was anxious I should become his son-in-law, as he had not long to live, and wished to see her settled before his death: that when the other tribes heard he was no more, they would fall upon his offspring and friends in revenge for the many victories he had obtained over them; and concluded by saying he could never rest till he knew that his daughter was protected, for that she was a good girl. I pitied the forlorn state of the poor girl, but excused myself from becoming her protector, telling him in a jocular way that he was but jesting, and calculated upon his approaching end with too much haste, and adding, "I shall certainly see you again before you die."
If I had belonged to this mission, and been single, I would have embraced with joy so advantageous and honourable an alliance. And here let me observe, that I consider it highly impolitic in the missionaries who are bachelors not to chuse wives from among the native females: as many advantages, both personal and as regards their conversion, would result from such marriages. The offspring of these men being instructed in the various trades of their fathers, would become good tailors, shoemakers, carpenters, curriers, &c, and these again intermarrying among the aborigines, would gradually spread,
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not only the doctrines of Christianity which they received from their parents, but also civilized habits and useful handicrafts. The Creoles inheriting their ancestral estates on the mother's side, would also succeed to their country's honours, which in due succession would devolve on them, and thus, in course of time, would a civilized nobility spring up, who could not fail of giving a tone to the habits of thinking and acting among their dependants, while the missionaries should aid, by precept and example, to establish civilization and Christianity at one and the same time: for let theorists advance what absurd propositions they may, arts and civilization must precede, and not follow the establishment of Christianity. 1
The plan I propose of intermarriages between the aboriginal females of noble birth and missionary mechanics, would very soon effect the objects in view of civilization and conversion; for which reason I would suggest to those who have the appointment, to send out bachelors for
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the future as teachers, with a perfect under-standing that they are to take unto themselves, as soon as possible after their arrival, wives from among the daughters of the land they are to live in.
14th. -- The wind at short intervals blew from all parts of the compass, accompanied with fair weather. Thermometer in the shade at noon 66 deg.
In answer to my letter to Captain Kent of the brig Governor McQuarie, I received a letter from him, offering to freight her at £2 per ton per month, or the sum of £600 for landing our interpreters at Tongataboo and Tucopia. I appointed him to meet me at eight o'clock next day on the subject.
15th. --The winds light and variable, with fine weather: thermometer in the shade at noon 66 deg.
Eight o'clock came without Captain Kent making his appearance as by appointment. At 10 A. M. M. Chaigneau and Mr. Russell went on shore for a short walk, to try the effect of a change of air, as they were both very weak and sickly. At noon Captain Kent came on board, but as the two other members of the council were on shore I could not proceed to business till their arrival, therefore Captain Kent took his leave, promising to meet me on board at 2 P. M.
Rathea and the Tongataboo interpreters on seeing Captain Kent, inquired of me who that white chief was, and in reply I made them ac-
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quainted with his name, and the projected arrangements for conveying them to their native islands. They insisted on being landed by myself: but I told them I had no men now to weigh the anchor, they being all sick as well as myself; that I must die if I attempted to go into a warm climate, in which event no person would be left to look at the sun, and then they could not find their way home; and that after all the provisions were exhausted they could not get any thing to eat and drink, and must of necessity also die. This home argument reconciled them; but they begged that, if I did not accompany them my brother would (for so they believed Mr. Russell to be), otherwise that the strange white chief and his people might ill-treat and land them on some desolate country, from whence they would not be able to escape to their friends and native country: "He will then," continued they, "tell you that he took us home, and in payment for his trouble will receive from you his beads, tokees, and muskets." I explained to them that I would give him none of those things; but a great deal of money, which he preferred to tokees. They expressed surprise at his stupidity in preferring money, which he could neither eat, drink, nor wear, to beads, tokees, and other treasures, which far exceeded money in real worth. Their request to have Mr. Russell with them
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in the ship that was to convey them home I considered only reasonable, and communicated their wish to that gentleman, who though extremely ill, consented, if he recovered sufficiently, to proceed with the Governor Macquarie, expressing his opinion that, as a prudential caution against malignant insinuations, an officer of the expedition should embark, and see the interpreters safely landed, and the charter-party in every respect faithfully complied with.
At 3 P. M. all were assembled on board to proceed in the consultation on Captain Kent's proposals, when I was suddenly seized with a cold fit of ague, and compelled to retire to bed.
16th. --This morning a full council was held upon the subject of Captain Kent's demands for chartering or freighting the brig Governor Macquarie, when the following resolutions were passed:
We, the undersigned, do hereby certify, that Captain Dillon has this day submitted the following proposals for our opinion and advice, as to the steps proper to be taken in the present critical situation of the expedition under his command. He has produced to us the surgeon's certificate of the expedition, as to the danger that would result from the ship proceeding into a tropical climate while the malady which is now raging on board continues. He has clearly pointed out to us the enormous expense that would attend the ship proceeding to the islands in the Pacific for the purpose of landing the interpreters, besides the detention that would arise, and the risk the ship would run of being lost, with so many valuable relics on board. -- He has also stated that
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the ship Research was victualled for forty-four weeks when she sailed on the present expedition, and that there have now elapsed nearly forty-six weeks, which would leave remaining on board a very scanty supply for the ship to proceed with to a civilized port, where a fresh supply might be procured. Captain Dillon has also informed us, that Captain Kent, the commander of a New South Wales vessel called the Governor Macquarie, now lying at anchor in a harbour distant thirty-five miles from here, has offered to convey the interpreters to their respective islands for the sum of five hundred pounds sterling. -- Having maturely considered the above statements of Captain Dillon, the authenticity of which we are all well acquainted with, we have come to the following opinion: viz. that he ought to accept of Captain Kent's terms, for having the interpreters forwarded to their native country without delay, so that he may by that means proceed direct on his return to the ship's port of destination.
(Signed) E. CHAIGNEAU, JOHN RUSSELL.
Of this opinion I approved, and it was consequently determined to carry it into effect.
l7th. --I wrote a letter this morning to Capt. Kent, informing him of the resolutions adopted yesterday, and received another from him accepting of them.
In conversation to-day with Captain Kent, he informed me that Hokianga was a bar-harbour, and that to enter or depart from it required a fair wind. He intended, he said, to set out for it this evening, and as soon as he reached his brig, drop down to the bar, there wait for a fair wind, and I might expect his arrival at this place in about ten days.
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The entrance of the harbour of Hokianga is situated on the west coast of New Zealand, south of Mount Campbell. On crossing the bar, ships enter a fine fresh-water river, navigable from the harbour's mouth eighty or ninety miles into the heart of the country, the banks all the way abounding with the finest spars for shipping.
19th. --The weather yesterday and to-day was exceedingly fine. Having recovered a little strength, I went on shore to see the sick, a few of whom had been sent on board last week sufficiently recovered for ship's duty; but after a little exertion they relapsed, and were now in as bad health as ever. I sent a messenger to Hokianga to procure some fresh provisions yesterday, with some potatoes, which were to be shipped on the Macquarie for me.
While on shore, king George, the chief of this place, earnestly entreated me to let Prince Brian Boroo, and Morgan McMurragh remain with him on my departure from New Zealand, saying that he would take the greatest care of them. I told him plainly that I would not leave them for him to knock their brains out and eat them. On hearing this blunt declaration he appeared offended, and piqued at the opinion I entertained of him. He said that Brian's father and he were particular friends, and an understanding existed between them with regard to the pro-
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jected campaign; that it had been privately settled that Brian's father, with his numerous troops, were to pass over to him, and this powerful coalition was to exterminate all the other tribes on the banks of the Thames. I was however too well aware of the wily disposition of South-Sea Indians to be duped, and related to Brian Boroo the specious story which had been contrived, to wheedle him from under my protection. He thanked me for the regard I manifested for his safety, and concurred with me in my opinion as to king George's intentions.
27th. --Nothing remarkable occurred here since the 19th instant, except the arrival of a small schooner belonging to Port Jackson called the Enterprize, carrying four men, and employed trading with the natives for flax.
December 3d. --Rathea the Tucopian was ill and very low-spirited, in consequence of his long absence from his native country. I tried all I could to divert his melancholy, but to no purpose. Last week, in order to amuse him, I went about nine miles up the river Kavakava, where we landed in a charming country, well cultivated and thickly inhabited; but the greater part of the inhabitants were ill of the catarrh or influenza, which they ascribed to the arrival of our ship with so many sick on board.
The brig Governor Macquarie arrived in har-
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bour this afternoon: her commander promised me to be ready for sea on the 9th; and I informed him that, in justice to my honourable employers, I should be under the necessity of charging him demurrage for each day he delayed beyond it.
On the brig's arrival, I pointed her out to Rathea and the other interpreters, as the vessel which was to convey them home; when poor Rathea observed that it was too late, for he had but a few days to live. I cheered him up, desiring him to eat with a good appetite and be of good heart, for he had nothing to fear; but his reply was, "Had I cocoa-nuts, bread-fruit, bannanas, &c. which I have been accustomed to, I might once more see Tucopia; but as it is, I cannot live."
7th. -- Shortly after daylight Rathea departed this life, much regretted by every one on board. He died chiefly of a broken heart, occasioned by protracted absence from his native country, and having no person to associate with, nor any one who sufficiently understood his language to converse with. Martin Bushart never took the least notice of him, and instead of paying the last tribute of respect to an old friend, remained on board during his interment. At 10 A. M. I sent the corpse on shore for burial, and fired three guns.
8th. -- I learnt this morning that king George
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was highly indignant at Brian Boroo being about to proceed for the Thames on the Macquarie. His majesty considered it unjust that supplies of arms and ammunition should be sent to his enemies, and threatened destruction to such of the Research's people as remained behind at the Bay of Islands, should he be defeated in his expedition against the Thames River tribe. As he was very insolent to Captain Duke and the surgeon of the Research on the occasion, I deemed it prudent to have the sick embarked. He endeavoured by every means in his power to dissuade Captain Kent from proceeding on the voyage, and this finesse to prevent Brian's people at the Thames from having the benefit of his presence and resources, sufficiently explained king George's intentions in begging me to confide the prince and his friend Morgan to his kind protection.
I sent on board the brig six weeks' full ration for Mr. Russell and the interpreters, and likewise furnished him with his instructions for sea, and a copy of Captain Kent's, together with a duplicate of the charter-party.
9th. -- Toward noon the interpreters embarked their baggage and presents on board the Macquarie, to each of whom I assigned his bed place; but the weather being unsettled and squally, Captain Kent did not wish to sail. Not wishing the six weeks' rations shipped for sea
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use, to be broken upon before the brig sailed, I took the interpreters on board the Research, to draw their maintenance till the Macquarie's anchor should be weighed.
10th. -- I sent the end of a hawser on board the Macquarie, to enable her when the anchor was weighed to make sail from the Research's stern. The weather being very squally, Captain Kent deferred getting under weigh till it became settled.
11th. -- At 8 A. M. the Macquarie made sail, and I went on board to accompany the interpreters as far as the harbour's mouth. On taking leave of these affectionate people, they evinced genuine grief at our separation. Brian Boroo and Morgan McMurragh in particular, lamented with tears that they were about to leave me probably for ever. These two men had been with me on board the St. Patrick on shore at Calcutta, and in this ship, for two years, during which they were faithful, and gratefully attached to me for the way in which I treated them.
Poor Martin Bushart also was much affected at leaving me, though he was determined on returning to Tucopia, there to end his days in retirement from worldly affairs. M. Chaigneau, the surgeon of the ship, and myself, did all we could to dissuade him, but to no purpose. He assigned as his reason for thus secluding himself, that he was much addicted to ardent
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spirits, which he had not a constitution to bear up against, yet could not refrain from, when they were to be procured. That as he was getting old, and unable to work for his livelihood, he would only be a burden to society, and that all he wanted in this world was lodging and food for himself and wife, which he would never be deficient of in his adopted country. I desired him to lay aside his fears, for if he would remain with me, he should not feel want so long as I owned a shilling; assuring him that the melancholy associations of fortune which united us on the bloody 7th September 1813 were not yet obliterated from my memory, nor could be: that I should to my latest breath remember the perilous situation in which he, Wilson, and myself, were placed at the Feejees. As he still resolutely persisted, I no longer opposed his inclination. Before parting, however, he said that he had one favour to ask of me, which was, to cause Captain Kent to remove the four Europeans from Tucopia, whom I found there at the time I took Stewart off. I replied, that having no authority to coerce free British subjects, such as these men represented themselves, I could not delegate any to Captain Kent; but that I would request him to persuade them to leave the islands, which, if their statement was true, was the utmost either he or I dared to do. He replied, that their whole story
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was a fabrication, for Stewart, whom I had left at Indenny, had communicated to him the true circumstances that led them to Tucopia, which at my request he related as follows.
"Stewart had formerly been mate of a ship, and having forged a trifling order on the owners, was transported for the offence to Van Diemen's Land. Here he, with ten others, piratically cut a small sloop out of the river Derwent belonging to a Captain Harris Walker, and escaped in her to sea. The first land they sighted after quitting Van Diemen's Land was Howe's Island, where they, about one hundred leagues from the coast of New Holland, hauled the vessel ashore, and commenced curing a quantity of fish and birds, with which the coast and island abounded, as a sea stock. They had a large pot on board, which served to prepare salt with from the sea-water, and having thus laid in a supply, they sailed from Lord Howe's Island, with intent to make the Sandwich Islands. They kept at sea till their provisions were nearly exhausted, when the nearest land to them being Erronam, one of the New Hebrides, they steered for it. Upon making Erronam one of their party landed with some old iron hoops, to barter among the natives for refreshments; but these attempting to board the sloop soon after, they were obliged to push off without their shipmate, not having any arms on
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board to repel the islanders with but an old musket without a lock. Distressed for provisions, and unable to procure any, they made the best of their way for Walpole Island, which they at length reached, and procured some cocoa-nuts, birds, and fish. Here they determined to put back to Howe's Island for further supplies, but four of their number preferred remaining behind, rather than tempt fresh dangers, and undergo a series of new privations, on a route that did not seem to terminate in any given point. The remaining six set sail from Walpole Island, and got as far as the Isle of Pines, close to New Caledonia, where they put in to procure water, not expecting to find it inhabited; but they were quickly undeceived, by a body of natives rushing from the woods and attacking them. Fortunately they had taken the precaution to load the old musket and furnish themselves with a firebrand, by which means they discharged it among the islanders, who retreated with the utmost precipitation, and thus afforded them an opportunity of escaping. After much toil and many perils they succeeded in reaching Howe's Island once more, where they recruited their water and provisions, and again set sail for the Sandwich Islands; but contrary winds impeded their passage, and being thus baffled a second time, they resolved to steer for the Friendly Islands. The
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first they sighted was some uninhabited islands close to Namooca, where they found abundance of cocoa-nuts, fish, and some turtle. Here by some accident they upset their vessel, but succeeded in righting her again. After getting all ready for sea they resolved to touch at Namooca, and if possible procure some yams, and then make their way to the island of Timor; with this view one of their party landed, furnished with a solitary axe; but there being no Indians on the beach, he ventured into the interior, from whence not returning after a lapse of several hours, his comrades sailed away, concluding he had fallen a victim to the savages. They were now supplied with a pretty good stock of cocoa-nuts, and while endeavouring to make Timor they reached Tucopia. On approaching that island they were boarded by the lascar, who to their great joy greeted them in English, informing them that the people of Tucopia were hospitable and kind to strangers: Stewart and his party, tired of an uninterrupted series of hardships and hair-breadth escapes, determined therefore on making that place the goal of their rambles. On quitting their boat the natives destroyed it, in order to come at the iron-work, but offered no personal violence to the crew, who handed over all their valuables to the lascar for greater safety, consisting of an old silver watch and a few dollars, which how-
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ever he never returned, either mistaking the deposit for a gift in recompense for his friendly intervention with the natives, or excusing himself by alleging that they had been stolen from him by the islanders."
This statement is very probable. A Captain Walker at Van Diemen's Land told me in May last, that he lost a sloop in the way above described, and requested me, if I fell in with it at New Zealand, to seize her for him; and on the day we arrived off Tucopia the lascar came on board, and offered to dispose of an old silver watch and ten or twelve Spanish dollars, which I refused to purchase, but think some person on board did.
Before hearing this account from Bushart, I had been told by the surgeon of the ship, that the boatswain informed him Stewart said he had escaped from Van Diemen's Land in the way Bushart related: but regarded the story as improbable, not supposing any man so weak as to convict himself of piracy. However, it was now too late for me to take any steps in the matter, Stewart having left the ship at Indenny: but I made Captain Kent acquainted with the circumstances, who promised to take the pirates from Tucopia to New Zealand, and from thence, if possible, remove them to Port Jackson.
The brig had no sooner cleared the harbour, than the gale became so violent that I expected
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she would lose her sails, which were very old. The first and middle parts of this day the wind was moderate from the westward: but toward noon it blew a perfect gale, when we had to wear out forty-five fathoms of cable, and send down the royal and top-gallant yards.
On returning to the Research I found two chiefs lamenting grievously on the following account. When the Research arrived in this port on the 1st of July last, a chief, the nephew of the deceased Boo Marray, named Ethaey, demanded me to deliver up Brian Boroo to the Bay of Island tribes, to be dealt with according to the New Zealand laws of war, which I refused. The crafty Ethaey then formed the following plan to decoy him. During Brian's absence at Calcutta, Ethaey's party had captured and enslaved one of his intended brides; and relying on the charm of a woman's persuasion, her owner despatched her on board with instructions to entice him ashore; but the girl loved Brian too tenderly to be guilty of such treachery, and instead of fulfilling her master's orders, informed him of the plot laid against his life. They lived together until the ship was on the point of sailing, when Brian ransomed her by presents to her lords, which they accepted, and she then became his lawful wife according to the customs of the country, which regard the dilatory process of calling in church, applying for
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and taking out licences, &c. as impolitic and unnecessary, since even Malthus himself would not have any apprehension of the principle of increase, where such an outlet exists for surplus population in the army and the oven.
Notwithstanding the ransom, however, Madam Shelah Boroo was detained by her faithless captors from the arms of her legitimate husband, till on my return to the Bay of Islands the 5th ultimo, Brian inquired for her, and she came on board next day, and resided with her loving and faithful husband as became a dutiful wife. This morning the lady went on board the brig with her husband, and accompanied by a number of other females, who went to take leave of their friends, it being expected that she would return with these ladies in some of the canoes or boats. But in vain did the chiefs exercise their patience looking out for her; canoe after canoe arrived from the brig, till at length the last boat put off without her, when expectation gave way to despair, and they set up a howl like wolves bereft of their prey.
Ethaey represented to me that Shelah being his brother's slave, I was in justice bound to make him reparation, as the people belonging to my tribe had deprived him of her services. I asked why they cried so bitterly for the loss of one slave, when they had so many to replace her: they replied, "Would you not cry if you
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lost the handsomest woman in your country?" I said, perhaps I might; but added, addressing myself to Ethaey, "Why do you cry? you have lost no woman." --"Oh," rejoined he, "I cry to keep my brother company; and if all our tribe were here, they would cry as well, for it is shameful to see a man lamenting alone." Seeing however that what was done could not be undone, he cast about to turn it to his brother's advantage, and observed that if I would give him my double-barrelled gun, it might dry up his tears and reconcile him to the loss.
I told him that my violent illness had injured my faculty of hearing; he then roared with a stentorian voice, "Give your double-barrelled gun to the man." But alas I continued as deaf as ever, my malady had so effectually deprived me of the power of hearing or understanding such harsh sounds. The chiefs, therefore, were fain to take breakfast, and we parted, they declaring however as they went, that should the brig return she would be surrounded by five thousand armed men, who would take possession of her, and destroy all on board. This they might have easily effected as the Macquarie had no guns, and her crew only consisted of twelve or fourteen persons, besides the interpreters and Mr. Russell.
The day was so boisterous, that I was apprehensive the brig's sails which were but indifferent
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would split, and she be compelled to put back: I therefore determined not to sail till the 13th; it blowing a gale and the wind unfavourable to steer for New South Wales, where I had to go for the purpose of procuring provisions and nourishment for the sick.
While in my cabin this afternoon, I was alarmed by hearing some persons in the water vociferating in the New Zealand tongue, "Send us a boat! send us a boat!" On looking out of the window, I beheld my old friend the Marquis of Wyemattee, with several of his companions, buffeting the waves for their lives. I instantly sent two boats, and rescued them from the twofold danger of being drowned and devoured by sharks, which frequent this harbour in hundreds; and when on board, I supplied them with clothes while their mats were drying. Though the Marquis was very ill of the disease which afflicted him when he quitted the ship, he could not suffer me to sail without a parting visit, which he was in the act of doing in one of his war canoes, when it swamped alongside, the sea running very high. He informed me that his servants would arrive next morning and bring a quantity of new potatoes as a present for me, and hoped I would not depart without them. I told him that it was not my intention to sail for two days, at which he seemed much pleased.
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Perceiving this a fair opportunity to create a party in favour of my absent friends Brian Boroo and Morgan M'Murragh, I mentioned the business to the Marquis, and my fears respecting the Macquarie. He requested me not to be alarmed; that if the Boo Marray party could bring five thousand men into the field, his forces, joined with those of his brother-in-law Shonghi, were more numerous, and that he would not suffer his friends and shipmates to be injured by them. The Marquis then signified his desire to sleep on shore; and although I pressed him to remain on board, he refused, saying he was unwell, and the ship too cold for him: that he had since his arrival habituated himself to sleep opposite a good fire in a house, and could not therefore with safety dispense with the heat.
12th. --For about three-quarters of this day a tremendous gale blew from the south-west, which would have effectually prevented us from weighing anchor if I had been ready for sea. All hands employed getting the ship ready to sail next morning; it being my intention to touch at Port Jackson, as well for supplies as to leave some accounts there of the success the expedition met with, for the information of the Bengal Government, to guard against any casualty that might occur to the Research on her return to Bengal through Bass' Straits, the route I intended to adopt.
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The supplies I required were, biscuit, salt provisions, and groceries, having an abundance of rice and flour on board, which latter I laid in at Van Diemen's Land, knowing it to keep well and occupy but little space, being also preserved from rats and cock-roaches in iron-bound casks. But the flour, to prepare it for food, required more water than could be stowed on board or spared at sea, and was therefore of comparatively little use in its present state.
13th. --At 9 3/4 A. M. I got the ship under sail, and stood out from the Bay of Islands, with pleasant variable breezes and fine weather. At noon Cape Brett bore E. by N. distant seven miles.
My friend the Marquis of Wyemattee came alongside at daylight, and remained with his war-canoe till the ship cleared the harbour, when he bade us an affectionate farewell. His countryman Moyhanger gave up his intended voyage to Calcutta, and remained behind, desiring me to greet Doctor Savage in his name, and tell him that a cask of musket-balls and a double-barrelled gun would prove a most acceptable present.