1928 - Grace, T. S. A Pioneer Missionary among the Maoris 1850-1879 - CHAPTER V: AUCKLAND

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  1928 - Grace, T. S. A Pioneer Missionary among the Maoris 1850-1879 - CHAPTER V: AUCKLAND
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THE following journey was not taken with any intention of asking the Hauhaus to return to the former faith, but simply to show myself amongst them, and to assure them that I still regarded them with feelings of affection.

Tuesday, Novr. 28th.--Journey up the River Thames. Started with my son, Tom, for Warahoe where I had arranged we were to sleep and go on with William, the Native Teacher, in the morning.

On reaching the village of Parawai, the Native Assessor, who lives here, stopped me to say that he could not get on with the trial of Mr.------'s case to-morrow unless my son Tom stayed to interpret for him. I felt it my duty to remain until the morning.

Wednesday.--The boat arrived in the night with Mr. Lawlor, Magistrate from Coromandel, but, as he does not speak Maori, and as the case was a serious one, I was obliged to leave my son behind; this put me to some inconvenience. I therefore packed my horse and started again for Warahoe and met William, the Teacher, at Kirikiri looking for his horse. A note from Mr. W------ was here put into my hand. I had asked him to write me a line if things did not look promising. In his note he says, "I do not think the Natives care for a Christian Minister's love."

I made for William's place; after proceeding a short distance I got my horse into a horrible bog, and unfortunately the animal, whilst floundering about, hurt herself very much against some logs of wood that were in the mud. On reaching Warahoe I pitched my tent near William's

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house and was made as comfortable as possible by his wife. Had evening service in a large house--about 20 attended. I was at this place last Sunday, and had to speak very strongly to them for their lazy way of going on at service.

I was glad to see them much better behaved this evening. When I had concluded one of the Teachers got up, and, in a very grave manner, said that it was not safe for me to go amongst the Hauhaus; that they themselves were afraid of them; that they (the Hauhaus) wanted traders, not Missionaries; and much more that I had heard before. I said that I would travel very cautiously, that I did not intend to ask them to come to our "karakia" (religion); but that I did think it was my duty to go and see them. William also spoke, and said that it was arranged that he should first go amongst the Hauhaus and let me know how matters stood.

The evening was fine and my tent was very comfortable, but there were plenty of fleas. William's wife was very kind and prepared my tea; it reminded me of bygone, but better, days, and made me feel that a brighter state of affairs was in store.

Thursday.--Had service this morning soon after sunrise and, after an early breakfast, William and I divided the baggage between us and started. The day was warm but there was a pleasant breeze. I was astonished to find that William had not been over the road before; nearly all the travelling here is done by river, so that an inland road is not much wanted except for horses, and it is very circuitous and hilly. William informed me that he had travelled with the early Missionaries on a more direct road, by way of the flats and swamps, but that this was now impassable. The present road keeps to the hills and spurs of the Coromandel range, in order to avoid the swamp, and, by so doing, about doubles the distance; yet, notwithstanding this, there are a great many swamps and bad places, and, if you have any mercy on your horse in going up and down the steep hills, there remains for you as much walking as riding.

We reached the Puriri about 11 a.m. Here are the first Hauhaus; lower down the river than this, they are not supposed to settle. We stopped for a little while at the old Mission Station; from this place William pointed out

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to me the sites of the former Mission Houses--not a vestige of which now remains. There were, however, some very beautiful white lilies blooming in great profusion, also multiflora in full bloom, and a goodly number of large willow trees. It is a green spot in the midst of a great waste or swamp.

The Hauhaus are living on the other side of the creek, and have not taken any liberties with the Mission land. As things now are, this would be a far better place for a Mission Station than Kaueranga The soil about the present Station is exhausted, and the Maoris are moving up the river to the good land. There were only a few Maoris to be seen, but their cultivations looked well and were extensive. I told William to call out and tell them who I was, and that I would try and see them on my return. Had they been very friendly I concluded they would have come over to me, but they did not do so; still, though they showed us no favours, they displayed no hostility. We started again and travelled for about two hours more, when, coming to a place where there was a little food for our horses, we halted. My horse, which was one I bought in Auckland, was not so fresh as William's, and had not been accustomed to travel bad roads without shoes; she had been through some very bad places and evidently was very tired. We made tea, which, with a little bread and bacon broiled on two sticks, comprised our dinner; we then started off again very much refreshed. In about an hour and a half we came to Hikutaia, where, as well as at the Puriri, there is a large party of Hauhaus--refugees from the Waikato. The potato plantations here are very extensive indeed, but we saw only one or two Maoris.

A respectable European settler lives here, but he was not at home. I promised to call again on my return. The person in charge kindly supplied me with a feed of corn for our horses. We again travelled on and reached Mr. Thorpe's, the home of a respectable settler, at about 5 p.m., where I arranged to stay. A few miles above this place is Ohinemuri, where the large body of Maoris (Hauhaus) in this District is located. The few Natives about were civil enough, but they all seemed to stare at me as if greatly astonished. William went out to see how

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things were in the direction of Ohinemuri. In the meantime I saw a good many Maoris. One gruff old fellow asked me what my work there was, as much as to say, "We do not belong to you."

William returned by dark, but had not been as far as Ohinemuri, so we decided to walk over there next morning.

I had evening prayer with 6 Europeans and arranged to have a service with them on the morrow. Subsequently I had Native prayers with 9 Maoris. I retired, being on the whole satisfied with what I had seen, but anxious to know what sort of a reception I should have at Ohinemuri. News had gone up that I was here, so that I expected that they would either refuse to see me, or would receive me kindly.

Friday.--We were up by sunrise, and shortly after started for Ohinemuri, purposing first to call on the European in whose vessel we had sailed from Auckland. He had kindly invited me to call. The morning was very hot; we passed some extensive plantations of potatoes and corn, and saw many people at work planting. In an hour we reached the settler's house, where we found three Europeans. The country here is flat and very rich, but of limited extent. I arranged with these settlers to attend service at Mr. Thorpe's in the afternoon. We crossed to the Ohinemuri side of the river, and were fairly launched amongst the Hauhaus. My first object was to see Te Hira, the great man of the place. He is said to be a well-disposed Native, though a Hauhau.

We were told he was at a mill that they were erecting on the road. We met two Europeans, one of whom I knew on the East Coast; invited them to service in the afternoon. On reaching the mill we were told Te Hira was at his place a little way off.

Two Europeans, who were working at the mill, I asked to afternoon service, but they excused themselves. Presently we reached the home of the only Native Teacher (Ropata) in these parts who has not gone over to the Hauhaus; he and two or three others are the only Maoris here who have remained faithful to the Church.

I could not help thinking well of this man, but, on my way down the river, at Puriri, I heard that he is given to

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drink, and that three cases of the spirits seized from the vessel in which we came from Auckland, were for him.

However this may be, I do not know at present; he escorted us about and I exhorted him to remain faithful. While passing through a number of villages we were greatly impressed with the industry of the Hauhaus, and could not help comparing it with that of the friendly Natives whom Government money appears to have harmed more than war has harmed the Hauhaus.

We arrived at Te Hira's place to find that he had gone to the mill, we having missed him amongst the many windings of the river. However, his people received us in a very friendly manner. I did not think it well to go after him, as it appeared he had something to do at the mill that would detain him. I therefore sent him word that I was here, and received a message from him to say that he could not return immediately, but that they were to cook a pot of new potatoes for us; these are very scarce just now, not yet having fully come in. As it was not long since we had had breakfast, and as the day was advancing and I had appointed English service at one o'clock, we dispensed with the potatoes; still, I was very pleased to receive so friendly an offer.

I spent the little time I had here in speaking to the Maoris. It having been told them that I was with dear Volkner at Opotiki, their exclamations and wonder were great. I was able to tell them that I knew more of Hauhauism than they did. This gave me a decided advantage in all the conversation that followed. They immediately said that their religion was different, and that their prayers were the same as ours, etc. "Yes," I replied, "you have changed so far, but your works remain the same. You discard the Sabbath, you allow adultery; this they did at Opotiki!" I find that my having been at Opotiki may, in the good providence of God, be blessed in enabling me to convince some of these poor people of their sin and delusion.

Very much was said about the Bishop going with the troops to Rangiawhia and causing them to be killed and burned alive; also about the Missionaries being at Rangiriri with the troops.

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I told them that the Bishop went to Rangiawhia to save lives, and that he really did so, and that soon they would hear from the Maoris, who had thus been saved, that what I said was true, and that Missionaries, who were at Rangiriri, would have been with them, if they had not sent them away. Singularly enough, since my return to Auckland I have learned that Hohaia, Mr. Morgan's old Teacher, has written a letter to W. Thompson stating that, had it not been for the Bishop, he and others would have been killed; so, by this time, the very people with whom I held the above conversation will have heard of Hohaia's statement, which, with the blessing of God, will do a great deal to remove the strong prejudice which has existed.

They wished to know what I came for, and if I was not afraid. I told them that I understood there were still a few lost sheep amongst them, and that I had come to look for them. They said, "That is right." Presently, when it became known that I was from Taupo, a woman, who was sitting by me, exclaimed, "That is my place!" I asked her tribe; she said, "Ngati Te Rangiita." I asked her kainga--she replied, "Pukawa." She explained that she was Emanuera's half-sister, was born at Pukawa and had married here. I immediately saw the likeness and could not help but hongi with her, a mark of respect she seemed to appreciate fully. Her brother, though a Kingite, had, up to the time I last visited Taupo, acted nobly. He fought at Orakau, and, when some of the Waikato Maoris with one bad Taupo Native proposed to kill me as payment for the people burned in the house at Rangiawhia, he was the leader of a party of five who came to let me know, and who, that same Sunday, would hardly leave my side; finally, he saw the King and foiled the intentions of those who wished to kill me.

I spoke encouragingly to them, and desired them to pray that God would send them better days. I referred to the dark days that had passed, and expressed a hope that better days were at hand. It was pleasing to see, both here and elsewhere, their faces brighten as I spoke of God's mercy, and that He had still better days in store for them.

There were two women suffering from fever, to whom I was able to speak a word of comfort. Neither of them

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seemed likely to recover. I ended my visit at this place by giving away a few copies of "The Sinner's Friend," leaving one especially for Te Hira, and, as they asked me when I would come again, I left word with them to tell him (Te Hira) that this time I had come to look for a few scattered sheep, but that when I came again, as I hoped to do in January, it would be to look for some lost flocks.

It has struck me very forcibly that what is now wanted is not to ask them to come to our worship, but to preach Christ to them, and this I believe would best be done by going amongst them and assembling for service all who have remained faithful, and at the same time inviting the Hauhaus to come to hear the sermon only.

I had several other services at the different villages on my way to Mr. Thorpe's, much to the same effect, and left these people with the conviction, that it is high time for us to "be up and doing!"

The Hauhaus have evidently made what they consider the first step to a return to us. They have, I understand, almost entirely adopted the Prayer Book as formerly. The prayer for the Queen, which they omit they will resume, they say, when peace is established. From what I understand of Maoris, they are not likely to advance much further until we have made some steps towards meeting them. We ought, I think, to be prepared with some course of discipline and instruction preparatory to their being received back into the Church--but to preach the Gospel is the first thing to be done.

Ten Europeans assembled for divine service, after which I did not see that anything would be gained by prolonging my stay. I prepared to return, purposing to remain at Hikutaia for the night; accordingly we set off at about 4 p.m. The day had been very hot, and it was still hot when we reached Hikutaia at dark. We had evening service with two Europeans. I could not learn that a single Maori remained faithful at this place. As our horses were rather too heavily laden, we left the tent behind on starting from Warahoe; now, however, we greatly needed it, for the good people here have lately been burned out.

They kindly allowed us to sleep in a small place put up for some carpenters, and which would have been well

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enough had it not been for the great draught which passed along the floor owing to certain unfinished places. In the morning I rose with a sore throat. I had slept in a strong draught and was very cold during the night. We started soon after sunrise and crossed the creek to the Maori village, where there were many Natives. Two men were quarrelling at a great rate, one having been accused by the other of practising "Makutu" (witchcraft). I tried to quiet them, but to little purpose, and so entered into conversation with those who were standing about. Knowing that they were from Waikato I asked them whose children they were; they said they belonged to Mr. Buddle, a Wesleyan Minister. They asked me about my visit up the river, and I told them that the Maoris were very kind. As the quarrelling still went on I could do no more; I therefore told them that I had a few little books for them, and gave them some copies of "The Sinner's Friend." They appeared pleased and I left them, desiring that they would read the little books carefully.

We rode on until we came to where we had dined before, and, at first, thought of breakfasting there, but concluded that if we could push on to the Puriri it would give us more time with the Natives; accordingly we did so and on our arrival there, about 9 p.m., found a large number of people present.

They received us very kindly. The women boiled our kettle, and when food was ready they set before us some boiled flour, potatoes and "pipis" (cockles). They put to me many questions about our reception up the river at Ohinemuri, When I asked them from what part of the Waikato they came, they told me that they were the children of Te Manihera (Dr. Maunsell); that at the beginning of the war, when they were not fighting, they were driven from their "kaingas" near Auckland; that they went to Rangiriri where the Maoris were told to send away the women to a place of safety; that they next went to Rangiawhia but were followed there also, and some of them burned alive; and that at last they had come to this place. The woman who told me this was very angry and said, "The pakeha will not let us rest anywhere, and now that we are sitting still, they come and say, 'Sell us this piece of land and

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you keep that,' and so they persevere till they get it, when they say, 'We want you to go a little further and to sell us this piece also for a town for us all,' and so you push us on and on, from one place to another, until we have no place left!" I found here also that my connection with Opotiki caused me to be listened to more than I could otherwise have expected. I was able to show them that all the fault was not on our side. Altogether my visit was an agreeable one. Before leaving I gave them two copies of "The Sinner's Friend" and told them that I hoped soon to see them again. There is a very small party at this place who belong to the district and have not gone over to the Hauhaus. They live a little way off by themselves; just as I was going, the principal man amongst them made his appearance. I had a little talk with him and gave him, also, a copy of "The Sinner's Friend" and so took my leave of them. Arrived at Warahoe at about one o'clock, after a fatiguing ride, the weather being very hot and the road trying. After partaking of a little food I put all my things on the horse, bade William and his wife good-bye, and reached the Station by about 5 p.m. I found that in my absence my son had been employed as interpreter and clerk to the Court, that the settler had been heavily fined, about 60 to 80 gallons of spirits, besides a large quantity of beer, taken, and the vessel seized and taken to Auckland.

This journey has convinced me more than ever that we must act very much in accord with the circumstances we find on the spot. We cannot rely on anything we read in the papers; therefore Europeans cannot for the most part guide us. Nor can we rely fully on friendly Maoris, for they are generally on the side of severity towards their offending brethren. I have been opposed on all sides for taking this journey amongst the Hauhaus.

A few days after my return I received a note of which the following is a copy:--

4th Decr. 1866.

"The day after you left Te Hira came and enquired who you were. He appeared sorry at having

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missed seeing you and said that if you had waited he would have asked you to have held service in the 'old way.' I think if you came here again, as soon as convenient, there would be a probability of getting back the greater part of the Natives in this District to the old faith.

"I remain, Revd. Sir,
"Your obedient servant,

After this we took another journey across the ranges to Whitianga and Tairua, to see some parties of Natives who have more than once expressed a desire for me to visit them. I am sorry that this journey did not end so well as the other. Our guide did not know the country well; we lost our way and, after four days' scrambling amongst mountain-torrents and precipitous hills, when we were as often in the water as out of it and our food failed, we were obliged to return.

You are not aware probably that this district has always been visited by way of the water? A Missionary here, without a boat, is almost useless.

(Sd.) T. S. GRACE.
Decr. 31st, 1866.


Although trouble is needful to individuals and communities alike, still, it is not natural to man; while suffering under it his spirit often sinks, his heart becomes despondent, and, too often, he is ready with David to cry, "I shall one day perish." How different it is when the dark clouds of trouble are rolled away; when hope, joy, activity and life resume their sway over the mind of man!

It is with heart-felt thankfulness to the Giver of all good that we close the present year with brighter prospects of peace and increased opportunities of preaching the glorious Gospel of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ to the misguided and erring Natives of this land.

I have this year been able to perform my full amount

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of travelling, having been nine months amongst the Maoris. During my journeys I have had many opportunities of becoming acquainted with the present state of the Maoris and am thankful that, on the whole, I am able to report favourably.

The Hauhau fanaticism, and the war that called it forth, are dying out together. In some instances there is a decided desire to return to the former state of things as regards religious worship. Many are asking for the Word of God, the entire Bible, and, what I have never seen before, except in individual cases, is the earnest wish of the people to have their children taught the English language.

I have taken a long journey into the interior; while there, at a large meeting of Natives, who have been hostile and Hauhaus, the desirableness of inviting the Duke of Edinburgh and the Govr., Sir George Grey, to Taupo to make peace was discussed, and only delayed, on account of the scarcity of food, until their crops are in, and they have consulted all their friends at a distance. I regret exceedingly that Sir George Grey is likely to leave before this can be done. I have no doubt that if he can remain two or three months longer that he will be able to conclude a glorious peace, and, if he thinks it well, to plant the British flag on the summit of Tongariro.

It appears only right that he should have the opportunity and privilege of making peace. Others may do it, but not, I think, so well.

During the year I have made two visits to Taupo. On my last journey I met with the old Native hospitality, even from the Hauhaus, and in one instance, when many Maoris were assembled, I was requested, that in place of having my services apart with the few Christians present, to hold them in the large house where they were all assembled.

On the whole the friendly Maoris are in a spiritual sense more discouraging than those who have been hostile. Hauhauism and the war must come to an end, but who can see the end of spirit drinking, to which so many of the friendly Maoris appear to be giving themselves up--except in death?

Concerning the war it may be said, "One woe is passed

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and behold another one cometh quickly." From this last great evil there is no hope but in God! It is vain to look to the powers that be. Drunkenness, the curse of our race, follows us everywhere. Still we are not without hope. God in His wonderful mercy to the Maoris has preserved them during the last seven years in the midst of sickness, comparative famine and overwhelming war--for they have fought against us at odds of from eight or ten to one! Are we not still bound to believe that He has among them a "remnant according to the election of grace"?

I have been able to spend about four months out of the year at the Thames. During the early part of the year I met with some encouragement, but, as soon as this district became a Gold Field, the congregation at the Station fell off one-half, and when I was last there, in Septr., vice was rampant. Again and again have I heard thoughtful Maoris in this district lament the evils we carry amongst them. It is a sad fact, sad for us as a people, sad for those who are the sufferers, that we, a highly civilized and professedly Christian people, stand reproved by those we esteem barbarians and savages! These people have petitioned and protested that public houses and spirits should not be allowed amongst them! I have heard them say, "Why do you bring these evils amongst us? Why do you tempt us? We cannot restrain our young people."

Let anyone who supposes that it is the desire of Heaven that the uncivilized man must perish on our approach, come here, and he will see it is our vices, with which we have inoculated these races, together with our greedy love of Mammon, that cuts them off--not the Will of our merciful God.

In the early part of the year I visited part of the Matata district where I found some encouragement, more especially amongst those who had been Hauhaus. On my late journey to Taupo a Native Teacher, who had just come from Whakatane, told me that the Maoris there, all of whom have been hostile and Hauhaus, expressed their wishes strongly that a Missionary should visit them to re-commence the work and to appoint Teachers. In order that you may know something of the state of the Maoris about Opotiki I beg to forward you the enclosed note from Mr. Clarke.

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With the blessing of God I hope to visit these places very shortly.

Some time ago we petitioned the Government to release four of the Native prisoners belonging to Matata. The Governor has been pleased to pardon them, and they have been handed over to me. All being well I leave with them to-morrow, and I trust, with God's blessing, they may open up my way amongst some of their hostile friends who have not yet held any communication with us. At present these four men are with us, and we find them most humble, grateful and willing. They have come out of prison highly commended for their obedience and good conduct, and have won the praise of the gaol officials. They have moreover come out, I am persuaded, better men than when they went in. One of them is unbaptized and is very anxious to be admitted into the Church. He has had much instruction from my Missionary brother, Mr. Baker, who reports well of him; I shall therefore feel it my duty to comply with his request and to baptize him in the presence of his own people, when next we arrive amongst them.

The whole of the Protestant Native prisoners have had the constant religious teaching of Mr. Baker, and by which they have been greatly benefited. When in Auckland on Sundays I have felt it a privilege to go to the Prison in the afternoon and have a Bible class with them, and have always been pleased with their attention and answers.

I cannot conclude this report without saying that the prospect for the coming year is on the whole bright and encouraging, but the labour for some years must be great. I see the work to be done but not the men to do it. Formerly we could meet our people by hundreds and thousands; now, in their scattered and altered state, we see them in tens and fifties. Native deacons may render us most valuable help, but it is hardly fair to expect that they will be able to reinstate the Church in its former position.

The labour for a time at least will be great, and my fear is that we may fail for want of strength. It is necessary we should be constantly on the move, living the greater part of the year in our tents. In the present state of things I hope none of our brethren will be drawn away from the immediate preaching of the Gospel in order that attention

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may be given to schools or other matters, particularly as the Government appears willing to undertake the responsibility of these things.

(Hauraki, Taupo and Matata Stations.)

16th December, 1867.

The Secretary,


Missionary work in this Country has been undergoing a great change and, in some respects, it is not likely again to run in its old course. The Maoris are now more scattered than ever. Food is nearly always scarce amongst them, so that Native hospitality cannot now be practised by them except at large gatherings. A degree of excitement and novelty in former years attached itself to Missionary work, and the Missionary himself was looked upon by his people, as a father and a friend. Morality and Sabbath observance were the rule. All these things are now changed, and the Missionary is too often looked upon with suspicion, or as a spy. Drunkenness, gambling, desecration of the Sabbath, and adultery are now rampant wherever the Maoris have come in contact with European communities. To these altered circumstances we require now to adapt ourselves, in doing which will depend in a great measure, under God, our future success.

A notion seems lately to have gained ground amongst us that, because it is self-evident that Missionaries must now itinerate to a larger extent than formerly, therefore they may as well live in European towns and settlements. No greater mistake could, perhaps, in our present circumstances be committed.

1st. The benefit of a Mission family living in the midst of a body of Natives is, if the Missionary's wife is not below the average, equal at least to half the work of a Missionary.

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It brings before the Maoris the practical effects of Christianity as exhibited in everyday life, in contrast to their own mode of living.

I have always had the greatest confidence in the Christian teaching and example of ladies when brought in contact with the rougher specimens of humanity; besides which our residence amongst the Natives forms a nucleus for regular Christian teaching in either day or Sunday schools.

2nd. As regards Native Deacons and their wives and children, what amount of benefit can they derive from us if we are to live in European towns?

3rd. So long as we are living in or about the towns the greater portion of our service will continue to go to Europeans. I believe that if the services rendered by our Missionaries for the last few years were to be put together, it would be found that fully one-half of our labours have been thus consumed. Correct statistics on this point would, I am sure, astonish many. For this ever growing loss of labour I see no cure but that our Missionaries leave European Districts altogether. The order of things seems to be completely changed. It would appear only reasonable that the very few Maoris living in and about towns, who are willing to take advantage of religious teaching, should be ministered to by the parochial clergy, and we left free to move about in purely Native districts; but, as things are, and even though there are so many of us in and about Auckland, there are little parties of Maoris who are greatly neglected. The fact is the demands for European services are so many and so urgent that the Maoris go to the wall. Only yesterday, on being solicited to take European duty, I said, "But I have a party of Natives there!" The reply was, "But they are not many, are they? Will you leave the many (Europeans) for the few?"

4th. The need of the Colonial Church is indeed great, but is it fair to the C.M.S., is it fair to the Maoris, that we should supply it? Forgive me for saying that it is simply folly to suppose that Missionary work and parochial work can go hand in hand in this country. I venture to say that they have never done so yet.

5th. The difficulty of living in Native districts is henceforth likely to be much less than it has hitherto been.

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It is now hard to get far away from European settlement, so that our elderly brethren never need to be far from medical aid.

6th. With respect to the training of Native deacons: I understand the Society approves of the plan of different Missionaries having one or two in training, who shall live and travel with them. This plan if properly carried out, under the blessing of God, will be a great present help, and will give us a reasonable prospect for the future. It will, moreover, greatly assist us in travelling. Whenever an allowance is made for such a Native Teacher to any particular Missionary, I would venture to suggest that the said Native Teacher be required annually to fill up a statistical table to show what his labours are, how he lives and is employed. For example as follows:--

1. Sunday duties in detail, showing each Sunday in the year.

2. Weekday Mission Labours.

3. Number of days travelling.

4. Mode of living.

5. Does he take his meals with the Missionary at his table?

6. If he is married, does he, with his wife and children, follow a European mode of living?

7. A description of his house.

It is now of the greatest importance that we should make these Maori Teachers members of our families, letting them see not only the routine, but as much of our financial management as possible. How can a Native, who has been brought up to act and think as Natives do on domestic matters, be able to economize his means, and keep up a little European establishment of his own, on a small income, without having been practically taught? This is only one advantage of a private residence with a Missionary which cannot be had in what are called training institutions. With respect to Native deacons generally, the best way to make them useful appears to be to give them such a measure of work as they can do; but, to isolate them and give them a sole charge where they are seldom visited, sometimes not for years, is a method that would be likely to ensure their becoming almost useless.

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Why lay upon them more than they are able to bear? It is our duty to give them a position, and, at least, to sustain them in it. It must not be supposed that these men, left to themselves, can retrieve our fallen work.

The four Maori prisoners the Government has kindly transferred to me are likely to be of great service in the event of my returning to Taupo. We leave for Matata to-morrow, from thence to Whakatane and, if no one has been there, to Opotiki; and thence on to Taupo for a short stay.

Praying that God may still bless us in our work, and that He may continue to prosper our Society both at Home and abroad, with very kind regards to Mr. Venn and yourself,

Believe me truly yours,


The object of the following journey has been to take back the four Native prisoners, and with them to visit their Hauhau friends, and, if possible, to go into the Ahikereru district, which is one of the strongholds of the Kingites and Hauhaus.

1867. Saturday, Dec. 13th.--Made all our arrangements and went down to the wharf, according to advertisement, to find that the boat was delayed till Monday.

Monday, 15th.--Sailed at noon, the steamer calling in at the Thames to land passengers. Great progress has been made at this place since I was last here three months ago.

16th.--Reached Tauranga at noon, landed prisoners and baggage. Three of the prisoners went over with some of their friends to Matapihi; one, Mason, a young man, remained with us to assist in catching our horses. Pitched our tent near where the horses are running.

17th.--With the help of a settler caught 3 of our horses and had them shod; completed our supplies for six weeks. Arranged the packs for the pack-horses, also the packs for the other two horses, which my son and I are to ride. All is ready for an early start in the morning.

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Thursday, 18th.--Got off very early and went over the tidal mud-flats to Maungatapu, where the other three Maoris are waiting for us. By crossing here we save the long and tiring swim of our horses at Matapihi; it also saves expense, but it is necessary that you know the road well.

These tidal mud-flats are about 4 miles in extent. On one occasion we went a little wrong and got our horses bogged in a quicksand; now that we know the way well it will be a great advantage. On arriving at Motutapu we found that the Natives had gone on as the tide was making. The first Native we met was a man gesticulating in a fearful manner. He demanded why I had not liberated all the prisoners, especially Te Hura. He said he was a prophet and that we must go back. At first I thought he was a Hauhau; but, when I came up to some other Maoris, they told me that he was porangi (mad). I tried to make friends with the man, and asked him to go on over the flats and show me the way. He did so, shouting, complaining and abusing by turns until we reached the far side, where we waited for my son and Te Mehena to come up. My friends coming up I dismissed the poor lunatic with a small gratuity, and soon overtook the three prisoners who had gone on before. We arrived at Maketu about 2 p.m. The prisoners were very shy here. The Arawa of Maketu had been their greatest enemies. I went to the pa and found Ihaia asleep in his house. Went amongst the people and told them I should like them to be kind to the prisoners. In a short time they were sent for, and, in the evening, when I went over again, I found a large house full of people. I listened to some of the speeches which were in the nature of lectures.

This, coming from the murderers of Aporotenga, was, I thought, in bad taste. I proposed to have evening prayer, and addressed them, endeavouring to show them that there was much cause for all to repent. During the whole proceedings I was very sorry to see the reluctance of Ihaia in showing any kindness to the prisoners. The guilt of the Arawa and that of the Maoris of Matata will not bear comparison. The Arawa coolly and deliberately murdered a poor prisoner--a great man and one, who, according to

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Maori usage in the worst times, might have considered his life safe, for they had fed him after he was taken. We took up our lodging in the kitchen belonging to the old Mission house. Ihaia, the Deacon who has left it, is now living at the pa and is in no way distinguished from the other Natives. Neither Ihaia nor his wife even so much as came to enquire if they could do anything for us.

19th.--After breakfast went on to Matata. The day was hot and the tide high, so that we could not travel quickly, besides the prisoners found great difficulty in walking. At noon we were obliged to make a long stay on account of the tide, so that we did not draw near to the Matata till sundown, and, as our appearance was sure to occasion a little stir, we thought it better to sleep on the beach, a little way off, where we made a very comfortable encampment--all was good will and gladness in our little party. Old Hakaraia had, however, gone to announce our approach. Matata was the former residence of all these prisoners. The Government has given this place to the Arawa, notwithstanding that there are several of the old inhabitants here, amongst whom is Pitoiwi's wife.

On our approach a great tangi commenced, which lasted for about three hours, after which speechifying went on till the middle of the afternoon. These Maoris of the Arawa tribe come from Tarawera, Taupo and other inland places, and have given the released prisoners, all things considered, a very good welcome. The general tenor of the speeches of the Arawas was to welcome them back; that though the land was gone their lives had been spared.

The replies of the prisoners became their position. They said it was true that the land had gone, but what of that! It was not a land of gold! You may keep the land, we will find another place. Let the war cease, and let us live at peace. They expressed their gratitude most strongly to Mrs. Grace and myself for obtaining their liberty.

We all assembled for evening service, when I was able to tell the people that, in the prison, the Natives had had constant worship.

21st.--The day was spent much the same as yesterday, other parties coming to tangi and welcome the prisoners.

Morning and evening prayers were well attended.

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I addressed them on all occasions, pressing upon them the great need of true repentance, assuring them that our gracious Father was ready to receive and forgive them. The people, generally, were much more willing to listen to the Word than they were in February last.

22nd (Sunday).--Had early morning prayers and forenoon service with about 40 adults at the settlement, where we were entertained. In the afternoon went a little distance to Arama Karaka's place, where I had service with about 50, and baptized 3 children. Preached from 1 John ii. 15. Spent the evening in religious conversations with different parties.

The day had been exceedingly hot--I returned to my tent somewhat tired.

Monday, 23rd.--Started after breakfast for Rangitaiki and reached Waiparuparu at 3 p.m., where we met with the relatives of the greater portion of the prisoners still in confinement. The tangi here was very great and long and heartfelt. Some of them seemed to think that we had been a little partial in not obtaining the liberation of the others. I found it necessary to explain that I had been able to make out a strong case for these, which I could not do on account of the others; but that I hoped that the liberation of these four men would prepare the way for the others to follow, as soon as peace was established. They appeared quite satisfied that I had done all in my power for them; still, they were very pouri (sad). They said that their lands had been taken, and that now they were very poor, and spoke as though they did not know where to go. They evidently are very poor. I tried to cheer them, and told them that there was light in the midst of darkness; that if, in the end, their affliction worked in them true repentance, they would have cause to rejoice even though their sins had been great. They expressed a great desire to return to the worship of the true God, and I exhorted them to do so honestly and in earnest, and told them that, after they had had food, I would meet at evening prayers all who wished to come. Every man, woman and child in the place attended--about 60 in all! I addressed them till late in the evening from John i. 4. May our Heavenly Father bless His own word. There is certainly a great change in these people--no

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bluster, no pride, a good deal of dejection, some apparent humility, and a seeming willingness to take advice.

24th.--A great part of the forenoon of this day was spent in crying and talking. I had a meeting at which I urged them either to set apart a house, or to build a temporary one for daily worship. Found they had no Prayer Books; told them they had better make a collection and I would buy them some. Arranged to baptize Pitoiwi to-morrow. He greatly desires this, as I think I informed you before. We had 50 at prayers, both morning and evening.

25th, Christmas Day.--Everything sad; no bright faces; sadness alone seems to hold sway! How inseparable are sin and sorrow. I tried to cheer them and in the forenoon preached to them from Luke ii. 14, when they were very attentive. Yesterday they did their utmost to entertain us. They killed a small pig and there were sufficient potatoes--but the pig was inadequate for so many. To-day they appear to have nothing but potatoes.

On leaving Auckland the Government had supplied the prisoners with a 100-lb. bag of biscuits, and a little tea and sugar, for the journey. As this was left by the four men at my disposal, and finding that both their friends and former foes treated them so well, I had carefully saved their slender supplies until the hour of need arrived, though I fear my pack-horse did not thank me for having to carry the load so far. I had now a somewhat evil eye for their biscuits, and proposed to Pitoiwi that we should part with about half of them, together with some sugar and tea, and so try to cheer these sad people. Pitoiwi and the others agreed most heartily to this proposal, and, in a short time, the whole community were enjoying themselves with biscuits and well-sweetened tea; of both of which they are exceedingly fond. My son and I made the best we could of some potatoes and a piece of a large eel, which they had cooked for us in the Maori way, thinking, while we did so, of the happy faces that were, with God's blessing, gathering around our table at home.

I had an afternoon service, when I baptized Pitoiwi by the name of Joseph. I trust his baptism made an impression upon his friends who were present.

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Ever since we left Auckland Pitoiwi, now Joseph, has been expressing a wish to return with me and live with us.

I have just been making him understand that this cannot be at present. He has taken it much better than I expected. I have advised him to go in amongst the hostile Maoris and endeavour to make peace.

Thursday, 26th.--Had prayers by sunrise, after which we packed up and went a short distance higher up the river to Kokohinau, where they have been making preparations to receive us. The liberated prisoners and all their friends went up in a body. The principal man here is Theophilus, who has been a Native Teacher for many years, and has stood his ground throughout the whole struggle. Though he was captured at Whanganui when on a journey to enquire from Te Ua, the prophet, whether it was true that he wished all Europeans and Ministers to be killed, he was liberated through the intercession of a Magistrate who knew him well. He is very clever and has always been well disposed. You may remember during our retreat from Taupo, at the end of 1863, when we were suffering much from want of supplies, how, when we arrived at Ahiinanga, he sent us a very nice letter with a small quantity of sugar, at the same time expressing regret that he could not come to us, as he was then attending his wife who was in a very precarious state from the fever, which was at that time cutting off many. This man's pa, which is large and has been well fortified, contrasts strongly with the one we have just left. Here there was plenty of everything--and I can assure you that a breakfast of good fried pork was not without its attractions to us! There was much crying, many speeches and plenty of food. At this place I observed the first field of wheat that I have seen this season amongst the Maoris. Their plantations of corn, potatoes and kumara are extensive and look well. "God blesseth the habitation of the just." These people have kept clear of the war on both sides, and have never given up their worship. It being arranged that we should spend the Sunday at this place, I proposed to fill up the interval by going over to Ahiinanga as I should not, perhaps, have another opportunity of seeing the Maoris there. My son was now about to leave me for Taupo and Napier; I should soon lose his

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company and help. We started at noon. Ahiinanga is but 8 miles distant, but unfortunately we mistook the way and got into an old pa, which caused us to spend 3 hours fighting with high fern ere we struck the right road.

At best this piece of the road is very bad, and, the day being very hot, the poor horses suffered very heavily through our mistake. In due time we arrived at Ahiinanga, where we refreshed ourselves with a little tea and a wash in the river. The Government, or rather the C.M.S., has given me 10 acres of land in this place, instead of a much more valuable piece which the Maoris gave me at the Matata in 1862, before the war, in order that I might build a house there. This land is not nearly equal to that offered formerly, nor is it so convenient; but, under the circumstances, I suppose we must be content.

I had no legal title to the land which, in common with all the other at Matata, has been given to the Arawa. As all the Maoris of this settlement were 5 or 6 miles down the river, I sent them a message asking them to assemble for Sunday.

We crossed the river and pitched for the night in an open space, near to which there was a little food for our horses. The mosquitoes were truly dreadful and we found it quite impossible to rest, even though we were worn out with the heat and toil of the day.

Friday, 27th.--We were on our horses at daybreak, and, as my son is about to leave me to take, unaccompanied, a long and formidable journey for one so young, I determined to go with him for a little way. After riding about 10 miles, while fording the river, his horse fell down in the midst of a rapid, with the boy under him! For a few moments his situation was critical, but he managed to extricate himself with no worse consequences than a good wetting. We went on together till noon, when we parted, and I wished him God-speed through the wilderness. After he had gone I felt particularly lonely. I made up my mind at first to return to Ahiinanga and to sleep there, but the coolness of the night, and the knowledge that I should be visited with few, if any, mosquitoes determined me to remain where I was. I spent a quiet evening and was refreshed by a sound sleep at night.

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Saturday, 28th.--Rose early, looked after my horse, bathed in the river and had breakfast, after which I rode on for Paruwai, 6 miles below Ahiinanga, and which I reached by 11 a.m. During my ride of 30 miles I did not see a single Maori. A strange feeling comes over one in these solitary wanderings in the midst of some of Nature's grandest scenery!

Here I found my old friends, who have always given me a helping hand in getting in our supplies to Taupo. Very many of these people have not been in the war against us, yet they are losing a great portion of their land. I have met here one of my old School boys, whose father was a very important man at Matata, and died of fever just before the war broke out there. He was exceedingly loyal and, at considerable risk to himself, when the army of hostile Maoris came on their way to Waikato, sent a letter to the authorities at Maketu giving information, and, after this, nothing daunted, in a speech before some 600 Kingites, justified his conduct; yet this man's two sons, now orphans, are dispossessed of all their land, and, if an appeal be made, they will perhaps get a few acres in some out of the way place. I believe the Government wishes to do the best it can--but alas! how imperfect is human justice! In the afternoon I held a meeting, when I found that they were all desirous to return to their former worship. I proposed that they should build a house in which they could assemble for worship. Their reply was that they were at this place only on sufferance; that they might be ordered away at any moment, and, as yet, they did not know where they might be located.

There is a good old man here who has long been in the habit of conducting prayers, but he is not sufficiently instructed to preach.

I have desired him to continue his work, and, as the people are so scattered, I have associated another younger man with him. At evening prayers 30 adults were present. Addressed them from the words of the 136th Psalm, "For His mercy endureth for ever." They were very attentive, and altogether I was favourably impressed with them. They were very anxious that I should visit them again soon. Arranged for another service early in the morning.

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Sunday, 29th.--As I had my appointment to keep at Kokohinau, we had our morning service at this place at sunrise. Addressed them from Luke xv. 18 & 19. After breakfast got my horse bogged at the other side of the river; the banks were so soft that he could not get out and, while struggling and plunging, fell back 3 or 4 times into the water. When at length we got him out he trembled in every limb, and was more exhausted than he would have been after a hard day's journey. We pushed on for Kokohinau; but, as the road was so bad (through a swamp and high manuka), we did not arrive there until after morning service. In the afternoon I had a large attendance of between 60 and 70 adults, and baptized 6 children. The state of affairs here is very much better than amongst the Arawa---more industry, more food, more regard for religion.

Monday, 30th.--I have intended from the first, if possible, to visit the Whaiti, where some very determined Hauhaus reside, hoping that the sight of the released prisoners, who are friends of theirs, may inspire confidence and induce them to come in and make peace. A Native has arrived from thence who thinks it will not be unsafe for me to go, if Theophilus goes with me. I propose to go on before; my horse being tired I shall sleep on the road, and Theophilus will follow to-morrow morning. Two horses were kindly provided for the two prisoners. After dinner we started and rode on until dark. We stopped on the bank of a river in a beautiful vale. Not being able to get tent poles we were unable to pitch our tent, but, as the night was fine, it did not matter; we made a fire and slept round it with many mosquitoes for our company.

Tuesday, 31st.--Waited till about 10 a.m. for Theophilus to come up. The morning was very hot and we had no shelter. As we concluded that Theophilus and his party had taken another road which struck the river higher up, we thought it best to return, and, on reaching the spot where the other road branched off, to follow it to the river higher up. Here we laid a branch of manuka across the path to make them understand that we had not gone that way. We mounted and rode back for about 10 miles, and then followed the other road for 12 miles, halting

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when we came to the river. Finding that there were no fresh feet marks, and knowing that our friend had had ample time to reach us, we thought he could not be coming. Our food was now nearly exhausted--only four biscuits were left! I concluded, that, as Theophilus had not come, it was just one of those cases in which a letter in the hand of Pitoiwi would have more effect than if I went in person, and would avoid the possibility of my doing any harm, which would be the case if I went and was received with suspicion and then sent back. I wrote therefore to say that, as their friend Theophilus had not come on, I, not knowing their state of mind, had decided not to go on but had sent my friend, Hohepa Pitoiwi, who had been liberated from prison, to carry my letter and to tell them that this was a good time for them to come in and make peace.

Of course Hohepa would, in addition to this, tell them all that was in his heart. Pitoiwi will not reach the first village till to-morrow. He had no food with him, and had had very little during the day, yet we could not prevail upon him to take one of the four remaining biscuits! When he had gone we made up our minds to ride back as fast as possible, in order to reach the only place between this and Kokohinau where there is water on the road. We rode hard till it was quite dark. When we arrived we made a fire, had an evening meal of a biscuit each and a little tea, after which we had prayers, and thus closed the last day of the year. A year of many mercies! May our Heavenly Father forgive us all our shortcomings. We were too tired to pitch our tent, so slept as before, beside the fire.

1868, 1st January.--New Year's day---(morning). May our Heavenly Father bless and keep us, and revive our work amongst our Natives this year. We rose at daybreak, had our last biscuit and tea, and started. Reached Kokohinau after four hours' hard riding, where we found Theophilus, who had been unable to catch his horse. Three were to have followed us, but, as one horse was wanting, they all stayed behind. Seeing that he had nearly frustrated my object, he seemed sorry he had not used a little more energy in the matter, and proposed to follow Pitoiwi, which he did the day after.

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Thursday, 2nd.--Heavy rain and wind all day. Our next objective is Whakatane. The people of this place have already invited me to go and see them. The country here is low and swampy, and the mosquitoes very troublesome. The wives and relatives of the Maoris still in prison have spent the day in writing letters for me to take. These people are not wanting in the finer feelings of our nature. As I sat by I could not help hearing them as they dictated to their scribes these letters in language most tender and touching. Two children of one poor fellow who is in prison have lately died. This sad news had now to be communicated to him. This they have done in the nicest manner, telling him not to be sad; that though the children had been taken his life had been spared, and that he had still many loving friends. Then followed a very appropriate song.

Friday, 3rd.--Fine morning, started for Whakatane leaving word for Pitoiwi to follow us on his return. At noon we came to a small village on a river, a short distance from Whakatane, where we met 2 or 3 more wives of the prisoners. I promised to see them again on our return. We rode on to the principal settlement of this tribe on the Whakatane river. On approaching the place I was greatly struck at the gladdening aspect of peace and plenty. A large extent of land was covered with a fine crop of wheat, and many hundreds of acres planted in potatoes, kumaras and Indian corn. Never, since many years before the war, have I seen anywhere amongst the Maoris such signs of so much industry and plenty. The land here is exceedingly good. The Government has confiscated one side of the river and left the other to these people. It was evening when we arrived at the first small village where we stayed. Here I met an old Maori Teacher that I know well, Moses by name, and was glad to hear from his own lips, as well as from others, that he had never been a Hauhau. Most of the Maoris here are Romanists, so that we had not many at evening prayer. They were all civil and respectful, but I felt discouraged, and went to my tent somewhat sad, fearing that I should do little good.

Saturday, 4th.--While at breakfast messengers from the principal kainga above came to say that the people there

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wished to see me. The two released prisoners had already gone. On my arrival at this place I found a large number of people; they had just finished their tangi with the prisoners, and were commencing their speeches of welcome. A Native, called Joel, is the chief man here, and spoke first, welcoming me most heartily. The principal points of his speech were that they had joined the war, but had left it quickly, and were now sitting beneath the shadow of the Queen. Respecting Hauhauism, he said that there were three things that gave rise to it: 1st, Hatred of all Europeans; 2nd, Pride; 3rd, The Devil; and that they were, after they had received it, like the man in the Gospel into whom seven other spirits worse than himself had entered. He said that they greatly wished to return to their former worship, but were without a minister, and had no one to teach them. "Come back!" he said; "be quick, for the sheep are perishing!" Other speeches were much in the same tone, and expressive of their satisfaction at the liberation of the prisoners. They all embellished what they had to say with waiatas (songs), but one old man attracted my attention more than all the rest. He spoke in the true Maori style and, in the midst of a very animated address, introduced his song of welcome, which he sang with such life and animation, that all were delighted with it. The whole body of people joined in, at certain parts. The speech and song were longer than is usual, and, realizing this, the old fellow in the middle of his performance cried out, "Perhaps my song, being long, will tire you?"

All with one voice cried out, "Go on!" So he finished his speech and song. Such a Maori orator, and such an exhibition of Maori ability, I can hardly hope again to witness, for these old men are fast dying out. This man's performance has made an impression on my mind which can never be erased. The whole speech was a wonderful piece of natural eloquence; his words, his gestures (which were not extravagant), the management of his voice, the significant shake of his head, the expression of his eyes, his lively movements to and fro along a line of about 6 or 7 yards, the time, everything that could produce effect and make an impression, were there in perfection! I could not help thinking at the moment, how infinitely superior

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it was to, all the elaborate, theatrical shams that draw people at Home to crowded theatres. Were this old man to sing his song in London, I believe that professionals would have nothing to do until he had left. But the best of it all was, that this old fellow's song came from his heart--it was a work, or rather an offering, of love.

In the course of the afternoon I had a conversation with the old man, and asked him for a copy of his song, which he most readily consented to give. A young scribe sitting near at the time said, "Give me some paper." He was soon provided and writing away while the old sage dictated. It was a pleasing sight. Immediately the young man began to write, he turned the side of the sheet to the top, and wrote downwards from the top to the bottom. I half thought he was going to play a trick upon me, or, at least, that it would be impossible for me to make out what he was writing, and so I said to him, "What are you doing?" He at once reversed the paper, with the top of the sheet in its proper place and, lo! the writing was all right, and rather good, though each letter detached. The young man held up his right hand, which I saw was deformed, and, merry as a lark, pointed out to me that he wrote with his left hand horizontally.

I was the more interested when I learned that an old friend of mine, Te Rangipaia of Matata, was the composer of this song.

The Whakatane and Matata people were all one tribe before the war. It was this poor old man, Te Rangipaia, who took us under his wing when we first landed at Matata in 1853! He built us a house in which to store our things, and, afterwards, on our being delayed about 8 weeks in Auckland, put up a hut a little distance off, where he and his wife slept during the whole winter that they might guard the place from theft and fire. His wife died in 1864, while we were at Matata, and he was killed by the Arawa while endeavouring to escape.

But to return to the meeting. It became my duty to reply to the many speeches that had been addressed to me. On rising I could not help feeling a good deal of emotion. Before me were a great number of people, who, whether sincerely or not, were acknowledging their sins and asking

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for the Gospel. I told them that my object in coming was to bring back the light of the Gospel which they had lost, and to lead them back into the right way; that I had myself often lost my path when travelling in this country, and had always found it best to go right back to the place from which I went wrong, and that I trusted that they were now in earnest in wishing to return to our Merciful God. Some one cried out, "Be quick and come to us, we are perishing!" I told them their sin had been great, and that the only way back was to repent them truly, and to seek forgiveness through Christ, and strength for the days to come; that, if they did not do this, the destruction, which the war had commenced amongst them, drunkenness would complete, and, in a few years, leave them neither "root nor branch." I exhorted them to look after their young people, who were now being led away in great numbers by drinking and gambling, etc. Many of the speakers expressed a strong desire for me to reside amongst them. I pointed out to them that I did not see how this could be done, as I had many other places to travel to but, still, if they would subscribe, they might have a Maori Deacon; but that in any case they must be strong and carry out what I had said, and that in the meantime it would be necessary to appoint Native Teachers. I then desired them to have a meeting for the purpose of finding out how many men there were who had not forsaken the Gospel, so that I might appoint from these teachers, for the time being. Before I had finished, an important man came and asked me to have prayers with them before they separated. To this I gladly agreed, and, when I had concluded my address, I gave out the 6th hymn in the Native collection, which they sang heartily to an old English tune. We had morning service, after which I preached to them from Matt. iv. 14-17. So ended our meeting, for which I thank God. I addressed them again at evening service, when, according to a proposal I had made, we read also the service for Ash Wednesday. Made arrangements for a number of children to be baptized in the morning. One good woman was very attentive to me with regard to my food. I returned to my tent pretty well tired.

Sunday morning.--Had service at 6 a.m.; preached to 60.

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After breakfast baptized 2 children and at 10.30 a.m. left them to go to the other side of the Whakatane Heads, 7 or 8 miles off, by a dreadfully rough road over the hills. The day was hot and my poor horse felt the journey very much.

I arrived at noon. On reaching the last of the scattered houses I came to Ohope, where an old teacher, Wiremu Parakau, lives. I found here 6 adults, including Wiremu. He told me they had had morning prayers. I was very pleased with this old man.

He seems to have been unflinchingly faithful in the midst of all the fanaticism by which he has been surrounded. He used to live with Mr. Davis at the Waimate, and speaks very kindly of him. He is, I believe, a truly Christian man.

I had service and exhorted them to remain steadfast, after which I had a few potatoes that they boiled for me, and then started back over the hills to Whakatane, where I arrived at 4 p.m. and held service with 4 Europeans. I then crossed the river and had a rough, heavy ride over sand hills to the village that I had promised to visit on my return.

Here I was to meet two of the Native prisoners. I reached the place at 7 p.m. and had evening service with 18 adults. Several of the women of this place are wives of the men in prison. Here, just after I had had some more potatoes and a little tea, my two Natives arrived with my tent, which we pitched. I was very tired, but rest was next to impossible, owing to the mosquitoes.

Monday.--Had another opportunity of addressing them at morning prayer. After breakfast they gave me a number of letters to convey to their friends in prison. I started off and reached Matata at 11 a.m. where I found old Hakaraia. In the evening my two Maoris came up. During the afternoon, while in my tent, I heard old Hakaraia, who was a little distance off, most diligently reading from the Epistle of St, James. After he had been reading for a long time, I went up to a Maori who was listening, and asked him if the words Hakaraia was reading were anything like the Hauhau teaching. He replied, "O, Father! that was the work of the Devil, but this is very good!" In the evening

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I had service with as many as I could get together. Had a long conversation with the principal man about building a chapel. He seemed desirous to do so, but said that the land was not yet portioned out to them, and that the people did not intend to live here permanently.

Pitoiwi has returned from Te Whaiti, and goes back with us to Tauranga. He is in high spirits. They received him most kindly. When my note was read they expressed the greatest regret that I had not gone on. They have sent me a letter requesting me to visit them. They consent to do as I advise, namely, to come in and to make peace.

They evidently wish to be done with fighting. The letter sent to me is signed by the four principal men.

Tuesday.--Took leave of old Hakaraia and went on to Maketu. When about half-way, my poor old horse became very ill, and I was obliged to lead him nearly all the remainder of the way, about 10 miles. It was nearly high water, raining hard and the beach was very heavy. In the early part of the day I had gained upon my Native companion. On arriving at Waihi it was very nearly high tide; there was a canoe on the other side, but no Maoris in view.

The crossing is wide; shall I try? I have no tent, no food, am wet through, my Natives are 8 miles off! If my horse stays here until morning he will most likely die, or be unable to stand. Resolved to try! I enter the water. On, on, deeper, wet to the flanks; deeper still, up to the saddle; tie my knapsack to the saddle in case I may have to leave my horse and swim! Shall I return? The old horse is as cautious as I am. Deeper still! His back is now some 8 inches under water. Can Pompey keep his feet? If so, all will be right, but he is very shaky; if he begins to move I shall have to jump off, which, with my heavy, waterlogged clothes, will be awkward. Gradually he rises a little; we are now in the middle on a bank which divides the two streams. What will the second stream be like? It proves to be much the same as the one we have forded and we pass through in safety--thank God! Just as I was approaching the shore, a Maori came riding up with the intention of crossing. He made an attempt, but returned! You will not wonder at my concern for my poor old horse.

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He has proved himself a splendid animal, and has been with me in all my wanderings since 1854. He has done a large amount of work and on one occasion saved both himself and me from falling into a boiling lake, which, through being enveloped in steam, we could not see. I bought him from Mr. Dudley for £25, as being absolutely necessary for our journey to Taupo. The Committee in Auckland grumbled and passed resolutions against poor Pompey. I could have sold him to Colonel Wynyard for £60 or £70. He is now old; I have used him too much this year--twice to Taupo, and now on this journey; in all six months. It has proved too much for him. He has done his work, and done it well! The heavy loads he used to carry into Taupo were the wonder of the Maoris. If any servant of the Society ever deserved to be superannuated, it is good old Pompey! I shall not have the heart to take him again on a heavy journey.

Wednesday.--Absolutely necessary to give my horse a day's rest; besides which, my Natives, in consequence of the heavy rain, have not yet come up. Had evening prayer with Ihaia in his house. I wished him to ring the bell, but he said that the people would not come.

Thursday.--Wet morning again, and I am not very well. There is no steamer from Tauranga to Auckland for a few days. I propose, therefore, to let the rain pass. In the afternoon we started but soon repented, for it came on to rain heavily. On reaching Tauranga it was high water, and, as there was no possibility of crossing horses till the next day, we stopped a little short of the crossing place, where there is some food for horses. It was quite dark; the rain had passed off, and the night was fine, but cold. We were too tired to pitch our tent. Moses went off a little distance to procure some water from a swamp for tea. During the night I was very unwell, and, in the morning, found that the water we had used was quite unfit for drinking purposes.

Friday.--We had no food (which, so far as I was concerned, mattered little, for I was suffering from dysentery), still, we were compelled to stay where we were until 11 a.m., when we set off over the mud-flats, reaching Tauranga at 1 p.m. With the kind attention of a friend, in

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three days I was able to be about again. There being no steamer for another week, I left Tauranga in a small cutter. The passage took two days and I was very sick. Reached Auckland on the 17th January and found Mrs. Grace and all the family well.

(Sd.) T. S. GRACE.

30th January, 1868.

30th January, 1868.

The Revd. C. C. Fenn,
Secretary, C.M.S.,


I have great pleasure in forwarding the enclosed journal of my visit to the Matata and Whakatane district in company with four of the released Maori prisoners. You will find enclosed, also, the copy of an official letter sent to me from the Government concerning these men. I feel very thankful that the mercy extended to them has done, and is still doing, good in opening our way amongst the Hauhaus and other hostile Maoris, and in persuading them to place in us some measure of their former confidence.

It has too often been stated that the Natives of New Zealand are ungrateful. If you could have seen the attentions they have bestowed upon me, or have heard the expressions of thankfulness that these prisoners and their friends have made, you would indeed wonder how it could ever have gone abroad that the Maoris are destitute of gratitude. If it shall please God that we receive only a portion of the blessings that they have poured on our heads, we shall be happy.

The chief man of these prisoners, Pitoiwi, had quite made up his mind to live the rest of his days with us. He told all his friends that he intended to return with me to Auckland that he might rest beside mother (Mrs. Grace). He had evidently set his heart upon this, and it seemed cruel to deny his request. He was willing to live in a tent in the garden, to work for us, in short, to do anything for us if only we would let him rest beside mother! As this could not be at present, I employed my son to break it to

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him, and to show him that there would be a great difficulty in the granting of his wish; also that I desired him to go amongst the Natives, etc., etc. The day after I took the opportunity myself of pointing out to him that there was very important work for him to do amongst the Hauhaus and Kingites, that he would get no good in Auckland, and, while he and his wife could not live through the winter in a tent, it would be impossible in our small house to provide them with a room. I showed him that, as he had formerly used his influence in making war, it now behoved him to go amongst his friends and to exhort them to give up their Hauhau worship. The poor fellow was very sad. However, when I told him that I hoped soon to return and see them again, and, that when I was settled either on the Coast, or in Taupo, they should all come and live with us, he gave way, and, in a day or two, became more and more anxious to go amongst the Hauhaus. . . .

In my absence he proposes to visit the Hauhaus on the West of Taupo, and, if possible, to get access to the King and his party; to which proposals I most gladly consented.

I have been greatly encouraged on this journey, in that my reception has been more like what it was 15 or 18 years ago than anything I have experienced of late years. It must be remembered that in the past the Gospel was to them a new and untried thing, while now they are seeking it again in the light of all their former experience, and after having tried a system of their own, which now, in contrast with the glorious Gospel, they commonly designate as the "work of the Devil." Surely there is hope when the prodigal returns and acknowledges his sin!

I must confess that I do want to see our young and strong men get away from the towns and draw after them as many Natives as possible. Fresh men would ill suit our work at present. The Maori Ministry could easily be increased, but it must have an efficient spiritual and domestic superintendence.

The future prospects of our work show that a reaction in favour of the Gospel is setting in, and that we are failing in the hour of victory. A great and effectual door is opening, but there are many adversaries. Drunkenness, immorality and gambling will, without doubt, be the ruin

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of many; but shall we therefore neglect to prepare and strengthen Christ's fold for those who escape these snares of the Devil? In every place, even in Opotiki, Whakatane and other districts notorious for Hauhauism, there have been some, yea many, who have stood fast to the "faith that was once delivered to the saints." In every place I visited on my last journey I heard the cry for "ministers." Bibles and prayer books which, in their fury, they destroyed, they are now, even in their deep poverty, willing to purchase.

Let us pray that our brethren may quickly see things in their true light, and, in the strength of the Lord, be ready for another campaign against the powers of darkness.

I will take the liberty of trying to draw up in a tabular form one or two papers respecting our work, which I think all our friends in this country should be required to fill up.

No clergyman here would think for a moment of omitting a single English service to take one in Maori, without first supplying a substitute. Why should a Missionary act differently with the Maoris?

Believing that our Heavenly Father will overrule everything for good, and that we shall one day see the true cause of all our trials and difficulties.

I remain, my dear Mr. Fenn,
Yours very truly,
(Sd.) T. S. GRACE.

1st Feby., 1868.

The Revd. C. C. Fenn,
Secy. C.M.S.,


"Heaviness may endure for a night, but joy cometh in the morning." Owing to some very painful annoyances, for the last day or two I have been revolving in my mind as to whether it would not be best that my connection with the Society should cease. I had come home quite worn out with long travel, but thankful for the measure of success that had attended my journey with the prisoners; but my joy was turned into mourning! I felt that I could not go on, when, in the midst of this darkness, your welcome

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letter arrived and has again brought joy into my heart. You have given me all, yea, more than I asked, and very heartily do I thank you for your sympathy and help.

I will thank God and take courage, and do the best I can.

A number of converging lines have all been drawing to one point. The Government liberated those prisoners and handed them over to my care. They have opened up a communication with the Kingites who still hold possession of the Taupo Station. They have ordered me to have ten acres of land in the Matata district. The Maoris, both in the Matata and Taupo districts, are anxious for our return, and the plan that you have been contemplating, namely, that I should myself reside amongst them for a time, I have been carrying out, having been 5 months during the past year amongst the Taupo and Matata Maoris.

I have a large military tent deposited in each district. You may perhaps remember that a year or two before the war I had the sanction and recommendation of Bishop Williams to build a house at Matata or Whakatane. This being so I at once applied to the Natives for a piece of land, when they gave me a very fine site at Matata, of about 10 acres. As I had no funds I could not proceed very fast, but about a year before the war broke out I had on the ground all the hardware, glass, nails, windows; in short, everything, except the timber, that would be required. The war cloud thickened, operations ceased, and eventually we left, and all was swept away! I had no legal title to the land, and the whole of Matata, for many miles up the river, has been confiscated and given to the Arawa. About a year ago, as things looked brighter, I lost no time in applying to the Government for the piece of land in question; but, as they had given it all to the Arawa, they said they could not return it to me, but would try to give me a piece somewhere else. After much correspondence they have given me, for the C.M.S., 10 acres at Ahiinanga which, although neither so valuable nor so convenient as the other site, will still be very useful. I have always had a depot there. Matata is at the mouth of the river, and Ahiinanga near the head of the navigable part of it, on the way to Taupo.

With respect to the best course now to be taken:--

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1st. I would name a temporary occupation of the Mission house at Matata. This would place me in close connection with Matata and Whakatane, and the possible delay in the building of a small house at Matata would not prevent the removal of my family from Auckland, and the saving to the Society of house rent here. Maketu was Mr. Chapman's Station. The house has not been kept in repair, and is fast going to decay. There is a Native Deacon here who was put to live in the back detached kitchen, but who has now left it and built himself a Native house in the pa, in no way better than the Maori dwellings around him.

I have already, on the ground of expense, made several applications for this house, but have not even been favoured with a reply. I will make one more request; if it fails I will immediately act upon the suggestion of my friend, Ashwell, namely, proceed to the Coast with my family. I have little doubt but that the Arawa will give me a piece of land when they are satisfied that I mean to erect a house upon it. What the Maoris want to see is a prospect of our residence amongst them, at least for a portion of our time. If I succeed I shall not delay in having a small, inexpensive house put up, taking care that our removal and the cost of the house together shall not exceed the £200.

The only drawback to this plan is that the land at Matata has not yet been portioned out and Crown grants given to the separate individuals of the tribe--which may cause some delay, and hence the desirableness of having the Maketu house for a year or two.

Should this, your second suggestion, fail owing to my not being able to carry it out, I can fall back upon the first; in which case I would build a small house at Ahiinanga on the land we have, and live alone there for a time, waiting for the good providence of God to make our way plain. Ahiinanga is a suitable place from which to visit either the Taupo or the Matata district.

If we can only get settled amongst the Natives, I shall lose no time in associating with me two or three Native teachers with a view to their ordination, and, when it shall please God to make the way plain for us to move on to Taupo, I shall hope to have a trustworthy Deacon to leave in occupation during my absence.

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The question of the best road to Taupo is fast solving itself. As the country is opening it has become a question for the Provincial Authority to consider, on account of the wool trade. One road, from Maketu to Rotorua, is nearly finished, and only the other day I was requested by the Superintendent of the Province to give them information as to the country between Matata and Tarawera.

Will you remember me very kindly to Mr. Venn and Mr. Mee, and pray our Heavenly Father that I may have His guidance and His blessing in my work?

I remain,
Yours very truly,
(Sd.) T. S. GRACE.

30th April, 1868.

Revd. C. C. Fenn,
Secy. C.M.S.,


I feel happy in forwarding my journal of a visit to Taupo in October and Novr. last. I am sorry it has been so long delayed, but I have been away from home.

Seven other Maori prisoners who were released from Gaol at the beginning of March were handed over to me. I have just returned from taking them to the Matata district, where they are located. I have also visited Taupo again. My reception by the Maoris has been so similar to that extended to me on my former visit with the first four prisoners, that it would be little more than a repetition were I to send you an account of this journey.

In Taupo things are improving, though the Hauhaus have still possession of the Station, of which I am not anxious to relieve them until they have made some arrangements with the Government.

I have been taking steps towards the erection of a small house at Matata; but, as I expected, there is likely to be delay in the procuring of the land. The Maoris are quite willing to give me the land, and have expressed great satisfaction at the prospect of our return, but it will probably

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take some time before I can get a Crown Grant; there is so much trouble in getting anything through the Government.

I purpose D.V. in a few days, to take another journey, when I hope to make all straight regarding the land at Matata, so far as the Maoris are concerned, and, if I see my way to obtain a Crown Grant, I shall commence building a house at once.

I greatly fear the property of the C.M.S. in this country will not, for some time, be productive of much cash for the assistance of Native Deacons and Native Teachers, nor for the meeting of our travelling expenses. I much regret that neither Maori chiefs nor Maori Clergymen have yet been admitted into a share of the management of the Society's lands, so as to let them see that we are really working for the benefit of the Native Church. If this were done it would, I believe, call forth their own efforts, and, what is of still more consequence at present, greatly tend to restore their confidence.

The present state of the Maoris is, in some respects, improving slowly. There appears to be greater willingness to attend divine service. The desire, often expressed, for Missionaries and Native Ministers is increasing; also enquiry for the Word of God and the Prayer Book, together with a growing wish to learn English. On the other hand, the use of spirits is extending itself very widely with all its attendant evils. What the end will be we must leave to Him who knoweth all things; sufficient for us it is to know that there is room for hope and also for fear. I am only sorry that, at the present time, we are not all amongst them.

I regret that I have not had the pleasure of meeting Mr. Hankinson. I fear he will not see much in, or about, Auckland to enable him to judge of the true state of the Maoris, and of our work amongst them.

Praying that we may all be guided in the right path, and with kind regards to Mr. Venn.

I remain,
Yours faithfully,
(Sd.) T. S. GRACE.

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I returned from my last journey with the conviction that itinerating preaching, calling the people to repentance, is a means, under the blessing of God, most likely to be effectual with the Maoris at the present time. To go and talk to people who have been Hauhaus about returning to worship the true God, does not appear to be exactly what is wanted, but rather by preaching to show them their transgressions and call them to repentance and true faith in our Lord Jesus Christ. Accordingly, I took this journey with the full conviction that God will bless His own Word. I have told the people repeatedly that to resume their former religious services without true repentance and faith would only increase their sin. I have reminded them of our Lord's commission, namely, that we should preach the Gospel, which means that we should preach repentance and faith and forgiveness through the blood of Christ. Only let the people repent and believe, and churches and schools will again spring up.

Sunday, 31st May.--Landed in the morning at Tauranga. A late breakfast with Mr. Purves, after which baptized a child, and then had a short morning service with Mr. Purves and family.

Monday.--Got up the horses.

Tuesday.--A rough, cold and wet day. Got my things on the steamer for Maketu. Saw Colonel Haultain and Captain Rough.

Wednesday.--Started for Maketu. Met Kingi, of Taupo, on the beach. Reached Maketu with some trouble and without help got my things up to the Station. Took up my lodgings in the old kitchen which is now deserted. Up late arranging my packages.

Thursday.--Started. Slept in the forest. No food for horses; had to forage a long way, and until dark, for a little raurekau, a shrub.

Friday.--Wet. Left a parcel of books at the Ngae for Mita Hikairo. They were a present from Sir W. Martin. Was sorry to find he was not there. Met Mr. Richmond and Mr. Clarke. Reached Mr. Spencer's at 3 p.m.

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Saturday.--Travelled hard and reached Hohaki on the outskirts of Taupo.

Sunday.--Could not reach any Native Village. Spent a quiet day with two Natives.

Wednesday.--Reached Wairewarewa where I spent the night. Found only a few Maoris, to whom I preached twice.

Thursday.--Went on to Puna where I found Te Reweti and his party, about 14 of them, with whom I had a long conversation. They all seemed well disposed, and anxious to return to the old state of things as regards religious services. They say they intend to build a place of worship. A son of Te Reweti has, for the last two or three years, kept up the worship. I have proposed to make him a Native Teacher, and to supply half his salary of £12 per annum, if he works hard. I assembled them all to hear the Gospel message.

Went on to Pukitarata where I arrived at 1 p.m. Assembled the Maoris, and preached Christ to eight persons--after which they cooked me some potatoes. Went on to Orati, a village situated on the road from Taupo to Waikato towards the North-West corner of the District. The next village Westward is still Hauhau. Arrived here just before dark rather tired, having lost my way in travelling across the country on what we might call a by-way, in order to reach the place before dark. I found the people very kind. They prepared me food, and made ready for me a Whare Puni (warm house) which, as the weather was very cold and wet, was most acceptable. They also gave my wearied horse a good feed of bran. In the evening I assembled them all, about 30, and had service and preached to them. Passed a comfortable night and had prayers with them at daybreak. They gave my horse another feed of bran. Was anxious to reach Potongotongo by the time the Maoris would have finished their breakfast. We had to descend from where we were, and then ascend another much higher hill, which I found quite a job owing to it being wet and slippery. I had here another very kind reception from Ataraka, the chief man. After breakfast about 12 assembled in a large house, when I endeavoured to show them how they had gone back from the Gospel of light and life. Proceeded to Oruanui. Here I found only

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a few Natives, Hohepa, the chief, being evidently very drunk. This is decidedly the darkest spot in Taupo. Could do nothing here, so proceeded to Tapuaeharuru, at the outlet of the Waikato from the Lake. On drawing near to the place met a party of Government Surveyors--2 Europeans and 2 Maoris. One of the former, I was glad to find, was my second son. They are making a trigonometrical survey of the country, as far as it is open. They have worked up to this end of Taupo. I was so glad to see him, that, with the consent of his colleague, a son of your old Missionary, Mr. Clarke of the Waimate, he returned to spend the night with me at Tapuaeharuru.

There were only 7 or 8 Maoris here, who had little food. They, however, gave us a few potatoes. They assembled for evening service, and listened attentively to what I had to say--but, alas! the young men have been too much amongst low Europeans to hope for much.

Saturday.--Parted with my son and went on to Hinimaiai, about half-way up the Lake, where I arrived at 3 p.m.

Here I was very warmly received and found upwards of a hundred people, many of whom were once at our school at Pukawa; also a party of brother Taylor's people from Whanganui, amongst whom I found his principal Teacher, Aperahama, who properly belongs to the Taupo tribe. Was sorry to find that Rawiri, the Native Teacher of this place, had gone to Napier. I received every attention from Margaret, Hoani's widow. They all assembled for evening service, after which we arranged the services for Sunday, when it was agreed we should follow our old plan and learn by heart the Epistle, Gospel and Collect.

Sunday.--Preached twice to them, after which had school in the evening for Collect, etc., and I had an opportunity of explaining to them the parable of "The Rich Man and Lazarus." There is here the general fever for money consequent on the letting of their lands. I was able to show them that riches without godliness must end in their ruin. Europeans on all sides are trying to get what they call 'bottle licenses'--which, if they succeed, will mean that the Natives may be paid their rents in grog! I have had so many applications from them as to how they should

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manage their letting, that I recommended them to employ a lawyer, and pointed out that they could, if they wished, prevent the sale of spirits on their lands.

This advice many of the well-disposed Natives seem inclined to adopt. Runholders of a certain stamp will not thank me for this. What a blessing a good, Christian, legal adviser would be at the present moment. Europeans are drawing up their own leases and making claims of various kinds, to which the Maoris would never agree, if they understood them. Could not the Aboriginal Protection Society send out a Missionary Lawyer? Do try, only be quick! Letting their lands, which should be a means of wealth, comfort and civilization to these people, will, through the introduction of spirits, in all probability become a source of poverty and misery.

Monday, 14th.--I was at the upper end of the Lake in April, and, hearing that many of the Maoris were from home, I resolved not to go on. I wrote, however, to the Hauhaus who still hold possession of Pukawa to know when the place is to be given up to me. Hauhauism is fast dying out. These people, whose interest it has been to keep it up, on account of their having taken the Station, are now resting quietly. The Maoris of other villages, who on my former visit were Hauhaus, have since given up Hauhauism, but object to resume their former worship on account of the part taken by the Bishop and some of our Missionaries in attending the troops through the Waikato campaign. Appearances are all against us. The Natives will insist in believing that we were the chief cause of the success of the troops; and the burning alive of the Natives at Rangiawhia, they still put down to the Bishop's account. Before taking this journey I talked over this matter with Dr. Maunsell, and he has collected and had printed some letters received from Natives who were witnesses of what the Bishop really did. I was sorry this was not ready when I started; but, on my return, I hope to distribute them widely.

There being every appearance of bad weather I returned to the lower end of the Lake, where I spent 3 weeks in going from place to place, and had many opportunities of seeing the true state of the people. I found everywhere a much greater willingness than formerly to listen to the Gospel

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message. The feeling that the Gospel alone can save them in this world, as well as in the next, continues to gather strength. In one village they have proposed to build a chapel, and a very promising young man is Native Teacher.

I have told them that, if they collect £6 a year, I will add another £6 and fix the salary at £12 per annum.

There is a growing desire for schools and, in some cases, a willingness to contribute to their support. On the other hand, the excitement arising out of passing their lands through the Court and leasing them to Europeans, is very great. The lust for money (and this includes the Queenites) is also very great. Drinking and gambling are running their course, whilst poverty and scarceness of food are seen and felt everywhere.

Being winter time I experienced a good deal of bad weather, and have been greatly pinched for food.

Potatoes, three times a day for weeks together, with a little tea, with or without sugar, is as much as can be expected on these long inland journeys.

After this I travelled on to the Matata district, where I spent a fortnight. On my journey thither, for the sake of the company of two Natives who were going that way, I travelled by a very rough road over some scoria mountains, where I nearly lost my horse. I have been over this road on foot but not with a horse; as Maoris now take horses over it I considered that it must be improved. I foolishly fancied, as many soldiers have, that where a Maori could go, I also could venture. In making one rocky ascent my horse made two attempts to scramble up some rocks and failed. The third time he gained the top, on the edge of a frightful precipice, when he lost his balance and nearly tumbled over. Fortunately, at the moment, I caught his bridle and turned his head and saved him. During the day we went over some places still worse, but we managed better. A little before dark we came to a settlement where there were 30 Natives. I found difficulty in obtaining a hut to sleep in. As one of the Maoris travelling with me had remained behind to come on by water, I had given him my tent to bring on in the canoe. But the canoe had not arrived, and I was without my tent. After long waiting, cold and hungry enough, I obtained the half of a little

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house belonging to a man and his wife with a sick child. Next day bad weather came on again, so here I had to stop three days longer, suffocated with smoke and surrounded with dirt and misery. I had several opportunities of preaching to these people, and was able once to assemble a few of them for school. They were not at all hospitable even to my Maori companion who was related to them. All that we could procure from them was a few potatoes. On the afternoon of the third day it cleared and we started. The worst of the road had yet to be travelled; but, we were scarcely clear of the village, when it came on to rain heavily. The fern and scrub being very thick we were soon wet through; but, about an hour before sunset, we reached an old cultivation where there was an old house situated at the bottom of an ascent of about 1000 feet. The thought of this place had, the night before, caused me to dream that my horse was killed in attempting it. Certainly, to stand at the foot and look up would give any one the impression that it must be nigh impossible for a man, much less a horse, to climb up it. As the rain cleared off a little, while the Maori was making a good fire, I made the ascent in order to estimate the difficulties, and was glad to find that, notwithstanding the formidable height of the hill, it was, on the whole, not worse than some of the places we had passed, there being only three very bad parts in it. I returned to the Maori, who was very pleased at my report. We concluded, however, that in order to give the horses every chance, it would be well to carry up our luggage first, and then to lead the horses. This Native, William Stanley, though belonging to Tarawera, had not been on this road for many years. He has been long at Otaki. It was pleasing to hear him speak in high terms of Archdeacon Hadfield. We roasted our potatoes and made ourselves as comfortable as possible for the night. At daybreak I carried up my baggage, after which we led our horses.

The Native took good care not to go first. Old Pompey proved himself equal to the difficulties, led the way, and got over everything bravely. The descent was very troublesome owing to the small trees and supple-jacks which caught round the baggage on the horses, carrying away straps and buckles and causing much inconvenience.

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We reached Tapahora, where I have many friends, at 10 a.m. Here I found the Native with my tent, who had arrived late in the evening of the first day, by moonlight. After a breakfast of potatoes I pushed on for the Matata district where I spent a fortnight, and, as before, found the Maoris on the Rangitaiki and about Whakatane, who have been Kingites, much more disposed to listen to the Gospel than were the Arawas.

I was much pleased with the released prisoners, who, though formerly our worst enemies, are now our best friends! I have arranged with some of them to visit the Ureweras in about a month. Had I done this last Christmas, I believe they (the Ureweras) would have severed their connection with the King. In the whole of this district there is the greatest need of good Native Teachers. There are, in all, but three available, and only one of these is able to teach efficiently. The people in many places, in replying to questions as to how they were living and spending their Sundays, etc., said, "We have no Ministers! We have no Teachers!" This being so, I have thought it well, as in other cases in Taupo, to promise £6 a year to Theophilus to meet another £6 to be collected amongst themselves, and have appointed him to the charge of three principal villages. He is to spend one Sunday at home, and two away. The Matata Maoris are in great confusion over the land that the Government has given them. They are sitting down upon it, but so far no man knows which piece of land is his, consequently there are great jealousies and heartburnings over the most desirable sites. Still, I hope, that when the present problems are settled, they will turn their attention to better things. Ever since I visited them two years ago, I have noticed a growing desire to have their children educated, and on this journey the principal chief, Arama Karaka, after having provided me with the best food his means allowed, took me out and said, "Look, the Church is to stand there! The School there! and the place for the Minister, there!" After this, one of his chief men came to me to know my opinion as to which they should begin first, the School or the Church. When I said, "The Church first, by all means, and I will give you a subscription," he replied, "You

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are right, Te Kerehi, God first!" This is certainly encouraging; but, until the Government has settled which land is to be given to each tribe, and the discontent, that is sure to spring up consequent upon the decisions made, has subsided, we cannot expect much advance to be made. In the meantime our work is clear. We can now get a hearing; let us go and preach repentance towards God and faith in our Lord Jesus Christ.

On my return I hope to spend a full month in this district, and if, in the good providence of God, I am able to carry the Word into the Urewera Country, I shall be thankful.

When I returned to Tauranga, my horse, which was in fair condition when I started out, was a bag of bones. On the last stage he was quite ready to "knock up." We had some glorious days on the Coast, which, I think, did us both good. We reached Tauranga just in time to escape a very severe gale. I had a rough passage to Auckland, and, being a bad sailor, arrived home knocked up, but very grateful to find that our Heavenly Father, who had cared for me during my travels, had also kept watch over those who are the dearest to me.

(Sd.) T. S. GRACE.

30th July, 1868.

The Revd. C. C. Fenn,
Sec. C.M.S.,


I reached home on the 25th after a rather long winter journey, and feel somewhat fagged and worn out. Cold and wet weather, hard fare with hard travelling, have been the order of the day. On the other hand I have been greatly encouraged. On no journey, since the troubles of the war began, have I met with so much willingness in the Maoris, whether Kingites or Queenites, to hear the Word of God.

Bad as the Natives have been while engaged in the war, they contrast favourably with Colonial or Imperial troops. Among the latter you hear of, and see, little but

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Sabbath breaking, drunkenness and immorality; amongst the former you meet with very many well-disposed men, who have kept up daily religious worship in their villages.

I started on this journey with the full conviction that the preaching of the Cross of Christ is the great specific for this people at the present time, and have returned with my convictions greatly strengthened. It is of no use to sit down and talk to them of their ingratitude. It is of no use to scold and to find fault, as they accuse some of us of doing. Let us rather follow Christ's example, and preach to them as He preached to the publicans and sinners of His day. Let us set Christ before them--crucified for them! Risen for them! Christ, our Great High Priest, ascended into Heaven there to intercede for them! Only let this remedy be applied faithfully, zealously, and affectionately and we shall yet see that our labour has not been in vain.

I feel grieved exceedingly to see our C.M.S. men, notwithstanding the pressing needs of the Maoris, turning aside from them to take European service. I say without hesitation that, in many cases, the Natives are neglected or served in a way that will never gain their confidence, much less win their hearts.

Is it a wonder that the Maoris say, "You have ceased to care for us"? Is it a wonder if they treat us coolly? They have witnessed us marching with the troops under very questionable circumstances, and now they see us giving the best of our labour to Europeans! It used not to be so, and we can only expect that in proportion as we lose interest in them, they, too, will lose interest in us. Only look at the Coast line from Auckland to Wellington, and you will find that there is one clergyman only who is not a missionary of the C.M.S.! Who supply the Europeans on this long line of more than 500 miles? Mixed duties for both races have, I believe, always failed in this country, and always will fail! With our present number of men it is impossible for us to do half the work that is required by the Natives. It must be remembered that they are a scattered flock; it cannot be expected that they will ever again be able to come together to meet us in large bodies. At present they are, for the most part,

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literally scattered on the dark mountains in fives, and tens, and twenties--and so on! It is for us to go after them, to follow the example of the Good Shepherd, and, by God's help, to bring them back to the fold. This is hard and slow work; far too much for us to expect from Native Deacons, most valuable helpers though they be. It is simple folly to talk of Native Deacons being sent here and there, while we sit in our arm-chairs, or turn aside to attend to European congregations.

There are Maoris along the Coast of easy access who have not seen a Missionary or Deacon for three or four years, or more. In these urgent times I certainly think you ought to know what every Missionary is doing, not only on a Sunday but also through the week. The emergency is great! For the Maoris, humanly speaking, "it is now or never!" Let us prosecute our work as St. Paul commands, "In season, out of season," or give it up altogether. A few years of real, earnest work, and, with God's blessing, we could with safety commit our ministry to faithful Native men. But I have wandered from what I was going to say about my journey.

I have found the dearth of Missionaries not greater than the dearth of Native Teachers. In answer to one of my common questions, put again and again to different parties of Maoris on this journey, namely, "Well, friends, how do you do? What are you doing as regards the faith?" the answer, in nine cases out of ten, has been, "We are sitting doing nothing." "How is that?" "We have neither Minister nor Teacher." It is under these circumstances that I have agreed to pay to Theophilus of Rangitaiki, near Matata, £6 a year to meet another £6 that is to be collected by the Maoris; also to Hari Rewiti at the North end of Taupo. These men are to itinerate, being at home one Sunday out of three, and to keep a book and enter therein the places at which they spend each Sunday.

I have done this in accordance with the sanction of the Society's document sent out after our conference, and I sincerely hope that the Committee will approve of it and allow me to increase the number of these men to four--two for Taupo, and two for the Matata district.

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It is next to impossible for Teachers to give their time and labour gratuitously as in former days. If you disapprove of this matter, I trust you will acquaint me as soon as you conveniently can, that I may know how to act. I do not think there is any likelihood of my obtaining any assistance for this object from the Society's funds raised in this Country.

The desire for schools is increasing almost everywhere. In three places in the Matata district, and one in Taupo, they are talking of erecting chapels.

I have been solicited through the released prisoners to visit the Kingites in the Whaiti district, and have promised to return in a few weeks, and, under certain precautions, to go with them. I have often been sorry that I did not venture there last Christmas. If it please God that I am enabled to go, I believe it will be productive of much good.

I am sorry that I have been unable to send you my journal in full; there has not been time to get it all copied, so I have sent it in an abridged form from which, however, I trust you will be able to see something of the present state of the Maoris.

I remain,
Yours faithfully,
(Sd.) T. S. GRACE.


Novr. 28th, 1868.

The Revd. C. C. Fenn,
Sec. C.M.S.,


At the close of last year there seemed every prospect that the unhappy war, by which our work has been interrupted, was about to come to an end; but, owing in a great measure to the injustice of our confiscation scheme, together with a singular succession of mistakes in dealing

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with the Natives, we find ourselves at present in the worst state that we have been in since the war began. In surveying the events of the past year the following passage has been strongly impressed upon my mind, namely, "There shall be a bridle in the jaws of the people causing them to err." The war from the first, except as a means of getting land, has been unnecessary, and its history a series of blunders. I find that I have not been alone in these thoughts. The other day I met the Superintendent of the Wesleyan body here, who, referring to the Europeans, said, "They are labouring under something like judicial blunders!" Notwithstanding, I am happy to say that I do not anticipate a general rising of the Natives, nor do I think it would be very difficult to reconcile a great portion of the disaffected tribes, if we would use conciliatory measures, and give them back as much of the confiscated land as possible, which, as matters stand, is more than useless to us. The effect of this would be, first, the establishment of peace, and, secondly, we should find that the Natives themselves would bring such quantities of land into the market that it would be sold as it has already been in the Tauranga district, where choice land with water carriage has been bought for less than two shillings (2s.) per acre.

I have been able during the year to make four journeys into the interior and to the Coast, and must say that I have been thankful to find a slow and steady improvement. There is much to deplore, much to make the heart sad. At the same time there are things to encourage us both amongst the Queenites and Kingites. I have seen that things are not what they were. In several instances, where I could not arrange to stay a night, I have found the people willing to lay aside their work and assemble for instruction in the middle of the day. I have also met with much attention to my personal comforts in places, and from parties, where I had least reason to expect it.

The want of Native Teachers is beginning more and more to be felt by many of the Maoris themselves. Often, when enquiring as to whether they had resumed daily worship and reading of the Scriptures, I have been met with the remark, "We have neither Minister nor Teacher!"

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It is very difficult now to find suitable men. They do not themselves believe in fighting men being also Teachers.

On my last journey, at an out-of-the-way village on the borders of a forest, I spent a Sunday, and, between the services, made enquiries respecting their former teacher, who, like many others, died of fever just as Hauhauism was becoming rampant, when I was pleased to learn that the poor fellow, finding that his end was drawing near, kept his testament next to his heart and was frequently reading it. Shortly before he died he told the people not to be sorry for him for he was going to Heaven; that Jesus was taking him from the evil of the world--probably referring to the then growing Hauhauism.

The chief obstacles of our work are:

1st. The almost non-residence of Missionaries in Native Districts.

2nd. The prejudice that exists in the minds of the Maoris respecting the Bishop and some of our brethren having followed the troops as chaplains.

3rd. They are prejudiced also on account of what they conceive to be the misappropriation of lands which they gave or sold to us for church purposes, and which they now see, in so many cases, cut up into townships and sold or let to Europeans, they being without any practical proof that the C.M.S. desires to use their lands only for the benefit of the Native Church.

4th. The next great obstacle to our work, and which stands before us like a mountain, is the general demoralization consequent upon the war.

I look at the work to be done, or at least to be attempted, but see not the men to do it. European duty has not only divided our work but is liable also to divide our hearts. I cannot help feeling somewhat ashamed that sheep farmers and others, for worldly gain, are before us in risking themselves and their property, and are settling in the most isolated parts of the country, while we linger in the towns! Everything points to really Native districts, and to the interior, as the only places where we can hope for any measure of success.

Our first great work must be to preach the Gospel of Jesus Christ, and Him crucified. If this be accepted,

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everything else that is required to sustain the work will follow. That this may be done let us all earnestly pray for the divine blessing.

I remain,
Very truly yours,
(Sd.) T. S. GRACE.

28th Novr., 1868.

The Rev. C. C. Fenn,
Secretary C.M.S.,


Your very kind letter of September 1st I received a few days ago on my return from the interior.

I was rather sorry to find that my brethren had sat in conference to consider Mr. Venn's letter. It would have been better, I think, if they could have waited until my return, that I might have had an opportunity of being present; besides which, they would not have sat under such excited feelings owing to the sad news they had received that morning from Turanga. . . .

You will receive by this mail the sad accounts of the Turanga murders. What must we say to these things? At Rangiawhia we burned alive men and women because they would not surrender! At Tauranga, the men who had behaved so nobly to our own wounded officers when deserted at the Gate Pa, we massacred in their rifle pits at Te Ranga. The murder of Aporotanga at Matata, and other like cruelties, are now bearing their fruit.

It is clear that the Natives at the beginning of the war intended to fight honourably, and, until the murder of Volkner, they had done nothing to disgrace themselves as soldiers, and this was some twelve months after the above-named cruelties of ours, since which I doubt if on either side there has been a victory without murder being committed.

For the last year or more, on our part there has been a growing desire to exterminate the Maoris! The cry has almost become general that, "A price should be put

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upon their heads." I have been pained to hear men boast long ago, before there was anything to provoke it, that this would be the simplest and easiest way to get rid of the Native difficulty.

Twice I have nearly lost my life on account of the burning of the women at Rangiawhia. Often I have seen the Maoris as much excited at our cruelties as we now are at theirs. In these horrible doings it must be remembered that we have been the first to begin them.

Wherever we go now as Missionaries, whether amongst the Friendlies or Kingites, the burning of the women at Rangiawhia meets us, and, because the Bishop was with the troops at that time, they fully believe that his advice and knowledge of the country had led to Rangiawhia being surprised and the women and old people, who had been sent there for safety, killed.

In order to try and remove this impression, on my late journeys I have distributed a good many copies of the enclosed paper, No. 2, which Dr. Maunsell has compiled, and, if circumstances will permit, I purpose going up the Waikato in a few days to ask Heta Tarawiti, Mr. Ashwell's Deacon, and Hohaia, Mr. Morgan's old Teacher, to go on a mission and distribute copies of the enclosed paper and to bear their own testimony to the truth of the Bishop having really saved the lives of several. I have consulted with Sir W. Martin, Dr. Maunsell and Mr. Burrows, and we all agree that it is desirable to take this step. . . .

Believe me,
Yours truly,
(Sd.) T. S. GRACE.

24th Decr., 1868.

The Revd. C. C. Fenn,
Sec. C.M.S.,


Since I last wrote I have been up the Waikato as far as the confiscated boundary. My chief object in going was to see a Native clergyman, Heta Tarawhiti, and

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Hohaia, a Native Teacher, and ascertain if they were willing to go on a mission amongst some of the Hauhaus, and also Friendlies, carrying with them copies of the pamphlet I sent to you, and, as far as possible, to try and disabuse their minds respecting the Missionaries. I am happy to say that Heta shows an earnest desire to do everything he can to further the Gospel.

Native work in the Waikato is at a very low ebb. The Friendlies are generally indifferent, while the Kingites keep within their lines, so that at present there is no communication.

There has been quite a panic amongst the settlers, and many have come to Auckland. This is now subsiding into a feeling that, if the King intends to commence hostilities, he will first send them warning to leave. We have little right to expect this. You will see from the Monthly Summary of the Southern Cross, which I send you, that a few weeks ago, when Titokowaru sent in a warning by two Natives under a flag of truce, they were both made prisoners by us. When Natives act like this we have no words bad enough to denounce them, yet, so blind do people appear, that they are not able to see our inconsistency.

The general feeling here towards the Maoris is most bitter. To hunt them down with bloodhounds and to exterminate them, appears the intense wish of large numbers. The feeling is so bad that no one dare open his lips to defend the Natives, much less to publish any of the horrid murders that have been committed on our side. As an instance of this, when lately in the Waikato, a Minister of Religion told me that he had the following from an eye-witness: "Some weeks ago a party belonging to Titokowaru was surprised and had to run, when two infants were found by our soldiers (Native, I believe) in a house where a Roman Priest, seeing they were about to have their brains dashed out, requested that he might first baptize them; this he did, after which the children were murdered." I said to the gentleman, "Have you any objection to put into writing what you have told me?" He said, "I really dare not; it would be the end of my usefulness as a Minister." I have no doubt of the truth of this account; it shows the state of things here! I could mention many such! At

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the same time I am happy to say there exists a wholesome dread of the influence of what is called the Exeter Hall party in England. I trust that before our friends at Home join in the cry to exterminate the Natives, they will first cause an enquiry to be made into what has led to the present state of affairs. Should this be done I believe it will be found that, in almost every case, we began these deeds of murder.

Having only just returned from the Waikato I have not time to write at length, but hope to do so by the next mail.

I remain, my dear Sir,
Yours very faithfully,
(Sd.) T. S. GRACE.

28th June, 1869.

The Revd. C. C. Fenn,
Sec. C.M.S.,


Your favour of the 25th March has come to hand, for which I thank you very much. All I will say is, let us hope for the best. The state of this country is, at the present moment, such as to constrain us to wait upon our God continually. I feel thankful to inform you that we have renewed our Missionary prayer meetings. May our Heavenly Father pour down upon us His Holy Spirit and give us more faith and love, also more well-directed zeal.

I beg to give you a few extracts from the journal of a journey I took during the months of February and March last.

I set out with the intention of visiting the whole of the Taupo district, and, on my return, to spend some weeks in the Matata district, but circumstances arose which, from time to time, altered my plans, and, as it turned out in the end, most providentially.

After having spent some days at Matata, where I was most kindly received, and had made arrangements for visiting the whole district on my return, I set out for Taupo, but had not travelled far beyond Tarawera, when a

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succession of heavy rains and floods set in, compelling me to remain in my little tent. When the rains had ceased, and the floods sufficiently subsided to allow me to go on, I found that the Natives everywhere in the interior were assembling to attend a Land Court at the North end of Taupo, and, knowing how great the excitement would be, I deemed it best to change my plans, return to the Coast, and spend a few weeks in the Matata district, proceeding to Taupo when the excitement of the Land Court was over.

On the 3rd of March I turned towards the Coast and visited first the villages on the upper part of the Matata River, where I found the Maoris glad to see me. These poor people, having lost everything in the war, are greatly discouraged and in need of increased superintendence. I then crossed over to the upper part of the Rangitaiki River arriving at Kokohinou on Saturday afternoon. A new weatherboard house, that was being built during my last visit, was now finished. It had been built by a young man who called himself "my carpenter," and, as he seemed to think I had a right to occupy it, I had very comfortable quarters while at Kokohinou. I found the Maoris here having their Sunday and week-day morning and evening services.

At the services and School, which I held on Sunday, they were well disposed and attentive. Altogether, there was a pleasing and encouraging tone about the place and people that reminded one of quieter and better times. In the afternoon a young man came in from a distance with news that Te Kooti was at Ohiwa. As the report seemed very unlikely, and the Natives did not appear to pay much attention to it, I was inclined to think it an idle report.

On Monday morning I took leave of Pukehu and his people and set off for Rauporoa, at Whakatane. The last time I went there, in November last, this old Chief was my companion. At noon, while travelling down the Rangitaiki River to the Coast, I came to a village where I found six of the liberated Maori prisoners I was instrumental in having released. These people and their friends were most hospitable. As I proposed going on to Rauporoa and could not spend the night with them, I desired them to assemble for religious instruction, when they immediately

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left their work (they were making a large fishing net) to join in worship and to hear the Word of God. Afterwards, while the women were cooking some potatoes and fish for me, they questioned me very pointedly as to where I was going, and, when I said, "To see your friends at Rauporoa," they confirmed the report I had heard yesterday about Te Kooti, and told me that he had murdered a European, and that a large body of Natives had gone over to him, and advised me, at the same time, not to go on. I also found that they were very anxious about their own safety. There being now no more reason to doubt but that Te Kooti was at Ohiwa, only 16 miles away, with every prospect of coming on, and knowing that Mrs. Spencer was at Tarawera, alone with her two daughters (Mr. Spencer being in Auckland), I felt it my duty thankfully to take their advice and turn towards Matata instead of Whakatane.

On reaching the sea beach I met a large party of armed Natives going to Whakatane, amongst them being Ihaia, the Native Deacon of Matata, going, he said, to bury a Chief who had died.

They seemed to think they were quite safe and galloped on. I reached Matata at dark to find that all I had heard of Te Kooti was true, and that, in consequence, the people were considerably alarmed. I spent some time with the Native Teacher, Hakaraia, giving him the best instruction I could for these trying times.

I started off the next day at daybreak in order to be able to ford the Waihi river before the tide was in.

My horses being half famished and tired got with difficulty over the heavy sandy beach between Matata and Maketu; still, by some means, we were in time to cross the ford. After crossing I let my horses feed for an hour and then pushed on to Maketu, which I reached at 11 a.m., feeling the need of my breakfast. At Maketu I found the people in a state of great fear, particularly the Europeans, and was told that Tauranga was in a state of panic, and every available man there compelled to bear arms.

I rested my horses for the remainder of the day and early next morning started, as light as possible, for Tarawera. On my arrival at Rotorua at 2 p.m., I was glad to meet Mrs. Spencer and her two daughters coming out--Mr.

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Clark, the Magistrate of Tauranga, having sent a gentleman with horses to assist them. Seeing that they were well provided for, I went on to Tarawera for some baggage that I had left there. Here I gave my horse another rest and returned on Saturday to the Ngai, Rotorua, in order to spend the Sunday with the Natives. The Maoris I found were glad to be visited. I had the usual Sunday services with them, but their minds were evidently engrossed with thoughts of war rather than of peace. The Maoris round about Rotorua were said to be assembling at a village some few miles off on the Rotoiti Lake, where it was thought Te Kooti was likely to attack. It was also said that the Waikato Maoris were going to attack Ohinemutu, on Rotorua Lake. Altogether everything looked like war!

On Monday I went on to Rotoiti, where I found only women. In the afternoon a report came by a European saying that the road between Tauranga and Maketu was stopped, and that Hakaraia was about to attack Maketu. Having done what I could, I went on and passed the night in the forest with my horses tied close to where I slept. Next morning, having saddled and packed my horses, I started off an hour before daylight reaching Maketu by noon, where I found the alarm very great, and not without reason, for Te Kooti had come on from Ohiwa, had destroyed Whakatane, killed many at Rauporoa, and now there appeared every prospect of his coming on to Matata and Maketu! Ihaia, the Deacon, had an almost miraculous escape. I now saw the good providence of God in causing me to meet with the released prisoners. Had I gone on I should have been just in time to meet Te Kooti, and, though Ihaia escaped, there is little reason to suppose that a European would have been allowed to get away. In the evening Ihaia and I met together to thank God for His good providence over us. I found much dissatisfaction existing at Maketu. The few Maoris in the place were unwilling to serve unless put on pay, which the Magistrate did not feel himself authorized to warrant although there was a large number of women and children in the place. The prospect was that Te Kooti would come on, and that Hakaraia would attack them in payment for the Maketu Maoris having, some time ago, destroyed his village only

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a few miles off. This state of things existed till Friday, when we learned that the road to Tauranga was open; on Saturday about 50 Native men came in to protect the place. Strange to say the Sunday following had been fixed upon for opening a new weatherboard Church which the Natives have put up here. Ihaia, being very poorly, wished me to stay and assist him, which I consented to do, and, on the Sunday morning in the midst of all the war and confusion that prevailed around, I found myself surrounded by about 150 Maoris, met together for the first time in their new Church, to worship the God of all peace and to hear His Word. This building is indeed like bread which was cast upon the water long ago, and is now seen after many days. Dear brother Chapman, many years ago, contributed largely for this building. After a long time the Natives sawed a quantity of timber for it, and, in 1862, two carpenters, who had been working for me at Taupo, made a plan, and entered into a contract to build it, when fresh difficulties arose. Mr. Chapman had left, the timber was otherwise appropriated, and the thing fell through.

Yet now, in the midst of war and spiritual deadness, almost without an effort, has sprung up one of the neatest little Native Churches in the land! Surely we have proof here that it is our duty to go on and sow good seed "beside all waters," and then in prayer and faith, to leave it with the heavenly Husbandman to give the increase.

After morning service for the Natives, the Europeans also assembled for service, for which many of them afterwards expressed their thankfulness. I regret to say that Ihaia's health is very indifferent. His great wish is to see a strong European Missionary stationed on the Coast.

I returned home at the end of seven weeks rather tired, and sorry I had not been able to go through all the Taupo district. I had two horses with me, and often found it hard work, morning and evening, to forage for them without help.

My journey has left one impression on my mind, namely, that in these days of trial to the Maoris they want to see us in real earnest and not frightened out of our wits, taking refuge behind big guns and regiments of soldiers. Why should we not follow the Native troops who are now

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fighting for us, as the Bishop of New Zealand followed the European troops on the Waikato campaign? There are numbers of women and children who are located at different places who require our attention. With common caution there is nothing at present to prevent a Missionary from moving about to a very great extent. In any case, there is far more work to do than we have strength for, and we ought all to be continually in our tents. Nor ought there to be any difficulty about travelling expenses.

Praying that our Heavenly Father may look down on this troubled land and yet bless the poor Maoris.

I remain,
Yours faithfully,
(Sd.) T. S. GRACE.

28th August, 1869.

Revd. C. C. Fenn,
Sec. C.M.S.,


Your favour of June 8th I have duly received and I feel thankful for the kind consideration you have given my matters. I shall now feel more at liberty to move about as best I can in both the Matata and Taupo districts.

If all is well I purpose leaving home in a few days for the Coast, and trust, having visited Matata and other places near the Coast, to be able to penetrate into Taupo; for I have a great desire to see the Natives there. Never, perhaps, has there been a time when they stood so much in need of the sympathy and kindness of their Missionaries!

I will do all I can for the Native Teachers I wrote to you about last year, though I fear they have concluded that my proposition has fallen through. I am happy to inform you that Wiremu Turipono, who wrote the letter I sent you, came to me a few weeks ago and expressed his desire to study for Deacon's orders. As I expect to be away, I have placed him in communication with Sir W. Martin. May God grant that he may yet be a blessing to his people.

I fear the Committee has misunderstood my remarks

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respecting. the desirableness of a few Native Teachers or Chiefs sitting on Land Boards. My object was not to give them control of the C.M.S. funds, but to let them see that we are using the proceeds of the lands for their benefit, and to enable them to learn how they could themselves endow Schools and Churches with land; also to remove the strong prejudice that exists in their minds against us on account of the lands, which, they say, were given to us (or sold for trifles) to be sacred (tapu) for Church purposes, the residences of Missionaries and the maintenance of schools. They never contemplated that the lands would pass, or appear to pass, out of our hands, or be occupied by Europeans. I have often told them that all the proceeds are spent on the Mission work, but they want proof. As matters stand, and have stood for some years, there is a great lack of confidence, which one is often made to feel painfully, and that is most damaging to our work.

It was to remove this feeling that I mentioned the matter. In addition to this, the present close constitution of the Land Boards is anything but satisfactory.

In conclusion let me ask your prayers, and the prayers of all our friends, for our poor, backsliding Maoris. Their trials have been many, their faith small; very many have fallen; yet a goodly number have not bowed the knee to Baal.

Let us believe that God is able and willing to raise them up again.

I remain,
Yours very truly,
(Sd.) T. S. GRACE.

5th August, 1870.

The Revd. C. C. Fenn,
Secy. C.M.S.,


With reference to your remarks relative to Missionaries' journals, it should be remembered that Missionary work cannot now be done on what are called

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Missionary Stations as formerly. The whole state of things in this respect is changed; if Missionary work is to be done at all, it can only be by travelling, and, where a Native Clergyman resides to do Native Pastoral work there, I think it is quite clear, a Missionary should not also reside.

I do not mean by this that Native Deacons are to be left without efficient superintendence and encouragement to assist them both in their spiritual and secular duties, but, by being constantly at their elbows, we destroy their individual interest and responsibility; they become machines, and, when we stop, they stop.

With respect to Native pastoral work, examples now before my eyes teach me that, as a rule, European clergymen do not make good pastors for Natives. There is too great a gap between them; they have not enough in common; they cannot sufficiently enter into each other's feelings; their circumstances, customs, tactics, difficulties, etc., are all different. On the other hand, Maori clergymen do not make good Missionaries. They need the prestige, the stamina, the disinterestedness of the stranger. I could give you striking instances on both sides, in this Mission, in proof of what I have said; but this subject has long ago been settled in the New Testament, where God appears to have clearly indicated to each his proper work. I think the C.M.S. minute on New Zealand, on this subject, should be strictly carried out.

As matters stand at present, all round the coast, except in a few instances, there is little else than pastoral work to do for both Europeans and Maoris; and, through living in or near to European settlements, we are very fast becoming, indeed are, the only recognized clergymen of Europeans who, if they can have our services for nothing, will not move to help themselves.

If you will take the map of New Zealand and trace the coast line from Auckland to Wellington, and mark all the European settlements that have already sprung up, and then remember (the Thames only excepted) that there is only one European clergyman (at Napier) in that long line that is not paid by the C.M.S., you will see, at once, the danger that we are in of falling away from our proper Missionary work.

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You ask me, "Is it really true that the political condition of New Zealand is improving?" I feel most thankful to say that, on my late journey, I found a very great change for the better, and have a good hope that amongst the Hauhaus, who are fast coming in, we shall find our most successful work. It is most important that we should throw ourselves amongst them as they do come in and endeavour, with God's help, to lay the foundation of our Native Church more deeply and more spiritually than formerly. But where are the men to do this? It cannot be done by a journey once or twice a year to such places as the Urewera Country.

The whole country is now open except from the west side of Taupo Lake to the King Country, and I have little doubt but that on my next journey I shall be able to travel round the West side, as well as the East.

Since writing you on this subject the Hauhaus have destroyed, or nearly so, our Taupo Station, and, as there is now a good hope of being able to enter the King Country, I take these as indications that, perhaps, it may be my path of duty to go to Te Awamutu. I purpose, therefore, to try, and, as far as circumstances will allow, to act upon the King Country and Taupo from thence. Unfortunately the Mission House at Te Awamutu is let, and the road from thence to Taupo is closed, so, for the present, I must continue to visit my people at Matata and Taupo from Auckland.

Praying that God may yet look down and bless His work in this land, and that the poor erring Maoris may be led into the ways of peace; and thanking you, and the Committee, for your kind consideration of my affairs.

I remain,
Yours faithfully,
(Sd.) T. S. GRACE.


Novr. 8th, 1870.--Started with one of my sons and landed at the Thames at midnight; went on about two

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miles to the Native village of Parawai--being so late we pitched our tent outside the village.

9th.--Early in the morning we made our appearance, when we were kindly received by my old friend, Hohepa Paraone. We had morning prayers in his house with 12 other Maoris. I was glad to find that Wm. Turipono, whom I saw in Auckland, fully intends to carry out his object to study for Deacon's orders. Encouraged the people to be quick and prepare an endowment for him. My remarks were well received, though they thought the revenue of the C.M.S. Lands at the Thames ought to be sufficient for the purpose. Saw many of the Natives to whom I used to minister in this place. They were full of expressions of love and kindness to Mrs. Grace and the children.

In the afternoon started up the river by boat to Ohinemuri; arrived at 10 p.m. after hard pulling. Mr. Thorpe kindly provided us with a lodging.

10th.--Stayed at Ohinemuri. At 11 a.m. the settlers assembled at a European house for service; saw no chance of assembling the Maoris for anything like a service.

I encountered two parties of Maoris, all Hauhaus; they were more civil than when I last passed through some months ago, and there was no sign of bitterness manifest. However, they still complain that we went with the soldiers and were parties to the burning of the house at Rangiawhia. I was glad to hear them speak in praise of our old friend, Mr. Lanfear. From their conversations it is astonishing to see how, during the war, they have watched the movements of each Missionary, and how entirely they have judged and acted upon what they thought appeared clear. Both these parties have told me that, on the 3rd month of next year, God will visit the world. It was 3 p.m. when we started. At dark we pitched our tent by the river. Alas! the mosquitoes were numerous and we had little rest.

11th.--Started at daybreak. I found the hills trying on my back, having just recovered from a violent attack of lumbago. Having passed the roughest part of the road by 8 a.m. we had breakfast and rested for about 2 hours; we then walked on, reaching Waihi at 5 p.m. There are not

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many Maoris here. They call themselves Hauhaus, but 7 of them came to evening prayers.

12th.--A very wet morning. As we had pitched our tent in a hollow place we consequently found ourselves in a pool of water. Had prayers and addressed 10 of them. After breakfast had a long conversation with 5 or 6 of the principal men, when I read to them our pamphlet. Finding themselves worsted, they brought forward another complaint, which has been started up lately, namely, that we Missionaries have all forsaken them in their trouble.

In the afternoon we went on to Katikati, which place is now in the hands of Europeans, the Natives having gone to the other side of the lagoon. We pitched our tent here purposing to spend the Sunday in the neighbourhood.

13th. Sunday.--After breakfast went over to the Natives and found Hori Tupaea amongst them. I have long wished to see this man, as he is always associated in my mind with my detention at Opotiki. He had fallen into our hands as a prisoner just at the time Mr. Volkner and I left Auckland. After the murder when I was tried at their tribunal, and they decided to have me sent to Taranaki and then on to Turanga, I proposed that they should liberate me on condition that this man, Hori Tupaea, was set free. My suggestion had a great effect, and, if he could have been delivered to them promptly, I think they would have let me go. As it was, it considerably abated their fierceness, and no doubt helped to delay their dealings with me.

Whether I benefited Hori I do not know. I am sorry to find him still a Hauhau. He professes to be friendly, but is very reserved. I found myself in the midst of a very noisy party, none of whom seemed disposed to listen to the Gospel. They numbered from 60 to 80 and were all Hauhaus. Many of them were card playing; others dividing money they had received for selling gum. I tried every means in my power to get them to sit down and listen to what I had to say. They told me they were Hauhaus, and, after I had waited a long time, they listened to me for about 10 minutes, but without any apparent good effect, so I left, telling them I should visit them again at the first opportunity. I was not altogether discouraged, seeing

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they were all Hauhaus, and this the first time they had seen a Missionary since the war. I had an afternoon service with 7 or 8 Europeans. Hearing that a party of Hauhaus had arrived at Katikati heads to fish, the tide being down, I walked and waded round to them, when, to my astonishment, I met an important Taupo Maori, Tahau, who belongs to Opepe, and was the chief man of this party.

He joined the war on the East Coast, was made a prisoner and sent with Te Kooti to the Chatham Islands, from whence he escaped with Te Kooti, and, if report be true, has been his chief fighting man. He has now left him and appears willing to come in. I was greatly astonished at the appearance of these Maoris (about 60 in number), for I do not remember having seen a body of Natives who looked so well and healthy, especially the women. They argued with me that their worship was the old worship taken from the Bible and Prayer Book. They gladly accepted some small prayer books and tracts. These people were far more reasonable than those I had met in the morning.

14th.--Started off at 5 a.m. in a boat for Tauranga. On passing Tahau's camp he sent me a letter to take to the Taupo Maoris. We had a fair wind, and reached Tauranga in about 3 hours, where, for 5 days, we were hospitably entertained by Colonel and Mrs. Moule.

Saturday, 19th.--Started with only two horses, and these in poor condition. Owing to the great scarcity of food that there has been, the horses are quite unfit for the journey. One horse we had to pack, so that one of us had to walk. We hoped to get a third horse in Taupo, as, on my last journey, I left one there. In the afternoon we pitched our tent at a spot on the Maketu River, where there was a little feed. As some Maoris were close by, we spent Sunday here.

Sunday, 10th.--Two canoes with Natives came down from the village above, and remained with us all day. Had service and much conversation, and, on the whole, was favourably impressed. These people have suffered fearfully from contact with Europeans, nor do they see their way out of it. One of the men is a very important Arawa chief. He attended our service, and after my conversation

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with them said, "The Maoris will not come back to your Church because the Ministers forsook them in the war." I told him that I differed from him and felt sure, when they knew the whole truth, and how much we had suffered from both Europeans and Maoris, they would come back. He took me aside in a very confidential manner, and, pointing to the telegraph wire a short distance off, asked, "Is not this wire a sign that the Queen intends to take our country?" I was glad of the opportunity to disabuse his mind. Though he has long been in receipt of Government pay it is clear he has no confidence in the Government.

Monday.--Crossed the Maketu River and reached "Te Whare o te Wiremu," a half-way stopping place between Maketu and Rotorua. It has its name from the fact that Archn. H. Williams, when he first visited this part of the country, stopped here. While we pitched it came on to rain heavily.

Tuesday.--Heavy rain all day--confined to tent, while the poor horses were half starved.

Wednesday.--Another wet morning, but obliged to go on for the horses were starving. We divided the load of the pack horse between the horses, and proceeded on foot. On reaching the old Station at the Ngae (where we had hoped to stay) we found it let to the Government for a Telegraph Station, so, after making a little tea in the rain, we travelled on for a few miles and pitched in a sheltered place where there was a little feed for the horses. We were wet and tired, and spent a very rough evening.

Thursday.--Weather looked better. Started at 5 a.m. and travelled on for about 10 miles to the Waipa, where there was formerly a R.C. Mission Station, but which is now entirely deserted and in ruins. Here we tethered our horses and cooked our breakfast, after which we went on till sunset, when we reached the borders of the Taupo plains. Here we pitched in a nook where there is a little feed. The weather having cleared up we had a comfortable night.

Friday.--After breakfast travelled on to some hot springs, where we stayed till morning to give our horses food. The warm baths did my back much good.

Saturday.--Reached Orakei-Korako and pitched for the

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Sunday. A number of our old scholars live here. They are now grown up and married. One of these, Ripeka, was very kind to us. I regret to say that the Native Teacher of this place accepted Government money and became an assessor. He became indifferent and covetous. He has since been discarded by the Government, and, having lost his standing amongst his own people, has left the district. All the people here have been in the war--some on our side, some on the side of the King. For the most part they are very indifferent to religion.

Sunday, 27th.--Twelve attended morning and evening service. I proposed to have a class in the evening that I might hear as many as would learn the Gospel and Collect for the day. Two did so. The others, for want of books, and, I fear, inclination, excused themselves. I met here a man who was formerly a scholar of Archn. Hadfield. He has been a Hauhau for some time, and appears to be here as a sort of a scout for the King, and to exercise a good deal of influence over this part of the Arawa tribe. I think the Arawa, who have been so pampered by the Government, are at this moment as much under the influence of the King as of the Government.

Monday, 28th.--Went on to Wairewarewa--found only Ihaka, the Teacher, and ten others, the main party being twelve miles off on the Waikato. I hope to see them on my return. The whole party is suffering much from want of food, as there was little or no planting done last year. We assembled in the evening for prayers and afterwards had a class for instruction.

Tuesday.--Heavy rain all day. Had morning and evening service with addresses. At midday they assembled for school. I have been trying to show them that true religion must have its place in the heart; that if not they cannot hope to be able to withstand the temptations of the world, etc.

Travelled on to Oruanui, where we found only a few Maoris; most of them were working on the road between this and the Lake. Finding that a party of Maoris from the West side of the Lake had gone to a place called Whangamata, a nice bay on the N.E. corner of the Lake, we left the road and struck in for it. It is some 12 years since I have

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been over this piece of country--consequently we had much difficulty in finding the way. It is astonishing how the swamps have increased since that time. It was nearly dark when we reached Whangamata, where we were received most kindly by the Natives, about 30 in number.

The old people had their tangi. These Maoris are the remnant of the village of Waihaha, situated amongst the high rocks on the West side. I have not seen them since the war began; the road on each side being in the hands of the Hauhaus, it was impossible to visit them.

Two good old Teachers had charge of them up to the time of the war. In 1865 one, named Manahi, died of fever. Fever took off many at this time. The other, Te Haena, was killed at the taking of Orakau, whither he had accompanied his people as Teacher. They said he had no gun. They had no food to give us, but they pitched our tent and gathered fern for our beds, while my son went off to a distance with the horses. In the evening they gathered round my fire for prayers, after which we conversed till late. I was struck with the way they talked of their friends who have been taken since I last saw them. When I enquired for one they would say, "He died in the faith"; of another, "He died in the war."

Thursday.--At early service I addressed them on the words, "I will arise and go to my Father."

They were concerned that they had nothing to give us to eat. One old woman thought we would eat a piece of beef; another thought we would not. We were, however, very glad to accept a little. One of them came with us to show us a short cut over the hills. I was pleased with these people, who seem to be in the position of those who say, "Who will show us any good?" They have all been in the war, but have had less contact with the Europeans than many others. They are all well disposed. On arriving at the point where our guide showed us the short cut over the hills, we sat down and had breakfast, quite prepared to eat the beef even had it been less delicate. At 2 p.m. we reached the road party, consisting of from 100 to 150, who received us kindly. In the evening about half of them attended service. All of these Maoris have suffered by the war and contact with Europeans. I

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preached to them "Repentance towards God and faith towards our Lord, Jesus Christ."

Friday.--Knowing that a large body of our Taupo Natives was on the road, about 35 miles from Napier, we determined to go on to them. Crossed the Waikato at Tapuaeharuru, where the river leaves the Lake. Went on a few miles to a spot on the margin of the lake where there is much warm water, and where the ground is warm, and there is feed for the horses. As heavy rain seemed near we lost no time in pitching for the night. We found out our mistake too late--the ground was full of fleas and we suffered terribly. However, it was raining hard, and we had to endure till the morning! One consolation was the horses did well.

Saturday.--Travelled on to Opepe, where we had some food, after which we went on to Rangitaiki. We rode and walked by turns, and my son now began to feel fatigued. We had hoped to get our third horse not far from here; but, as the people were on the road near Napier, it was useless to try to catch it ourselves, so we trudged on. When we reached the crossing of the Rangitaiki river we found Europeans putting up a bridge. Here we pitched our tent, had a nice service with the men, and spent a pleasant night.

Sunday.--Left our baggage here and rode to Runanga where there is a post of 45 men. The officer in command showed us every attention, and the men expressed satisfaction at seeing a clergyman. As I could not reach any Natives, and the day being wet, I told them I should be glad to have service with them. Amongst them were many well-connected men. I left them to make their own arrangements for the services. We had a full morning service; nearly all the men attended. In the afternoon a few of the leading men told me they would gladly contribute towards the salary of a travelling clergyman. They thought the other posts along the line would do so too. It was arranged that they should have a meeting amongst themselves and let me know the result on my return. I was surprised to find they had chosen the hymns and wished to be allowed to sing the chants. We had quite a well-conducted evening service.

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Although this is the 4th of December, it is one of the coldest days I remember. Wind, rain and hail have been the order of the day.

Monday, Decr. 5th.--Reached Tarawera, where there is another military post. These people had heard I was on the road and expected a service. In the evening 25 assembled.

Tuesday, Decr. 6th.--Went on to Harota, the nearest post to Napier, where I found 100 of our old people forming a road of about 6 miles, the greater part of it being through a dense forest of very large and hard timber. They seemed very discouraged, and complained that the money they were to receive would not pay for the food they had to buy. We remained here until the following Monday. A great change for the worse has taken place amongst these Maoris. The Canteen and the immorality of the Europeans are doing their work. I assembled them morning and evening, but many failed to attend. I also embraced every opportunity to speak to them, both individually and collectively. Two men expressed their willingness to hold morning and evening prayers. I can only pray God to deliver them in this their hour of temptation.

I had a service with the Europeans, to whom I spoke very plainly. One man had shot himself the day before I arrived from the effects of drink--nor was he the first.

Monday.--Started back, and, on reaching Tarawera, held another service with the Europeans, after which they told me they thought all the Protestants would contribute towards the services of a travelling Clergyman. In the evening we rode on a few miles to the camp of some Natives we had not seen on our way down. Thirty men were here. There were others, but we could not reach them on horseback.

Tuesday.--Had morning and evening service and baptized a child. All these people had been in arms against us. In the evening we reached the Runanga post. Here they told me they had held a meeting, and had obtained subscriptions to the amount of £23, with a prospect of more. They wished me to communicate with the Bishop

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of Waiapu after having ascertained what the men at Opepe were willing to do.

Went on to Rangitaiki, where we had left our baggage, and pitched. Here, Enoka, one of my old Native lads, was awaiting us. I had arranged with him to be here that he might accompany us to Patehe to help us catch our horse.

Wednesday.--Arrived at Patehe in the afternoon. The horse we left here last winter, on account of its miserable condition, is now looking splendid. Enoka having caught 3 fine eels, which he roasted Maori fashion, we made a good supper. It took us the whole of next day to catch our horse! At one time we thought we should have to give it up.

Friday.--Enoka returned to his road making, and we rode on to the South end of the Lake and to Pukawa.

Saturday.--Reached Tokaanu where we found 100 Maoris, chiefly Hauhaus. Most of the Protestants are still away at the Whanganui River. Nearly all of the people were very indifferent to religion and seemed dissatisfied. Some were kind. Though short of food, one woman found us a few new potatoes; another some fish; another roasted and beat fern root for us. I had morning and evening service and much conversation with about 30 of them.

Monday.--We rode on to Pukawa, where we stayed till Thursday. We found the place greatly overgrown, and spent the time in clearing and gathering the dry fern, so as to prevent fire. There was plenty to do, for, besides clearing, we collected a large quantity of timber--the wreck of the out-buildings--that was scattered about, all of which will be useful in the event of our return to Taupo.

Thursday.--Returned to Tokaanu. Aperahama, an important man, and Roka the wife of a good man (a Teacher who died of the fever), together with others said, when things were settled, we must return. They sent many kind messages to Mrs. Grace. However, there is a cloud hanging over these people. They are chiefly responsible for the appropriation of the plunder, and are afraid of the Government calling upon them to make it good. Some time ago they were willing to do this; now they wish to evade their duty.

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Friday.--Travelled down to the North end of Lake and spent Christmas Day (Sunday) in visiting first the Maoris and Europeans at Tapuaeharuru, and then in riding on to Opepe. After service I returned very tired to my tent where I had left my son. We spent the day alone with very little to eat, for the keeper of the Canteen Store refused last night to sell us anything. At Opepe the Officer commanding informed me that they would be glad to join the other Military Posts in subscribing for a travelling clergyman. He kindly procured me a piece of beef, with which I rode off as fast as I could to my tent, 11 miles distant, arriving a little before dark. We made as good a supper as we could from beef, a few biscuits and tea.

Monday.--We returned, re-crossed the Waikato River and came up to the road party we had seen here before. Met Te Poihipi and other important men, who treated us very kindly. Spent the whole of the next day with them. Had much conversation with a party of Hauhaus visiting here. They took letters for me to some old friends I had not seen for 8 years. Te Poihipi and Te Reweti are very urgent for us to return. Their cry is, "We have no one to guide us, and our women and children are all going wrong." When I reminded Te Poihipi that he himself increased the evil by his bad example and drunkenness, he replied, "We cannot resist the temptation when it is before us." They wrote letters to Mrs. Grace to return.

Wednesday.--The weather looked doubtful. Te Reweti came to us and said, "If it comes on to rain go to my place at Te Puna. There is no one there, but you will find plenty of cherries and new potatoes." He knew we were nearly out of food. Sure enough it did come on to rain, and rained very heavily during the next day. Having accepted his kindness we made ourselves as comfortable as possible amongst wild cherries and new potatoes. After visiting the various villages at the North of Taupo we travelled homewards to Tauranga. There being no vessel at Tauranga we resolved to proceed to Auckland by the same way we came, namely, by Katikati and Ohinemuri.

January 14/71.--The European in the boat did not know the Channels in the mud flats, consequently he ran us on to the flats, and we all three had to take off our boots

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and trousers and drag the boat for a couple of hours. This detained us so much that we did not arrive at Katikati till 3 in the morning. Here we rested till the tide was low, when we walked on to Waihi (a distance of 6 miles), which place we reached just as the Natives were beginning to move. There was a large body of Maoris here. We pitched our tent and rested, for we were tired. I went out and found they were all Hauhaus. They began in a very noisy way to abuse all Missionaries, but Bishop Selwyn in particular. They all poured out the vials of their wrath against me till they were weary. I then went into a house and read them our pamphlet, showing them the testimony of Maoris whom Bishop Selwyn had saved from being shot. This quieted some of them a little. I begged of them to make further enquiries themselves. I gave notice that I would have prayers for all who wished to come, and had the bell rung. About 20 seated themselves round where I was standing. After prayers I preached to them as to lost sheep who had gone astray, endeavouring to show them their sin and God's love. A woman cooked us some potatoes and cockles, which were very acceptable. In the afternoon they were much quieter; some of them went off to Katikati with potatoes. When I reminded them that it was Sunday they replied, "We are Hauhaus!" However, the afternoon service was as well attended as the morning, and, strange to say, in the evening an old man asked me to have evening prayers with them. This man had stayed about my hut all day and behaved as he would have done 15 or 20 years ago. I felt tired in the evening, not having had any rest the night before. My reception in the early part of the day had not been very agreeable, yet I could not lie down without feeling it had been a day well spent.

Monday.--Having a hard day's walk before us we proposed to start at dawn. While we were taking down our tent the old man and two or three others came, expecting to have morning prayers, for which I was glad. After prayers we walked on to Ohinemuri and thence travelled to Auckland by water, reaching home on the 20th of January.

(Sd.) T. S. GRACE.

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May 1st, 1871.--Left Auckland sorry that I could not take one of my sons with me, particularly as it is a winter's journey.

From Tauranga I sent on my baggage to Maketu and stayed at Tauranga to get up my horses.

Monday, 8th.--Left Tauranga with two horses, weather unsettled.

Tuesday, 9th.--Made up my packs of supplies, consisting of biscuit, tea, sugar and a few necessaries, also blankets, tent and clothes. The horses gave me much trouble, for the pack-horse would not lead well; consequently we made little progress. As it came on to blow and rain I pitched beside a swamp under the shelter of a flax bush. I had considerable trouble in finding sticks for tent poles, and still more difficulty in getting anything dry with which to make a fire; however, I succeeded in cooking my supper in spite of the rain, and spent a tolerably comfortable night. Rose at daybreak and looked after my horses. After breakfast changed the horses, putting the packs on the one I rode yesterday, and started at 9 a.m. Travelled at a slow pace and reached Rotoiti, where we have to swim the horses over the ferry. Exchanged some biscuits for potatoes with the Natives who put me over the ferry, and then gave the horses a feed. The woman seemed to repent giving me the potatoes when she saw me give some of them to my horses. She thought it great waste. Went on to Rotorua and stopped at a village off the road where I found between 40 and 50 Natives. I had scarcely pitched when a very heavy hail-storm came on. I quite expected my tent to be blown down.

Had evening prayers with those who would join me--about 15. I spent 2 hours with them, and had much conversation. I trust my words made some impression.

Friday.--Had morning prayer with another party and addressed them. After breakfast started, and, turning off for the new road to Taupo by "Te niho o te kiore," made for Parekarangi, a village on the skirts of a forest, and situated on a hill. The Chief was obliging and took me to an unfinished house, which he said he had built for

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strangers. It was a very cold place, with its sides full of large, open spaces. I pitched my tent in it, and so made it fairly comfortable. Visited their large Wharepuni (warm house), which was heated to about 110 deg. Had evening prayers with Manihera and his wife and six others. Formed them into a class for instruction. I could not call it a Bible Class, for we had no books. They had not quite forgotten the Catechism. "Our duty towards God" supplied me with all that was necessary to show them that the great tie between God and man is love; that God's heart is full of love; that our hearts must be full of love for Him, and that then, and not till then, can we be happy. After enduring the heat for about two hours I left them for my own quarters, which were very cold, for it was freezing hard.

Saturday.--A beautiful morning--the whole country covered with frost. Had morning prayers with 10, and then went to look after my horses, which were half-a-mile off. Found them looking so miserable that I resolved to stay over Sunday. Spent part of the time in going about and talking to the different parties of Natives in the houses. Many of them were Hauhaus; the others sadly given to card-playing. I had noticed a line of flax stretched tightly from one end of the village to the other, some 200 or 300 yards. One end of it terminated in a house where a man was telegraphing to the other end. They had it so arranged that the vibration was quite distinct, and, by means of a little code, they answered themselves. In the evening after prayers I had a long conversation with Manihera. His whole soul seems to be taken up with the world and worldly things. I had also a long talk with another man, who formerly used to be a Teacher. They seem to be quite conscious that they are not living as they should do. The loss of Native Teachers is deeply felt, and the difficulty to find other suitable ones is very great. Wherever I have met with any who appear to be seriously disposed, I have impressed upon them the desirability of having family prayers, and not to abandon worship because no Native Teacher is available.

Sunday.--Had early morning prayers, service in the forenoon and a small class of children in the afternoon.

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The attendance was as good as I could expect--about one-third of the whole. Most of the others were Hauhaus or Romanists.

Monday.--Started. I have never before travelled over this piece of Country. The new road has been pegged out, but is not yet made. Travelled on at a slow rate till noon, when my pack-horse got bogged; after getting her out, she was so troublesome and frightened that I had to put the packs on the other horse. Still, I did not get on well, for the other horse would not lead. At length I came to a small river. The ford was approached down a steep bank, with a bog immediately before entering the water. The ford itself was over a rough broken ledge of rock, above a fall of water about 3 feet. With great trouble I got my horse into the water; but, when in the middle of the river, the pack-horse refused to follow, and went down into the mud. I pulled the rope by which I led it; but, instead of coming on, it gave a sudden jerk back causing the horse I rode to lose its footing on the rock and tumble down the fall. I slipped off, but, in a moment, found myself at the bottom of the fall with the horse below me. The poor thing bled very much at the nose and mouth. I got out as quickly as possible, forded the river, and led the other horse over. I was drenched, and my clothes badly torn, but not conscious of any further harm. It was with great difficulty I could get the horses on. They are always nervous on a new road, especially if they have met with any disasters. I pitched my tent in a suitable spot.

I was wet and cold and the clouds were gathering so thickly that every moment I expected a storm of rain or hail. I never remember feeling the sensation of loneliness more than on this occasion. I was on a road I had never passed before, and had not seen a living being since I left the village in the morning.

The horses were soon relieved of their packs and tethered a few hundred yards off. Next I had to search for tent-sticks and, after a good deal of trouble, found some rorari--the flower-stalks of the flax plant. Being dry they have no strength, but, by tying 2 or 3 together, I often manage with them when sheltered from the wind.

Having found some dry, rotten wood, in less than an

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hour and a half my tent was pitched and I was sitting before a good fire, wrapped in a blanket and enjoying some tea. The weather cleared.

Tuesday.--After breakfast, was ready for a start. I found I had hurt my right knee in the accident at the fall. Reached the Waikato at "Te niho o te kiore" (the tooth of the rat) in about an hour. Here I met some of my old friends keeping the ferry. They are the first people belonging to Taupo on this road. Paul, the principal man, was formerly a monitor. He, with all the people of these parts, supported the King and went to the war. Many of them were at the battle of Orakau. Paul was very-kind. He put me and my horses over and required no payment, as he said I was a minister. I was pleased at this, seeing that it is the small sums they get for the ferry that has brought them here. Paul showed me three wounds that he had received in the war. These people have come in since I was here last. Forty of them are engaged a little further on in making the road from this place to Taupo. I went in search of the road-making party, and, after an hour's walk, came up to them. They all received me as an old friend, Hauhaus and Kingites though they have been, and still are, in their hearts. They told me that their camping-place was a little further on, and invited me to go there and stop. This I did, and found there a few women, one being the wife of the present Chief, Hitere; and another his sister. I don't think I have met a nicer Maori family than Hitere's--father, brother, sister and himself. His brother was a remarkably shrewd, clever, well-meaning man, who, with his father, fell at the battle of Orakau. His sister was also in this fight, and was shot through both hands, one arm and both sides, yet she laughed and was merry as could be. Hitere went with the party to Orakau, as Chaplain, and they tell me he never handled a gun. The people say they had prayers three times a day, and that Hitere's prayers saved him. He was not so much as wounded. Towards evening the whole party came into camp. Their tents and huts being so scattered it was impossible to visit them all. After their evening meal a fire was made in front of my tent and about 25 of them assembled for prayers. I addressed them, and

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was pleased with their behaviour and remarks. They all appear to be well disposed, especially Hitere, who seems to be doing all he can to promote peace.

Wednesday.--The whole party was about to move to another part of the road; but for this I should have stayed with them for a day or two. About 12 came to morning prayers.

I had a good deal of conversation with several of them. They complain that the Government work is very hard and that all the money is consumed in food. Got up my horses and went on. In a short time I came to where they had cut the road along the side of a great hill for about a mile and a quarter. It is the greatest cutting I have seen in this Country. The European who had charge of the work told me the Maoris had done their work well and were underpaid.

This piece of work ought to silence the foolish talking of the many who say "The Maoris are lazy!" I know by experience that this accusation is false. As this road led up to the high tableland, it became very cold. Reached Oruanui about 4 p.m., but found only a few Natives here, the rest being at work on a piece of road between the South-East of Taupo and Napier. The principal man here is the son of a chief and an old schoolboy of mine. He showed me some attention, but his father and his people have, of late years, given way to drink.

Stayed here over Thursday and then went on to Tapuaeharuru. Here, too, there were not many Maoris, most of them being on the roads.

Friday.--A cheerless, dark day, but, there being no food for the horses, and nearly all the Maoris being a two-days' journey distant, I resolved to push on and spend Sunday with the first road party. Swam horses over river and rode on to Opepe. By this time the weather indicated that we were likely to have two or three days' storm and rain. The Major in charge of the post showed me every hospitality, and had my horses put into the paddock.

Saturday.--Heavy rain and very cold. Obliged to stay.

Sunday, 21st.--Had two services with the Constabulary, and arranged with the military surgeon, who is the son of a

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clergyman in Cornwall, to act as lay-reader. I gave notice to the men that, in future, there would be a Sunday morning service whenever the Doctor was there. The men told me that they found it a great privation to have no Sunday service of any kind. One man told me they did not know the Sabbath; another that he had seen men go out of their minds from the monotony of the place! In order to relieve the monotony, at some of the posts they are turning Sunday into a day for games and sport. Even now the worst Natives compare favourably with these Europeans, nor is it to be wondered at, when we reprove the Maoris for their sins, that they so often say to us, "Go to your own people and reprove them!" and again, "You Europeans have made us what we are!"

Monday.--A very cold and wet day. The Major and Doctor would not hear of my going on.

Tuesday, 23rd.--Started with only one horse, leaving the other to recruit till my return. Rode down the line towards Napier. Stayed at the next post, Runanga. Found the men camped a few miles out and working on the road. Arranged to hold a service with them on my return.

Wednesday.--Reached the first road party of Maoris at 3 p.m. Amongst this party were many whom I have not seen since before the war. They received me most kindly, especially one man and his wife who formerly lived with us at Pukawa. The poor woman, out of her small store of flour, which they buy at 6d. a lb., made me some cakes for my tea while I hurried and pitched my tent. The young people of this party are, for the most part, greatly dissipated. Several young fellows returned drunk from the Canteen, about 3 miles off. Thirty assembled for evening service. I addressed them and spent the rest of the evening with different parties in their huts. During the night we had a tremendous storm of thunder and rain, some of the Natives being flooded in their miserable huts. My little tent, contrary to my expectations, weathered the storm.

Thursday.--Arranged to spend a day or two with this party on my return, when they would be in a better camping-place.

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Travelled on to the Tarawera post. From this place I sent on my baggage by my old friend, Rawiri, who was our Native School Master at Pukawa. Rawiri is now the head man of the other road party, and I have been thankful to find that all the officers on this part of the line speak in the highest terms of him, and of the way in which he and his party have done their work. I stayed at this post to have service with the men.

Friday, 26th.--Went on to Rawiri at the Harota. Passed over 4 miles of the road they had finished. I am astonished at the heaviness of the work, and the way in which they have executed it. There has not been such another piece of work done on the line between Napier and Auckland! This place is only 35 miles from Napier. Reached here at noon and spent the whole of Saturday and part of Sunday. I found myself surrounded by a large number of Maoris who formerly lived with us. Many of the women had gone some 35 miles over very rough country to get potatoes. At the European post, which is at a short distance from the camp of the Natives, great dissipation has been going on. Some 150 people are here. The remuneration they get will not more than half feed them. Until the women come back they have no potatoes. All the food I have seen during the 2 days I have been here is bread and tea, for both morning and evening meal--and that is not half the quantity sufficient for men who are working hard!

One of my old boys, named Enoka, managed the commissariat of this large party. A European had set up a store in the Camp and had given the charge of it to this young man. The people were subdivided into small parties of from 10 to 20, and, to each of these parties, Enoka served out rations of flour, sugar, and also kept all the rather intricate accounts both for the Europeans and Natives. Every one seemed to have perfect confidence in him. I was quite surprised at the correctness and ability with which he kept the accounts. I watched them for a good part of Saturday while they were at work--and with much astonishment. How men could labour for any length of time on such food, I do not know! We had a most singular and glorious sight the first morning I was here. The camp is on a high hill. The sun rose

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clear and beautiful, and everything wore a mantle of hoar frost. The whole country a little below us was covered with half-transparent clouds of fleecy white, to which the sun's rays seemed to give a gentle motion, while, out of this sea of clouds, there stood up, in every direction and in every form, pinnacles of hills and forest clothed in varied tints of green! How beautiful are all the works of God! I had much conversation with these people during my stay. They say that, when their contract is completed, they intend to return to Taupo Lake and rebuild the village of Tauranga (Taupo) and set up the Church there. I have advised them to plant plenty of food next Spring. An average attendance of 30 attended at morning and evening service. On Sunday, I had morning service with the Natives, and an afternoon service with the troops at Tarawera, after which I went on to the other party of Natives at a distance of 3 miles, but arrived too late to hold service with them.

Monday.--Spent the day at this Camp. Baptized several children. As the camp is scattered I had service both morning and evening in two different places. The head men all spoke feelingly as to the state of things that now exists amongst them. They fully see the great evil of drunkenness. They all use the same arguments, and nearly the same words, namely, "It is you only, you Europeans, who bring the drink and all its consequences! Why bring it to tempt us and then find fault with us for using it? The Pakeha is worse than we are!" Such arguments have caused me in my preaching to lay greater stress on their being willing and able to forsake the pomp and vanities of the world, and to remind them that we have never preached that Europeans are all good men, whose examples they are to follow; but, on the contrary, that the world and its ways are wicked everywhere, whether amongst us or themselves. I feel convinced, if, in the good providence of God, the Church is restored in this land, that we must have Church membership and try to make some distinction between those who seem to be Christians and those who do not, and insist upon Church members breaking away from the mass, by not conforming to all their doings.

It was lamentable here to see them feeding their children

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on bad flour. I watched one poor woman making bread for her little ones. Out of a small dish of flour she picked out, in my presence, a basinful of lumps of rotten flour, not fit for pigs! When I warned her that her children would all be ill, she replied, "What are we to do? They will not take it back, and they charge us £2 a bag for it!" In the evening a number of important men sat down by the tent, amongst them being some of our old Pukawa people. When they had made a nice fire they cleared a spot for me. I could perceive something was coming! They were all very quiet, and clearly understood one another. At length, pointing to the place prepared for me, they said, "Sit down here." When all were silent one man, in the most impressive manner, addressed me thus, "Now, Te Kerehi, tell us the whole truth, and hide nothing from us!" I said, "What is it you want me to hear?" "We have heard," he went on, "that when these roads are finished the Pakeha intends to send soldiers through the country to destroy all the Maoris, both Kingites and Friendlies! What we want to know from you is, is it true? Tell us the truth!" I make it a point to avoid all such matters, as much as possible. In this case, it was quite clear to me that, to have avoided a direct answer, or to have expressed any uncertainty or want of knowledge in the matter, would have been taken by them as a confirmation of the report. I told them that I did not believe a word of the report, and that I knew from a member of the Government, whom I had seen in Auckland, that they wished the war to come to an end, and for the Natives to live in peace. They all seemed much relieved by. what I said, and a cloud seemed to pass from many a brow. There were, I believe, amongst these Maoris men, who, within the last two or three months, had had intercourse with both the King and Te Kooti, and probably it was to satisfy their fears that I was thus questioned. I spent the next day with them, and left praying that my labours may not have been in vain. Had service with the Europeans at Runanga on my return. They expressed to me their disappointment at a letter they had received from the Bishop of Waiapu in reply to a letter and a subscription list which I had forwarded to him for them, asking for the visits of

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a clergyman. The Bishop had told them he could do nothing, but thought that a schoolmaster might meet the case. The people here, for the most part, are educated men, amongst them being the sons of several English and Scotch clergymen. Along the line they go by the name of "The broken-down swells." To relieve the monotony of their life they have erected a very nice little building, furnished in truly artistic style, adorned with appropriate Latin mottoes and supplied with all the leading English periodicals and newspapers of the day, both Colonial and foreign. The idea of transferring the instruction of these men to some half, or quarter, educated Schoolmaster seemed so ridiculous that I could not help smiling when they showed me the letter. They concluded that things must remain as they were. They showed a willingness to avail themselves of the services of Dr. Gibbs of Opepe whenever he could put in a Sunday with them.

I expressed a hope that, perhaps, one of their number would undertake to read prayers on a Sunday. Two days after I spent the night with a small road party of Europeans, and had a little service with them. They were very hospitable. If the Aboriginal Protection Society means anything by the name it has taken, I do not think there could possibly be a more legitimate field of labour open to them, and one which would promise so much success, than the one that lies open to them here in New Zealand! One or two agents, if they were the right sort of men, would, I believe, with God's blessing, place the remnant of this race beyond the reach or fear of extermination.

Returned to the Coast by the old river and saw various parties of Maoris. One party, I was glad to see, had sufficient food. They had planted a good many potatoes, and were now enjoying them. I advised them to be careful and not to neglect their food. One man said, "We have not been working on the roads, nor have we been amongst the Pakehas, yet we are better off than those who have been working for money!" This man spoke the truth. Such is the state of things at this moment, that, if a Native will work for a month or two in the year, plant plenty of food and rear a few pigs to sell for blankets, he may smoke

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his pipe for the rest of the year and know, while so doing, that he and his wife and children are much better off than those Maoris who work on the roads in all weathers, and during the whole year. There never was a greater libel than to represent the Natives of New Zealand as an idle race! I believe, with proper encouragement, they would rather overwork than otherwise!

Nothing further occurred during the journey that requires notice, except that the slight injury to my knee began to give me some trouble. I reached Auckland, July 2nd, and found my family all well.

(Sd.) T. S. GRACE.


(October 28th, 1871.)

Saturday.--"Can any good come out of Nazareth?" I said to myself as I came in sight of Ohinemutu. "I will not stop, but just have a peep at them, speak a few words to them, and then go on to Parekarangi for Sunday." On entering the village I found about 30 Maoris standing and sitting about the warm bath. On dismounting I was received rather kindly. The young Chief said, "Will you stop over Sunday?" When I told him that I proposed going on to Parekarangi, where I understood there were many Natives, he said, "You will not find many there." Another, however, advised me to "go on!" that there were a number of Maoris there. This was evidently said ironically and served as a text for many complaints. They said, "You Ministers have forsaken us! We seldom see a Minister; when one does come, he rings the bell, has prayers for an hour, and then either shuts himself up in a house, or goes on. This is not the kind of thing we want! Rather, let us have Maori Ministers. They sit down and talk and eat with us, and are one of ourselves!" They then went into all the complaints of the Kingites and Hauhaus against the Bishop and Ministers for going into the war, and about the way in which we had come to get their land, etc. There was much in the conversation to show that they felt themselves neglected, and, though I

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made the best defence I could, I was obliged to be silent when they gave me facts and dates as to the number and nature of the visits they had had. During the whole of the war they have been open to visitation. I felt it a duty to change my mind. The weather looked threatening. The Chief said again, "You had better stay." I answered, "I will do so," and they seemed pleased.

I told them that I should expect to see them all at service. Immediately my horse was given into the charge of a boy who was to look after it until Monday. Pererika took charge of my baggage and, at his request, I followed him into the large, well-kept "whare puni" (warm house). He took out a box and placed on the floor three of the finest sleeping-mats I have ever seen, and quite new. On these he put two large, new blankets and a splendid opossum rug, and a pillow. In the meantime his wife, a kind motherly woman, had begun to prepare me some food. Their hospitality was carried out in a very respectful manner, and the poor woman wished to do me still more honour. She took some preserved meat out of a "taha" (Native gourd). The pork she put aside that it might be eaten with the potatoes; the fat she put into a frying-pan, and fried some cakes made of flour and water.

The pork fat was so strong that it nearly took away my breath! In due time the repast was set before me and I sat down with a determination to do my very best, and am bound to say that the anticipated difficulty of eating it was worse than the reality. I had had a very light early breakfast and was quite prepared for something. The potatoes looked nice, the plates and cups were clean, and I made a hearty dinner. The meal over, some freshly cut rushes were neatly kid on the floor, and the house looked tidy and clean. The good woman spent the rest of the afternoon in making some cakes for Sunday. A little before dark a bell was rung for prayers and the house was filled.

I read the 1st Psalm and commented on it, applying it by showing how many Maoris, Friendly and hostile, had been walking in the counsel of the ungodly, by reminding them of the inevitable consequences of continuing so to do, and finally by exhorting them to return to Jesus, The Good Shepherd. After service many stayed behind in the house

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and expressed their approval of what I had said. During the evening I had much conversation with them.

It grew late and there were still many men and women, young and old, in the house. To my great relief, at about 10 p.m., Pererika said he thought it time for them to go, and, saying good-night, left a boy of about 12 years old with me, in case I needed anything during the night.

Sunday.--Had early morning prayers, and, in the forenoon, service with 15 adults and a number of young people. Preached to them from, "I will arise and go to my Father, etc.," and endeavoured to show them the kindness of our Heavenly Father to the prodigal. They were very attentive. Amongst those who remained in the house during the day was the old Chief, who first went to the Bay of Islands to seek for a Missionary. He related his voyage and all the events that took place at the Bay, and how dear brother Chapman came to them. Strange to say this old man has never been baptized. In the afternoon the conversation ran off into the war and other topics. I reminded them that their conversation should be suitable to the day. One talkative fellow, a stranger from the Bay of Islands, commenced in a rambling way to state how a great "tohunga" (priest) was able by the power of his incantations and prayers to kill men, clearly showing that he himself had not given up this old faith. This gave me the opportunity I wanted. I showed them that, when a man lost the knowledge of the true God, he soon began to imagine all sorts of gods and his heart became dark; that God alone retained the power of life and death in His hands; that not a sparrow, nor a hair of the head, could fall to the ground without His will, and that it was not in the power of any priest or evil spirit to kill us. I told them I had seen men pine away under the influence of what they were pleased to call "makutu" (witchcraft), but this was owing to their belief in it.

I advised them to begin afresh and to form a Church Committee, and then to collect for one or two Native Teachers, telling them at the same time that we might, perhaps, be able to add a little from the proceeds of land at Tauranga and other places. The mention of getting practical help from the proceeds of Missionary lands astonished them. I said, "You have all been abusing us

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for taking your lands for trifles--listen to what I have to say! The only lands you have that are likely to do you people any good are the lands that we have purchased from you for Church purposes. You sell your lands for drink which kills many of you, whereas these lands that were sold to us, are now being carefully managed, and ere long the return will be considerable." I referred especially to Tauranga. I felt for the first time that, in regard to this matter, I was believed.

It was not without good reason that I first named this subject some years ago. Maoris have been told by Europeans that we coveted their land; appearances have all against us. We ought to have avoided "the appearance of evil." They promised to have a meeting about Christmas to see what could be done. This is the first time I have stayed at this village. I have always regarded it as a place in which drunkenness and irreligion were rife.

Monday.--Arrived at Parekarangi; did not find many Natives, but before evening Manihera and some others arrived. The last time I saw these people was in March, 1862, when travelling between Waikato and Taupo. The chief man of the party is Hakopa, who used to be one of the best disposed and kindest Natives I knew. It was always a pleasure to visit his village. Hakopa received me very kindly, and told me he had received a letter and some little Native books which I had sent to him from Cambridge.

I asked when I was to come and see them again. "By and by," he replied. When I told him that I was sorry they had become Hauhaus he said with much emphasis, "It was you who made us Hauhaus!" Hauhau or not, Hakopa came to service while I stayed at this place, and I should not be alarmed to be alone with him and his people!

Thursday.--Came to an outpost of Native troops, 15 in number, at Horohoro, where I pitched for the night. These people are here to intercept Te Kooti, should he try to cross to Waikato. The Government might as well try to stop a pirate vessel from crossing the Atlantic by placing 6 or 8 sticks between England and America! There are about 16 of these posts placed 10 or 15 miles apart. In every case the force is ridiculously small, and the nature of the Country such that whole armies might pass between them

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without being observed; besides which, I have found, almost everywhere amongst the Natives employed, the greatest sympathy for Te Kooti. On my arrival 8 of the 15 men left, as they were without food. Of those remaining only one came to evening prayers. They said they were Hauhaus, but gave me as much food as they could spare.

Friday.--Went on in the morning and passed the place where I hurt my knee on my last journey. It is indeed an awkward place, but, having only one horse, I did not find so much difficulty in passing it. Arrived at my old crossing-place at noon; pitched here to await my son who was to follow me from Tauranga with supplies, and accompany me for the rest of the journey. Made myself as comfortable as I could with little food. I was feeling very lonely, and, as it was nearly dark, was about to settle for the night, when I heard a great shout and a plunge in the river, and, before I could unfasten my tent, some one was outside. There were two men. I said, "What is the matter?" They said that they had come from Te Niho o te Kiore, for Perenara had heard I was without food and had sent me a little. They gave me a bag with about 2 lbs. of biscuits in it, a pannikin of sugar and a little coffee, assuring me at the same time that they much regretted they could not give me more, but that they were all very short of food.

I wished them to thank Perenara, and to inform him that I proposed to spend Sunday with his party. It now being quite dark the men recrossed the river and returned.

Sunday.--Went over the river in the morning and found 50 Natives, 35 of whom were from the military post. Perenara, who was in command, received me very kindly. Many of these people were Hauhaus who had lately come in. They took me to a house of accommodation, which they have lately built, where it was arranged I should hold service.

Forty came to morning prayers. We had only 2 Prayer Books for the whole party. There is now a great call for Prayer Books. In the afternoon they presented 2 children to be baptized.

During the day I had much conversation with Perenara and others. Although they are at present in a very disorganized state as far as religious services are concerned,

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the bitterness, which has existed amongst the Hauhaus, is fast dying out.

The tone now is not so much to denounce us as to excuse themselves. Some of these Maoris told me that the Europeans had been the cause of all the murders that had been committed. I find that most of the Friendlies and Hauhaus excuse Te Kooti. They maintain that he was unjustly sent to the Chatham Isles and his lands taken from him, also that, when he returned and wished to go quietly to the Waikato, he was attacked by us on all sides and forced to fight, and that all the people he had killed were killed on the "takiwa" (fighting ground).

It is singular that men holding such opinions should be put on pay and sent to capture Te Kooti! It will be a happy day when peace is proclaimed. The Maoris are tired of war; it keeps them unsettled; yet they are not tired of receiving soldiers' pay. So long as they are called off for military service they cannot pursue quiet industry. They entertained me to the best of their ability. Their allowance is 1 1/2 lb. of biscuit per day and 1/4 lb. of dark sugar. They do not appear to have any potatoes. They would not allow me to return to my tent in the evening. They said if Te Kooti came and found me there they would be held responsible. I returned next morning, when two-thirds of the picket went with me. On arriving at my tent I found my son had not yet come up. The Maoris said they would keep me company till the middle of the afternoon, and then proceed to their outpost 8 miles off. I proposed to them that in the meantime we should improve the time by having a class. As they had no books I went on with the questions of the Catechism till we came to our duty to God. I was surprised they remembered the questions and answers so well. Our duty to God I made a subject for questioning. I trust they saw that religion muse have its seat in the heart. As we were drawing to a close the sentinel on the hill called out, "A man in sight!" They asked, "How many horses?" Answer, "Two." "Is one light coloured?" Answer, "Yes!"

It was my son and, in a few minutes, he was with us. He had not been over this piece of country before, and had gone a long way round, but had managed his two horses

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remarkably well. I was glad to have a companion for the rest of the journey, also my commissariat replenished.

It was too late to go on, and his horses needed rest and food. My friends departed after having a good pot of tea.

Tuesday.--Started. On coming to the crossing of the Waikato at "Te niho o te kiore" found only one canoe available, and that a short, unsteady thing scarcely sufficient for two people.

When the first horse reached the middle of the river she jerked at her rope in an endeavour to return, causing the canoe to take in so much water that the Native called out, "We are over!" However, he managed admirably, and quickly beat out the water with his paddle; still, by the time we had reached the other side, we had drifted so much with the current that we were far below the landing place and, to our dismay, the horse would not even attempt to get out, but swam back. On regaining the side from which we started, we were far down the river under perpendicular rocks, and close to the rapids and a fall of from 5 to 6 feet! It seemed to me we should be obliged to let the horse go in order to save ourselves, but my Maori friend said, "We'll try again." We did so, and at last gained the bank, and, with great difficulty, got the horse across, but in a very exhausted condition. The river here is about 3 chains across and very rapid. One horse being over, the other two crossed with more confidence. Visited Te Runa and Tapuaeharuru.

Thursday.--Reached Opepe at 6 p.m. The Major told me that a number of the Maoris had been drinking and making a noise. I went over and found it too true. I advised the leading men to move away from the temptation of the Canteen. In the morning addressed them on the sin of drunkenness, exhorting them not only to avoid temptation but also to seek for refuge in Christ. The Europeans of this post had collected sufficient money to purchase bibles, prayer and hymn books, and gave me an order for 2 doz. bibles, 2 doz. prayer books and 2 doz. hymn books. We left in the morning. Visited Patehe and spent 3 days with the people there, and then travelled on to Tauranga (Taupo), where we found 20 Natives, amongst

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them being a man named Pita with his wife Rawinia. This man has only just returned from Te Kooti. He seemed well disposed and greatly humiliated. When I asked him why he had been so foolish and wicked as to follow a man like Te Kooti, he replied with great feeling, "It was you Pakehas who began all this work! What were we to do when we saw our people burned?" I then questioned him as to the worship of Te Kooti. He took my prayer book and turned to the Psalms, with some of which he was quite familiar, and said, "What is bad here?" I replied, "This is good; but did not Te Kooti use other Psalms in which David speaks of slaying his enemies, as a reason for his fighting and killing?" He admitted this. I asked him to turn to Eph. vi. We read, "Put on the whole armour of God, etc." I said, "You see, in the Christian warfare we are all baptized to fight in this war! Do you not think that Te Kooti has made a mistake, and interpreted literally what should have been understood spiritually? Had he been willing to listen to instructions he would have been saved from all the consequences of his error." Pita had not a word in reply.

I had evening service and delivered an address. It is clear they have no enmity against the Gospel.

Wednesday.--Had service, and after breakfast we took our own large canoe, the only movable thing out of all our belongings that has survived, and started for Pukawa, intending to call at Tokaanu on the way; unfortunately the sea rose before we had got far, compelling us to put in amongst some rocks, where we had to stay till next morning. Started before daylight. Owing to the wind we had to keep near the shore; this increased our distance, but, by dint of hard paddling, in 3 1/2 hours, we reached Tokaanu, where a post has been established under European officers, in the hope of preventing Te Kooti from passing between Taupo and Roto Aira Lakes. On our arrival they were all starting off for Roto Aira. After a late breakfast we paddled to Pukawa. The place looked very pretty, but desolate. The Maoris who formerly resided here are now scattered about, within 2 to 3 miles distant. We stayed at Pukawa 3 days, during which time we cleared away as much fern and other growth as we could to prevent what is still

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remaining of the house from being burned. Two parties of Natives visited us, and some old friends from a village close by brought us a kit of potatoes. To these people I gave the charge of the place, and promised to remunerate them for taking care of it. We were urged by the people of Waihi and Tokaanu to be quick and return. I appealed to them to make good the plunder they had taken; but this they look upon as lost, and excuse themselves on account of the war. Some time ago they were quite prepared to give land, and I referred their offer to the Government, asking them to take the land and to compensate us in another way--but they have not moved in the matter. The Maoris of Waihi, also Aperahama and his wife at Tokaanu, showed us the greatest kindness. Owing to the scarcity of food nearly all the Tokaanu people were away on the Whanganui River.

On our return to Tauranga (Taupo) we had a very narrow escape! We started off in our canoe long before the sun rose; but, when in a dangerous part of the Lake, we saw and heard the waves coming on behind us like race horses. We paddled for our lives to round a certain bluff. Had we been a quarter of an hour later we should have been caught in a position from which it would have been most difficult to extricate ourselves.

On reaching Tauranga at 9 a.m. the Maoris pressed us to stay. This I did on their promising to sit down for instruction. We spent a profitable hour. Peter was urgent for us to return soon, declaring that the Ngati Te Rangiita tribe was coming to settle at this village. Feeling much refreshed we continued our journey on horseback. Owing to heavy rains the Lake had risen fully 3 feet, so that many of the rivers falling into it were unfordable. Rocks, usually passed by wading, had now to be climbed. We soon came up to one of these rocky bluffs. I led up the first horse and reached a place where the animal had to make a leap up the rocks, of about 4 feet. The first attempt ending in failure, with great difficulty I turned the horse and led it down again. We then set to work and removed a great stone, so as to lower the leap. The next attempt being successful I led the horse over the top to a place of safety on the other side. With the second horse we had

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less trouble, but the third tumbled over a rock 6 feet high. How it escaped being dashed to pieces I do not know! However, we got it out of its perilous position, piloted it over the top, and at length passed on.

We pitched at the next river. In the morning we found the ford too deep and so waited for the Maori we were expecting. At noon, on his arrival, we discovered a ford higher up, where we were able to cross by dividing the packs and keeping them in front of us.

For some miles we rode under cliffs where the water was close up. The wind being off the Lake there was a high surf, and the horses were in the water most of the way. This made our progress very slow. An hour before dark we came to the last river which had to be forded on this side of the Lake. The Maori, who took it first, rode a high horse and so got over without mishap. My son followed close, but a few yards lower down. His horse lost its footing and had to swim for it. I followed with the pack-horse behind me, but, by keeping higher up, was all right. The pack-horse had to swim. My son, of course, was drenched, and many of our things were wet. We took possession of an old house close by, made a good fire, by which we dried our things, and spent a fairly comfortable night.

On Thursday morning we pushed on and reached the North end of the Lake, where we found encamped the party of Maoris I had counselled to leave Opepe on account of drunkenness.

They were here fishing. They received us very kindly and wished us to stay while they cooked some food for us. Had a class with them. Like many others they urged me to be quick and return to Taupo. On reaching Tapuaeharuru I sent to the Canteen Store for some flour or biscuit, but could get neither.

We were hard pressed for food, for the Maoris had very few potatoes. This place has suffered more than any other from Canteens and Europeans. I had a meeting with 5 or 6 of the leading men and told them, that, if they wished me to have religious services with them, they would have to remove from this place. Some of them were quite disposed to do so. We crossed the river and pushed

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on to Te Runa, where we arrived before dark. Had prayers with Reweti and a few others. The old man was full of kindness. In the morning I walked to Wairewarewa, where I met Ihaka and 10 others. Some were away at Ohaki, a village on the Waikato, between Taupo and Tarawera. I stayed at Wairewarewa till noon and then went on to Orakeikorako. Here I found a number of Maoris who were almost without food. Some were scattered on the hills looking for anything they could pick up. A goodly number came to evening service; but, I regret to say, they showed a great deal of indifference.

On Saturday morning we started for the Native Military post at Ohaki. We met with an unexpected trouble. Owing to the unusual high level of the Lake, the water had backed up many of the tributary streams of the Waikato.

A small river had to be crossed, but it was now very deep. One of us got over on a bridge of sticks; we then joined our horse-ropes and pulled the horses over, one by one, a proceeding that took a long time. This accomplished, we refreshed ourselves with some tea, for we had not yet had breakfast. We reached the post at 4 p.m. arid were received with much kindness. They all assembled for service and listened attentively to my sermon. It is remarkable that, when the troops are entirely Native, there is a total absence of drinking and immorality, but the reverse where they are mixed with Europeans. The men were all quiet and well behaved. There was no drinking, nor other vices. I remained here till after morning service on Sunday, when they all attended service. I then rode to another Native post at Pairoa. Here we found Europeans, all the rest were Maoris, and everything was quiet and orderly. After tea the bell rang and all the men assembled. They showed great attention. In the evening I held a voluntary service at which about half the troop attended. After early service next morning we rode on, grateful for a day's supply of biscuits that the good Captain had given us. At a village 3 miles on we were made a present of a few potatoes. We next came to a spot where I have often pitched my tent. It is near a warm river, but, the road having been diverted of late, my favourite nook had not been molested. We found

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quantities of clover that had not been touched since the Spring. For days our horses had suffered from want of food, and having 70 miles yet to traverse we made the following day a holiday and allowed the horses to feed and rest. On leaving, my son and I parted for a while, I going on to fulfil my promise to the Natives of Ohinemuri, and my son to Te Ngae. Pererika received me with the same polite attention as before, and gave me a very welcome meal. He told me that they had held a meeting after I left, at which it was decided to leave matters as they were till Christmas, and then to bring my proposals before the tribe.

I reached Te Ngae at 4 p.m. and was glad to be again with my son.

Nothing occurred after this worthy of note. Reviewing this journey, I cannot help being struck with the great improvement that has lately taken place. The kind consideration I everywhere met with; the great eagerness to minister to my wants in a time of great scarcity; the willingness to hear the Word of God, and the growing desire for an increase of Missionary labour amongst them--are all tokens of encouragement and thanksgiving.

(Sd.) T. S. GRACE.

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