1928 - Grace, T. S. A Pioneer Missionary among the Maoris 1850-1879 - CHAPTER VI: TAURANGA

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  1928 - Grace, T. S. A Pioneer Missionary among the Maoris 1850-1879 - CHAPTER VI: TAURANGA
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22nd. Jany., 1873.

The Rev. C. C. Fenn,
Sec. C.M.S.,


My second son and namesake has started for England, via Suez, with the Bishop of Nelson, together with his friend and fellow student, John Pratt Kempthorne, grandson of the late Josiah Pratt, so well known at Salisbury Square.

They have been reading for the last four years with the Bishop, who is now most kindly, at his own expense, taking them to England prior to ordination.

As my son will be able to give you a good deal of information respecting the Natives of New Zealand, I have thought that you might like to ask him some questions; I am, therefore, sending by him a letter of introduction to you.

We have had a very great desire to avail ourselves of the permission of the C.M.S. to visit England with him, but, having been disappointed in not receiving any compensation from the Government, we have felt that to be in England without a penny in our pockets would be anything but pleasant, and so, for the time being, we must still defer our visit.

At the early part of the last Session of the House of Representatives there seemed every prospect that I should get my award of £2067. My case appeared strong, for, in addition to the award of the Compensation Court, I had a special statement from the judge in my favour, and also a most favourable report from the Petitions Committee

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of the House, yet, notwithstanding all this, the Government has refused to do me justice.

In addition to the sum of £2067, for which I have an award, there is all that we expended on Mission premises, fences, etc., which have since, to a great extent, been destroyed. These, and other matters not included in the above award, make our losses by the war fully £3000.

I regret my failure in getting compensation chiefly on account of its having crippled me in my work. Hitherto I have been enabled, when necessity required, to draw upon my own resources for schools and other general purposes; but now, since I have scraped together the remnants of what we had in order to help in building the house that we are now occupying here at Tauranga, I find myself with a large family, at a time when the cost of living has greatly increased, reduced to my bare stipend, scarcely able to make ends meet, and quite unable to do anything in a pecuniary way to forward my work.

We are now in one of the best positions in the country for the establishment of an industrial school. Natives on all sides are asking if I intend to commence one. I have enough land here to provide food (a few groceries excepted) for 25 or 30 boys; yet, with all these advantages, I can do nothing, and I fear we shall lose a providential opportunity of doing permanent good, and of convincing the Maoris that, in spite of all their hard thoughts of us, we are really their friends.

I wish the good people at Home could, in some special way, help me in the matter of compensation. I should then be glad to commence an industrial school on my own account. I could do with the following for the first year:

For a building, say.......£150

Clothing, School and domestic requisites....£100

Teacher . . . . .. . . £100

[Total] ............... £350

After the first year the expenses would decrease. I feel satisfied that it would be wise for us, as much as possible, to carry on our work independently of Government help.

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As things stand Government aid brings with it the liability of our being required to ignore religious instruction. "Put not your trust in princes." They have, I believe, always disappointed us in the long run.

I shall be very glad to hear from you on these matters as soon as convenient. One thing appears certain, namely, if the staff of Native Clergy is to be increased and kept up, we must have schools. It should be remembered that the Natives at present in orders are nearly all elderly men, from 50 to 60, and, as there have been no schools in this country for the last ten or twelve years worthy of mention, the consequence is we now seldom meet a young person who can read or write; this is the very reverse of the state of things that formerly existed in this country!

[The above unfinished letter reached the Revd. C. C. Fenn, London, on the 22/4/73. Evidently the writer had laid it aside, and, when posting, forgotten that it was incomplete and unsigned.--Ed.]

27th June, 1873.

The Revd. C. C. Fenn,
Sec. C.M.S.,


I beg to forward a journal of my late journey to Taupo.

As regards the Maoris, the war has revolutionized their former mode of life. They cannot, and will not, remain as they are. Great changes have taken place and others are near at hand. The influx of Europeans into their borders, the leasing and selling of their lands, and their own improvident mode of spending the proceeds, must soon change them from being lords of the soil into a poor, needy, down-trodden remnant of a once fine and formidable race. Will they survive? This is quite possible even yet. They are turning again to their former mode of industry--wheat growing. They are seeking education. They are

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beginning again to look to the cross of Christ! If the present opportunity of saving them be lost it is difficult to see how they can ever have another. Speaking of the Natives, a gentleman said to me the other day, "They cannot survive! The feeling of the Europeans is so intense against them." There is much truth in this statement; at the same time God has, in a wonderful way, preserved and protected them in spite of all the force and fraud that has been brought to bear against them. At this moment they are, perhaps, more willing than ever they were before to follow counsel.

My desire is that we should be in a position to help them, and do something to remove the strong prejudice that now exists in their minds against us. It should always be remembered that Hauhauism was not intended by them to be a departing from the faith. It was organized to separate them from us whom they had, in too many cases, learned to hate!

I wish the Committee to understand that these remarks are meant to apply more particularly to the Bay of Plenty, to much of the inland country, and including all held by the King. In the North, on the East Coast and in the South, conditions have been better. The Bay of Plenty has always been far behind other districts, having produced next to nothing. I know of but one solitary Teacher that has stood firm during these years of trouble, Theophilus-- see my journal. It has not produced a candidate for the ministry! The one I have at Maketu is a Ngapuhi, and Rihara, who was here for some time, came from the East Coast.

The desire for education is now as strong here as in other places, but their prejudice against us stands in the way. You will know, from a former letter, that I have been urged by these Natives to commence a school.

The state of affairs in Taupo is better, for there we have, not only a strong desire for education, but clear indications of an inclination to resume their former worship. I am anxiously waiting to hear from the Society whether they will be able to make me a grant in aid of schools. The openings are such, I believe, as have never offered before, and my position here in Tauranga, with some good land at

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my own disposal, is a great advantage both for this place and Taupo.

At the same time I am rendered powerless for want of help! Since my last journey to Taupo, I am beginning to think that, independently of all other considerations, it may, perhaps, be my duty to visit England and see if it be not possible to obtain help from some quarter for a last effort on behalf of this people.

I trust the C.M.S. will consider the Maoris of N.Z.! The war and the difficulties that they have passed through; their present state, for the most part, in the hands of those who hate them; the great weakness of our efforts; the great ignorance and prejudice of our people, and, at the same time remember how, in the North and elsewhere, they are showing signs of spiritual life where, but a few years ago, we supposed all was dead!

I cannot help believing that, if we put forth the proper energy, with the Divine blessing, the work of the Society will yet end here as satisfactorily as it has done in Sierra Leone and elsewhere.

Believe me to remain,
My dear Mr. Fenn,
Yours very truly,

(Sd.) T. S. GRACE.

18th Decr. 1873.

The Revd. C. C. Fenn,
Sec. C.M.S.,


Your kind letter of Octr. 5th came to hand a fortnight ago. I will in future forward all business communications to Major Hutchinson, but I shall be very sorry, if, by this arrangement, I lose your ever welcome letters of counsel and sympathy. We must not, in an endeavour to conduct business matters in the most efficient manner, forget that the often failing faith and patience of a Missionary require more to sustain them than matters of business. We need brotherly counsel. Our best efforts

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are too often unsuccessful and we require sympathy. We need to be reminded that we are members of the C.M.S.; that, as Missionaries, we are a "spectacle to angels and to men," and that more are they that are with us than they who are with our enemies. Again, there is much secular work which a Missionary cannot, and ought not to avoid, and for which he requires a special grace that he may do all things as unto the Lord and not unto men. Do not forget us then, I pray you!

Relative to my letter of April 15th. Had I then been aware of the prospect of visiting England I would have deferred writing; but, at the time, it appeared to me that my matter had not been fully represented.

You will see from the minute of our Conference that I proposed a resolution, to give the Natives of Tauranga some official information as to the use we make of the proceeds of Te Papa lands. My resolution was lost by one vote. Had Mr. Ashwell been present he would have supported it, as he had given notice of a motion which would have included mine.

I am quite aware, that, as a matter of right, the Maoris are entitled to nothing; but, as a matter of expediency, I cannot understand why we should allow our good to be evil spoken of to the great detriment of our work! It is only those who go little amongst Maoris who will ignore their state of mind. In the whole Bay of Plenty there are no Church boards, nor is there any official source from which they can obtain official information, and they decline to receive the statements of individuals.

On another subject--namely, the presence of Missionaries with the troops on the Waikato, which has done us great harm. I was instrumental in getting Dr. Maunsell to publish a small pamphlet in Maori which contained the statements of Natives who were eye-witnesses of the good, and not of the evil deeds of Missionaries during the war on the Waikato. To this pamphlet we have been able to appeal, and it has been exceedingly useful.

In the present case, why not tell the Natives in an official document--to which they always attach more importance than to verbal statements--that so many Native Deacons are in part paid out of funds from Tauranga lands?

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I fear that my remarks respecting Missionaries being responsible for Europeans have been so decided as to lead you to think I am inclined to avoid my own race. This has been far from my practice! Ever since I came to the Country I have ministered to the scattered Europeans wherever I have met with them. At Turanga, when at home, I always had an English service immediately after the Sunday morning Native service, and, at Taupo, Matata and the Thames I pursued the same course. When in Auckland, for about 2 years, when travelling was next to impossible, I had charge of a small, neglected parish and had the satisfaction of seeing the congregation increase from about 10 to 60. For the last few years I have been doing what I could for the Military posts on the line of road through Taupo. I trust you will see from this that I have no particular prejudice against my own race.

It is one thing to minister gladly to such Europeans as come in one's way, but quite another to become responsible for both parties--in which case the Europeans always get the "Lion's share," and, in too many cases, the Maoris a few pickings only! Besides which, there are other reasons why this double responsibility will not work. Young Missionaries should especially be reminded that their work and mission is to the Maoris. The temptations to draw them off are many. European duty is much more pleasant, and one meets with due consideration and hospitality while performing it; on the other hand, the Natives, of late years, have been too often neglectful, unkind and sometimes persecuting.

Believe me, my dear Mr. Fenn,
Yours very truly,
(Sd.) T. S. GRACE.

[While stationed at Te Renga Renga, Tauranga, prior to his visit to England, the Missionary made a number of journeys to Taupo and elsewhere. On six of these he was accompanied by one or other of his youngest sons. Unfortunately the journals of these are missing.

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In June, 1875, Mr. and Mrs. Grace visited England, remaining until the close of the year 1876, when they returned to New Zealand.--ED.]

July 19th, 1877.

E. Stock, Esqre.,
Editorial Secy.,
C.M.S., London.


I promised to keep you informed as to the feeling out here, with respect of our having a Native Bishop.

You will have seen that the Conference has concluded that we have no suitable Native Clergyman to fill the office. This is rather better than I expected, for they do not repudiate the idea. On the Native side it is different; so far as it has been brought before them, they are unanimous in its favour!

I will enclose you the copy of a letter sent to the press by a highly intelligent Native, in which you will see that he meets admirably the point raised by the Conference. To my mind his letter is valuable, as it expresses the general feeling of the Natives.

I have to-day received a letter from my eldest son who is in Napier. He says, "Karaitiana has had to leave for Wellington and to visit his constituents before the Parliament meets; he thinks a great deal of what you say about a Native Bishop, and intends holding a meeting of chiefs, on his return after the Session, to take the matter into consideration."

This man, Karaitiana, is considered one of the most advanced and intelligent Maoris in N.Z. He has great influence. Should the meeting come off, it would, I think, be well to go to it. All the important Natives who take an interest in Church matters are sure to attend, still, it takes time for them to bring things to a head; so that delay in an appointment will greatly favour the Natives. At present they are in a great ferment about the new Native Lands Act that the Government wishes to pass this Session.

The Scriptural aspect of the matter is sure to weigh

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with the Maoris, who are men of one book only. Thank God, that it is the Book of Books! Hauhaus or not, they all appeal to the Word of God, and especially on Church matters. With them it is "To the law and to the testimony, etc." If we refuse to abide by what is Scriptural and Apostolic, they are just the people to cast us off and take the matter into their own hands.

Hauhauism is clearly an attempt, under the bitterest feelings occasioned by the war, to adapt Christianity to their changed circumstances, and to have their worship apart from us. They have no veneration for our Ecclesiastical arrangements, and, if a revival takes place amongst them, there is not a people under the sun more likely to take the Constitution of their Church into their own hands. If we refuse them a Bishop of their own we shall most likely hasten the day when they will strike out a course for themselves, and at present it is not desirable that they should do this. Had they a Bishop of their own now, he would, for some years, be under our guidance, and we might be of great service to him.

I hope the C.M.S. will persevere steadily on this point. We ought to give Native Churches Native Bishops. We may remember that, while others profess to have the power of the keys, we have the power of the purse, which is much more to the purpose. We take our stand on Scriptural ground, on Apostolic practice, and on common sense; with the blessing of God, we must succeed.

There is another matter which I have purposed to write to you about. From all I have seen amongst the Maoris since my return, they are clearly, as a people, in a very interesting position. I have been present several times at their modified Hauhau worship. The wonder is that there is so little in it to object to.

The tone of mind of the Natives, especially of the Kingites, is improved. They seem to be fast arriving at a position when they will either return to us in a body, or permanently set up a religion of their own.

Now, if we could arrest their attention by some sort of a general effort convincing them that we are in earnest and anxious for their salvation, bringing the Gospel strikingly and practically before them, I think we might

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expect a great amount of blessing. What we seem to want is a kind of Moody and Sankey revival. It should, as much as possible, be apart from us Missionaries for many reasons. I would suggest that two European Clergymen, with two Native men of like spirit, should form themselves into an itinerating body and should send out printed notices of their intention to visit such and such places.

Perhaps, after all, the greatest difficulty would be to start the move. Were I to name it here it would be objected to at once! 'No good thing can come out of Nazareth,' but if you, in some of your publications, were to say that you thought the Maori Church needed to be stirred up, and were then to propose a Mission--call it a Mission; a revival would not be popular here--I think we could propose to carry out the idea.

The reason why it is desirable that this attempt should be made by persons outside of our body is that we stand so badly with the Maoris, the Kingites especially. They have three accusations which they use against us on all occasions.

1st. They say with reference to the old Missionary land purchases--"You came to us and taught us to turn our eyes to Heaven, while you turned yours to the land!"

2nd. "You are all hirelings, and therefore you ran away and left us in the midst of our troubles" (giving instances).

3rd. "You went with our enemies, the troops, and your prayers made them strong to fight. Our women and children were burned alive and this made us Hauhaus."

Against such bitter taunts as these you can see the extreme difficulty of spiritual teaching, and, unless they know that none of these accusations applies to the individual who addresses them, there is no hope of doing any good.

May God of His great mercy help us and help them.

Both for their temporal and spiritual good, there is nothing but the Gospel that can save them!

Believe me, my dear Mr. Stock,
Yours very truly,
(Sd.) T. S. GRACE.

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The following is a copy of the letter referred to above.
C. W. G.

"To the Editor of the Waka Maori.

"Here are some words which kindly permit the friends in these Islands to see through the medium of your columns. They are a few thoughts which have occurred to me in connection with matters in which we have been instructed.

"We were first instructed in Christianity, and, as soon as knowledge was acquired, some were made ministers, and it is twenty years or more since they entered upon office.

"We were next instructed in the Law, and had scarcely laid hold of all its points, when some of us were dragged forward to be Members of Parliament, Ministers of the Government and Assessors in the Courts of Justice. Now I would ask the question. Why are some of us raised to prominent positions in the Government and not in the Church? In other words, why do the Church appointments, with respect to us Maoris, abruptly cease at the office of ordinary Minister? Why is there no Maori Bishop since the Natives of these Islands have, for a considerable time, embraced Christianity?

"A report has reached us that the leaders of the Church of England in New Zealand are on the look out for a Bishop for the Diocese of Waiapu, in the room of our patriarch Bishop Williams, who has resigned, and that they are looking for him amongst the ranks of the English Clergy. Why, I ask, is not a Maori Bishop appointed to that See, for there is a very great deal to be done by a bishop of that Diocese in connection with the Maori portion of the Church?

"Let it not be said that the Maoriness of a man unfits him to be a Bishop! If there is a man of understanding and holy life, the Scripture points out, that he is the one! Turn to St. Paul's Epistle to Titus, the first Chapter and fifth verse: 'For this cause left I thee in Crete, that thou shouldest set in order the things that are wanting, and ordain elders in every city.' St. Paul did not say elders for the Cretans should be sent from among the Jews, that is,

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from St. Paul's own nation and that of the rest of the Apostles. No! but they were appointed from among the Gentiles themselves! And in addition to this Apostolic rule, there is the plan adopted at the present time in other countries. Look at Africa, at the Negro race that is there--one of themselves is their Bishop! How is it that one of our own number is not likewise appointed to the same office? It will, perhaps, occur to an evilly disposed mind it is because Europeans cannot live in that Country, on account of the extreme heat, that a Native Bishop is set over the Church there, and that it is owing to the genial climate of New Zealand that the Bishoprics here are restricted to Europeans only. But let such a man think as he pleases.

"It is the right we are seeking for; the right according to Scripture, and according to the custom in other lands, and some way, also, whereby the union between European and Maori may be quite complete.

"Yours, etc.


August 4th, 1877.

Saturday.--Started with one horse, very heavy tent, rug and shawl, one change of linen and clothes, tea, sugar, biscuits, etc., and cooking utensils. I intended to stay with a party of Maori road-menders, but, on reaching the spot, could find none, so went on hoping to see Natives at the villages close to the putanga (entrance) of the forest. It was now quite dark, and, as I could see no signs of Maoris, I went three miles further to Te Awahou, where I found a European who kindly gave me shelter. After making a little tea, spread my oilskin on the floor for the night, but was disturbed to know that my horse was tied outside without a morsel to eat. By some means I had lost from my horse the feed of corn I had on starting. Had to go out and make him doubly secure, as I feared he would break loose. Found it very cold during the night.

Sunday.--Made a little tea and started. The morning

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was cold and frosty. Reached Ohinemutu. We had service. I had a conversation with the Chief, Pererika, while his wife made me some tea. They had no feed for my horse, so I went on 7 miles to Parekarangi, where I found my old friend Manihera. Could get no food for my horse. Had service. Heard that a man, Katene, had some oats, but learned that he would not open a bag to sell a small quantity. The matter became serious. If I could not get feed for the horse I could not proceed. Went over myself, and, in a cheerful way asked a group of fellows where my friend Katene was, and that I wanted some oats. Katene appeared, shook hands cordially with me. Though quite a stranger to me, he took my bag and put into it 1/2 a bushel, for which I paid him, when I returned right glad of my success. I had my quarters in a house belonging to Manihera, a very cold place; however, he had some slabs on the floor and on them some rushes. I hung up my tent, unrolled my oilskin and prepared for night. I had a little fire made in the middle of the floor. Manihera sat with me till a late hour, and gave me much information. My object on this journey was to learn all I could about the Kingites. I asked him some questions, but his answers were far from cheery. I found that these people had letters to go over to a meeting in the King Country--the very place I wanted to go to; arranged with a man to go with me.

Monday.--Had my horse up and prepared to start. The Native came to time. The weather had changed from frost to rain and wind. After travelling a couple of miles the rain came on very heavily. The Native proposed returning, to which I agreed. It turned out a wild day and night; the water came so freely into my quarters that I had to get up and cut a channel whereby to run the water off to the other end of the house.

Tuesday.--A finer morning, but still unsettled. My Native friend did not turn up, nor could I get a substitute, yet I did not like to venture alone on an unknown road of about 60 miles. Packed up, and made for a village called Horohoro, some five miles on the way, and locked up among the hills. These people do not belong to me. They gave me a very kind welcome. The Chief, when I

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told him I wished to go on to the Waotu, to my astonishment said, "I will go with you in the morning." I felt thankful, and stayed with them gladly. Here I found an old Teacher, Raniera, who told me they wished to resume their former worship. When I enquired if he had prayers and Sunday services he said, "No, all we do on Sunday is to rest--we have no books." I consented to give him a Prayer Book and Testament, and invited him to come and see me. He said they had a number of children they wished to be baptized, but preferred waiting till I should come again.

In talking on the prospects of the Kingites and their new worship he said, "Ah! they will never come back again; they are so dark about the Bishop, the Missionaries and the burning of the Natives, that they will never come back!" Had a nice evening service with them. They gave me a small hut to sleep in, which was well, for, in the night, it rained very heavily.

Wednesday.--Was up in good time. Ten Maoris arrived from a distance, all bound for the meeting to which we were going. Breakfast had to be cooked for the visitors, which caused delay, so that my friend Ripihana and I did not start till about 10 a.m. The day was fine but cold. Our road lay over many hills that rose to a great height; altogether I do not know of a more picturesque piece of broken country. It was hard work for the horses, so much hill climbing and so many rivers to cross. Could not help seeing the kind hand of Providence in giving me such an able and willing guide. Had I taken the journey alone I should certainly have gone wrong. Towards evening we came up to the party of 10 who had had the start of us. We all turned off to a settlement on the hill, a couple of miles off the road, for the night. Most of our party stayed in an empty house. My friend and I, and another Maori, went on a mile or two, where we found a small party of Natives who received us very kindly. They were living in a good-sized house with an immense fire in the middle of it, but, the sides of the building being made of sticks not set close together, the wind came through. We were at a high elevation, and the night was very cold and frosty. It was too late and too cold to think of pitching my tent

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and, as the end of the house was laid with mats, there was nothing for it but to pass the night with them. They cooked us some potatoes and I made some tea, during which time I was roasted in front by the great fire, and starved behind by the cold frosty wind that came through the chinks of the wall. I consulted my dignity as well as my comfort by hanging up my tent in the corner, and spreading out the bottom sufficiently for me to unroll my oilskin and rug, and thus, in comparative seclusion and comfort, was able to pass a very good night. The loud talking of the Maoris went on till after midnight and, consequently, I gained much information and learned what to expect on arriving amongst the Kingites.

Thursday.--A remarkably hard frost--everything frozen. They were all on the move by daylight. Two fine turkeys were caught, killed, cut up and put into a pot; another pot being filled with potatoes. While these were cooking we had prayers, after which our 10 friends came up. I rather expected a good breakfast, but the turkeys were exceedingly tough, so, after all, my breakfast consisted of the old thing, potatoes and tea with a little biscuit; however, the Maoris enjoyed the turkeys. Our horses were soon got up and we started, having now only about 15 or 20 miles to go. While stopping for a little while to give our horses a feed, strange to say, I found among our ten companions a young man from St. Stephen's School. When I asked him why he had left he said, "Because they made me work." I replied, "Did you expect to be taught and to get your food and clothes and do nothing? You must be a very lazy fellow!" On arriving near the end of our journey our party separated. I thought it best to go at once into the midst of the Kingites, so went on with my friend to Te Waotu, where, on arriving, I found that the meeting was to be held, and that a large party of Hauhaus was present with the King's great teacher of his new form of Hauhauism, a man named Hanauru--'The boisterous Westerly wind.'

After having a little food I went to the large house where they were all assembled, and was well received. Hanauru answered fully to his name--"A big, boisterous man!" still he was friendly. I told him I wished to see

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Rewi, who is the King's Prime Minister, and has been the great spirit in the war. On learning from this man that Rewi was near Kihikihi, about 15 miles off, I told him that I had a letter for Rewi and the King.

In the evening I went to the big house again, and was surrounded by a large number of the Hauhaus, with Hanauru as their leader. Their complaints were many and bitter--the war up the Waikato; the work of our Missionaries; the burning of the people, were all described in detail and brought forward in such a way that one could not help feeling as if present at all that passed. I gave them our version of the affair and told them, that, while I deprecated the burning of the house, they must not forget that that did not take place until after an officer, who wished them to lay down their arms, had been shot by them.

Friday.--I was present at the worship of the Hauhaus. I had slept in the big house, and they all came early. The worship consisted of the chanting of two or three prayers, followed by several Maoris offering short prayers, each of which they concluded with a chant. Their prayers consisted in giving glory to God, praying for their King and asking God to bless him, so that he might save them in the time of their trouble. The whole three persons of the Trinity were mentioned, but it was evident they expected more from their King than from Christ. These prayers were offered by different parties--first a man, then a woman; even boys and girls took part! So far, however, as it goes, there is not much to object to. Their faults are rather in what they omit. I could not hear any recognition of sin, no expressions of repentance, no asking for forgiveness. The spirit of the prayer of the Publican was altogether absent! Their behaviour was all that could be desired, and put us to shame!

I could not help feeling, so far as forms go, that they are much more competent to frame a service for themselves than we are to do it for them. There is no doubt that, if they survive, they will do it sooner or later. In the afternoon I went to a house where the principal Hauhaus were. They immediately began with a number of, what they meant to be, puzzling questions. 1st. What did we know about God? How could we tell that He made the world? etc.

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I said, "You see the world, do you not, and all that is in it? Did it make itself?" Taking hold of the speaker's coat I said, "Did this coat make itself?" He answered, "No." I then pointed out that the world did not make itself, that it, too, had a Maker and that that Maker was God. They then started another question, concerning the peopling of the world, declaring that they were the first people, and that we came into existence long after; that they could give their generation from the beginning. I asked them to do so. They made out 24 generations! I then told them that we had our generations for 4000 years, counting from the Creation to Christ, and that from Adam to Christ there were three fourteens, that is 42, and that there have been many more since which would make, in all, 60 or more, so that they were wrong. I also pointed out that we knew more about them than they did about themselves; that we knew where they came from, and the way they travelled to N.Z. This excited a good deal of interest and they wanted to know more. I sketched a map on the floor of the house showing the Malay Peninsula. "There!" I said, "you came thence and your race is still there." Continuing, I showed them how they reached the Sandwich Islands and worked down to Tahiti and Raratonga, and then told them that, some two or three hundred years ago, they found their way to New Zealand. At the end of the conversation word came that the great "Manga" had arrived! Manga's baptized name is Rewi, but, out of abhorrence to us, they have renounced their baptized names. Manga is the great spirit of the King movement, and, in reality, is a far greater man than the King. Indeed, at the meeting, he claimed to be head of everything! They said to me, "You had better go and see Manga." He was the man of all others that I wanted to see, so off I went, but doubting as to the kind of reception I should get. I entered the large house, and, on my name being mentioned, he repeated it and said, "Where?" (his back being towards me), and immediately jumping up he hongied (touched noses) with me, and saluted me as "the face of Te Heuheu." Te Heuheu was our great Taupo Chief to whom Rewi was related. Te Heuheu died at the beginning of the war. My reception was much better than I expected, and for this I

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felt thankful. Rewi's appearance struck me. Here sat before me a man, who, more than any other, has influenced the destinies of the Maori Race! He is not at all a good specimen of a Maori Chief; his countenance is careworn, sad and thoughtful; he says little, is below the average height and is slender--evidently he is in a poor state of health. The people not having all arrived, there were very few sleeping in the large house, so I preferred it to my little tent, for the night was cold. It was 8 p.m. when I went in. Round the fire were some 12 new-comers, who immediately called me to sit down amongst them--which I did. After a few questions as to why I had come, I replied, "I have come to seek for the lost sheep." Evidently thinking that this was not an opportunity to be lost, they began a regular onslaught. With full force their standing objections were brought forward. 1st. Our land buying. 2nd. That we ran away and left them. 3rd. That we went with the troops and burned the people. 4th. That we worked only for money. The 1st I did not go into. On the 2nd point they declared unanimously that they had never sent away a Missionary; that Mr. Gorst, the Magistrate, was the only person they had sent away. We can make no satisfactory reply to this charge. I do not believe they ever sent one of us away. I was present at Te Awamutu, in March 1863, when Mr. Gorst was sent off. I left with my pack-horse, taking for Taupo a supply of sugar, not feeling the least apprehension. One man became quite furious declaring that they had sent the old people and women to Rangiawhia at our request, and that he himself saw the Bishop leading the troops; that they rode off to Rangiawhia, killed a great number and burned the house, and that his own brother was burned! I said, "The Bishop was hastening to save the Natives on the Station at Te Awamutu--and he did save them. You do not tell what made the soldiers so angry that they burnt the house--namely, that a shot was fired from within (perhaps from your brother) which killed the officer, who, at the door, was asking them to lay down their arms." . . . They replied, "The people inside could not understand what was said." They became considerably mollified, and, on this point, it was a sort of drawn game; but they declared that the Bishop

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should not have been there. They then went furiously to the 4th point--that we were all hirelings and worked for money like the Assessors. One fellow said, "Don't you get your quarter?" I replied, "Certainly! I do not live by stealing." "Quarter" has, of late years, become a proverbial term; the Government Native Assessors, being paid once a quarter, talk commonly of getting their quarters. The Kingites despise these Maoris who have been bribed over, and hate and deride the 'quarter' as conclusive of all that is bad. Hanauru, the King's great priest, who was present, pointed out how he could go about anywhere, all the year round, and wanted no quarter. I said, "How do you live?" He replied, "The people have love for me and give me plenty." "Why," I said, "that is just what the people of England do for us! You are mistaken about the Government giving us anything! Formerly, the clergy were paid in food and the people gave them the tithe, but, as money became more general, especially in large towns, it was found much better to give them money, so now they nearly all received money with which to buy their food. Is not this just the same as the Maori people feeding Hanauru?" They all called out, "Ka tika koe! Ka tika koe!" (You are right! You are right!) "Kapai to haerenga mai!" I said, "What is the good when you will not listen to me?" "Oh!" replied one, "we like to see you amongst us." After this I left them feeling quite satisfied that the sooner we fought out these matters the better! Nothing can be worse than to leave them with these things corroding in their minds, in the way they have been doing since 1864. I feel that, if we had been going about amongst them, their present organized worship would never have had an existence. Who can blame them, after 14 years' neglect by us, for framing a service, more or less imperfect, with which to supply the need? They know they cannot do without religion. There is much that is objectionable in the Kingites, but they are, at least, fifty per cent. better than the Friendlies. What would a body of Europeans have been who had not seen a clergyman for 14 years?

That they should have brought out a form of worship--deficient though it be--is better than nothing, and is

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conclusive as to the reality of their change from Heathenism to Christianity, and a proof that, through the war, they have been vexed and prejudiced, sometimes maddened, and driven to extremes.

It is clear beyond dispute that their objections have been, and still are, not against the Gospel, but against us, who, they believe, have failed on so many points to come up to their expectations.

Saturday.--I had a conversation with Rewi. I told him I had sent a letter to the King which I hoped he would see. I assured him there were many good people in England who wished to help them. He was rather reserved, and appeared suspicious that any one should be interested in them. Towards noon it was rumoured that a large number of Maoris, who were coming to the meeting, were at hand. The big house of which I have spoken was built for this meeting. They immediately began to put it in order for their reception. It was now said the meeting would commence on Monday.

Sunday.--After prayers with my small party, I went 2 miles to another village, where I found a number of people, who, though Kingites, have not become Hauhaus. They received me very kindly; several of them recognized me as having visited them formerly. Amongst them I found an old Teacher who had been doing all he could to keep up the services. I had prayers with about 30 of them. Their behaviour was indifferent and contrasted unfavourably with that of the Hauhaus; however, I was glad to have the opportunity of preaching to them. After having tea with the Chief man I went with the old Teacher to visit a sick man who was in a very low state. Read to him the 23rd Ps., telling him to make Christ his stay, and that then he would have nothing to fear. The Teacher told me that he had prayers with him every day. After this I went to have afternoon service, but found many of them the worse for drink. They were not what you would call drunk, but had had sufficient to make themselves disagreeable and boisterous. I collected the few sober ones and had a short service, addressing them relative to the sad state of things existing amongst them. After this I returned and reached my tent by dark.

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Monday.--The meeting was to begin to-day, but there is to be a tangi for a man who died here last week. Now that I have seen Rewi, I feel anxious to get away; the miseries of Maori life are so many, and I do not feel quite in a fit state to sleep much in my tent this cold weather. Had service this evening in the large house, immediately after the Hauhaus had done; by this means I was able to preach to the Hauhaus, most of whom stayed and were remarkably attentive. I continued this plan to the end of my stay.

Tuesday.--The meeting assembled. It was called to settle a land dispute; but, as I was in no way interested in it, I made up my mind to go in for a while during the first day, and then to have no more to do with it. Accordingly, after they had been assembled for about an hour and a half I went in and found, that, as one side in the dispute had signified they would not abide by the decision of the meeting, they were discussing the point and trying to draw up terms to be agreed to by both parties--but to no purpose.

I was anxious to hear Rewi speak, and was not disappointed. Though in many points he resembles our old friend, Te Heuheu, Rewi is far from being his equal; but I do not suppose I saw him at his best. However, his assumptions were great indeed! He claimed to be the head of everything that was done by the Kingites. He was very sarcastic towards the Government Assessors, who are in the pay of the Government. The place was very cold; I had sat in the draught and taken cold in my head. I went off to my tent at once and shut myself up, hoping to be better in the morning and able to start back. Passed a bad night--my chest had become affected. Next morning my friend, Ripihana, came to say that they would not start till to-morrow. I was glad of this, for I was unfit to travel. Kept to my tent all day hoping to be able to leave to-morrow. Had some sleep and, in the morning, felt much better, except that now I had an attack of toothache; but, alas! there was no chance of getting away for it began to rain heavily. Ripihana kindly came and dug a trench round my tent, to run off the water. In the afternoon, feeling better, I went out to the quarters of the Hauhaus. They received me kindly and began their usual

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conversation which ended in my telling them that, since they had such a bad opinion of the old Missionaries, it would be well in the future, to see that they were ministered to only by men who were not in this Country at the time of the war. I told them that their Hauhauism would not last long. They paid heed to what I said. It is clear that a man who could say to them, "I was not here during the war," would have a great advantage over an old Missionary who had been here at the time of the war.

Amongst the party was the great prophet, Hanauru, and his coadjutor, whose name I was not given. These fellows, as may be expected, are far the worst to deal with. They were very friendly when I left them, and, pointing, said, "Manga is there, go and see him!" It was too late to do this. All was arranged with my friend to start in the morning after prayers. I went to my tent and passed a good night.

Friday.--Felt greatly refreshed. Got packed up--horse saddled--breakfast over and ready to start when Ripihana called out, "We cannot go to-day." Upon enquiring I found that they were sending off two men with horses to fetch grog with which to wind up their gathering! I felt very much put out, but there was no help for it, so took off my baggage. My horse was in a very bad way, for feed was scarce. I managed to procure some bran, but he would not take it, so I took him off through the forest for about a mile and a half to where there was some tussock--a dry, wiry grass--which, although not at all nourishing, horses will exist upon. He seemed to like it, and I left him there with the other horses. In the afternoon I went to see Manga. On looking into his house (kauta) I saw him with two of the leading men of the place. One end of the house had a covering of fern spread over with nice clean mats. He saluted me in the most friendly way but said, "You cannot come in; you will be smothered with the smoke." There was a large fire in the middle. When I told him I could stand smoke, he immediately got up and cleared a nice place in the middle, and, putting his hand upon it, said, "Come along! come along! sit down here." I felt more than half ashamed, with my dirty boots, to step upon the neat, clean mat on which he slept, so,

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wiping my feet as best I could, I went in and sat down, and in the most pleasant and agreeable manner, conversed with him for about an hour and a half. I kept off disputed points, and turned the conversation to events in the war. He told me more than I had known before about the intention of a certain party who had escaped from Rangiawhia, where the people were burned. This party, headed by a noted, bad Taupo fellow, hearing that I had arrived at the Station at Pukawa in company with one Native, held an all-night meeting at which they planned to kill me in revenge for Rangiawhia. There is not any doubt that I should have been killed at that time had it not been for the King and this man, Rewi, who, unknown to me, were close at hand and rescued me! It should always be remembered that every outrage that has been committed, has been perpetrated by men who had no authority whatever from the King to do anything of the kind! This was the case in the murder of Volkner. Rewi then began to talk of the land passing into the hands of Europeans, pointing out that he had never parted with any of his, and so on. He blamed us strongly for wanting their land, etc. This gave me an opportunity I was glad of. "Now," I said, "look here!" (touching his coat). "You want to buy our clothing, etc., do you not?" "Yes," he said. "Well, you hear there is a store with lots of goods, at such a place, and off you go to buy! Presently you hear that there is another place where goods are to be purchased much more cheaply, and away you go there and buy all you can!" He said, "Quite true!" "Now," said I, "the Europeans do not want to buy clothing, but they learn there is land to be bought here, so they come and buy all they can get. Others in England learn that land is good and cheap here, so they come, too, to buy, just in the same way that you go to them to buy clothing." They all exclaimed that this was all very correct, but that the Maoris ought not to sell the land of their ancestors. "True," I said, "but can you keep it? You have allowed your young people to grow up without education. They cannot compete with the Europeans. They do not understand business and money matters, besides which many of them are drunkards. While you Chiefs live you may keep your land, but, as soon as

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you are gone they will sell it without limit!" He looked thoughtful and grave, and said, "E tika ana" (That's true). "No," I continued, "if you want to keep your land, you must educate your young people as we do ours. Some of them should be lawyers, some surveyors, others should go into offices and Banks, others should learn farming, trades and everything in which you see Europeans employed--then your young people would be quite able to manage their lands." I concluded by saying, "You must aid and educate your young people!"

New light seemed to enter the old man's mind, and he expressed himself by saying that my talk was good. After this he enquired into the mysteries of banking money, and interest. He seemed surprised that we could make money bear fruit every year. I left them well satisfied that I had been prevented from starting, and telling Rewi that I would see him again before I left.

Returned to my tent. Horrible! it was in the possession of four pigs! "Woe is me that I am constrained to dwell with Mesheck." Who can describe the miseries, the dirt and the discomfort of a Maori Village! True I advocate that a Missionary should live in a Native district, but never that he should dwell in their villages!

After some tea and potatoes I went to the big house for evening prayers. The Hauhau worship was going on, and I had a good opportunity of listening to it. On this occasion I found it more objectionable than before! They clearly put the King in the place of Christ. Hanauru, in his address, spoke of taking up the cross of Tawhiao! On this occasion they did not know I was present, which may have made some difference. On beginning my service with my own party, there being about two-thirds of the Hauhaus present, I read the 24th Ps. and spoke of God as the only King who could help us; told them that He was a jealous God and would not suffer His glory to be given to another, and that He had warned us not to put our 'trust in Princes,' and so on. I said more than they liked, and when I had finished there was a little murmuring. Having told them their worship was worse than I had thought, and that it would not stand, I left them. I have no doubt but that this Hanauru, the King's great Prophet, exceeds his authority,

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for I have heard that Tawhiao has forbidden prayers being offered to him. After service I returned to my tent. A very cold Southerly wind blew during the night, which obliged me to get up twice to secure my tent.

Saturday.--About 10 a.m. the men and the horses returned with the grog. This was soon served out and a few began to be rather noisy. The Hauhaus, who profess not to drink, took a little, but I did not see one of them the worse for it. I wish I could say the same of the Friendlies! About 3 p.m. Ripihana came to say he was ready to start. I said, "No, if we start now we shall be travelling all day to-morrow, Sunday! I have waited two days for you, and now I must ask you to wait for me. To-morrow I will go over to the other village, and, after the services, an hour before dark, we will start and get a few miles on the way so that we may reach Horohoro on Monday evening." He made a thousand objections, but my mind was made up. I rather expected that on Sunday morning he would start without me. I had evening service in the big house for the last time. Two-thirds of the Hauhaus remained. My address was principally for them, which they clearly felt. Some of them did not seem quite pleased that I should be preaching Christ versus the King in their very midst.

Sunday.--Ripihana came to my tent to say that he would stay for me. Had early prayers with my small party. After breakfast they were all on the move to depart. I had told Rewi on Friday that I would see him again before I left; however, he came to me to say good-bye. I had a short conversation with him, when he told me he would not forget what I had said. To my astonishment, before I had quite done with Rewi, up came my great opponent, Hanauru, the Prophet. He came to say good-bye, also, so I had a last word with him, too, and told him again that the more I knew of his new worship the less I liked it! He denied that they prayed to the King, and tried to make out that they prayed to God to bless the King that he might help them out of their troubles. In reply I said, "But you tell the people to take up the Cross of Tawhiao!" He was very civil and quiet and asked me if I would give him a Bible. This I told him I would do, if he would send to Tauranga for it--and so we parted. I walked over to

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the other village and had two services with them. The Chief man was very hospitable. The poor, sick man I saw last Sunday seemed much worse. I prayed with him and left him, I fear, never to see him again in this world. When about to return to my tent with Ripihana, they told me that the dying man had been a great Hauhau leader.

Started with my friend on the return journey, and made some 15 miles, when we pitched at a spot where there was a little picking for our horses. As it was nearly dark we had some difficulty in finding enough firewood to boil the water for our tea. The night was fine, but cold and frosty.

Monday.--Were up at sunrise; made as good a breakfast as possible and started for Horohoro, which, after a hard ride, we reached at 4 p.m. very hungry. Ripihana's people boiled me some potatoes and I made as good a meal as possible. After evening service I was glad to put up my tent in a wretched hut and rest for the night.

Tuesday.--Had morning prayers and started as soon as possible after breakfast, taking leave of my kind friend, Ripihana, who, throughout, behaved remarkably well. A good Providence had put him in my way, and caused him to forget the selfishness which, at present, clings to his race. I found that some 28 years ago he was at the Bishop's school in Auckland, and that he had travelled with Bishop Selwyn. I took leave of him and his party and travelled on to Parekarangi, where I had left some oats. My horse was nearly knocked up; however, he carried me 36 miles, to the middle of the forest, which is 18 miles through! The road is usually fairly good, but now, for the most part, it was knee deep in mud, which made travelling hard and tedious work. I took up my quarters for the night in a very primitive kind of house. A gigantic tree lay by the road, against the trunk of which a number of fronds of a beautiful korau were leaning; one end was stuffed up with fern, the other being open. I was able to make a fire and had just room to sleep beside it. It rained heavily during the night, but providentially cleared up by daylight. After as good a breakfast as circumstances would permit, I started, but oh! the mud of the forest. I reached home at three in the afternoon, just too late to meet William Pomare,

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the Maori Clergyman, of whom I spoke as being suitable for a Native Bishop.

I do not remember having taken a journey when I seemed so much at the mercy of circumstances, and never one in which the hand of God was so evident--first, in giving me such a companion and guide; secondly, in taking me to the very people I so much wished to meet; and lastly, in giving me such a cordial reception from Rewi. Let us thank God, and take courage!

(Sd.) T. S. GRACE.

21st Septr. 1877.

E. Hutchinson, Esqre.,
Secy. C.M.S.,


You will remember that, two months ago, I sent you the copy of a letter that I wrote to the Bishop of Auckland. I now forward what has passed since.

You will see from the Bishop's first letter of August 2nd that he reserves to himself the right to consent, or otherwise, to any arrangements we may make as to men or districts.

You will notice that I have not consented to give up my former boundary, for which I hold a Bishop's license. This still leaves me a large share of the King Country; at the same time, I shall be only too glad to give place to any fit person who may be willing to live amongst them. I have been strongly impressed with the feeling that Mr. Stewart is a most suitable man for this work, but alas! there seems little hope of his going. Eight or ten thousand perishing men ought to move some one to go! Mr. Stewart, with his two daughters, might, under the blessing of God, do wonders amongst them!

I greatly dislike the extreme caution alluded to in the Bishop's letter--suggesting first to send Heta and then, if he is well received, that Mr. Ashwell shall pay them a visit. Why, the people might all be wild beasts! With ordinary prudence there is no danger, not the least! nor has there

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been for many years! Of course the Maoris must be expected to use their tongues freely and to accept, or not, our teaching, but danger there is none! It is humiliating to the last degree to be told, as a Maori told me only a few weeks ago when referring to the way in which the Missionaries ran away and left them--"You forget that passage which says, 'Fear not him that can kill the body,'" also to be told, as we are, times without number, "You fled because you are hirelings."

If we cannot occupy the King Country, we ought not to prevent others from doing so. Before the war nearly the whole of the Waipa River, and all the upper part of it where the King now lives, was, by mutual arrangement, left to the Wesleyans; and all the Country on the West, which does not belong to Taupo, was occupied by them. Mr. Reid had his Station where the King is now living, which is 6 or 8 miles across the confiscated boundary. If we cannot occupy what was theirs, I hope they will. My arrangements are all upset and I must now wait to see the turn of events, and until I hear from you.

While in England I had a hope of again seeing the most populous Native districts occupied by resident Missionaries, but now I have no hope of seeing this. At present we have not one man that I know of living amongst his people--Messrs. Puckey and Matthews excepted! I am not unmindful of the Native Clergy, nor of the visits of Missionaries--I take them at their full value--but experience has taught me that both these agencies together will not reinstate the Maori Church and enable it to hold its own.

I feel very sorry now to have to refer to the state of my health. In addition to all the obstacles I have met with since my return, it seems as though my constitution had begun to break up. The almost constant cold I had in England has fastened on my chest, and my medical man tells me that my lungs are affected.

I hoped the voyage back to New Zealand would have set me all right, but my first journey to Taupo brought back all the bad symptoms, and my last journey, which was a very trying one, caused me to be laid up on my return home. I feel better now, but cannot exert myself to any

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great extent, and must not attempt another journey till the warm weather sets in. You must understand that the parts of the Country I travel are outside the pale of civilization; there are no inns! As soon as I leave the roads made through the country, I am in the midst of the same primitive state of things that existed 50 years ago, which makes it imperative, in my case, to keep up the old custom of travelling with a small tent. This is a very convenient mode of travelling and has enabled me, all through the war, to sleep wherever I found Maoris; now, however, I find that sleeping in a tent does not suit me.

I shall be glad to know, in case the Summer does not restore me, and should the Doctor advise it, whether you will sanction my going to Sydney or Adelaide next winter.

Believe me, my dear Sir,
Yours very truly,
(Sd.) T. S. GRACE.


I concluded to go overland on horseback in preference to going by steamer as, in the one case, I should see no Maoris, except at Opotiki; while, on the other route, I should be enabled to see many of my old friends at Matata and Whakatane, of which places I formerly had charge. Accordingly, I set out with Ihaia Te Ahu, the Native Clergyman of Maketu, who had been staying with us a day or two to see his daughter. We reached Maketu at 11 a.m.

I rested for two hours, and then left Ihaia and went on to Matata. On reaching Waihi, only a mile from Maketu, I found there was no ferry and the water far too high for fording. I tried it twice in different places, got wet, and had to content myself with waiting till the tide was considerably lower. In an hour and a half I crossed all right, but the delay made me rather late in getting to Matata. I had a hearty welcome from a number of my old friends. I was too late to have prayers, and I was very tired with my

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40 miles ride--the best part of it in wet clothes--so I went to a Maori I know well, who has built himself a nice European cottage of 4 rooms. I found the poor fellow suffering from asthma. He and his wife made me very welcome, and placed the bedroom at my disposal. I was glad to retire, but, on going to my room, I found only a bedstead with a bottom of wooden laths. With the exception of a wash-basin and jug on the floor, this was all the furniture! Fortunately I had with me a thick travelling rug, and so managed very well on the floor. Now, the case of this worthy man and his wife fairly illustrates the difficulty a Maori meets with when he attempts to live after our fashion. The cottage had cost a very large sum for a Native--I think it was £160. He had no doubt achieved, in his own estimation, a great undertaking, but it had never entered his mind, that, when the house was finished, there would be a hundred and one things he would require in order to make it comfortable; that his wife had no idea how to make it comfortable, and that he was not in possession of a regular income to maintain it. The mansion finished, into it they go! The bedroom given to me was clearly intended for visitors; as was also the sitting-room, which contained a small table and two chairs. The family lived in the kitchen behind, where they sat on the floor round an open chimney-place with very little fire, while, close behind was the door, from which came a draught sufficient to kill any one sitting by the chimney-place. No wonder the poor fellow was ill! Their sleeping apartment was the little back room, about 8 ft. by 6 ft., in which they all slept on the floor; in short, this praiseworthy, but misguided effort at advancement was causing them to live in a state of miserable endurance worse, and more damaging to them, than the old 'whare puni,' and no doubt, when the novelty of a European house--as they style it--wears off, and the comfortless state of endurance becomes more manifest to them, they will retire to a Maori house behind. The man will, thus, derive no advantage from his expenditure, and, at last, will fall back discouraged; whereas, had his wife been domesticated she would have known from the first, all that would be required, and the poor man would have acted accordingly. I mention this matter as it helps

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to show the great need there is to attend to the domestic training of Maori girls.

Saturday.--The tide made it necessary for me to start early. I was up betimes, and, at 6 a.m., breakfasting on a piece of baked eel and some potatoes, while the Natives of the house sat looking at me from the door which opened into the kitchen. Immediately after breakfast I crossed the river, finding it very boggy and dangerous in the shallow parts for the horse. We got safely over and went on. It was high tide when we reached Whakatane; this caused the crossing to be broad, and, owing to a stiff breeze that came down the river, there was a very unpleasant little, broken sea that troubled the horse greatly, for the animal had much difficulty in keeping the water out of his nostrils. After a long swim, which quite exhausted the horse, we gained the other side, where I waited 3 hours to allow the tide to fall. There being a small inn, I was able to get dinner and rest; but the last swim had tired my horse so much that he would not look at his corn. I pushed on to the Ohiwa ford, which is the most formidable one between Tauranga and Opotiki. A regular ferry is established here. I found a good canoe and a Maori quite up to his work. The swim across the entrance is about a third of a mile, but the water was smooth and my horse behaved bravely.

I had still 9 miles to go and three rivers to ford; all of these were crossed without any mishap, though with some difficulty. I called on a clergyman, Mr. Soutar, and found him very willing to render me any assistance. I accepted his invitation to preach for him to-morrow evening.

Sunday.--Rode about 10 miles to see some Maoris, by whom I was received very kindly. Though they were followers of Te Kooti, I had service with them and a good deal of conversation. One could not help being struck at the great change which has taken place in these people since I was here in 1865! Instead of their large populous villages and good Native houses, they are now living in small places--each a mere apology for a good Native village--in scattered parties, from 5 to 10 miles out of Opotiki. Without doubt they are industrious, but, being so close to a town, their inducements to spend money are

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so many that their industry fails to keep pace with their increasing wants, consequent upon their new conditions. They are more or less drunken, ill fed, always poor, and, if the reports of the settlers are to be taken, they are fast passing away. One cannot help feeling sorry for them. Since the murder they have been left very much to themselves, for our Missionary efforts amongst them have been of a nominal kind. They all now appear to be followers of Te Kooti. If an active Missionary had been located amongst them it might have been different. They seem to be softened and likely to appreciate kindness.

The large Church, which they and dear Volkner built in what is now the town of Opotiki, has been put into repair and is appropriated to the use of the Europeans. It is a good, plain, substantial, wooden building with a comparatively tall spire, and altogether has an effective appearance. It cost Mr. Volkner much labour and expense, and is his best monument. It illustrates how much he did during the few years he was in occupation of the place! In the evening I preached to a good congregation of Europeans in this Church.

Monday (Oct. 22nd, 1877).--The Magistrate of Opotiki is a son of our old Missionary, Mr. Preece. He very kindly sent letters for me to the Maoris round about, some 10 or 12 miles off, asking them to assemble to-morrow, while I was busy all the forenoon looking for workmen to build up the stone and fix the iron railing. Mr. Soutar kindly rendered me every assistance and placed the church (once Mr. Volkner's) at my disposal for the meeting with the Maoris to-morrow. In short, he entered very warmly into the matter. In the evening I saw several of the most important settlers, and had notices put up for a meeting of Europeans.

Tuesday (Oct. 23rd, 1877).--By 10 o'clock a.m. the little town began to fill with Maoris, some of whom had come a distance of 15 miles in answer to the letters sent yesterday--some on horseback, and some on foot. The workmen had only begun work this morning, so that the erection of the Tombstone was not finished; still, they were able to see the stone in its place. Having come so far, and not having anything to eat, they could not remain to see the

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completion of the grave, so, at 2p.m. the Church bell was rung for them to assemble, when the building was almost filled. After reading the Martyrdom of St. Stephen, and having offered some appropriate prayers, I stood up to address them. It was one of those moments in which the events of a lifetime seem to rush into the mind, each starting out as from a dark background as if to assert its importance. You must judge of my feelings as best you can. I was greatly in fear of breaking down altogether. Here we were in the Church raised by the care and perseverance of the Proto-Martyr of New Zealand. Before me sat the men, who, with two or three exceptions, consented to, and took part in, his murder! On my right stood the pulpit to which report says 'Kereopa' carried the head, and where he swallowed the eyes, while, once again, I stood on the very spot--for here, singularly enough, the desk from which I spoke was placed--where on the 6th of March, 1865, I stood for many weary hours being tried for my life, while many of those upon whom I now gazed were thirsting for my blood and declaring that I was a traitor and a spy and ought to be killed! Now, how changed! Justice has overtaken the most guilty of those who then filled the Church, and they are no more. This House of God, which was then desecrated by the most furious revelry and immorality, is now restored to be a sacred House of God and a gate of Heaven. But the greatest change seemed to me in the men now before me, who, when I last saw them, were a mad, wild crowd of murderers. These men were now sitting quietly in front of me subdued, thoughtful, grave, and, I hope in many cases, penitent and willing to listen, to the call of repentance and the willingness of our gracious God, for Christ's sake, to forgive the greatest of sinners. For some moments I could only look at them; I could not utter a word! To subdue my feelings seemed impossible! At length, however, I was able to open my mouth. I commenced by telling them that I had been in England; that many there had enquired of me respecting Mr. Volkner's death and those who killed him. I then told them several things that took place at the time; that the last act of Mr. Volkner's life was to kneel down and pray for them; that we were not concerned for him, for he was

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at rest; that I did not so much desire to bring their sins to remembrance as to bring them to Christ, who was ready to forgive them. I reminded them that, when they committed this murder, they had been led astray by evil men, and warned them against the devices of such men, pointing out that even now they were still following the teachings of Te Kooti, who, as both Europeans and Maoris agreed, was a murderer! In conclusion I spoke a few words of exhortation and encouragement.

My address lasted three-quarters of an hour. Their attention was very marked, and there were evidently many searchings of heart amongst them as they listened and were reminded of many unwelcome truths, which they would fain have forgotten.

As soon as the meeting was over the Maoris had to hurry home, for they had had no food since early morning; so I saw no more of them. I felt tired when it was over and rode out six miles to see an old friend, who has settled here. He used to live up the Matata River, and, on all our journeys to and from Taupo, was always most kind and hospitable, often rendering us important assistance.

I heard he had almost entirely lost his eyesight, and felt it a duty to go and see him. A gentleman who, at present, is teaching the Government School, and who, in former years, had been a school fellow of Bishop Patteson, accompanied me. We had a pleasant ride and found the old man at home with several of his sons around him; he seemed to have prospered. He was very glad to see me and to talk over old times. He is between 70 and 80 years of age and is, I trust, looking forward to a remove to a better land.

Wednesday.--A very wet day. Notices had been given and arrangements made for a meeting of the Europeans, but the rain was such as to leave little hope of a good attendance. In the evening it cleared a little; the bell was rung and, although it was long past the appointed hour, a good number came. We had a short service, Mr. Soutar following much the same course that I had yesterday with the Maoris. I spoke for about half an hour, reciting the chief circumstances of the murder and my imprisonment, and concluded by giving the matter a practical turn. As the

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martyrdom of Mr. Volkner is an historical fact and will be handed down in the history of New Zealand, and especially in that of Opotiki, I suggested that it might be desirable to canvas the Country and have a suitable monument erected on the site of the murder. The matter was discussed and taken up warmly! They then formed themselves into a regular meeting, and passed resolutions, forming a committee to carry out this object. I have already sent you a copy of these.

I felt my work was now done. I was much pleased with the way in which the settlers took up the matter. All I could do was to thank them heartily, and to wish them success. The evening I spent with Mr. Soutar and some of the leading people, and I think there is a fair prospect of success.

Thursday.--Mr. Preece kindly promised to see that a strong post and rail fence is put up to enclose the grave. This is necessary, as the Church yard is not a burying place, and cattle and horses are allowed to graze in it.

Started to return. My horse had had a good rest and behaved well. On reaching Whakatane at noon, I found a large number of Maoris, amongst whom were several of the prisoners liberated by the Government 10 years ago, and who were given over to me on my being responsible for them. They received me most kindly, presenting me with some kumaras and potatoes. They all now use Te Kooti's prayers. This caused much conversation, and gave me an opportunity of pointing out the danger they incurred, in leaving the old paths. They maintained they had not left them, but still adhered to the Prayer Book. After a stay of two hours I started for Matata, which I reached in time for evening service. I met many old friends and had service with about 40. These are not the people that lived here when I had charge of the district. Matata was confiscated and given to the Arawa tribe for their loyalty, which accounts, in a great measure, for these people not having gone over to Te Kooti's worship. I found quarters with a settler who kindly supplied my wants.

Friday.--Went on to Maketu. The tide suited me very badly, and, as I should not have been able to cross the last ford till midnight, I stayed with Ihaia, whose daughter

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wished to return with me to see her sister who is with us. This was an additional reason for remaining for the night.

I reached home without difficulty on Saturday morning at 11 o'clock, feeling no worse for my journey. Not being obliged to use my tent makes a great difference! As there are now houses of accommodation all along the Coast, I was able to have European fare and lodgings.

TAURANGA, Decr., 15th, 1877.
(Sd.) T. S. GRACE.

P.S.--When at Opotiki I went to see the "Willow Tree" on which Mr. Volkner was hanged. It is now much larger than when I saw it last. It is pointed out to all visitors, and has become of historic importance. The branch to which the rope was attached has been cut off, but the place, from which it was cut, is still visible, and beneath it is the spot where, like St. Stephen, he knelt down and offered up his last prayer for himself and his murderers. Many cuttings from this tree, I was told, have been taken to different parts of the Island to be planted.

(Sd.) T. S. G.


Nov. 18th, 1877.


Since my return to this country in Feby. last, I have not been able for several causes, so far, to carry out many of my plans.

Difficulties have been raised about our occupying the King Country--at least that part of it which does not come into the Taupo district. The fact is, the true position of the Kingites is not understood. How can it be? They have not been visited for 14 years! While caution is being advocated in approaching these people, the Maoris, as I found when amongst them, are accusing us of running away and leaving them, and declaring that they never sent away one Missionary from his station. However, I feel I have gained a very important point in having aroused them

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to attempt something. All I care about is that these people shall not be neglected any longer, and that, if possible, they shall be won back.

Difficulties have met me in Taupo from the extreme jealousy of the Natives to our acquiring land for Missionary purposes. All over the country they accuse us of having cheated them as to the lands they sold or gave up for Missionary work. They point especially to Tauranga and other places, all of which they see occupied by Europeans. They know no better. Nothing has been done to enlighten them, and the Maoris will not receive the statements of individuals.

Still, I am not without hope that we may yet be able to do something after the example of our friend, Mr. Duncan.

Then again, winter was upon us shortly after we reached Tauranga, and this year we have had an unusually long and severe one for New Zealand. Besides these drawbacks, as I have already told you, my health has been such as to prevent me from exerting myself as I should wish to have done. However, by God's help, I have been able to visit Taupo and have seen a large portion of the people, and have had important communications with them. I have been into that part of the King Country, which I consider belongs to Taupo, and have been well received by the leading Kingites. I have gained valuable information by intercourse with these people, have seen their doings and learnt many of their intentions.

I have sent you journals of both these journeys.

Last month I went overland to Opotiki to pay a last tribute of respect and affection to dear Volkner, by attending to his long neglected grave.

I purpose going into Taupo again next month, if I am able, and hope to get Natives, at a small cost, to put me up a cottage that I may be able to make a long stay and take Mrs. Grace with me, and try, if possible, to get back the site of the old Station, or, if I can procure a suitable block of land, to purchase it in order to carry out something of Mr. Duncan's plan, which we talked over with Sir F. Buxton. It will, if possible, be very desirable to purchase the land, even if we cannot see our way to turn it to account immediately. I regret that things move much more slowly than I

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like. A good deal will depend upon the state of my health, but I trust the end of the summer may find me much stronger. I feel considerably better since we have enjoyed warmer weather, but unfit for much exertion.

I will now give you, as correctly as I can, the results of my intercourse with the Hauhaus, especially the Kingites and followers of Te Kooti.

The Kingites have modified Hauhauism. Strange to say they have altered the whole, changing the months and keeping every tenth day as a Sabbath. They have appointed certain great days as feasts.

Their service consists of prayers, apparently committed to memory, Psalms chanted, additions of their own and addresses from one or more of their Teachers, whom they call prophets. This form they call Tariao, and are strenuously striving to propagate it throughout the Island, and with great success on the Western side South of Auckland.

Then, in addition to this, Te Kooti---named after our former lay Secretary--who has been the greatest general on either side in the war, when a prisoner at the Chatham Islands, compiled a service apparently to suit his own circumstances, taken almost exclusively from the Prayer Book, and consisting chiefly of the collects, prayers and Psalms. It is objectionable only in what it omits, and in that they have given up the Lord's day and keep Saturday for their Sabbath. When spoken to on this subject and asked why they have given up our old form of worship they maintain that they have not given it up, that their worship is the worship of the Prayer Book. Their confidence in the Bible and Prayer Book, under the circumstances, is remarkable. The other day in my address to the Natives at Opotiki--all of whom have adopted Te Kooti's worship--I told them that Te Kooti was a murderer, that he is accused by both Maoris and Europeans of many murders, and that, therefore, we ought not to follow the teachings of such a man. I afterwards learned that some of them said: "Te Kerehi is wrong; look here! it is all in the book." Te Kooti's followers seem to have met with even more success than the King's prophets. The whole of the Bay of Plenty--two or three villages excepted--

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Tauranga included, have become followers of Te Kooti, one or two places only adhering to the King's form. I may add that I have not been able to detect anything like a persecuting spirit. Both these parties--shall they be called sects?--appear to be on the best terms and do not show any feeling or bitterness towards those who adopt the rival form, not even to those who still adhere to us. Te Kooti's people do not object to joining in our service, and will allow us to preach to them.

Apart from the good or bad of these doings of the Natives, we cannot help being struck with the great change that has come over our connection with them! In early years they received Christianity--and I may say Colonization--at our hands without doubting, and, to a great extent, on credit. Colonization, war, confiscation and English vices have followed each other in quick succession, while the expectations anticipated from representations made when they signed the "Treaty of Waitangi" have not been realized. Now they turn round and question their first advisers, and look at the whole of our connection with them as a scheme by which to get their lands, and, as they can point to the large blocks of land acquired by the early Missionaries--whom they say began the business--they appear to think they have good reason for coming to this conclusion. These things, together with the course some of our brethren took in the war, have completely changed our position with these people.

But now a change has come over the Maoris. Formerly they consulted us in all matters connected with their teaching and worship, and invariably abided by our directions. Now they assume the entire management of their own affairs and seem to consider they have a perfect right to do so.

The development of the ecclesiastic state of these people is curious, and, at the same time, interesting to Missionaries and the supporters of Missions! They have clearly never intended to renounce Christianity and go back to Heathenism; on the contrary, whatever individual exceptions they may make, they have lost confidence in us as a body and look upon us with distrust and suspicion, and have determined to manage their own religious affairs.

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What the end of it all will be it is difficult to foresee. Natives have always been fond of new things, but they soon become careless of them. Will it be so in this case? I am not prepared to answer this question. This change has now been going on in their minds since 1864, and, at the end of 14 years, it is stronger and more vigorous than ever! The question for us to solve appears to be: What is the wisest course for us to take under these circumstances? We may come to the conclusion that the Natives, as a body, if they survive, will never again submit to us as they have done! Even the Native Clergy who may appear, and are, very submissive owing to our holding the purse strings, are beginning to feel that they ought to be treated differently. I heard lately of one who, with reference to attending the English Synod, said, "What is the use of going there to stand like a post?" I was rather astonished at this, for I thought the holiday and change would have been sufficient to induce him to go--but not so! Maoris have minds and tongues of their own; to have expected the Native to be present at a Synod, where only English is spoken, was an affront, and clearly this man felt it to be so. A Synod has just been held at Napier without (I am informed) the attendance of a single Native Clergyman, though they comprise about one-half of the Clergy of the Diocese, and the number of Natives said to belong to our Church is put down at 17,000; while the European member ship cannot be more than two or three thousand! At this Synod a Bishop has been nominated without the Natives being heard, though they have contributed to the Bishop's fund--which the Europeans have not done. Instead of following such an unfair and exclusive course as this, which, sooner or later, will rouse the Natives into opposition, I think that the more prominently we can bring them forward, and the more responsibility we can lay upon them, the better!

In the matter of nominating a Bishop we have lost a splendid opportunity. I cannot help thinking the European Clergy should have declined to nominate till their Native brethren were consulted.

With reference, more especially to the Kingites and others who have, and are, seceding from us, I wish we could

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copy a leaf from them and announce an itinerating Mission amongst them, to be conducted by men outside of our own body, but I confess I do not see much hope of this.

There is no doubt very much yet to be learned as to the management of Missions!

The Apostles had nothing to do with commerce, colonization and civilization; whereas we, who go, in many cases, to uncivilized and barbarous people, cannot get rid of these things--for Christianity cannot co-exist with the daily usages of savage life. No doubt these things exercise a great influence upon ourselves and our work.

I am very glad that the Committee is considering the Moravian mode, which seems adapted to uncivilized countries. They, while working with great economy, seem to make civilization grow out of the industry of their converts by forming them into communities, and thus, to a great extent, they have control of their secular matters. We, on the other hand, seem to have been putting civilization upon them, as a man puts on his coat, and too often have seen that the improvement was only in appearance, and passed away when the coat was worn out.

Praying that the efforts of our Society may continue to be blessed in the salvation of many of those who have long sat in darkness and in the shadow of death.

Believe me,
Yours very truly.

[The above, which was received in London in Jany. 1878, and is in the handwriting of Mrs. Grace, bears no signature.--ED.]


[On this journey the Missionary was accompanied by his wife. The following journal, which is unsigned, was written by Mrs. Grace.--ED.]

In preparing for this journey there was a difficulty. The trap we brought with us from England requires two horses, which Mr. Grace has not yet been able to meet

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with, and the spring cart, which has just arrived, requires a very good horse for the roads between this place and Taupo. There was nothing left but to try the cart with the horse we have, which, though too small, is a good, willing animal. Our baggage, tents, bedding and provisions were made ready for a journey of 5 or 6 weeks, and we should have started on the 20th February but heavy rain detained us that night and the next day.

On the 22nd February we started with a bright, sunny morning, our party consisting of Mr. Grace and myself in the cart, and a man on horseback. By 2 p.m. we reached the first river in the 18-mile forest which, like all the six rivers we had to pass in this forest, was down in a deep ravine of 600 or 700 feet. Here we met a man accustomed to drive on this road. He told us that the state of the road was such, owing to the rain, that, with our little horse, he felt sure we would not be able to get through. However, with the intention of proceeding to the next river and there encamping for the night, we resolved to try, and commenced the ascent from this river, which sorely tried the horse. We reached this second river, and were about to pitch our tents, when a young man, who is living at some stables in the forest where the coaches change horses, came up. He urged us to go on to the stables that we might get through the forest to-morrow. We took his advice, got ready again, and gave over our vehicle to our new driver that he might take it up this second cutting, while Mr. Grace assisted me. This young man seemed to put new spirit both into us and our horse, and we reached the stables safely, having traversed another 3 miles of forest.

A rough slab house, in which we were able to have a fire, was placed at our disposal. We had evening prayers with the young man and a person who had just arrived from Taupo. We had a number of sacks laid on the floor and made our bed thereon.

23rd Feby.--A fine morning; were up betimes. The horses were fed, but, while we were at breakfast, they took off. The man who went in search of them found them 3 miles away. This caused us some delay. We had now the worst part of the forest before us, with three more deep dips to three more rivers, one of these being the formidable

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Manga Rewa, which has a cutting of about a mile on each side of it. The riding horse was packed so as to lighten the cart as much as possible. At all the bad places we got out, so that the horse had little more than the cart, and we got on fairly well. We reached Manga Rewa at 1 p.m. I had often heard of this place. Here, in the midst of a splendid forest, at an elevation of 1800 feet, you wind down a picturesque cutting of a mile in length till you descend about 700 feet on the spurs of the hills on the left, while, on your right, there is a deep gorge descending to the river which is hidden by the rich, delicate foliage of the forest. On the other side are high, perpendicular rocks towering to the height of about 800 feet, festooned and embellished with every kind of foliage.

In making this descent we met the passengers belonging to the Napier coach wending their way up, amongst them being the Roman Catholic Bishop of Brisbane, who was introduced to us by a gentleman who knew Mr. Grace. We had difficulty in passing the coach, for the road was so narrow. It is beautifully cool and refreshing in the forest, so little sun penetrates. At the bottom we found two Maoris cooking their dinner. They were mending the road and had a hut there. We gave them some tea, and they gave us some potatoes. After our meal we all started together up the formidable cutting which we had contemplated with some anxiety. Our little horse seemed to grow to the work! After a good many stoppages and rests we reached the top, feeling that our greatest difficulty was over. The road now descended all the way to Rotorua, and was much easier. We reached the end of the forest at 3.30 p.m. Here we unpacked our riding horse and replaced everything in the cart, and trotted briskly down the hill to Rotorua. We encamped at a village a little way off the road, but there were no Maoris. Immediately the tents were pitched, Mr. Grace went to reconnoitre and saw from a hill that the Natives were about 2 miles off at Ruhirua, the village of the celebrated Kereopa who murdered Mr. Volkner.

Sunday, 24th Feby).--After breakfast, Mr. Grace went over to the Maoris and found a large number, principally Hauhaus from a distance. They had come over to tangi for the dead. Amongst the Christian party was Maehe, a great

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Chief of the Arawa tribe. The bell was rung for service and a good many attended--a large proportion being young men. Mr. Grace then went over to the Hauhaus, but, finding he could do no good with them, he returned to Maehe and had a long, interesting conversation with him. He made an urgent request that Mr. Grace should commence his School at Rotorua instead of Taupo. It was arranged to talk about it on our return. When Maehe was told that we should require a block of land for School purposes, he referred to Te Aute School Trust, and produced a Native Newspaper containing the investigation. Mr. Grace replied, "Well, whether the management has been good or bad, it has been proved that the Te Aute School estate will now produce £2000 per annum for Native education! If it had not been given by the Maoris for this object, it would have been sold at the time for a few pence an acre, and now there would be nothing!" Mr. Grace urged him to make gifts of land now for Church purposes, Schools and endowments.

Monday, 15th Feby.--Had breakfast and got ready to start for Ohinemutu, 7 miles off, which we reached at 11 a.m. This place is now as much European as Native. It has 3 licensed houses which attract large numbers of Maoris from all around. Went to the Maori pa where the hot baths are, and there found Pererika, the great Chief of the place. We had a long talk with him about the children and Schools and the building of a Church. He has been a worldly man, but his manner seemed softened and subdued. God has afflicted him in his prime. He has been suffering from cataract, and last year he had an operation performed which terminated in the complete loss of one eye. He seems to feel his heavy affliction, and is fully conscious that only the "Great Physician" can heal him. His wife, who is a nice woman, presented us with some apples, and we were invited to go and look at the large house of assembly, which is a fine specimen of Native carving. They had seen our son, who passed through a week ago, on his return to Nelson after visiting us at Tauranga. Pererika asked Mr. Grace if he could not come and be their minister; they wished us to call on our way home and spend a night with them. We gave some

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medicine to a poor old Maori man who was suffering from chronic bronchitis. Reached Parekarangi at 4 p.m. and managed to get the little cart up the hill to the village, which is half a mile off the road. We found the Natives busy thrashing oats to sell to Europeans. Te Manihera, the Chief of the place, gave us a hearty welcome. He had been rebuilding the large house in the village, and kindly placed it at our service telling us that it was quite clean, as it had not yet been used. We had clean straw from the oats which they were beating for our bed, and made ourselves as comfortable as we could. Many of the Maoris of this place are Romanists; Mr. Grace had evening prayers with the Protestants. Te Manihera brought me some potatoes and onions and wished to be hospitable.

A poor old woman--she must have been between 80 and 90--one of the old school, came to see me. She called me the "wairua" and the "kanohi"--the spirit and the eyes of the Missionaries' wives who were dead, meaning Mrs. Chapman and others.

Here we met one of our old Pukawa women, who, with her husband and children, had lived with us. They had been with the Hauhaus--Te Kooti at their head--taking refuge in a fortified pa. The Queenites attacked it; the pa was taken, and her husband and eldest boy were killed with many more, but the women and children spared.

Hariata, her infant in arms, and one other child were brought captive to this place. She is now married again but has to work very hard. Te Manihera has lately lost his wife, and is lonely and sad.

26th February.--At early prayers Mr. Grace baptised two children. Some of the Maoris here who heard our son preach at Tarawera wanted to know if he could not be located amongst them. We had some fine water melons presented to us, which we enjoyed at our breakfast, after which we started on our way, Manihera kindly helping us with our cart over the broken ground between the village and the road. On his way he entrusted me with a secret, to the effect that he was looking for a wife and solicited my help. He pulled a pencil out of his pocket, wrote a few lines on a leaf of his pocket book, folded it up, and, as we

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parted, asked me to deliver it to Amiria, one of my old School girls.

If she were married I was to tear it up; if not, I was to give it to her and bring her back with me when we returned. Amiria (Amelia) is the daughter of Wiremu Te Tauri, one of our old Taupo Teachers who died in the faith. She was left a widow, her husband being killed in the war.

We drove about 20 miles and reached a river 2 miles off the road, where we purposed remaining the whole of the next day in order to rest our horses that they might be fit for the next stage, which was all uphill and very heavy. Before we could get our tent pitched it came on to rain heavily, but we could not be quick in our operations, there being no wood in the place for tent-poles. Mr. Grace, who seemed to know exactly what to do under difficulties, made poles by collecting the flower stalks of the flax plant and by tying them together. The tent was erected before it was quite dark and everything bundled into it. Mr. Grace, who is a capital traveller in the bush, got a fire going, in spite of everything being damp, and, after a cup of tea, we made the best of it for the night.

27th Feby.--Rested and wrote English letters; the horses, too, rested and fed, which was some compensation for the discomfort of the night. Mr. Grace and Robert bathed in the hot springs at the other side of the river, but I could not make up my mind to cross, for I had no side saddle and the river was deep.

28th Feby.--Much refreshed we started with a fine morning on our next stage over some long hills, and soon made the crossing of the Waikato. It is very striking! Above the bridge it is a wide, deep, rolling stream when, suddenly, it contracts and plunges down a deep chasm about 20 feet wide which it quite fills, so that the fall is not seen, but the foaming waters boil up in great confusion. The river does not regain its flow for about a third of a mile when it starts off in a succession of rapids, leaving the chasm a boiling cauldron. Strange to say, soon after the bridge was completed, a Maori thought he would like to plunge into the boiling surge below! Everything was done to dissuade him but he seemed infatuated, and in he

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plunged, shouting good-bye! No one expected to see him again when, to the surprise of all, he came up and, in a minute or two, was safe on the rocks. The account he gave was that, when in the water, he could not sink but was thrown to the top like a piece of wood; that when he came to the surface the water, being in a whirl, did not carry him down, so that he found no difficulty in reaching the rocks. Since then numbers have enjoyed this kind of excitement. Altogether this is a very wild and picturesque place. High and dry, far above the present bed of the river, may be seen the old one, strewn for miles with great boulders. The plains round about have a desert-like appearance, while the mountains rise up in majestic grandeur. A most singular, huge, and almost perpendicular rock, two or three times the size of Gibraltar, stands, as it were, a centre of grandeur--the presiding deity of all around! It is almost impossible to credit it, but the Maoris say that formerly they lived on the top of this rock. What must have been the dreadful state of things which caused human beings to live in such a place, one can hardly conceive! The ascent from the river is long, and trying, until you reach the height of 2000 ft., when you gradually descend to the basin of Taupo Lake.

On the way we met some Maoris, amongst whom was the brother of one of my old girls: he, too, was one of our School boys. He told me that Ripeka was very ill of consumption and not expected to recover. He said she heard I was coming and wished to write to me. I told him to bring the letter to me. Poor thing! she was a strong, healthy girl when with us. In good time we reached Oruanui, a Christian village about 11 miles from the Lake. Hohepa hospitably received us and desired the people to pitch our tent. Mr. Grace was glad to find that the Teacher he had appointed some time ago had persevered in his work, and that they had had regular morning and evening prayers. The place of worship, however, had not progressed so well as might have been expected. In the evening Mr. Grace had a long conversation with the Teacher and Hohepa, the Chief, both of whom seemed desirous of renewing the former state of things, and anxious to be present at the meeting to be held in about a fortnight.

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Here we met Miriama, another of our School girls. She was a child of 12 or 13 when I left; now she is a married woman and, at first, I did not recognize her.

1st March.--Got ready to start. Miriama came to see me, and we talked of days gone by. She reminded me of many things connected with Pukawa that I had forgotten. She milked her cow and brought me some nice milk, which was a great treat. Reached Tapuaeharuru at 11 a.m. This place is situated on the Lake. Forty English and Native Constabulary are posted here. The Maoris who live on the other side of the river were absent, so, after Mr. Grace had arranged for a Sunday service with the troops, we went on about 2 miles to where Te Reweti, an old Chief, and his party live. He received us most kindly. We pitched our tent in a shady place near a hot River and remained till Tuesday. The wind blew so hard that we could not attempt to go up the Lake on Monday, as we intended.

Mr. Grace had 3 services on Sunday, one with the English and two with the Maoris, and baptized 2 Maori children. Poor old Reweti is in a very bad state of health, and, like most of these people, though he has been very lax during the war, is now anxious for a better state of things.

What a dreadful calamity this war has been to them! They are now evidently making an effort for conscience' sake to restore their former worship, but one would like to see more inward spirituality generally. This old man has lately lost his wife, who died of disease of the lungs. I asked him what her end was. He replied, "She died peacefully, telling those around her that she was going from this world of pain to a happier one, and exhorting them to be strong in the faith, that they might follow her." The old man was as kind as circumstances would permit. He brought us a basket of potatoes and a string of "Kokopu," a small, fresh-water fish, very delicious, and which is found in the Lake and rivers of Taupo. He spoke very sorrowfully of the olden days when all congregated for worship, when each village, with its Native Teacher at its head, met in the early morning for prayers and school, and again in the evening after labour was over. It is 15 years since we had to leave Taupo. When we left all the children, from

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7 or 8 years old and upwards, could read. Now you cannot find one child that can read! Te Reweti brought us a "Leaflet," printed in Maori, to look at. It was a short account of Moody and Sankey's work in England, Scotland and Ireland. It spoke of the numbers who had been converted, and of the Pentecosts that had taken place. This gave us an opportunity of talking to him on the conversion of the soul. Te Raimona, formerly a school boy at Pukawa, was also present.

5th March.--Fine morning. Packed up and went to Tapuaeharuru. By the time we got there, the wind had risen again and the Lake was in lively motion. We could not take our conveyance any further, but the Major in command here promised to send me up the Lake in the Government whale boat; however, to pull 20 miles against such a wind, was out of the question. Mr. Grace arranged to go by land on horseback, and to leave me to follow when the wind subsided. The conveyance was put up, the two horses saddled and Mr. Grace and the man started.

6th March.--Up at 6 a.m. Very cold--hard frost. After having a little breakfast got into the boat, the crew consisting of 4 Maoris and one European. Te Raimona, above mentioned, was in charge. This Maori is now a sergeant in the force and is very highly respected by both Europeans and Natives. He is a gentlemanly man, with a soldierly bearing. As we sailed along he spoke of the happy School days at Pukawa, and of what he had learned there; pointing to his trousers he said, "I not only make my own, but teach others to do so, for we have to pay very dearly for our clothes. I often feel thankful to Mr. Grace for teaching me to make trousers, as well as to do other things." He speaks and writes English, and is a good accountant.

The Lake was beautifully smooth; we could not use the sail, so they had to pull all the way. About noon we reached a place called Hatepea, where Mr. Grace had slept. Only Rawiri and his wife were here. Rawiri, who is a very worthy man, was with us for 7 years at Pukawa. After the war he became Native Government Assessor, and still holds that post. His poor old grandfather, who was quite alone in this pa at the time when Te Kooti passed

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through Taupo, was shot by him. The poor old fellow was too old to fly and would not be persuaded to hide himself. We sailed up the Lake a little further, Rawiri and Hariata accompanying us to a place called Motutere, which is situated on a pretty little peninsula, with a grand view of the Tongariro group. It was formerly the most populous village on this side of the Lake, with the largest and best Church in the District. It is now a ruin and many of the people, alas! are gone.

7th March.--The boat and crew returned to-day. Te Raimona promised to send us up anything we might want, if we would let him know.

8th March.--The people, a few miles further up the Lake at Tauranga, were waiting for us, so we packed up and went on, Mr. Grace, as before, going inland, and I, with the baggage, in a canoe with Rawiri and his wife. It was a lovely morning and I enjoyed the sail. It brought to remembrance the time when we used to traverse this Lake under the care of the Maoris, in their frail canoes. There were many old friends assembled here; consequently there was much crying. After the "tangi" was over, the men helped Mr. Grace to pitch the tent. They thoughtfully erected a screen of brushwood to keep off the wind, for the weather looked threatening. This proved very useful, as it rained and blew for two days. Hori, another of our Pukawa School lads, presented us with half a sheep and a tin of fresh butter, made on purpose for us. It was very good. I washed it again and put some salt in it. Hori politely told me he had no salt. He supplied us each morning with nice, new milk.

Saturday, 9th March.--The men brought in a large quantity of fish to-day. Hariata cooked us some, which we enjoyed. We do not remember having seen such fine kokopu before.

Sunday, 10th March.--Cold, wet and windy; just the kind of day to understand fully the discomfort of a Native village. The houses, since the war, are wretched in the extreme, badly fenced, with pigs, dogs, and dirt on every side! The war has caused them to retrograde in this respect. They are even worse than when we first knew them. The Maoris were obliged to keep their huts, and

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we our tents. Mr. Grace was only able to have morning and evening prayers.

Monday, 11th March.--We remained in the village till the 18th. The people assembled regularly at morning and evening prayers, and the next Sunday services were well attended. All of these were of course held in the open air. During the week Mr. Grace made several excursions to villages round about, but the Maoris strongly dissuaded him from going to Pukawa as the people there, being all Hauhaus, are very determined that we shall not have the place back again.

Many opportunities occurred during the week of talking with the women, who came constantly to the tent and told me much about their doings during the war. Nearly all they said was in tones of sorrow and regret. Katarina, the widow of one of the first Native Teachers, told me she had been very bad and a great drunkard, but that now she had quite given it up and had not taken anything for 2 years. She was well aware of her sin and I tried to show her that God would pardon her if she would go to Him in earnestness and sincerity. These people were the first who were willing to open the Country by making roads. They mentioned their willingness to Mr. Grace, who, feeling it might help to bring the war to an end, immediately wrote to the Government when they were at once employed between Taupo and Napier. What was gained in the direction of making peace was, however, lost by the immorality which it led to. The Maoris were mixed up with low Europeans, and, amongst the women and girls, the grossest immorality prevailed; the young children were neglected and many died!

The day before we left this place, two old Native women, widows of Native Teachers and great friends of ours, came to see me and had a long tangi. They have of late been Hauhaus, but expressed a desire to give up this form of worship and to return to the old ways. In talking to them I found they were in great trouble at the loss of their Indian corn and potatoes, which had been completely destroyed by the frost of 2 nights. There is quite a medley of seasons in Taupo! It seems ridiculous to talk of eating peaches and water melons, and, at the same time, of the

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potatoes being cut up by the frost; but it is a fact, nevertheless. The Southerly wind, as it sweeps over the snows of Ruapehu, often brings hard frosts in the summer that destroy the crops in unsheltered positions, while sheltered spots escape; so, in one village, they were bemoaning the destruction wrought by the frost--in another, luxuriating in water melons and peaches! The meeting was arranged to take place at a village 2 or 3 miles below, and, being now time to make preparations for it, we moved on to this place. Our tents were pitched in as shady a spot as we could find and all was made snug for Sunday. This village, having been unoccupied for 6 or 8 months, is much cleaner than the one we had left. It is on the site of an extinct hot spring, and, if you were to dig to the depth of 4 or 5 feet, you would come to hot water.

Sunday, 17th March.--Good attendances at the services. The day was fine and there was much to please but, when we compared the past with the present, much also that made one sad. There was no good house in which to hold service, nor were there any books, so it was impossible to have a school with either adults or children, but we did the best we could. During the week I had Bible classes with as many of the women as could read; it was a source of great joy to me to be once again teaching those I had taught when children.

18th March.--Many people came this morning, amongst whom were the wife of our old friend, Te Heuheu, and several of his children, who are now grown up; and, in the evening, Margaret, the wife of good old Hoani our former Teacher, and others arrived. Margaret lived with us for over 10 years and was my right-hand woman. She sat down and cried; her lamentations were long and pitiful!

19th March.--Learned to-day that our two horses had taken off and have been seen 15 miles away.

As we were likely to remain here some time, there was no alternative but to turn them loose. It is feared we shall have some trouble in getting them back. The people were busy all day bringing food and a good many arrived from a distance. One cannot help contrasting the merry yet unobjectionable way in which these people proceed with what it would be if they were so many Europeans of a low

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stamp. We have seen nothing but the greatest unanimity and good feeling amongst them. Could they be brought under the constant influence of well-behaved people there would be nothing to desire on this point, but alas! the company many of the young men have been associating with, shows itself as they try to imitate the low European and sometimes, without being aware of the evil, to express themselves in the vile way they have been accustomed to hear him. With this exception there has been much to be thankful for. The morning and evening prayers were attended by a very fair proportion, when Mr. Grace gave them short, pointed addresses.

20th March.--The talking was to have begun to-day, but one or two important persons did not arrive. However, as all the food was prepared and a bullock killed, they began the feasting and three substantial meals of boiled beef and roast pork were served out with an ample supply of the best potatoes in the world, together with vegetable marrow and pumpkins, all cooked in the best possible way, namely, in the Maori hangi made in the ground and heated with stones. As a sort of dessert, large quantities of water melons were given out about noon.

Whilst I am writing, I gaze on the beautiful volcanic group of Tongariro and Ruapehu standing in all its glory as a great white throne, which, taken with all its surroundings, is one of the grandest and most interesting scenes amongst the beauties and glories of God's earthly works. Since we have been here, with the exception of two or three wet days, we have had the most lovely weather conceivable, and Taupo Lake, with its high headlands, bold cliffs and beautiful bays and islands, has been showing itself off to the greatest advantage, and yet the snow on Ruapehu has increased doubly during the last week, and, if the wind goes round to the South, it will be piercingly cold. The heat in summer, when the wind is from the right quarter, is as great here as in any part of the Island. The land, being very light, becomes heated to a depth of 6 or 7 inches.

Friday, 22nd March.--The Parliament, as they call it, has been held to-day but, as I was not present, I must copy the proceedings of the day from Mr. Grace's journal:--

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"These meetings are intended to represent a new state of things. The Maoris have long found that they cannot defend themselves by an appeal to English Law. In the first place it is too complicated, and, as they have found, most uncertain in its results. If they employ professional men to defend them, they are ruined by the costs; consequently they will not now run the risk of legal expenses and perhaps the loss of their case besides. These conditions have induced them to defend their interests and regulate their land transactions in a legal way by periodical meetings, or Parliaments, of their own. The leading Chiefs of the Napier Natives originated this move, which now bids fair to become general. The only fear is that, in cases where they are not so well guided as they are in Napier, they may be led to take indiscreet measures, and so bring the move into disrepute.

"The meeting assembled at 10 a.m. in a house that was wretched enough. . . . The Chairman and 13 members were present, and, though all who were expected were not present, the meeting was declared to be duly constituted. The Chairman, Te Heuheu, who is a great Chief, and the great leader of the Kingites in Taupo, did not appear to take any interest in the business, nor even to do his duty as Chairman; however, one of the Assessors present stated in a few words the object of the meeting and the subjects to be discussed. They were unanimous in saying that the Church must be first, as it was the source of all that was good! They all seemed to wish to follow what they supposed to be European usages. There was no opposition and very little argument, so that Maori eloquence was not displayed. Each member spoke in his turn and began by saying that he consented that the Church should again stand up in Taupo. The first speaker made an important statement! He said there were now two Churches in Taupo, so that they were cut in two. That since the Church had gone down amongst them, everything else had gone wrong!

"Some made touching allusions to the former state of things; others said, 'Let the churches be built and the Ministers and Teachers come!' They gave me the fullest credit for having continued my visits during the darkest days of the war.

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"When all had finished they looked to me to address them. The first thing I told them was, how very thankful I felt that they had a desire to return to what was good; that, if I could see the Church stand up as it was in former days, I thought I would then be able to say, 'Now, Lord, let thy servant depart in peace.' I pointed out to them that the work of the Church, like the work of The Spirit in the Church, was twofold. First the work of The Spirit in the hearts of God's people; then the fruit of that work of The Spirit in their hearts, which shows itself in such things as the building of Churches, by supporting Teachers, and in extending the Gospel as much as possible.

"I told them that it was easy for them to say 'Let the Church stand up,' but that it would mean a great deal of labour and cost on their part; also a great deal of expense every year on the part of our Society. I added, 'Do not be like the man we read of, who began to build a tower and could not finish it!' I said, 'You complain that Taupo is cut in two; that there are two Churches and, now, not more than 200 or 300 at the most, who wish the Church to stand up.' I told them that one of the first questions asked by the Committee before deciding to spend money on houses and schools was: 'How many people are there?'

"'Formerly,' I said, 'when Taupo was of one mind, people used to say there were too few people for a Missionary. What would they say now? The first thing you have to do for me is to write down the names of the men, women and children of the villages who wish the Church to stand up, and to write down what you are prepared to do in building Churches and collecting for the Clergy and Native Teachers.'

"I was sorry to find they seemed indisposed to go into these matters at present. I proposed to have the collection now for the two Native Teachers, which was agreed to some time ago, but had no success, the question being shelved by the remark, so common amongst them when they wish to avoid a matter, 'Taihoa' (by and by). The discussion on this topic ended; it being agreed that the Church should stand up, but how, was left undefined.

"The meeting broke up for one hour while the members smoked their pipes and regaled themselves with water

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melons. Notwithstanding the indefinite way in which they left matters, I believe they will shortly build two churches and, I feel almost sure, they will collect for two Native Teachers.

"The meeting was again summoned. The subject was now a land question. Another tribe is having land surveyed, and it is reported that they are invading the boundary of these people. These matters are so general, and, as I could not possibly act the part of a judge, I did not take much interest in it, but, when they had all spoken, they pressed me to say a few words.

"I told them that in all their land transactions they were like blind people seeking their way to some unknown country and consequently suffered all sorts of confusion and loss; that, when they could not see their way, it would be much better for them to sit still. I pointed out that, when the Missionaries first came and brought to them the law of God, as set forth in the Gospel, they did not ask them to rely on their word but gave them the law itself in their own language, and took great pains to teach it to them. Proceeding, I said, 'If you are to buy and sell and let land, ask the Government to teach you the law regarding the sale and leasing of land, and, when you know this, you will be light and understand what you are doing. When in difficulty, employ a lawyer that he may advise you and prevent you making mistakes.'

"These people are great landholders; they have sold and leased largely and have been shamefully taken advantage of, so that now they distrust every one.

"After this, the Parliament retired for dinner and in the afternoon reassembled to discuss some unimportant matters, but, having had much talk before the meeting took place with the friendly Natives regarding the restoration of Pukawa, and, as there appeared no prospect of success, I thought it wise to make a demand for payment for the destruction of the buildings and fences, etc."

Saturday, 23rd March.--Many left to-day. We, also, had hoped to do so, but could not for two reasons. First, there are a number of marriages and baptisms to-morrow; secondly, our horses are not yet found though men have been out all the week looking for them.

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A dilapidated house has been cleaned out for the services to-morrow.

Sunday, 24th March.--Seven young couples were married this morning. During the war, with only two or three exceptions, the marriage ceremony has been suspended over a large portion of the country and much immorality has prevailed, so that their returning to seek the marriage rite is an indication of good. The young couples just married have all been joined together by their elders, and have lived together some months or more. Six individuals out of the seven couples were formerly at our Pukawa School, and were the first to press a return to the marriage rite.

Repeatedly, and especially on this journey, we have found that those who have been connected with our former School have always been the first to lead the way to any change for the better, although, since they left us and during the war, they have been faulty enough.

In the afternoon three children were baptized, and Mr. Grace had a class of five adults as candidates for baptism. The morning and evening services were well attended.

Monday, 25th March.--There are two obstacles in the way of our starting--1st. The Lake is rough and I cannot go in the canoe. 2ndly. The horses are not found. Four Maoris have gone determined to have the horses. They are convinced they are in the hands of the Hauhaus. Many would have left to-day for their various plantations some 20 miles distant, but they wish to see us off. Towards evening we began to feel anxious about the horses, for the party looking for them had not returned.

Just as it was getting dark we were startled in our tent by a great shout and hurrahs. We rushed out and there was Enoka with the horses. The Hauhaus had had them hidden away.

Tuesday, 26th March.--It had been blowing all night and this morning the Lake looks very doubtful, but, as we are anxious to start, and many of the Maoris are equally desirous of returning to their cultivations, we shall, if possible, move on soon.

I cannot look back on our stay here without feelings of thankfulness! The weather has been splendid; the

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Maoris have been kind and have given me much information. They have also told us many stirring stories of the war, especially one which intimately concerned myself. Aperahama Whetu came one night and sat a long time just inside the tent door, telling me all that occurred when Patara and Kereopa came here before they went to Opotiki. About the year 1864 Mr. Grace and my eldest son, who accompanied his Father, seem to have had a most providential escape from falling into their hands! The Hauhaus had their decoys out to urge them forward and they were within a hair's breadth of being caught in their snare. The scouts had given warning that my husband and son were close at hand. So sure of them they were, that they sat waiting for them the greater part of the day expecting them to appear, being determined to kill them; but they escaped from their hands! A promise that Mr. Grace had made me before he left, namely, that he would not take our boy into danger, came to his mind at the moment when he was hesitating as to whether he should go on or not. He did not then know the full intent of those who lay in wait for him; but, seeing there was danger, and remembering his promise, the horses' heads were turned and a difficult, but safe, retreat was providentially effected.

Another evening Rawiri and his wife came and told us, that, if Mr. Grace began an industrial School either in Taupo or at Tauranga, he would abandon his work as Native Assessor and come again to be our School Master.

We made a move, but the canoe had to put in at Motutere on account of the wind. Having dined from a Maori hangi we started again. Reached Hatepea just in time to pitch for the night. This is Rawiri's chief residence.

27th March.--A thick fog. The Lake as smooth as a mill pond. Started at 6 a.m. before breakfast and by 10 a.m. reached a place about 4 miles from Tapuaeharuru. Here we landed and in three-quarters of an hour the Maori oven was opened, when we were served with splendid potatoes, pumpkins and a few small craw fish, all of which were cooked to perfection. We reached Tapuaeharuru by noon. Mr. Grace arranged to have an evening service for the Europeans, so we remained till morning. Mr. Forster, the School Master, and his wife kindly entertained us. Our

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conveyance was got ready, and things packed for an early start. 18 Europeans were present at the service.

30th March.--Started on our journey home, which took us a week. On Saturday morning we reached Parekarangi and, finding a large body of Maoris assembled, determined to stay over Sunday. Mr. Grace had evening service with them.

Sunday, 31st March.--Mr. Grace had early morning prayers and a service at 10 a.m. Many were present. He rode to Horohoro, 8 miles off, and had evening service there.

Monday, 1st April.--Went on to Rotorua, where we remained for the night. Had evening service in the carved house--only a few attended. Mr. Grace had an important conversation with some of the chiefs about Schools. They proposed to come and see him shortly.

Tuesday, 2nd April.--Started after morning prayers. Reached Manga Rewa in the forest, where we slept. The next night we slept at the stables at the end of the forest and felt near home.

Thursday, 4th April.--Arrived at home thankful to find our two daughters quite well, and, I trust, grateful for the many mercies we had experienced on the journey.


The year has not been satisfactory to me. I have not been able to do all I proposed by a great deal, but I have done what I could. My health has been very uncertain, and, while I am anxious to be moving, Doctors enjoin rest. However, I have made one long journey of 6 weeks into Taupo accompanied by Mrs. Grace; also a short one to Mercury Bay.

So far as the Kingites and Hauhaus are concerned, the present is a time for patient waiting. Sir George Grey has made peace with the Kingites and next March or April there is to be a great, formal peace-making meeting to be held at Waitara, where the war began, after which we may hope many of the Kingites will give up Hauhauism and again receive our teaching. If they do not take this step

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they will plunge into all the vices of the friendly Natives. Knowing how the mind of the Maori works, we cannot expect them to make any move religiously until peace is formally made, so that, as far as our work amongst the Kingites is concerned, the present is rather a time for waiting than working. I feel, however, most anxious to attend the peace-making meeting, and, in the event of my not being able to do so, I hope to secure the services of my son in Nelson. His eldest brother, who is now the resident Government Officer amongst the Kingites, will be there, and, as I have learned through him that we stand remarkably well with the Kingites, I pray God that we may be able to turn their opinion of us to good account for their spiritual benefit. . . .

Our girls' training school has gone on satisfactorily. The progress of the girls in their studies is more than equal to that of English girls. The scholastic part of the work Mrs. Grace takes, whilst our two daughters render valuable assistance in teaching music and helping generally in training and superintending.

The Native girls take part in the domestic affairs of the house, and though, like all girls, they require a good deal of looking after, still they deserve praise. We have found that even six of them in the house constantly with us is not desirable, as it places them under constant restraint, while giving us no leisure. With the prospect of more coming we have already found it necessary to enlarge our accommodation; we are therefore putting up a detached schoolroom. There will be more sleeping rooms and the building will be a few yards from the house. This building, which I am erecting at my own cost, will be altogether apart from the boys' school. These, D.V., will be finished in a few weeks. They will be a great convenience, and will enable us to increase our numbers considerably. Timber is also ordered for the Native Boys' School; but, as all the mills in this part of the Country are at a standstill for want of water in the creeks and rivers to bring down the logs, I fear we shall have to wait some time, and, when we do get the timber, it will require seasoning for some months.

I trust, with the blessing of God, if He gives me health,

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to see both schools in operation by the end of the coming year.

Since writing the above Mr. and Mrs. Hill and Mr. Goodyear have arrived, after suffering shipwreck just as they came to the end of their journey, and only 7 miles from Tauranga. No lives were lost, though many have been deprived of nearly all their property. Our new friends have begun to work at the language.

I propose immediately after Christmas, if my health permits, to go with Mr. Hill into Taupo to see if it is possible to take any steps towards Mr. Hill settling there; if not I think, perhaps, he may be employed at Opotiki till we see how matters turn out.

I remain,
Yours, etc.,
(Sd.) T. S. GRACE.

January, 1879.

The Revd. H. Wright,
Hon. Secretary,
C.M.S., London.


I have thought it well to address this letter to you, as I wish you to know exactly how matters stand.

What New Zealand wants at present is a few hardworking young men who are willing to follow the course of the old Missionaries, and to live as they did, entirely amongst the Maoris! The privations and inconveniences now are not half what they were. If this cannot be done, it is little use sending out fresh men.

Formerly, the Mission Station was the centre of attraction for the whole district. There the Maoris came with all their joys and all their troubles! There they sought advice, and there they carried their sick and assembled for instruction.

This gave us an immense influence--but it is all passed away as a morning cloud, and they tell us plainly that we have forsaken them--not they us!

It was a humiliating spectacle when, at the meeting of

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the Maoris on the first visit here of the Bishop of Waiapu, they told us Missionaries to our faces that we all, with one exception, had run away from them in their hour of trouble, and against the earliest solicitations of the Maoris themselves. Not one present dared to stand up and deny it, or to say one word on the subject! It is high time we had a change, and that men are reminded that they are Missionaries of the C.M.S.

1st. It is essential that every working Missionary should live amongst the Maoris. 2nd. That he should furnish a return of the number of nights spent in his tent travelling amongst the Maoris during the year.

These points should be insisted on, but, unless there are distinct instructions from Home, I have no hope of them being carried out!

When one great Archdeacon says, "I live in such and such a town, and mean to"; and a working Missionary says, "I cannot live amongst the Maoris--my wife is too nervous"--one is forced to feel that we have degenerated, as a body, to the last degree!

If we cannot get men whose whole hearts are in the Missionary work, we had better have none.

Believe me, my dear Mr. Wright,
Yours very truly,
(Sd.) T. S. GRACE.

Feby. 11th, 1879.


I have long wished to write to you. I have been very unwell lately and have not been able to do much, and I do not know what may be the will of God concerning me. The Doctor looks grave and speaks of my not being able again to resume active work. However this may be, the Lord's will be done. He orders all things for the best. I have been very anxious at this time to be amongst the Maoris! We seem to be working to a crisis, so far as the Kingites are concerned. Perhaps we are feeling too much that the issue is depending upon us, and our poor exertions.

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One now seems called upon to stand by and listen to a voice say, "Be still and know that I am God!"

Mrs. Grace has kindly copied this letter for me, or you would not have had it at present.

I look back with much pleasure to the intercourse I had with you when in England, and pray God to bless you in the great work in which you are engaged.

Believe me,
Yours very truly,
(Sd.) T. S. GRACE.

April 26th, 1879.


We have been watching over my dear husband's bed since last Sunday, the 20th, from which date he has been sinking rapidly. Freedom from violent pain during these days has enabled him in a whisper, from time to time, to say a good deal. I cannot express to you now all I feel. He has been kept with his mind stayed on Jesus. "Christ is all," has been his motto.

With much love,
Believe me,
Your sorrowing, though rejoicing friend,

May 23rd, 1879.

The Revd. H. Wright,
Hon. Secretary,
C.M.S., London.


Since your last New Zealand advices, my dear father has been called to his rest. He passed away peacefully after a lingering, though not very painful illness, on the 30th April.

He was full of his work; and the poor Maoris were

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very near his heart up to the last hour. It was a privilege to be with him, and such a death as his was a help to the faith of all who witnessed it.

In haste, I remain,
Yours faithfully,

May 24th, 1879.

The Secretary,


A few weeks since I visited Tauranga from Auckland in the Taupo steamer to see my beloved Brother in Christ, dear Grace. He was then on his death-bed, very calm and resigned. I felt sure that, humanly speaking, he was near death. It is now a week since I received a letter stating his removal. The account of his last hours I received from his widow, yesterday. Portions of her touching and beautiful letter I now send. I will not add anything of my own excepting, that, as a faithful Missionary in his life, family and work, I do not know his superior! His last moments were indeed peace and joy. Such resignation, humility and love were indeed very beautiful! "He has fought the fight--won the crown," and is now enjoying his rest, and it is wonderful to see the beautiful spirit of his beloved widow and family.

Trusting the accompanying extracts from Mrs. Grace's letter will be interesting,

I am, my dear Friend,
Yours sincerely in Christ,
(Sd.) B. Y. ASHWELL.

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24th May, 1879.

The Revd. H. Wright,
Honorary Secretary,
C.M.S., London.


No doubt telegrams have already reached you of the departure of my dear husband, but I must write to you if only to deliver his last message to you, given on Monday, 28th April, 2 p.m., only 2 days before he "entered into rest." I copy it from my notes:--"Tell Mr. Wright I have prayed for him that God would help him in his great work. Many of us may be worn out, but the victory is ours! . . . The King meeting may be a turning point with the Maoris; if not, then we must wait, wait, wait!"

This shows how much he was concerned even to the end for the poor Maoris. Towards the close, when he was repeating by name all those whom he would meet in Heaven, he said at the end, "and good Hoani will be there"--meaning our faithful Maori Teacher who died taking care of the Taupo Station--"and many a good Maori will be there."

My dear husband knew for some time the end was coming. Although there was much distress and uneasiness, still there was no acute pain; this proved a great blessing to him and to us. The mind was clear and active up to the very last. He was able to make all his arrangements, give his instructions, administer counsel and advice to all who came to see him, and to send loving messages to his dear friends and relations.

It seemed to me, all the time, as if he were preparing to start on one of his long Missionary journeys, leaving me, as he used to do, notes of guidance for the work of the Station, in his absence.

The resignation to his Father's will, the deep humility, the joy, the love, the perfect trust and peace, were wonderful! His keynote was, "Christ is all!"

We feel very lonely now our chief counsellor has been removed from us, and I do indeed miss my life companion of 34 years. Words can hardly express the feelings of a widow's heart, but the consolations of the Gospel are

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precious, and I am thankful for all our loving Father's mercies. Our grief has been assuaged by his "glorious entrance into rest," and the feeling, that, in a short time, we shall meet again.

With very kind regards, I am,
Very sincerely yours,

16th July, 1879.


You have heard how we have at length found a settled dwelling in a place green and warm and beside the sea--a spot more New Zealand like than any other we have seen in England. At this time, Mrs. Selwyn and the grandchildren are staying with us. Upon all of us at once has come the announcement of your great loss. We think sadly of the sharp sufferings you have had to witness as you watched the decline of your husband's great strength; and we think, too, of the scant opportunity he had whilst in England for the refreshment and rest which he so greatly needed. He now rests; God has given rest to His zealous, unselfish servant. To his good Providence we trust--to that alone--to supply in His own way that which is now withdrawn from the Native Church in New Zealand. But we may not speak words of repining; rather we ought to speak, if our hearts will allow us, even the contrary. We think anxiously of you left alone to bear many burdens and cares.

You will not doubt of the tender sympathy and abiding affection of your old friends here.

Believe me to remain,
Ever your affectionate old friend,
(Sgd.) WM. MARTIN.

Mrs. Grace,
Tauranga, N.Z.

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[The funeral, which took place at Tauranga, was, in accordance with the wishes of the departed Missionary, of a very simple, but, nevertheless, singularly impressive character.

A large number of Maoris and Europeans assembled to pay a last tribute to the memory of the dead, the coffin being borne on the shoulders of stalwart Maori Chiefs to its last resting-place in the Fort Cemetery. The beautiful Church of England Burial Service was read by the Ven. Archdeacon Brown and the Rev. Charles Jordan. Thus, at sunset, on a perfect Autumn day, Thomas Samuel Grace, a faithful servant of Jesus Christ, was laid to rest until the Resurrection morning breaks.--Ed.]

[During his last illness the Missionary frequently spoke of his approaching death. On one of these occasions it was suggested that the words of his headstone should be--

"Well done, good and faithful servant."

"Oh, no," he replied, "I am not worthy of that; just have--

"'Thomas Samuel Grace, who came out to be a Missionary to the Maoris,' and add this text"--a favourite of his and one fitting with which to close these memoirs--

"'Go ye into all the world, and preach the Gospel to every creature.'"--ED.]


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