BY THE SAME AUTHOR.
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CROZET'S VOYAGE TO TASMANIA
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This edition consists of 500 only.
The No. of this copy is 478
H. L. R.
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[Cape Brett, New Zealand
H. LING ROTH. CROZET'S VOYAGE, PL. 1.
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TASMANIA, NEW ZEALAND
LADRONE ISLANDS, AND THE PHILIPPINES
IN THE YEARS 1771-1772
TRUSLOVE & SHIRLEY, 143, OXFORD STREET, W.
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PRINTED BY STEPHEN AUSTIN AND SONS.
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MR. HENRY LING ROTH, the translator and editor of this work, has brought before the public the complete narrative of an event which, at the period of its occurrence, attracted great attention throughout the civilized world. It is therefore the more surprising that, amid the numerous collections of Voyages and Travels published during the last century, this Voyage to the South Seas, full of interest as it is, has not received the full attention of the English translator until now. The discovery of a practically new hemisphere in the Southern Seas, and the progress of settlement there having been the theme of a long series of histories in the several languages of Europe, it is unnecessary to tread in so beaten a track by the recital of occurrences of which few can be ignorant; but at the same time no account of Australasian exploration would be complete without a general reference to the great work performed prior to the discoveries of the French, with which this work deals.
In the year 1642 an expedition was fitted out by the Governor-General of the Netherlands-India, Antony van Diemen, for the purpose of exploring the Coast of the Australian Continent, which had been sighted by previous adventurers, the command being entrusted to Abel Jansen Tasman. Entering the Pacific from the Indian Ocean, Tasman's energy was rewarded first of all by the discovery
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of land which, as the Navigator's Journal states, "had not before been known to any European, and was named Van Diemen's Land in honour of the Governor-General who sent us out to make discoveries." Tasman followed up this important discovery by sighting the coast of a mountainous country, which he named Staaten Land, in honour of the States-General of Holland, this being more than a century later named New Zealand by Captain Cook. It is generally acknowledged that after Tasman's there is no record of any other vessel visiting this part of the Southern Seas until the arrival of Captain Cook, who in 1769, after observing the transit of Venus at Otaheite, first sighted the Coast of New Zealand. Cook's explorations of that country far surpassed those of his predecessor Tasman; for whereas Cook took every advantage of coming into contact with the natives and gaining information with regard to the country, it is an admitted fact that Tasman never landed on the shores of New Zealand at all, contenting himself with sailing and anchoring off the coast. Cook's visit was undoubtedly the most important that has ever been made to New Zealand, if only the geography of the country is taken into consideration; and all other extracts from the accounts of explorers who followed up to the time of the settlement and formation of a European Government have added but little to the geographical information for which he is responsible. In fact, Cook himself states in the account of his first voyage, that the situation of few parts of the world is better ascertained than that of at least a portion of the coasts of New Zealand investigated by him; and in connection with the voyage treated of in this work, this statement is confirmed by the testimony of Crozet,
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Marion's lieutenant, who says: "As soon as I obtained information of the Voyage of Cook, I carefully compared the chart I had prepared of that part of the coast of New Zealand along which we had coasted with that prepared by Captain Cook and his officers. I found it of an exactitude and of a thoroughness of detail which astonished me beyond all power of expression. I think therefore that I cannot do better than to lay down our track off New Zealand on the chart prepared by the celebrated English navigator."
Following closely in the wake of Captain Cook, and, in fact, having intercourse with the natives at the same time as the English expedition, was Captain de Surville, in command of the French vessel, St. Jean Baptiste. This explorer had been despatched from France on a secret expedition, which fitted out at great expense, and from which extraordinary results were anticipated. De Surville was, however, singularly unfortunate, and added little intelligence to the information then available with regard to the exploration of the great Southern Lands.
Having so far traced the course of discovery to the period of the visit of M. Marion du Fresne, the account of which, together with the report of Cook's Voyage, was the means of turning the attention of Europeans to the importance of those lands, which at the present time form one of the brightest portions of the British Empire, it may be well to refer to the issue of the work dealing with the results of Marion's Voyage. The first account of the expedition was published in Paris in 1783, under the title of "A New Voyage to the South Seas, commenced under the Orders of M. Marion." The work was compiled
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and edited from the papers of M. Crozet by the Abbe Rochon, himself a distinguished traveller, and appeared under the privilege of the French Academy, the entry of the book in the Academy's Register having been made on the 11th May, 1782. Some doubts appear to exist, however, as to whether or not a second, or even a third, edition was subsequently issued. Opinions upon the subject are varied, which fact renders it difficult to arrive at a definite conclusion. Whilst it is upheld by most eminent students of Australasian Bibliography, both in England and France, that only one edition of the work has been published, viz. that of 1783, it is strange that in Professor Craik's work, entitled " The New Zealanders, " forming one of the series of the Library of Entertaining Knowledge, and published in 1830, it is stated that in addition to the first edition, there appeared in 1791 a volume containing an account of the Abbe Rochon's own voyage to Madagascar and the East Indies, which was reprinted in 1802, with the addition of two other volumes, in the last of which appears a second narrative of the voyage of Marion, in most respects copied from the former, but with a few new remarks interspersed. Dr. Thomson, the author of " The Story of New Zealand, " published in 1859, in a bibliography relating to that country, which forms an appendix to the work, refers to three editions as having been issued. After comparing these statements and inspecting the Abbe Rochon's work, there appears be be no confirmation of the fact that the original edition was ever reprinted--although extracts have in many instances been embodied in various collections of voyages. It may be that the authors of the two works above referred to
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have been misled by the publication of the Abbe Rochon's works in 1791 and 1802, which contained the results of his own voyages.
The Voyage of Marion de Fresne, or Crozet's Voyage, as it is otherwise known, was performed during the year 1771, and is a modest account of the exploration of a party of Frenchmen which went in search of the great land which, in those days, was supposed to exist somewhere in the Southern Ocean. It embraces an account of the discoveries made in Van Diemen's Land and New Zealand, the various troubles the party met with, the massacre of part of the expedition, including the Commander, by the Maories, the sojourn at the Ladrone Islands, and the final arrival at the Philippines, all of which incidents are graphically described. If the book at the present day can hardly lay claim to a scientific character from a geographical point of view, it can confidently be recommended as one of surpassing interest.
In the translation the spirit of the French text has been strictly adhered to, and the explanations added by Mr. Ling Roth greatly enhance the value of the work. The results of the expedition affecting two important portions of the British Empire cannot fail to be of interest not only to every British subject, but more especially to the historical student. The former may care to learn something of the history of discovery in the Southern Seas, whilst the latter will, doubtless, find a deep attraction in tracing the origin of the formation of Colonies which, a century ago, kept alive a spirit of rivalry amongst the representatives of the British and of the French Nations.
J. R. B.
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[LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS]
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LIST OF PLATES.
PLATE I. --Cape Brett, New Zealand. Water colour drawing by Charles Heaphy, date 1845-1853 (Brit. Mus., Add. MS. 19954, fol. 1, No. 1, 6 3/4 x 10 1/4 inches, without margin). Mr. Heaphy was draughtsman to the New Zealand Company.
PLATE II. --Tasmanian baskets and canoe, from a negative of the articles in Hobart Museum, placed at my disposal by George B. Hingley, Esq., of Hales Owen, Worcestershire. The baskets are of vegetable fibre and used to be slung round the necks of the women when they dived for crayfish and haliotis. The natives squatted on the canoes and propelled themselves by mere sticks; the canoes were made of bundles of bark rudely fastened together by vegetable fibre. For further description see "The Aborigines of Tasmania."
PLATE III. --View on Kerguelen Land, by J. Webber, date 1777--1779 (Brit.Mus., Add. MS. 15513, fol. 3, No. 3, size 26 3/4 in. x 20 in.).
PLATE IV. --Maori girl in a fishing canoe. Water colour drawing by Charles Heaphy, date 1845-1853 (Brit. Mus., Add. MS. 19954, fol. 51, No. 58, 8 x 7 1/4 inches).
PLATE V. --A Maori man, showing tatued buttock and thighs. Probably by Charles Heaphy (Brit. Mus., Add. MS. 19953, fol. 39, No. 105, 6 3/4 x 4 3/4 inches). In the first French edition of Crozet's voyage plate II. represents a nude back view of the chief Tacouri, who played such an important part in the massacre of the Frenchmen. In this plate his right buttock only is tatued.
PLATE VI. --Shield of the Calingos, Philippine Islands, with black and red painted decoration and cross bars of rattan. Length 47 inches (Brit. Mus., Christy Coll., presented by A. W. Franks, Esq.). In pursuing their foes the shield is grasped by the top centre arm and the fallen foe is held down in a vice as it were, by the two legs of the shield, and while in this position the unfortunate man's head is cut off.
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PLATE VII. --Two shields from S. W. Mindanao, Philippine Islands. Each shield consists of one piece of wood, the front is ornamented with transverse strips of cane lashed to the board with rattan, and in the centre are carved concentric rings and disc, while the edges show traces of decorative tufts of buffalo (or horse) hair. At the back the transverse cane strips are repeated, and the handle is carved out of the solid wood. Dimensions 55 x 19 1/2 inches and 58 x 23 inches respectively (Edinburgh Museum of Science and Art).
PLATE VIII. --Coat of mail, sword, and daggers, presumably from the Philippine Islands (pirates' equipments?). The coat of mail consists of rings or links of brass connecting plates of black buffalo horn. Height 28 inches. The sword over the above is said to have been used by Malay pirates. The hilt is made of buffalo horn, carved with foliage and partially covered with sheet silver having beaten ornamentation; the sheath is of wood ornamented at the top with gilt lacquer (not seen in print on account of its yellow colour). The daggers on either side of the coat of mail are believed to come from the Sulu Archipelago; that on the right has a hilt of carved ivory covered with cordage; wooden sheath; length of dagger 21 3/4 inches; that on the left has a carved wooden hilt, also covered with plaited vegetable fibre; wooden sheath; length of dagger 21 3/4 inches; blade channelled (Edinburgh Museum of Science and Art).
A FLYING PROA, taken at the Ladrone Islands. For description see Appendix II.
CHART OF PORT MARION (Bay of Islands) with Chart of General Route of the Expedition. For descriptions see the Charts.
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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT.
Figs, 1, 2. --Port holes of ordinary vessels and of fire-ships. For description see footnote to text.
Fig. 3. --Yard arm of fire-ship, capped with grappling and pointed irons so as to catch in rigging or get fixed in deck of the ship attacked.
Fig. 4. --View of East Island, Crozet Group, enveloped in mist, seen from H. M. S. Challenger January 2nd, 1874 (Vol. I. Part i. p. 319, Fig. 128, Narrative Challenger Reports). As during Marion's discovery, so during the visit of the Challenger, her people report the great mistiness of the atmosphere in these parts.
Fig. 5. --Maori tatuing instrument (modern) of light wood, the blade of bone bound on with flax (Phormium tenax), full size (Brit. Mus., presented by Sir George Grey, 1854).
Figs. 6, 7. --Side and top view of funnel used to feed Maori Chief when his face is being tattooed; the carving represents female figures in a highly conventional manner; height 4 7/8 inches, diameter of opening 5 inches (Brit. Mus., Christy Coll., presented by A. W. Franks, Esq.).
"The gentleman had an opportunity of seeing the operation of amoco, or tattooing, performed upon the face of a young man of Tekokee's tribe. He lay upon his back, with his head resting upon the knees of the operator, who sat upon the ground, and for whose guidance the intended form of the amoco had been previously traced in black lines upon the patient's face. The point of the tattooing chisel was about half a quarter of an inch wide; it was made of the wing-bone of an albatross, and fastened in a transverse wooden handle. Before each incision, the instrument was dipped in a calabash of charcoal and water, and then laid on the part and lightly struck with a bit of stick not larger than a common pencil. As the lines of the amoco became more contracted, a narrower instrument was used. Though the blood gushed out at every puncture, the patient bore the operation with perfect composure, and whatever the pain might have been at the time, the inflammation that followed and continued for many days was quite frightful." (Major R. A. Cruise, Journal, p. 136.) Owing to the inflammation of his face, the patient is unable to chew his food, and hence the necessity of feeding him on liquid food.
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Fig. 8. --Maori mallet for pounding roots of edible fern of bright yellow wood, the end of handle carved in openwork; length 16 3/4 inches (Brit. Mus., Lond. Miss. Coll. Upon it is written in ink: "New Zealand, Marihurue, July, 1824, G. Bennet"). The root was placed on a block, not in a vessel, hence the action is more that of beating than pounding. See p. 35.
Fig. 9. --Ring of green jade (N. Zealand) used to put on the leg of the Kaka parrot (Nestor meridionalis) when tamed. Full size (Brit. Mus., Meyrick Coll.).
Figs. 10, 11. --New Zealand neck ornament (hei-tiki) formed of a piece of a human skull; the eyes of the figure are of haliotis shell. Half size, linear (Brit. Mus.).
Figs. 12, 13. --Staff of brown wood carved on both sides. It was used as a record of the history of the Ngati-rangi tribe, its last New Zealand owner having been the chief Te-Korokai. Length 41 inches (Brit. Mus.).
Figs. 14, 15. --Side and top view of a New Zealand trumpet of hard brown wood, made in two longitudinal sections, bound with withies. The mouth shows an unusual arrangement of teeth, reminding us of the vox humana pipes of an organ. Length 23 1/4 inches (Brit. Mus., Lond. Miss. Soc. Coll.). "Their war trumpets are of wood, and give out a very disagreeable sound similar to that of shepherds' horns." p. 44.
Fig. 16. --New Zealand meerie of hard brown wood, of unusual form and style of decoration; the pattern on the two sides is similar, and the eyes are of haliotis shell. A curious and probably very old specimen. Length 21 1/4 inches (Brit. Mus.).
Fig. 17. --Whole plant of European fern Pteris aquilina, showing creeping rhizome.
Fig. 18. --1. Portion of pinna of the frond of New Zealand fern Pteris aquilina, var. esculenta.
2. Rhizome of same.
3. Portion of pinna of European fern Pteris aquilina.
4. Rhizome of same.
Fig. 19. --Igorrotes loom opened to display all the implements for weaving cloth of Abaca, fibre. The bamboo end (at top of drawing) is fastened horizontally to a tree trunk, and the weaver stretches out the loom by getting between the end staff and the ornamental back (at bottom of the drawing), and pressing her back against the latter. Width of cloth 15 inches (Brit. Mus., Christy Coll., presented by Dr. Ferd. Jagor). This form of loom is similar to that from Santa Cruz and many other islands in the Pacific.
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Fig. 20. --Spiral arrow point of Caryota wood, made by Igorrotes of Isarog, Philippine Islands. Length 12 3/4 inches (Brit. Mus., Christy Coll., presented by Dr. Ferd. Jagor).
Fig. 21. --Bamboo arrow-point, called bolo, made by Igorrotes of Isarog, Philippine Islands. Length 7 3/4 inches (Brit. Mus., Christy Coll., presented by Dr. Ferd. Jagor).
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Origin of Expedition. --Aoutourou. --Marion du Fresne's family. --His career. --The astronomer Pingre.--L'Abb6 Alexis Marie de Rochon and Kerguelen at the Mauritius. --Governor Poivre. -- Lieutenant Crozet. --Captain Duclesmeur. --Result of collision between the Mascarin and Castries. --Rochon's view of the massacre. --Captain Cook's account of Crozet. --Assistance received in the translation of the work.
Bougainville's Taitian. --Marion's offer to return the Taitian to his country. --Arrangements made by the Governor of the Mauritius. --The Departure. --Death of the Taitian at Madagascar. --Sail for the Cape. --Losier-Bouvet and Cape Circumcision. -- Gonneville's lands. --The mythical islands Dina and Marzevan. -- Van Ceulen's charts. --Cold weather.
DISCOVERY OF SOUTHERN ISLANDS:
Misty weather. --Land sighted. --The Terre d'Esperance. --Moss patches. --L'ile de la Caverne. --The Marion Islands. --Collision between the two vessels. --Its result. --Foul weather. --The Iles Froids. --Iles Arides, and Ile Prise de Possession. --Crozet Group.
LANDING AT ONE OF THE AUSTRAL ISLANDS--OBSERVATIONS MADE ON THIS ISLAND:
Act of taking possession. --Snow. --Barrenness of island. -- Tameness of the wildfowl. --Icebergs.
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CONTINUATION OF THE VOYAGE:
Misty weather. --Kerguelen Land. --Departure for Van Diemen's Land.
ANCHORING OFF VAN DIEMEN'S LAND--DESCRIPTION OF THE COUNTRY--OBSERVATIONS UPON ITS INHABITANTS:
Beauty of landscape. --Great smokes. --The aborigines build a pile of firewood. --The pile lighted. --Women and children. -- Arms. --Physical description of the natives. --Presents rejected. -- No knowledge of domesticated fowls or ducks. --Marion lands. -- Declaration of war. --Marion and Duclesmeur wounded. --Natives oppose further landing. --Further hostilities. --A negro wounded. -- First native killed by Europeans. --Absence of fresh water and good timber --Trees barked by natives. --Birds met with. --Severity of climate. --No indications of native houses. --Food of natives. -- Local fishes.
DEPARTURE FROM NEW HOLLAND FOR NEW ZEALAND:
The Mascarin leaks. --Arrival at New Zealand. --Discovery by Abel Tasman. --Captains Cook and de Surville. --Exactitude of Captain Cook's charts. --Mount Egmont. --Massacre Bay. --Isles of the Three Kings. --Anchorage. --Squally weather. --Cape Brett. --Aborigines approach. --First intercourse with them. --Dislike to liquors. --Delighted with reception on board the vessels. --Natives sleep on board. --The chief Tacouri. --Fresh water. --Bay of Islands.
SOJOURN ON THE NORTHERN PORTION OF NEW-ZEALAND, CALLED EAHENOMAOUVE BY THE NATIVES.
DESCRIPTION OF THE COUNTRY AND NOTES ON ITS INHABITANTS:
Anchorage off island Motouara, where sick are landed. --Natives bring fish on board. --Maori language similar to that of Taiti. -- Maories sleep on board. --Ship's biscuit. --Exchange iron for fish. --Nails made into chisels. --Call officers by name. --Distinguishing marks of chiefs. --Distinctions between married and unmarried women. --No troubles on account of women. --Three varieties of natives. --Descriptions of men and women. --Landing at a large village. --Pressing invitations from native chiefs.
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DESCRIPTION OF THE VILLAGES OF THE NORTHERN PORTION OF NEW ZEALAND:
Villages situated on cliffs. --Description of fortified villages. -- Outworks. --View inside a village. --Houses and Magazines. -- Parade ground. --Magazine for arms. --Varieties of implements of warfare. -- Food storehouse. -- Foods preserved. -- Fishery storehouse. -- Description of nets, hooks, ropes, etc. -- Methods of building houses. --House furniture. --Public place of accommodation.
FOOD OF THE INHABITANTS OF THE NORTH OF NEW ZEALAND:
Welcome by Maories. --Preparation of fern root. --Shell-fish and other food. --Cannibalism. --Method of cooking. --Dirty habits in eating. -- Green gum. -- Healthiness of food. -- Great eaters. -- Partiality for fats (tallow, etc.), sugar, tea and coffee. --Dislike to wine, strong liquors and salt. --Dryness of fernroot as food.
THE CLOTHING OF THE SAVAGES OF THE NORTH OF NEW ZEALAND:
Head-dresses. --Shells used as scissors. --Chiefs' plumes. --Lips blacked. --Ears pierced. -- Ornaments, necklaces, etc. -- Mantles and waistcloths. --Waterproof cloaks. --Chiefs use finer cloths. -- Tatuing, varieties of. --Pride in tatu-marks.
THE ARTS OF THE SAVAGES IN THE NORTH OF NEW ZEALAND:
Digging instruments. --Agriculture. --Vegetables grown. --New Zealand flax. --Grain unknown. --Absence of fruits. --No knowledge of iron or of any other metal. --Immense size of the seines. --Fishing and war canoes. --Paddles. --All their tools made of stone. --Comparison with tools of other savages. --Kauri pine. -- Women collect shell-fish. --Wild fowl caught in traps, etc. --Preparation of the flax. --Comparison between industries of savages and of Europeans. --Continual state of warfare in which Maories live. --Contemptible arms. --Flutes.
RELIGION OF THE SAVAGES OF THE NORTHERN PART OF NEW ZEALAND:
Five reasons in favour of their belief in a Supreme Godhead.
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CONTINUATION OF OBSERVATIONS AND OF VARIOUS EVENTS WHICH TOOK PLACE DURING OUR STAY IN THE BAY OF ISLANDS IN NEW ZEALAND.
Search for spars to remast the Castries. --Settlements made on shore. --The hospital and cooperage. --Friendliness and help afforded by the Maories. --Winning ways of the savages. --Maories of other cantons. --Crozet's distrust. --Marion's implicit confidence. --Curious Maori concealment of Captain Cook's visit. --Presents given to Maories never seen again. --Marion's infatuation. -- Tacouri's expression of confidence. --Desertion of negro slaves. -- Maori thief not punished. --Familiarity between Frenchmen and Maories. --Mistaken ideas on primitive man. --Marion made grand chief. --Crozet's young Maori friend disappears. --Disappearance of other Maori friends not remarked. --Frenchmen wander over the country. --Marion lands for last time. --Tacouri's village. --Marion does not return. --Castries longboat sent ashore. --A Frenchman swims back. --The second massacre. -- Marion's fate. -- Means adopted to save the settlement inland. --Maories armed with stolen arms. --The settlement destroyed. --The retreat. --Savages follow in rear with taunts. --"Tacouri has killed Marion."--Marion eaten. --Embarkation. --Difficulties in starting. --Maories shot down. -- The sick settlement relieved. --Wood and water wanted. --Hostilities on Moutouaro island. --Malou incites his countrymen. -- Destruction of his village. --Station withdrawn. --Savages buried. --No captives made. --Masts for Castries still wanted. --Further hostilities. --Discovery of clothes of murdered comrades. --Watchfulness of both parties. --A canoe cut in two. --What was Marion's real fate?-- Detachment sent to ascertain fate of the Frenchmen. --Tacouri flees. --A Maori killed. --Evidences of cannibalism. --Arms and clothes of the unfortunate Frenchmen. --Tacouri's village destroyed. --Further evidences of cannibalism. --Piquiore's village burned. --War canoes destroyed. --Marion's papers. --The expedition's losses. -- Determination to depart. --France Australe and Treachery Bay.
GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE MANNERS AND CUSTOMS OF THE INHABITANTS OF THE NORTHERN PORTION OF NEW ZEALAND:
Cannibalism. -- False friendships of the Maories. --Primitive man. --Character of Maories. -- Crozet's distrust. --The position of good fighting men. --Thinness of population. --Dancing. --Naked-
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ness. --Women's work. --Love of offspring. --Mourning. --Destruction of deformed children. --Good teeth. --Diseases, native and imported. --Speculations on the relationships between the New Zealanders and other races.
PHYSICAL OBSERVATIONS ON NEW ZEALAND AND ON SOME OF ITS NATURAL PRODUCTIONS:
A seaman's difficulty. --Cook and his learned associates. --l'Abbe Rochon, Philibert Commerson, Chevalier de Fromelin, M. Poivre. --Indulgence to be meted out to the author. --Physical configuration of New Zealand. --Geology. --Speculations on the connection between New Zealand and other islands. --Mineralogy. --Jade. --Beautiful scenery. -- Forests. -- Frosts, snow and rains. --Vegetation. --Good quality of the soil. --Introduced vegetables, etc. -- Potter's clay. --Native animals and birds. --Tameness of the wild fowl. --Abundance offish. --Whales and porpoises.
DEPARTURE FROM NEW ZEALAND, CONTINUATION OF THE VOYAGE IN THE SOUTH SEAS:
Position of the islands Amsterdam and Rotterdam. --President de Brosses. --Scurvy on board. --Arrival at the Ladrone Islands.
ANCHORAGE AT THE ISLAND OF GUAM.
DESCRIPTION OF THE COUNTRY, AND OF THE SPANISH COLONY THERE:
The harbour of St. Louis. --The town of Agana. --Public buildings all built of brick. --M. Tobias the Commandant. --His welcome. --Guam a terrestrial paradise. --State of island when discovered by Magellan. --Spanish importations of vegetables and animals. -- Original dense population. --Subjection by the Spaniards. --Despair of the aborigines. --Destruction of the people. --The Commandant's great care for the natives. --Account of Agana as given by Lord Anson. --Order in Agana. --The making of savannahs. --Imported cattle and deer. --Native birds. --Indigenous trees. --The coco-nut palms. --The breadfruit trees and the preparation of its fruit. -- Other fruit trees. --Three varieties of bananas. --Abundance of fish. --Poisonous fish. --Turtle.
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THE AGRICULTURE AND ARTS OF THE GUAM INDIANS:
Cultivation of the soil extended by M. Tobias. --Industries and school established by the Commandant. --Peasant proprietorship. -- Orchards. --Avenues of trees. --Cattle, mules and donkeys. --Trades. --The militia. --Industry of the soldiery. --Guam canoes or proas. --The origin of the proas. --How built. --Swiftness of the craft. -- The islanders good swimmers.
CONTINUATION OF VARIOUS OBSERVATIONS MADE AT GUAM:
Fertility of the soil. --Natural springs. --Exceptional beauty of the island. --Divisions between wild and cultivated lands. --Granitic rocks. --Description of the islanders. -- Drunkenness and cock-fighting. --The St. Augustines. --Extreme kindness of M. Tobias. --His sad fate. -- Recovery of all the sailors. --Preparations for departure.
DEPARTURE FROM THE ISLAND OF GUAM AND CONTINUATION OF OUR JOURNEY TO THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS:
Leave Agana. -- The leak in the Mascarin. -- Straits of San Bernardino. --Cape Spiritto Santo and Lord Anson's exploit. -- Troubles in getting through the straits into Manilla Bay.
ANCHORAGE IN MANILLA BAY.
DESCRIPTION OF PORT CAVITTE, AND OF WHAT WE DID THERE:
Marivelles Island. --Cavitte. --Paying respects to the officials. -- Saint Croix. --The Mascarin's leak. --Desertion of the sailors. -- Departure of the Castries. --Further desertion. --The Governor suspected of harbouring deserters. --Departure of the Mascarin.
OBSERVATIONS MADE AT MANILLA, THE CAPITAL OF THE PHILIPPINES:
Description of the city. --The cathedral and public buildings. -- Private houses--how built. --Position of the city. --The suburbs-- Minando and Saint Croix. --Volcanoes and earthquakes. --Don Simon de Auda. --Capture of Manilla by the English. --Projects
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started by the Governor. --The Philippine Archipelago. --Dense population of the islands. --The aborigines. --Chinamen. --Aborigines succumb to the Malays. --How the missionaries get on. -- Speculations on the origin of the aborigines. --Description of the aborigines. --Men with tails. --Intermarriage.
THE MASSACRE AT THE BAY OF ISLANDS:
A. REMARKS BY L'ABBE ROCHON.
B. NATIVE ACCOUNTS OF THE MASSACRE.
ANSON'S DESCRIPTION OF THE OUTRIGGERS OF THE MARIANNE ISLANDS. See PLATE.
A BRIEF REFERENCE TO THE LITERATURE RELATING TO NEW ZEALAND, by James R. Boose, Librarian of the Royal Colonial Institute:
Introduction. --The five periods: 1. Discovery and Early visits of the Europeans. 2. The Period of Civilization, including accounts of the Maories, together with the labours of the missionaries. 3. The Colonisation of the Country. 4. The New Zealand War. 5. The History of the Colony generally, including its gradual progress and its present position as an important portion of the British Empire.
CROZET'S VOYAGE [MAP]