1888 - Colenso, William. Fifty Years Ago in New Zealand - FIFTY YEARS AGO IN NEW ZEALAND.

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  1888 - Colenso, William. Fifty Years Ago in New Zealand - FIFTY YEARS AGO IN NEW ZEALAND.
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A Jubilee Paper.


THIS present year of grace--1887, has been, is, and will be long-known as, the marked "Jubilee" year; probably more so than any Jubilee that has ever preceded it since time began! This arises, mainly, from the fact of its ubiquity, or universal dissemination and observance, more or less throughout the whole globe. We here in New Zealand, the most distant of all the Colonies of the British Empire, situated at the very antipodes, -- we have done our best in joining with thankfulness and acclaim in the carrying-out of the Jubilee of Her Majesty our most gracious Queen Victoria.

And in doing so the question has more than once arisen in my mind, whether we (or more strictly speaking, I) have not also a Jubilee to observe, to commemorate? Indeed, all of us who have passed the fiftieth Birthday have such a private Jubilee; which is stronger still when those who can do so (as in the case of Her Majesty), can look back over the long vista of fifty years of active life; and this is still further strengthened, when, in so looking back, we can specify some peculiar useful public work undertaken and completed for the benefit of the people fifty years ago; --especially when such was begun and carried on and finished under singular trials and hardships and difficulties.

As I have reasons for believing, that I am the only one present who has dwelt more than fifty years in this country, I trust I shall be permitted to say at the commencement, (and, in so doing, to meet and cut short all anticipation and conjecture,)-- that I do not intend to speak specially of that--my arrival in this land, --in this paper. The Jubilee, or fifty years commemoration of that time, expired nearly three years ago, and was then duly though privately observed by me; as well as a few others since, --special goals or landmarks of some important epochs in

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my life now nearly drawing to its close; a select few of the more important of them I may briefly mention: viz.--

In the year 1835, the printing of the first book in New Zealand.

In the same year, the printing of the first English book.

In the same year (Dec. 25), meeting with the celebrated Darwin in the Bay of Islands, and spending a happy long day with him.

In 1836, the commencement of the printing the New Testament in Maori.

Having so far cleared the way, I may now state that my present Jubilee paper is intended to commemorate more particularly the completion of the printing of the New Testament in the Maori tongue at Paihia in the Bay of Islands in the year 1837--fifty years ago! an event that caused a great sensation at the time, both in New Zealand and at Home, (although now, in part, forgotten,) and one that was productive of incalculable good to the Maori race: together with the introduction of the Printing-Press into this country; and also, the gradual formation of its present written Maori language; -- with many peculiar and little-known circumstances pertaining to those prehistoric times, and incidental thereto.

And as I have had necessarily a prominent part (active or passive) in almost every successional item or subject that I have to bring before you, I trust, in my endeavouring to fairly and faithfully narrate the same, I shall not be deemed egotistical.


In the year 1833, the Church Missionary Society, having determined to send out a Printing Press and types and all necessary material to their mission in New Zealand, were seeking a Missionary Printer to be in charge. In the end of that year, I, then residing in London, was introduced to the Secretaries of that Society at their Mission house, and engaged to go out to New Zealand with the Press as a Missionary.

For various reasons matters were not soon ready; and it was June, 1834, before we left London for Sydney, New South Wales, en route for New Zealand. During the long interval, (after my return from the Country in the Spring,) I was

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frequently at the large printing establishment of Messrs. Watts and Son, near Temple Bar, about the necessary requirements, (their types, &c, being all cast at their own foundry within the same building,) but all directions, orders, &c, respecting the same, were given by the Under-Secretaries of the Mission-House to that firm without any reference to me. Well do I remember the answers that were returned to my repeated applications for an Imposing-stone, and for page-cord, (not to mention other things,)--"What! 'Coals to Newcastle'!! In that country where the New Zealand Flax grows everywhere wild, and the Natives are all adepts at making such beautiful lines and cords! and where the handsome Greenstone abounds!!!"--I briefly mention this here, as its sure results followed. --After a long passage of seventeen weeks our ship arrived at Sydney.

Here I make a short digression. What a difference! between the Sydney of that period and of to-day!! Then there was no steamer on her waters, and but few ships! then there were only three clergymen of the Church-of-England residing in all Australia; --two of them (the Reverends Messrs Cowper and Hill) in Sydney, and the Rev. S. Marsden at Paramatta. In order to get through their fixed Sunday (or weekly) duties, those Sydney Ministers were obliged to commence them on Saturday afternoons. During my stay in Sydney I assisted them as well as I could.

As no vessel could be found willing to leave for New Zealand, owing to their fear of the Maoris, we were obliged to remain eight or nine weeks at Sydney. At last, after much entreaty, a small schooner of 67 tons was got ready, and we sailed on the 10th December for the Bay of Islands. After a long and eventful voyage of twenty days, (suffering much from want of water, as well as from a complication of peculiar miseries!) we landed at Paihia Mission Station in the Bay of Islands, at 9 p. m. on the 30th December; and in the following few days got the Press, type, &c, safely on shore.


1835. Jan. 3. On this day we got the Press and heavy boxes of type securely landed; the lighter packages, including Bookbinders' standing- and cutting-presses, and tools, having previously been taken on shore. It was a very difficult matter

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to land the printing-press safely, from the bulk and weight of the iron "staple" (it being a large Stanhope Press), and the vessel out at anchor in the harbour, with no wharf nor good landing-place, merely the natural sandy beach open to the ocean; the passenger-boats of the Mission Station being far too light, and the Maori canoes too small and crank; at last we managed it, by lashing two canoes together and so making a deck or platform on them, and working early in the morning before the sea-breeze began. The boxes of type would have been opened on board, but as the little vessel, owing to her novelty, was continually crowded by Maoris, (all of whom were very wild and rough, and some of them not very friendly,) it was thought the parcels of type might be seized for making musket-balls, then in very great demand. It was a matter of very great rejoicing to us when all our precious stores were safely on shore and without loss.

Speaking practically, however, our rejoicing was of short duration; for on unpacking the goods and stores I found many necessary articles to be absolutely wanting! For the information of Printers I will just set down a few of them; though I almost fear my relation will scarcely be believed. There was no wooden furniture of any kind, nor quoins, (cast-metal furniture, so common now, not being then in use,) no galleys, no cases, no leads of any size, no brass rule, no composing-sticks, (save a private one of my own that I had bought two years before in London, a most fortunate circumstance!) no inking-table, no potash, no lye-brushes, no mallet and shooter, no roller-irons and stock, though there was a massy cast-iron roller mould, and (as I have already intimated) no imposing-stone nor page-cord; and, worst of all, actually no printing paper!! Moreover, in those days, as things then were, none of these missing articles could be obtained from England in a less time than eighteen months! while they might possibly be got from Sydney in six or eight months. --

Such was the state of things at the setting-up of the Press in New Zealand! At first, and for some considerable time, we hazarded the hope that the deficient printing stores, especially the large bales of paper, might have been left in the Agent's warehouses at Sydney, where the Press and types and Binding-tools had been long stored; but time revealed that such was not the case. Fortunately I found a handy Joiner in the Bay, who

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soon made me two or three pairs of type-cases for the printing office after a plan of my own. For as the Maori language contained only 13 letters (half the number in the English alphabet), I contrived my cases so, as to have both Roman and Italic characters in the one pair of cases; not distributing the remaining 13 letters (consonants) used in the compositing of English, such not being wanted. 1 My Joiner also made me a few galleys, and a small inking-table, and some furniture and quoins, --these last, however, were wretched things (partly owing to the want of proper and seasoned wood,) and gave me an enormous amount of labour, vexation and trouble!


The sudden arrival of the Printing-press in New Zealand, took the resident Missionaries at the Paihia Station by surprise. It is true they had asked for it from the Society, and the Society had promised to supply their wants, but no time was, or could have been fixed, and communication between them was very rare and irregular--about once a year. And during our long sojourn in Sydney we had no means of communicating with New Zealand. Paihia is a small flat on the sea-side, about half a mile long, having a sandy beach in front, a bold rocky headland at each end, and a steep hill at the back; in calm weather there is good landing from boats on the beach, but not so at other times. At this date there were three Missionaries with their wives and families living here, --the Rev. H. Williams, the Rev. W. Williams, and Mr. C. Baker; they resided in three separate and rather large houses, which with their houses for domestics, Carpenter's and Blacksmith's shops, and store-houses, and the Mission Chapel and Infants' School-house in the middle, composed the buildings of the Mission Station, making quite a little village. Fortunately it happened that a large and well-lighted room,

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being one semi-detached wing of the house occupied by Mr. Baker, was just now empty; this room had been hitherto used as a schoolroom for the sons of the Missionaries; but it was now the holiday season, and many of the lads had gone home to their parents, and that School for the future was to be carried on at the inland Mission Station--Te Waimate. Therefore the press was at once located in this empty room, for the time at least. And though, subsequently, there was much debate, and even decisions arrived at, by the Committee of Missionaries respecting its speedy removal; --1st, to the spacious two-story stone building at the Kerikeri Mission Station, built for a general store for the Church Mission, of which all the facing stones were brought from Sydney; 2 and, 2nd, to a new building to be forthwith constructed for it at Te Waimate, (of which the framework was subsequently erected, and then blown down in a gale,) yet, nevertheless, it remained in this room, for a few years, and in this room the New Testament (with several other books) was composited and printed.

And here I should also mention the reasons which swayed the Committee of Missionaries respecting the future and fixed location of the Press, these were chiefly three: ---1. to be near to the Editor of the New Testament, the Rev. W. Williams, who was soon to remove to the inland station at Te Waimate; --2. to be away from the constant interruption pertaining to a Station at the Harbour; --3. to be safe from Maori inroad and pillage; (this last had reference to the types, as Maori Chiefs had passed significant remarks on inspecting them and handling the big quadrats and Canon size capital letters; and the Bay tribes were in a very unsettled state, talking of going to war among themselves; this state of things was the main cause for removing the Press to the large and strong stone building at the Kerikeri station).


As all parties both European (Missionaries) and Maori were very desirous of seeing something printed, it was arranged, (1) that the Missionaries at Paihia should supply some writing-paper for that purpose from their small private stores: (2) that the first sheet from the Press should be a portion of the New

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Paihia from the islet Motuorangi.
The house under the two birds, where the N. T. was printed.
H. B. HERALD LITHO. D. Blair, lith.
1837 W.C.

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Testament and printed in book form: (3) that as it must necessarily be, under all the circumstances, some small book, it should be the Epistles to the Ephesians and the Philippians, which the Rev. W. Williams (afterwards, Archdeacon, and also Bishop of Waiapu, and one of the founders of this auxiliary branch of the New Zealand Institute,) had lately finished translating into Maori; so, on the 17th of February, 1835, I pulled proofs of the first book printed in New Zealand; the Printing-office being filled with spectators to witness the performance. And on the 21st of the month, twenty-five corrected copies were printed and stitched and cut round for the Missionaries; their wives kindly furnishing a few sheets of pink blotting-paper from their desks wherewith to form coloured paper covers for these tracts; which, of course had first to be pasted on to stronger paper. This little book was in post 8vo., Long-Primer type, and consisted of 16 pages in double columns. For leads I was driven to the miserable substitute of pasting paper together, and drying and cutting it up! not being able to obtain any card or cardboard. My good Joiner (always willing to assist) tried his hand at making reglet, but was obliged to give it up. And not being able to manufacture a roller, from want of the proper materials, I was obliged to do my best with a small make-shift "ball" of my own contriving. I may add, that of this little first pamphlet, 2000 copies were ultimately printed, some folio post writing-paper having been found at the large Central Mission Store at the Kerikeri Station.


Not long after the printing of the first book, in the autumn of that same year, the Rev. W. Williams, his wife and family, removed from Paihia (where they had resided for several years) to Te Waimate Mission Station, inland. At that time there was no resident clergyman at that place, nor nearer than Paihia (a long day's journey); besides he was now stationed there by the Committee of Missionaries, to conduct the large boarding-school of the sons of the Missionaries, which was to be carried on there for the future. I mention this circumstance, as it

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separated (in distance) the chief Translator and Editor of the New Testament from the Press, which proved to be a great disadvantage, and serious hindrance to the carrying on and early completion of the work. At first, however, it was determined to build a large printing-office at Te Waimate; and in time the framework of the same was erected there; 3 but as sawn timber was not easily procurable (though in the midst of kauri forests), the work was delayed, and eventually it came to nothing.


Here I should briefly mention the geographical position of those two places or Mission Stations. Paihia (as I have already shown) was on the immediate sea-shore; Te Waimate was about half-way across the island, between the Bay of Islands and the head of the Hokianga river; not very many miles distant (perhaps sixteen) in a direct line from Paihia; but in those days of no roads nor bridges, and scarcely even a Maori track between the two Stations, it was considered a good day's journey (on foot of course,) from the one Station to the other; a portion of the way being circuitous by the sea-shore made the distance to be more than twenty miles. There were also two uninviting places to be crossed; the one at Whauwhauroa, a broad muddy estuary lined by mangroves, unfordable save at low-water or nearly so, and then only by stripping and slowly and cautiously finding one's way with a long pole, wading through deep tidal mud; 4 and the other the big river Waiaruhe, equally impassable after rains, which also, a little lower down from the ford in its course, forms the Waitangi waterfall. Indeed this, the nearer way, was so very bad, that Mr. Williams, his wife and family, and his goods, all went by the much longer and roundabout one, --across the Bay and up the long Kerikeri river in boats, and thence to Te Waimate by a track over the high open land, --which altogether might occupy three days.

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Having obtained a small supply of folio post writing paper from the Mission Store at Kerikeri (all there was!)--1000 copies of the Gospel of St. Luke, 67 pages, post 8vo., were printed and bound during this year. Also, some Proclamations and Circulars for the British Resident, in both English and Maori, respecting the arrival and assumption of the Baron de Thierry and his party; and of the murderous night attempt on the life of the British Resident by a Maori, which, for some time, caused great sensation. 5 Some hundreds of old Maori books, (of the small 4to. edition printed at Sydney in 1833,) much worn, very dirty and ragged! were also strongly bound. --


I had found it a difficult matter to get on without an iron Inking-table, but the want of an Imposing-stone was a far more serious one. For the former, I had substituted a small wooden table (14 x 28in.), the top made out of a broad plank of a hardwood tree that grew on the cliffs near by, (Pohutukawa = Metrosideros tomentosa;) for the latter I had no other alternative than to use the iron "table" of the Printing-press; this was anything but pleasant, but there was no help for it! On my early rowing up the Kerikeri river, I had noticed the many black basaltic boulder-stones of various sizes, fantastically scattered and piled and even ranged in natural rows in many places; and I thought that one of them might be made to serve and do good service if it could be cut. This was eventually done by Mr. Edmonds, (a Catechist of the Church Missionary Society, residing at the Kerikeri Station, who, at Home, in England, was a stonemason by trade,) although when a fitting size block was found at last, and conveyed to the Station, it took him a long time to cut it into two parts (after having been trimmed and squared) through the stone itself being so excessively hard, and his not having any proper appliances for the purpose. And when cut and their surfaces smoothed they were found to possess several scattered vesicular cells, which had to be filled up with cement. Still, they were a useful pair of stones, and when, at last! (in March, 1837,) I got them brought down in our little Mission

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Cutter (Te Karere) from the Kerikeri Station, and also got them mounted on frame with drawers, made at Kororareka (now Russell) by my joiner, I felt happy and thought I was rich! This is the first, perhaps the only, instance, of a pair of large Imposing-stones made out of a boulder of basalt, and therefore I relate it, I often heard the remark, that the cutting alone of those two stones cost the Church Missionary Society, on the lowest calculation, considerably more than £20; of course they were both from one block sawn asunder, and roughly squared and trimmed on their outsides, and very thick!--


On May 19th, 1836, the first English book was printed at the New Zealand Mission Press; a small unpretentious book of eight pages, post 8vo., containing the first "Report of the New Zealand Temperance Society." Placards also in English, and the first ever printed in New Zealand, calling a Public Meeting to establish the said Society, were printed and circulated the month before.--


("Opus manuum nostrarum dirige.")

We had heard of the arrival at Sydney of our long-looked for supplies of paper and printing materials from England; therefore, on the 23rd of March, 1836, (having recently received a few sheets of first "copy" from the Editor,) 6 I commenced compositing the New Testament. It was long, however, before we received those necessary supplies from Sydney; so that I did not commence printing the Testament until the 23rd of June, --and then alone, without any assistant! (a memorable day and time with me!) It had been already decided by the Committee of Missionaries, that the New Testament should be of demy 8vo. size, and in Small-Pica letter, and should consist of 5000 copies: (4000 had been at first fixed on, but at the very earnest request of the Wesleyan Missionaries, 1000 additional copies for them was added thereto.) Finding I was advancing very slowly, and the work long and heavy, I engaged three steady Christian

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Maoris, (adult and tattooed chiefs from Te Kawakawa,) Andrew, Joseph, and Hamo, to work as pressmen. But while, at first, willing to learn and to work (in their way), they caused me so much trouble and anxiety, and also loss, (besides their getting to dislike the work, as being wholly unsuitable to their habits, there was so much standing, and that too in one place,) that I was obliged to dismiss them and to do without them, and go on, as before, alone! The youthful Maoris of that day would not work at all, and could not be trusted. Indeed I had tried some sharp intelligent Maori youths (sons of neighbouring and friendly chiefs) during the past year to roll the forms, while engaged in printing the gospel of St. Luke, and some other smaller works; but they soon got tired and left me, just as they were severally becoming useful; this was in a great measure owing to their being obliged to stand so long in one spot at their work. 7 As a bit of curiosity I may mention, that the wages I paid to those three men, as agreed upon between us, was 3s. each per week, and their food, --this latter mainly consisting of potatoes and other edible roots of Maori cultivating. Three were engaged, as while two (in turn) worked at Press, the third did the simple cooking, getting water, shell-fish and firewood.--

"All service ranks the same with God--
With God, whose puppets, best and worst,
Are we: there is no last or first."--


Here, I think, I should briefly mention the hindrances or obstacles in the way of carrying on this important work; for unless I do so, such would not be known, nor even guessed at. These were many, and may be classed under three main heads; viz. (1) on the side of the Editor: (2) on the side of the Press and Printer: (3) Sundry.

I. Those on the side of the Editor, were: --(1) His own heavy and constant daily public duties, besides those appertaining to his own growing family, arising from his being the only Clergyman at that Station, and indeed in the whole North inland District, extending from Mangakahia on the South to Kaitaia

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the most Northern Station: (2) from his being the Master and the only Teacher in the Mission Boarding-school for boys: (3) from his being the only resident Doctor and Surgeon in those parts: and (4) from his residing so far away from the Press, with which ho could only have distant, precarious and irregular communication, --scarcely on the average of once a fortnight; and then only by special messenger, and not unfrequently at some risk.--

II. Those on the side of the Printer and the Press. --These were also manifold, heavy and unceasing. For, in addition to those of his own separate department of the Printing-office and Binding room, (in two houses far apart,)--all of which had to be performed by him alone; there were the common daily public duties of the Mission Station, of which he had to bear his share. The rule of the station was, that out of the three resident Missionaries, comprising the Rev. H. Williams and Messrs C. Baker and W. Colenso, one was always to remain at the Station; this was absolutely necessary on account, of visitors, both Maori and settlers in the Bay, and also foreigners from ships at anchor; and my own particular duty in the Printing-office confining me at the Station during week-days, a larger share of the home or Station duties frequently devolved on me. Besides I alone had the charge of the Surgery, the attending to patients, and the making-up and issuing of Medicines; occasionally informing Rev. W. Williams of severe and peculiar cases for my guidance. My daily week-day duty commenced with early morning Maori prayers in the chapel, and adult male school in the open air in its grounds when fine, when showery in the chapel, and the keeping the roll and books of the School; that over, to return to my house and prepare and get my breakfast, and then to the Printing-office or Binding-room according to what work might be in hand. Then there was the warehousing work, (viz. the receiving of paper and other printing stores, the packing and sending off of books &c., to the different Mission Stations,) also the keeping of the accounts of the Printing-office, both for receipt and expenditure of material and money, including periodical returns both for the Committee of Missionaries in New Zealand and for the Parent Society; and not unfrequently the tiresome jobs of bartering with the Maoris, for potatoes and other edible roots, maize, pigs, fish &c., &c, which necessarily took up a great

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deal of time, so much of it being new to me! and the Maoris utterly regardless of the value or the waste of time; and also twice a week attending to the delivery of rations, and many other necessary and common things in daily use: the "rations" included the cutting-up and weighing out of pigs (pork), weighing out of potatoes, flour, rice, &c., &c., for the Mission families and the inmates of the European Girls' Boarding-school (approaching 50 persons), 8 also for all the Maori domestics and workmen of the Station, in number about another 50. This work, however, for some time, was mainly undertaken by Mr. Baker when at home and well, before that he removed to Waikare Station. Of course there was also the cooking to be attended to, --another heavy item with me, as it included the making of bread; (no Bakers, nor Butchers either, then in the land!) this was mostly done by me on Saturday afternoons. The having to go to-and-fro so very often daily, from my dwelling-house to the Printing-office, situate far apart, was another item causing great loss of time, -- to say the least of it. Then, at night, was the learning the language, (&c, &c, mainly, if not only, to be obtained from oral intercourse with the Maoris.

Sundays, also, were my heavy days of work; on these there was no rest for me. Indeed my duties on Sundays were generally heavier than on weekdays; whether it was my turn to remain at the Station--to hold Divine Services there, or to go out to the Maori villages to do so. If at the Station, --then there were invariably (weather permitting) four or five Church-of-England services; four at the Mission Station, viz. two in Maori, early morning and evening, and two in English at 11 a. m. and 3 p. m., which several of the more respectable English settlers residing on the opposite shore of the Bay, together with the British Resident (Mr James Busby) his lady and family usually attended weather permitting, and frequently captains or officers and a few men from ships; and, also, at 2 p. m., at Kororareka (now Russell) on the opposite shore of the harbour, to which place we always went in our boats, the only mode of communication; usually the Missionary who had taken the two morning services at the Station had to cross over to Kororareka and take the two afternoon Services there, (one in English and one in Maori,)

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besides visiting the sick Maoris, &c, and then late in the evening take the Station Maori Service on his return, (this last often performed in excessive weariness!) If away from the Station, --at Kawakawa, or at Waikare, (or at some of the other Maori villages on the shores of the Bay,) then in order to get there in time and with the tide, (always some hours pull or sail,) I often had to leave the Mission Station by sunrise or earlier, and return at 8 or 9 p. m., hungry and completely worn out! and that partly through travelling some miles over hilly country on foot, after landing from my boat, to get to the Maoris at their several villages: sometimes, when wind or tide or both against us, I have not been able to get back to the Station till midnight, or early morning, after pulling perhaps six or seven hours!--I ought not to omit to mention the good praiseworthy conduct of my young Maori rowers, &c, at such times of trial; but in order to obtain it, or to keep it up, one must ever be in a good humour! at such seasons not always an easy matter.

III. Sundry: --To those already mentioned must also be added certain abrupt obstacles of another kind, often of a very serious nature, which could neither be foreseen or provided for; as, for instance:--

1. The state of the weather; for if wet, (heavy rain which sometimes lasted two or three days,) especially in winter, --the young Maori messenger could not well perform the journey on foot, whether to or from Te Waimate; besides we all knew, from sad experience, that the Maoris were careless and prone to sleep in their wet clothing, especially when tired and in a strange place, which frequently ended in consumption. And just so it was for a few days after heavy rain, as the big river Waiaruhe would then be flooded and impassable at the only landing-place, its current too, at such times being very strong: Europeans have been drowned there. 9

2. The dislike Maoris always had to travel alone to any distance. This was a national feeling and not to be wondered at nor trifled with. At the same time they frequently paddled singly in their small canoes many miles up and down the rivers and estuaries of the Bay, when they could see around them for some distance and so be free from surprises. We generally had

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a pretty large number of Maoris dwelling with us at the Mission Station, but most of them (sometimes all) had come thither from other and distant tribes to be taught in our schools; and these strangers could not be sent on any such journeys, over the lands &c, of other tribes, who might have been their deadly enemies in the past, or have some grudge still unavenged; neither could they have been induced to go.

3. The uncertain capriciousness of the Maoris (in those days), rarely ever to be depended on for coming at the time appointed; the one engaged as a messenger being continually liable to be called away, or to turn aside, or to loiter, and be almost sure, after he had arrived at the place to which he was sent, and delivered his packet, to want to rest for a few days, or to visit some relative or clansman in the neighbourhood, where he would while away two or three days or more; indeed, to do so, would often be the real ground of his going as a messenger.

4. The interruption occasioned by travelling or voyaging parties of Maoris coming peacefully or otherwise to the Station, and which for the time upset, or put a stop to, all regular occupation; 10 not unfrequently causing the Missionaries and their Maori residents and domestics to be on the qui vive! Here, also, must be placed the interruptions caused by unexpected European visitors, --as by the Captains and officers of Ships of war; the last visit to the Station and New Zealand of the Rev. S. Marsden and his suite, &c, &c. 11

5. Also, in stormy weather, the hauling up of all our boats and canoes on to the high bank above the sea-beach as a place of safety; and, again, the saving of the few head of cattle belonging to the Station from being lost in the neighbouring swamps, into which they sometimes ventured in quest of food, and could not extricate themselves.

6. And lastly, during the year 1837, great and serious and long-continued hindrances arose, owing to the Ngapuhi tribes in the Bay of Islands fighting among themselves; this was their last battle--or series of battles, for it continued several months, during which many on both sides were killed and wounded. 12 Of course this sad unsettled hostile state of things proved to be a great hindrance to any communication by a single Maori messenger between the two Mission Stations.

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To return: My three Maori neophyte pressmen having left me, and of course taken back with them to their pa (village) and people a full and particular account of the many disagreeables inseparable from this new and wonderful art of printing there was no longer any hope of fresh Maoris in their place (nor did I wish to have any more,) so on their leaving me in August, I was obliged to carry on my heavy work alone, and that very slowly; what served to make it worse, and to embitter it, were my many interruptions and extra burdens, --not a few of which might have been lessened if not avoided: (my feelings at that critical period I will not attempt to give). --Thus it continued till the middle of November, when I accidentally fell in with two young pressmen on board of an American whale ship, and as they were desirous of leaving their ship I engaged them; their names were Henry Mann and John Bevan; and as these men had worked as pressmen in America I record their names as my first trained helpers in the work of the printing the New Testament. Unfortunately, however, they only remained with me until near the end of January, 1837, (just nine weeks,) when they left. No doubt the isolation and quiet of the Mission Station, and the great difficulty of their getting any needful supplies, (save the common rations already mentioned,) had much to do with their leaving me; they were quiet industrious men. I may also mention, that their wages were, each 5/- per day, and they worked 5 1/2 days a week. This latter their own choice, as they spent the Saturday afternoon attending to their own private matters; also in going across the harbour, when fine, in one of my boats, to the Storekeepers on the opposite side, about three miles distant, to purchase stores.

Here I should state, that the American whale ships (which at that period came frequently into the Bay of Islands to obtain supplies) were always manned with a very different class of men to those of our English ships. The crew of the American ships were not usually trained sailors, but young workmen of almost all trades; men who, tired of their occupation, or desirous of seeing the world, or of going on a voyage of adventure and sport, engaged on board of those ships; yet they generally worked well together there, and seemed happy; --I had several

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opportunities of observing them in my visiting those ships, where I sometimes partook of their free and kind hospitality. Once more, being left, I carried on alone; and this continued about a month; when, on 23rd February, I again met with two more American pressmen on board of one of the American whalers at anchor in the Bay, and they being willing I engaged them. Their names were James Powell and Charles Upham; the former remained with me scarcely five months, leaving in July; but the latter remained until the printing of the New Testament was completed, in December, 1837. -- They were both very quiet industrious steady men; it was even a rare thing to hear them talk! Upham in particular was a very peculiar man, a thorough American, even to the chewing of tobacco! and a good quiet steady hard-working fellow; excessively quaint in his few remarks made at intervals. The wages I paid these two men were, at first, the same as to the two former pressmen, 5/- per day; but after a short time, at their own request, their pay was altered to 25 cents, or 1/- each per "token," (10 quires = 1/2-ream,) besides which, as they could not be always at press-work, they were paid 12 cents, or 6d per hour for other work connected with the Printing-office and Binding-room, and Warehouse, --as, in drying, and pressing, and folding the sheets, &c.; but would never do anything in the way of distributing type, and even if a letter should be drawn out, or be broken in their working-off the forms, (which sometimes though rarely did happen,) they would not, or more properly could not well, replace it; and spoiled paper (if any) they had to pay for, --which, however, did not amount to much. Upham worked alone at Press for a period of six months, after his companion left, (always a disagreeable and slow process for one person,) and, of course, from that time he was paid 2/- per "token." He was a very good and trusty pressman, and kept the "colour" well up, and his rollers, &c, in nice working order. During the whole of the time they continued with me they never once got into altercation or trouble with the Maoris. --


The printing of the New Testament, consisting of 356 pages, being at last accomplished by the middle of December, 1837, ---a

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cause of great rejoicing with me! (and also many others who were in eager expectation of receiving a copy;)--the next step was to get the books bound. By dint of steady persevering labour I was enabled to finish binding a few copies in calf on the 30th December, for distribution to the Missionaries on the approaching 1st January, 1838, as a New Year's Gift; which was heartily welcomed with many thanks and correspondingly valued by them. Now the demand for copies became great beyond expression, from all parts of New Zealand where the Missionaries were known, or to which Christianity had extended; finding it impossible for only myself--unassisted--to get them bound fast enough, (and there were plenty of other useful and needful works awaiting publication,) the Committee of Missionaries met, and I was instructed to send a quantity to Sydney, in lots of 500 at a time, to be bound there; having first arranged with a Sydney firm as to price, &c. These were all bound in cloth, but were not so strongly and carefully bound as those which I also bound in linen cloth at Paihia. And as it was well-known, that the Maoris valued more highly an article they had paid for, than one given to them, it was also decided that the book should be sold, and the price fixed for it was 4/-, --a rather large sum in those days for the Maoris to raise, (as they received but a very low price for all their articles of barter, which, as a matter of course, was very rarely ever paid in coin,) at the same time many copies were given away. The 1000 copies in sheets were soon handed over, as promised, to the Wesleyan Missionaries residing at Hokianga, who sent them to England to be bound.


Many remarkable incidents happened at this time, showing the extreme value placed by the Christian and well-disposed Maori Chiefs on the Sacred Volume; all of them would prove highly interesting; one or two I will briefly mention. The powerful Chief of Kaitaia, (near Ahipara and the North Cape,) Panakareao, (afterwards Baptized and named Nopera = Noble,) wrote me a letter for a single copy; and in order that it should arrive the more dignified, he sent it all the way by a special messenger, (a long journey of several days through a wild and

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little-known dense untravelled forest,) and with it he sent me £1 in gold for payment, strictly limiting his request to one copy only! It was the first sovereign I ever saw with a Maori, or in this Country, (indeed, silver coin also was very scarce, rarely seen or used,) 13 and the letter and the gold were well-secured being wrapped-up in folds of cloth, and bound and worn turban-fashion night and day on his head. And as not many of the principal Maori Chiefs or their sons could then write, many of them travelled on foot and barefooted to Paihia, from very great distances, to obtain a copy; at the same time running no small risks in their doing so, owing to the unsettled unavenged old feuds which still existed. Several distinguished early foreign visitors also got single copies by asking, --as the Bishop of Australia, Admiral du Petit Thouars of the French Navy, Capts. P. P. King, and Harding of the British Navy, Commodore Wilkes of the American Exploring Expedition, &c, &c. --In line, and in spite of the utmost care, the whole edition went away so fast, that a new edition of 5000 copies, in 12mo., was speedily printed in England by the British and Foreign Bible Society.


Among the number of kind congratulatory letters I received from many and distinct quarters abroad, on the finishing of the New Testament, I may be allowed to give an extract from a high official one written by the Clerical Secretary of the Church Missionary Society, the Rev. William Jowett, --a good man! his letter is truly sui generis and highly characteristic of the writer.--

"Church Missionary House, London,
December 17th, 1838.
"Dear Mr. Colenso,

* * * * "I desire to turn your thoughts to the peculiarly useful (and therefore honourable) department which you do occupy. The sight of that New Testament in the Native language, which you have been privileged to carry through the Press, is such a sight as fills my heart with indescribable joy. Think now to what great ends it is capable of becoming instrumental. Preachers will preach from it: Families will conduct

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family-worship by it: Conversations innumerable will be held upon it: it will help private self-examination: it will help those who conduct examinations of the professing Native Christians: it will be for private meditation and prayer: it is the Standard of Wisdom of every kind: it comes in most seasonably with a flood of light to resist the invading darkness of" (the time): "it will, moreover, help the fixing of the language; and school-books, and many other books, will grow out of it. No doubt the Spirit of God will use this sword!

"Then it may be well to consider, that we are only instrumental in this matter. We did not make the Book; Divine Inspiration gave it. You did not translate it; others did that. But you were at hand with the art--hidden for ages--by which this great and simple work, this unmiraculous miracle, was produced.

"There is on every side cause to be thankful and humble. The Lord make you and me to be so, and that habitually! I have often heard persons of the highest talent say, that they would gladly be hewers of wood and drawers of water in this cause. One had better not say too much for one's self, ---but I could almost fancy that were I a Christian Nobleman, and had the choosing of a humble but most useful office in the Missionary field, it should be that of a Printer, to print the Holy Scriptures and Religious Tracts. Now this office you have: Bless the Lord for it, and serve Him in it!

"I remain, Yours most truly,
(signed) "WILLIAM JOWETT."
"Mr. Colenso.

From the date of this letter may be well-inferred the length of time it took for a letter, &c, to go Home and to be, answered, (as alluded to by me in § 3.) I had sent bound copies of the New Testament by first direct ship in April, 1838. --It was known that those whale-ships always sought for whales on their way Home, and so made long voyages. It will, also, be seen, that Mr. Jowett wrote thus fully and kindly to cheer and encourage me in my work; having known from my daily journal (which we were all bound to keep and forward regularly to the Society,) how I had been situated. I have given a longer extract from his letter than I had intended, to record his Christian hope and belief of the, great and manifold benefits to be derived from the printing of the New Testament in the Maori language, (in which he was also joined by all the Members of the Church Missionary Society;) as well as to show his valuable opinion of the Press and its introduction into this Country; he too being an author of several works.

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And here, perhaps, I may also mention, the little-known but astonishing fact, that this edition of the New Testament in the language of New Zealand was the first publication of the Sacred Volume entire in the. Southern Hemisphere!

-----"Sail on, O Ship of Life, --
In spite of false lights on the shore,
Sail on, nor fear to breast the sea!
Our hearts, our hopes are all with thee,
Our hearts, our hopes, our prayers, our tears,
Our faith triumphant o'er our fears,
Are all with thee, --are all with thee!
"--Longfellow: "The Building of the Ship" (slightly altered).


The Committee of Missionaries very kindly granted us two (the Editor and the Printer of the New Testament) a holiday, -- or relief from heavy and constant daily duties which had long been pressing on us both; it being also the time of the Christmas vacation with his School. And with the New Year, (1838,) we were directed to visit the Natives at the East Cape and Coast on to Poverty Bay, (then an almost unknown district,)--so we left the Bay of Islands on our voyage thither, on the 1st January, and returned on the 13th February following. --Our journey of several weeks among those hitherto unknown parts and people was a very interesting one, highly romantic in not a few instances; 14 one benefit to the Press resulting therefrom I may here briefly mention, viz., --that out of the nine youths I brought away with me from the East Coast for instruction, two of them I succeeded in training to become fairly good and useful pressmen in the following year, 1839.


When Professor Lee of Cambridge in 1820, supervised and methodically arranged the MSS. of the New Zealand language, --that "had for the most part been previously collected by Mr. Kendall, who had for several years resided as a settler in New Zealand under the auspices of the Church Missionary Society; and who, on his return to England, took two Native

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Chiefs with him, Hongi and Waikato;" 15 Professor Lee (or Mr Kendall) gave the five vowels (still retained and in common use) and twenty consonants; so making the New Zealand Alphabet to consist of 25 letters or characters, --much the same in fact as the old and common English one, with the sole exception of the letter C; and yet one essential sound or character was not provided for. In course of time, however, this long alphabet was found to be not required; and no less than eleven consonants were discarded, 16 and the alphabet correspondingly simplified.

On my leaving London in 1834, for my sphere of labour in New Zealand, I applied at the Church Missionary House for a copy of Lee's "Grammar and Vocabulary," published by them; and I was informed that I had better not study one on my way out as it was in many places incorrect; so I came away without a copy. On arriving in New Zealand, I found the language had been lately settled by the resident Missionaries; (as, also, recently used by them in some portions of Holy Scripture, prayers, and hymns, that were printed at Sydney for the Mission in 1833;) and this orthography was further adopted in the printing of the New Testament, and other early books and papers.

Still, there were grave objections to the combination of the two English consonants n and g, to represent the nasal sound, or ng, (as given by Kendall and Lee,) such being complex and unwieldy, when a new and much more simple character (say half of the n and half of the g) would serve, and in writing be more quickly made; this objection, however, was overruled, on its being shown, that some of the New Zealand tribes, particularly the Ngatiawa, only used the n, dropping the g sound altogether.

I was not very long in the Country before I discerned, that one more character or letter, was absolutely necessary to make the New Zealand alphabet perfect; this was early made very apparent to me while conducting the adult Maori school, as I saw from the want of it the Maoris themselves often made both ludicrous and grave mistakes in their reading in class the Sydney printed books; where the consonant w was made to stand and do duty both for its own simple sound of w, and for the more complex one of wh.

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In course of time I wrote a long letter on the subject to the Committee of Missionaries, showing the need of the wanting character being supplied, and also how it might better be formed, from several printed examples in large and small letters, as, w', wh, f, and v. To my letter an official reply came from the Secretary, informing me, that the Committee of Missionaries did not see the necessity of any alteration or addition to the Maori alphabet. 17

And so the New Testament was printed according to the then established orthography.

Notwithstanding, my expressed opinion grew, and was supported by several, and among others by the Wesleyan Missionaries on the West Coast, who adopted the wh to represent the sound not already provided for. I had certainly preferred the more simple form of v, (so easily written,) which, together with f, had been also used by some of the Missionaries in the South Sea Islands to represent that common Polynesian sound. Subsequently, the Rev. W. Williams, and the Rev. R. Maunsell, agreed with me in this.

In 1842, the Bishop of New Zealand, Dr. Selwyn, arrived in New Zealand, accompanied by his Chaplain, Rev. W. C. Cotton and others; and in the following year (1843), a Printer having arrived at Paihia from the Society in England to take charge of the Mission Press, I went to reside with them at St. John's College, To Waimate. They had seen the letter I had previously written to the Committee of Missionaries, and agreed with it; and as the Bishop had a very small printing-press and type of his own, at which small notices, bills, leaflets, and single pages, were frequently printed in Maori, (though not by me,) Mr. Cotton adopted the w with an apostrophe (thus, 'w,) to indicate the wanting character for that particular sound, and a type was struck at Home at Mr Cotton's expense, to represent it, and in course of time used there at the Bishop's press. For my part, however, I never cordially approved of it, as it was not so simple as the v, and not quickly written, the accent-like apostrophe might be easily broken off, and it was opposed to all established Polynesian alphabets. In subsequent years that new character was abandoned and the wh adopted, which has long ago become general and fixed, as we now have it.

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In concluding this section of my paper on the orthography of the Maori language, I would give an extract or two from Cook, and also from Forster, --the talented German savant who accompanied him on his second voyage to the South Seas, and who did so much under great difficulties. The marvel with me has ever been that Cook and his party on the whole managed so well as they did, which must mainly be attributed to their having the Tahitian native Tupaea with them as quasi interpreter. Capt. Cook says, in his genuine racy way:--

"It is the genius of the New Zealand language to put some article before a noun, as we do the or a; the articles used here were generally he or ko: it is also common here to add the word oeia after another word, as an iteration, especially if it is an answer to a question; as we say, yes indeed; to be sure; really; certainly: this sometimes led our gentlemen into the formation of words of an enormous length, judging by the ear only, without being able to refer each sound to its signification. An example will make this perfectly understood:--In the Bay of Islands is a remarkable one, called by the natives Matuaro. One of our gentlemen having asked a native the name of it, he answered, with the particle, Komatuaro; the gentleman hearing the sound imperfectly, repeated his question, and the Indian repeating his answer, added oeia, which made the word Komatuarooeia; and thus it happened that in the logbook I found Matuaro transformed into Cumettiwarroweia: and the same transformation, by the same means, might happen to an English word." [Of which he gives examples. ]--Voyages, vol. iii, p. 476 (original 4to. edition).

Unfortunately, however, similar errors still continue here among us! notwithstanding their settled, plain, written, and printed tongue.--

I have often been struck, some 40-45 years ago with the close phonetic rendering of many Maori names of Birds, Fishes, &c, by the two Forsters (father and son), and with the large amount of patient toil they must have experienced in taking them down; albeit their orthography, at first sight, abounding in harsh double consonants, looks very barbarous, and is anything but tempting: also, with those of Lesson and other Naturalists belonging to the French Discovery Expeditions of 50-60 years ago. Of course their orthography varies much from the far simpler one adopted in rendering the Maori tongue into writing; still it is such that I could have beneficially used in my early enquiries among the Maoris, which is more than can

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be said of many (so-called) Maori names more recently written and published too in this country! A few of those old Maori names of Birds I will give here from Forster, as a curiosity. It will be seen that he, in many instances, adds the indefinite article (he = a) to the name of the Bird, and uses g and gh, hard for k: --

English Name. Maori Name. Maori Name from Forster,


Owl ........................Ruru ...............Herooroo.

Kingfisher ...............Kotare...............Ghotarre.

Parson-bird.............. Tuii ..................Toi.

Bell-bird ..................Kopara ............Heghobarra.

Thrush....................Koropio ............Golobieo.

Fantail Flycatcher ......Piwakawaka ......Diggowaghwagh:(Piouakouaka, Less.)

Robin .....................Toitoi ...............Ghatoitoi.


Plover .....................Tuturuwatu.........Doodooroo-attoo

Blue Heron...............Matuku ............Matook: (Matoucou,Less.)

Paradise Duck............Putangitangi ......Pooadugghiedugghie.

Duck .....................Parera.............. He-Parerra.


I have in this paper said a little about pay (to Maoris and American pressmen) and rations; perhaps I had better say a little more on these subjects; as, at the present day, they must appear somewhat antiquated, and my further information may serve to amuse if not interest you.

I. Of Pay: Money (coin) was not then in use in dealing with the Maoris, (nor indeed in dealing with whites, who were paid in Orders, which they parted with at the Stores.) With the Maoris, whether for wages or for articles brought for sale, -- as pigs, fish, peaches, melons, pumpkins, potatoes, maize, kumara (sweet potatoes,) &c., it was invariably a matter of barter. -- Sometimes, two, three, or four canoe-loads, belonging to different parties, landed and stacked on the beach, were purchased and settled for in an hour or less; at other times the purchase of a single pig brought for sale might occupy (if allowed) half a day. The Mission goods sent out for that purpose were always good useful durable articles, whether iron ware, --as axes, spades, iron pots, knives, &c., or soft goods, --as blankets, prints, calico,

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shirts, trousers, caps, &c.; and as these English goods were well appreciated by the Maoris, we generally had plenty of enquirers or barterers, whenever they had produce for sale. A large and constant supply of pigs and potatoes was required by the Station. Sometimes, however, we knew what it was to want-- for a season, especially in times of drought and scarcity; but the shell-fish (principally cockles) in the adjoining sea-banks, were always available and prized. At such times we had to purchase Rice and Biscuit from the Stores in the Bay for vegetable rations to our Maoris, and sometimes obtained a large lot of Yams, brought for sale from the Islands further North, for the same purpose. Pork was the only Butchers' meat known to us for many years, --the flesh of wild, or Bush pigs, and very good it was. We had also some fowls and eggs, and fish, too, occasionally, but not a full supply. Milk and butter were not to be had (by me) for many years after my arrival. The sum of 3/- per week (with simple rations) to each of my three Maori pressmen, must now seem ridiculously small, but it was not so considered then; indeed, it was the highest rate known. At that time, useful foreign articles of common use among the Maoris were cheap, and they, in their frugal simple way of living, did not need many; and tobacco was under 6d per lb., and not yet in common use.--

Some, perhaps, may wish to have their curiosity satisfied as to my own pay, or salary; for several years this was £30 per annum, (fixed by the Home Committee, and to commence on my arrival in New Zealand,) with rations, and a "whare" (small house) provided, but no furniture. I did not know anything about either pay or rations until I arrived in New Zealand; I had never enquired in England; I never cared to do so.

II. Of Rations: --The rations furnished us, consisted of five principal foreign articles, viz. Flour, tea, sugar, salt, and soap, and whale-oil and ball-cotton wick for a small (shilling) japanned hand-lamp; and also two Maori articles of food--potatoes and pork. The weekly allowance of foreign rations was very small, and generally served-out every half-year; it was said to have been the same in quantity as the convicts' allowance in Sydney; a single ration not being sufficient for one person (as in my own case), but a number coming together--as in a large family where all received rations, did better. I have still an official

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note of January, 1836, from the Secretary Committee of Missionaries, informing me, (in reply to my note respecting the smallness of the rations issued,) that my future "ration of sugar was increased from l lb. to l 1/2 lb., and of tea from 2 oz. to 3 oz. per week;" the sugar served out was only the soft brown kind, and not unfrequently obtained from Tahiti. Some, or most of those rations were charged high, 18 i. e., in one's wanting any quantity beyond what was allowed; --this was done, not to make any profit, but to meet heavy extra expenses and loss. Flour, for instance, when made from wheat grown on the Society's farm at Te Waimate was nearly double the price of the same article when imported from Sydney for the use of the Mission; and we were, in a measure, obliged to take it! The extra price for Flour from the Church Mission Farm, arose in part from the fact, of it being carted thence to Kerikeri across a rough country and no roads, there to be stored, and from Kerikeri to Paihia by boat or small vessel; all which additional charges for land and water carriage were added to that of growing and grinding the wheat.


Having thus briefly and somewhat disjointedly brought together and placed before you a truthful relation of matters pertaining to the Introduction of the noble art of Printing into New Zealand--the future "Britain of the South,"--I cannot lay down my pen without making a few final observations.--

1. It seemed almost natural, --in this year of universally observed "Jubilee"!--that I, having been so long and closely connected with the "Divine Art," and having also survived the many who were my early co-workers in this Land fifty years ago! --that I should be desirous of placing on record at this period what I knew concerning the Press, --its birth and early yet slow growth, under many peculiar hardships and difficulties; which, however, have long ceased to exist; and which, were they not recorded, could never be conjectured. And all this, I fancy, will be more truly and fully appreciated a hundred years hence, than it can possibly be now.

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2. I have often looked back with much pleasure to the period of my long connection with the Church Mission and first Press in New Zealand; and at the quality the usefulness and the amount of the work issued from it. Notwithstanding it was a time of heavy labours and of much anxiety. The Press rightly used is a mighty power for good, none greater; but it is too often used in the opposite direction; and then, alas! the truthfulness of the old adage is again clearly shown and seen, -- "corruptio optimi pessima."--

3. In my coming to reside in Hawke's Bay in 1844, I brought hither with me a small Albion Press and types, which I again found to be of great service; though, having a people scattered over a very large district to attend to, with its consequent heavy travelling on foot, there being then no roads, I could not use my little press so much as I wished.

4. Happily there is no need for any one at the present day to attempt a panegyric on the Art of Printing, or the diffusion of light and knowledge through the Press; one might just as well vainly venture

"To gild refined gold, to paint the lily,
To throw a perfume on the violet,
Or add another hue unto the rainbow."--

Yet, the words of an eminent Printer of the beginning of this century, may, I think, be here aptly quoted, in connection with the advent of Printing into this (then) dark Land; (words used by him in vividly portraying the contrast between what existed in the dys of the dark ages and the great and sudden change that attended the invention of the Art of Printing;)--

------"No sooner did this bright luminary [the Press] burst upon Europe than its brilliant rays, like the meridian sun, not only enlightened and invigorated mankind, but also dispelled the murky clouds which had for ages cemented the bands of Ignorance and Superstition." And again:--"For our own parts, we never think of the benefits conferred on mankind by this Art, but we feel our bosoms swell with admiration of the Divine Being for this inestimable blessing."--Johnson: "Typo-graphia," vol. I, preface, pp. i and xii.

And heartily supporting those truthful noble words and sentiments, with them I close my Paper.

P.S. Printed hooks and papers, letters, locality map, sketches illustrative, accounts, &c., mentioned, or alluded to in this Paper, were all exhibited at the meeting of the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute.

1   I may here observe, in a note, that such an arrangement proved to be a very good one while my compositing was confined to the Maori language only; but when I had any English copy to compose it was altogether the reverse! then I had to pick out the discarded English consonants as required from their lots put up in paper parcels. Fortunately this occurred but rarely; except at the time of the Treaty of Waitangi, (1840,) when I had necessarily much printing work to do for the Government of the Colony; and having no extra cases, was obliged to place the letters required in little lots on tables, and on the floor!--(See Note A, Appendix.)
2   See Note B, Appendix.
3   It was to be a two-story building, and not long after erection was blown down by a violent storm and never re-erected.
4   Sometimes, but rarely, a visitor or traveller would be taken thither in a boat from Paihia at high water to the landing place on the opposite shore.
5   Sec Note C, Appendix.
6   His kind note which came with them is so characteristic of him, that I am tempted to make an extract from it. --See Note D, Appendix.
7   See Note E, Appendix.
8   Both of the two senior resident Missionaries had very large families, nearly one dozen of children in each.
9   See Note F, Appendix.
10   See Note G, Appendix.
11   See Note H.
12   See Note I.
13   Note J, Appendix.
14   See Note K, Appendix.
15   See Preface, Lee's "Grammar and Vocabulary of the Language of New Zealand," page 1.
16   These discarded consonants were B, D, F, G, J, L, S, V, X, Y, Z.
17   See Note L, Appendix.
18   I quote from an official memo., sent to me:--"Flour, 6d per lb.; Tea, 8/- do.; Soap, 9d. do.; Sugar, 6d. do.; Pork (fresh), 3d. do., and (salt) 4d. do."

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