1854 - Young, Robert. The Southern World [New Zealand sections only] - CHAPTER VII.

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  1854 - Young, Robert. The Southern World [New Zealand sections only] - CHAPTER VII.
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Embark for New Zealand--Passengers--New Zealand in sight-- Tradition as to its origin--North Cape--Wangaroa--Arrival at Auckland --The Town--Wesleyan Chapel--District-Meeting--Education--Letter from the Governor--Government scheme--Members of the Mission churches--Mission property--The union of the Mission with Australia --Missionary Meeting--Mr. Whiteley's replies to sundry questions.

I EMBARKED for New Zealand on the morning of the 30th of August. Mr. Boyce, my valued friend, and colleague on the deputation, accompanied me. We were favoured with the company of the Rev. N. Turner, who had for several years laboured successfully as a Missionary in New Zealand and in the Friendly Isles. To my great inconvenience and loss of time, the sailing of the vessel had been repeatedly postponed, after having been announced to sail on a certain day, "most positively,"--on another, "most assuredly," and on another, "without fail." But in no case was the promise fulfilled. When I complained to some merchants of this want of good faith, they smiled at my simplicity, and said I ought not to have expected anything else, that being the usual mode of doing shipping

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business, and evidently thought it no violation of propriety. This reminded me of what I heard a West India planter say to his negroes, in relation to the law of the Sabbath. He said, that the law respecting the Sabbath was given some hundreds of years before the West Indies were discovered, and could not therefore be intended for the Western World; and as the law of truth was given long before the discoveries of commercial navigation, it would seem that it is not to be applied to any of its transactions. When a merchant advertises that his vessel will "positively,"--"most assuredly,"--and "without fail," sail at a given date, "wind and weather permitting," he ought, as an honourable man, to keep good faith with the public; but to make such announcements without any real intention to meet the expectation they are calculated to excite, is indefensible on any principle or rule of morality whatever. When there is doubt as to the sailing of a vessel, let that be intimated in the advertisement, but let no ship-owner sanction a practice which, as in my case, may rob a man of much valuable time, and seriously interfere with important and pressing engagements.

September 1st. --One of our passengers was a disappointed immigrant. He had been allured to Australia by glowing statements respecting that country, but had met with nothing but discomfort and disappointment. He was on his way, with his wife and two children, to New Zealand, hoping there to obtain a home, with the necessaries, if not the comforts of life. This gentleman is but a sample of a class, and I fear a large one, to whom Australia, with all her riches, extends not her favours, though sought at the sacrifice of country and home, and who would, in the bitterness of disappointment, gladly avail themselves of any opportunity of returning to the land of their fathers.

2d. --A passenger, an American, of manifest respectability, and recently from California, informed me that gambling and "Lynch-law" prevailed in that country to a fearful extent. In one gambling-house he had on a certain evening counted twenty tables, with about £3,000 on each, and observed the direct

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tendency of such practice to crimes of the deepest dye. One gambler, he said, shot a youth without the least provocation. This roused the mob, who pursued the murderer to an hotel, broke in the door, dragged the wretched man from his hiding-place, and, without farther ceremony, took him to the first convenient tree, and hanged him. Finding in the hotel a nest of gamblers, the companions of the murderer, they compelled every man of them to accompany the procession, and to witness the execution, as indicating what they too might expect if they did not restrain their wickedness.

4th. --We had a religious service in the cabin, which Mr. Turner conducted; but, as the day was stormy, few persons were able to attend.

5th. --To-day a beautiful Cape pigeon was caught by one of the passengers. It was about the form and size of a small duck; and on being brought on deck, sought to defend itself by the ejection from its stomach of a white oily liquor.

6th. --A respectable Jewish family being on board, I had a conversation with them on the points at issue between Jews and Christians; and found that they strove to shield themselves from the point of my arguments by the traditions of the Fathers, the fables of their Talmuds, and the Rabbinical interpretation of the prophecies. They said, no true Jew had ever become a Christian; many had professed to be converted to the Christian faith, but it was simply to accomplish some sinister object; and when I referred to Neander, Wolfe, and others, as exceptions, they expressed by certain remarkable shrugs and contortions their utter incredulity. On farther inquiry, I found the veil covering them had been greatly thickened by the absurdities of Popery, that paganized form of Christianity, and the inconsistent lives of the professed followers of Jesus.

7th. --This morning passed the "Three Kings," three small islands at the north end of New Zealand. According to an old tradition of the natives, which they formerly believed, a celebrated god, who resided on these islands, was fishing one morning, and fished up New Zealand, gave it a few shakes at

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the end of his line, and thus produced the various hills and dales with which it abounds!

At eleven o'clock saw New Zealand. The sight recalled to my mind former days. I had been selected, in 1820, in connection with the Rev. S. Leigh, to commence the Wesleyan Mission to this country, and had in consequence been introduced to 'Hongi on his visit to England, who, in assuring me protection, promised that no New Zealand man should cook me; but by an unexpected occurrence my appointment was changed, and I was sent to meet an emergency in the West Indies. The morning I left London for that field of labour, Mr. Leigh, on bidding me good-bye, said, "You are not at this time to visit New Zealand, but my conviction is, and mark what I say, that you will see that country before you die." It is even so, and without any contrivance of my own. 'Hongi is no more, Mr. Leigh is no more, and here, after more than thirty years, I am permitted to visit these ends of the earth, according to the intimation of the servant of God.

In the afternoon we passed the North Cape. According to the notion formerly held by the natives, every Maori spirit, on leaving its earthly habitation, was conducted to this Cape, and there, having waited until it heard a whistle from beneath, leaped over the frightful precipice, and plunged into the turbulent abyss on its passage to another world. How dark and cheerless is Heathenism, when compared with the life and immortality brought to light by the Gospel!

8th. --Early this morning we passed Wangaroa, a place rendered on many accounts notorious. Here, in 1809, the crew of the "Boyd," consisting of upwards of 70 persons, were murdered, cooked, and eaten. Here, in 1824, the schooner "Endeavour" was attacked; and the lives of Messrs. Tyerman and Bennett, the representatives of the London Missionary Society, placed in imminent peril, and saved only by the timely interposition of the Missionaries. Here, in 1825, the brig "Mercury" was plundered and destroyed, and many lives sacrificed to make provision for a cannibal feast. And here, in 1827, the Wesleyan Mission premises were pillaged and demolished, and the Missionaries and

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their families driven away with the loss of everything but life. But a happy change has been effected. "The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb; and the leopard shall lie down with the kid."

In the course of the day we skirted the coast, which is full of bays and coves, and in many parts well timbered. We passed several beautiful islets, and had the place pointed out where, by the upsetting of a native canoe, the Rev. J. H. Bumby was drowned. In the evening we anchored, in a gale of wind, within the "Head."

9th. --This morning the Rev. Walter Lawry came on board, and after beating up the harbour with considerable difficulty, we dropped anchor. The day being boisterous, and landing difficult, we should have been in great perplexity about getting on shore, had not the whale-boat of the "John Wesley" come to our assistance. On reaching the pier, a noble band of Missionaries gave us a hearty welcome. I was conducted to the lovely residence of my esteemed friend, Mr. Lawry, and soon felt myself quite at home.

The house of Mr. Lawry has certainly been greatly misrepresented. It is not "a splendid mansion," but a humble cottage, plainly built, and containing but six rooms, including the kitchen and study. Its situation on the slope of a hill is well selected, commanding a fine view of the harbour; and the garden, fringed with the beautiful Norfolk Island pine, is laid out with much taste, and gives to the residence such an air of respectability, that the good taste of its occupants has been mistaken for extravagance, and that which undoubtedly merits praise has been so misrepresented as to occasion blame.

10th. --Examined Auckland, which is beautifully situated. The site of this capital was fixed upon by Captain Hobson, on account of its central position, its great facility of internal water communication, the safety of its harbour, the proximity of several smaller ports abounding with valuable timber, and the fertility of the soil. The town is built upon the northern side of the isthmus which divides the Waitemata from Manukau, and is bounded on the north by the shores of the former

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harbour. According to the official plan it has a water frontage of about a mile and a half, and extends inland to the distance of about a mile. The greater number of the houses have been built near the water, on the bays and on the headlands with which it is beautifully indented. These bays are backed by small valleys which run inland about half a mile, terminating in narrow gullies, and are separated from each other by spurs which run into the harbour, and terminate in low headlands. The lower part of the town being thus separated, the roads which connect them with each other are somewhat steep and inconvenient. From the harbour, Auckland has a very imposing appearance, and suggests the idea of expansiveness. St. Paul's Church, the Roman Catholic Chapel, the Scotch Church, the Barracks, the Colonial Hospital, the Wesleyan College and Chapel, the windmill on the hill, with Mount Eden in the background, are the most prominent objects. The town comprises many detached cottage-like houses, built on sheltered slopes, each snugly nestled in the luxuriant shrubbery of its surrounding garden, which render it exceedingly pretty and picturesque. The streets are macadamized, but no attempt seems to have been made to form footpaths on a general level. There is little uniformity in the buildings; but some of the shops would not disgrace any small provincial town in England. The population of the borough of Auckland amounts to between 7,000 and 8,000, of whom about 4,500 occupy the town and its suburbs. Considering its size, Auckland possesses the elements of a considerable society. The officers of the civil Government are themselves a numerous body. It is the head quarters of a regiment, and has representatives from the brigade, commissariat, artillery, and engineer departments. Two battalions of military pensioners, enrolled for service in New Zealand, with their officers, are located in the neighbourhood; and a ship of war frequently lies at anchor in the port. A banking establishment, connected with the Union Bank of Australia, has also been established here. The officers and others connected with these various establishments, and their families, with a number of professional, and mercantile men, together form materials

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for a very considerable society. In what may be termed its fashionable phase, the military element predominates. In many respects Auckland resembles an English watering-place; and will, no doubt, become a large and important city.

11th. --Preached in the Wesleyan Chapel both morning and evening. The chapel is a substantial building, well situated, and capable of accommodating 600 persons. It was attended by a most respectable congregation. In the afternoon I was present at a native service in another part of the town. The people were attired in white, red, and striped blankets. A few had pieces of carpet wrapped around them; and two girls, who were dressed in European costume, evidently thought themselves persons of importance. There being no seats in the room, the people squatted down, and, with their chins resting upon their knees, listened with marked attention. On returning I met a native under the influence of liquor; and Mr. Lawry, who was with me, said that during his ten years' residence in the country he had never before seen a Maori in that state.

12th. --This morning Mr. Boyce and myself, as a Deputation from the British Conference, met the Missionaries from different parts of the country, to make certain communications, and to institute various inquiries relative to the state and prospects of the Mission. After the usual devotional exercises, an address was delivered, and the objects of the Deputation were briefly stated. A subject which had in England and elsewhere created much painful interest, and exerted an unfriendly influence upon some of the supporters of our Missions, was fully and impartially examined; and, although approached with some apprehensions as to the result, yet, without any compromise of principle whatever it was most amicably settled, and, as the Deputation believe, to the satisfaction of the different parties concerned. Throughout the investigation, the honest, generous, and noble spirit evinced by all the Missionaries was highly creditable to their good sense and piety, as well as to their firm attachment to constitutional Methodism, and rendered the settlement of a difficult subject comparatively easy, which otherwise might have resulted in

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party-feeling, and extensive mischief. A salutary lesson was taught, which will probably never be forgotten.

13th, --Examined a candidate for the Ministry, --an interesting and well-educated young man, a son of one of our English Ministers. He offered himself especially for Feejee.

The state of the Mission Schools was considered, and it was found that in connection with the New Zealand Mission there were 188 Sabbath-schools, and 88 day-schools, comprising 5,846 pupils; and that considerable proficiency had been made in learning. There is on the part of many of the Maoris a most ardent desire to obtain knowledge; and young men and maidens, old men and children, are found at the early morning schools. "In the native villages," says the Rev. H. H. Lawry, in a communication with which he kindly favoured me, "the day commences with Divine worship. The native teacher in charge announces sunrise by ringing his bell, which summons the entire population to the house of God. The worship consists of singing a hymn, reading a portion of Scripture, and prayer. Then follow the school exercises, in which the old and young of every grade are found side by side. One class have the Testament in hand, and are engaged most attentively, each trying to excel; detecting the smallest mistake, even of pronunciation, or pause, or intonation of voice, and making the offender give place to a more skilful reader. After reading, follow questions upon the lesson, when such information is imparted as may be required. Other classes of a more elementary character are also attended to; and after two or three hours thus spent, they repair to their respective occupations. In many cases the evening is occupied with similar exercises; and the child is seen teaching the aged. The anxiety of the people to learn is so great, that not unfrequently do they continue their exercises in their huts until the midnight hour." The result is, that according to the statement of the Rev. J. Whiteley three-fourths of the adult population can read, and two-thirds can write their own language correctly. Hitherto the reading of the natives has been limited, as the following list of works comprises as yet all the literature published in the Maori language.

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The whole of the New Testament, 1 vol. 12mo. C. M. 1
Ditto, a late Edition, 1 vol. 8vo. C. M.
Selections from the New Testament, as published by the British and Foreign School Society, 1 vol. 12mo. W. M.
Selections from the Old Testament, ditto, 1 vol. 12mo. W. M.
The Book of Job. W. M.
The Psalms of David, printed by the British and Foreign Bible Society, translated by C, M., 1 vol. 24mo.
Part of Isaiah, Daniel, and the Book of Jonah. C. M.
Book of Malachi in a Tract. W. M.
Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, and Judges, in 1 vol. 12mo. C. M.

Besides the above translations of the Holy Scriptures which have been published, there are several Books in MSS., translated by the Church Mission and Wesleyan Mission; and it is expected that the Church Mission will ere long publish a uniform edition of the Old Testament Scriptures.

The whole of the Church of England Prayer-Book, and Hymns, 1 vol. 12mo. C. M.
Mr. Wesley's Abridgment, and Hymns, 1 vol. 12mo. W. M.
Mr. Wesley's Sermon on the Almost Christian. A Tract. W. M.
A Pamphlet on Peace. W. M.
A Pamphlet on the Nature and Constitution of the Church. W. M.
"Robinson Crusoe." Pamphlet. Gov.
A Pamphlet on Trade and Commerce. Gov.
A Pamphlet on Savings' Banks. Gov.
The "Maori Messenger," a fscp. newspaper, published once a fortnight, --one-half Maori, and the other half English. Gov.
The Roman Catholics have published a Prayer-Book, and several small school-books.

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The first Grammar of the New Zealand language was published by the Rev. Mr. Kendall, of the Church Mission, assisted by Dr. Lee, of Cambridge. The Rev. R. Maunsel, A. B., of the Church Mission, has also published a Grammar, clever and learned, but I understand only adapted to those who have made some progress in the Maori tongue.

The Rev. W. Williams, LL. D., has published a Dictionary, with a short compendium of Grammar. Useful, but limited.

Mr. Kemp, jun., has issued a Vocabulary, of much service to the trader.

The above list, politely furnished by the Rev. Gideon Smales, contains the whole of Maori literature; but works in that language will, no doubt, soon be greatly augmented by those Maoris who are receiving an English education.

All our Missionaries in the country speak the Maori, and, I understand, with much ease and correctness.

A communication from the Governor was laid before the Meeting, of which the following is a copy:--

"Auckland, New Zealand,
May 13th, 1853.

"It having become necessary for me to recommend for the sanction of Her Majesty's Government, the mode in which I propose that the public funds reserved in this country for native purposes should be applied, I have the honour to state that I am prepared to recommend that the sum of, £1,600 per annum should be placed at the disposal of the Wesleyan church in New Zealand, for educational purposes in the two Northern Provinces, and the sum of £700 per annum for the Southern Provinces of New Zealand, and for the support of schools in connection with that church, which are already established, or may hereafter be established in these islands, provided those funds are applied in conformity with the principles stated in the enclosed memorandum.

"When you have fully considered the plan thus proposed, I should feel obliged by your informing me if it meets with

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your approval, and if the Body which you represent are willing to accept the proposed annual grant on those terms."

I have the honour to be, Sir,
"Your most obedient humble servant,
"G. Grey."


"1. New Zealand shall be divided into convenient districts for educational purposes connected with the Wesleyan church.

"2. All schools in such districts which receive any portion of the Government grant, shall be conducted as heretofore upon the principle of a religious education, --industrial training, and instruction in the English language, forming a necessary part of the system pursued in such schools.

"3. The schools which are aided from the Government grant may be of three kinds: --
"1st. Colleges.
"2d. Central schools.
"3d. Primary schools.
"Each educational district shall have at least one central school, which is to be made in as far as possible the means of multiplying primary schools in that district, which shall be regarded as being connected with the central school to which they belong.

"4. The general rule being, that the most promising candidates from the primary schools shall have the option afforded them of being received into the central school with which they are connected.

"5. In like manner the most promising scholars from the central schools will be eligible for election as pupils into the College of the district in which they are situated, where it is hoped that ultimately it may be found practicable to qualify native teachers for the Ministry.

"6. Maori, or half-caste children, or the children of inhabitants of islands in the Pacific Ocean, as well as orphans, or destitute children of European parents, are to be eligible for admission into any schools which may be supported from the

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Government grant, upon such conditions as may in the case of each school be determined by the Auckland District-Meeting.

"7. Any grants of land for the support of schools will be made upon the usual trusts to the Superintendent of the Wesleyan Missions in New Zealand.

"8. The annual grant given by the Government shall be applied to the three following purposes, in such proportions as the Auckland District-Meeting may determine:--

"1st. To the support of existing schools, and the establishment of new ones.

"2d. To provide the means of educating in the Colleges, or in the central schools, scholars to be trained as teachers, who, in addition to the other duties allotted to them, shall teach the primary schools. The total number of scholars to be educated as above, shall, as soon as practicable, be made up to twenty, and shall, if possible, be maintained at least at that number.

"3d. To provide for the payment of sums, (which it is proposed should not, for the present, exceed £10 per annum,) in part payment of the salaries of accredited teachers, who shall have passed an examination before, and have received a certificate from the Auckland District-Meeting, or such persons as they may appoint.

"9. It is proposed that, as soon as practicable, at least twenty teachers in primary schools shall each receive the annual allowance of £10.

"10. The funds appropriated to the purposes of schools supported from the Government grant, shall be administered by the Auckland District-Meeting.

"11. An Annual Report of the state of the schools, and of the mode in which the annual grant has been distributed, is to be furnished to the Governor by the Auckland District-Meeting.

"May 13th, 1853."
"G. GREY."

This communication having been considered by the Meeting, it was unanimously resolved, --

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"That the Wesleyan Ministers of this District, convinced of the importance to the country of Educational establishments embracing the religious and industrial elements, record the sense they entertain of the interest His Excellency has ever manifested on the subject of education; and acknowledge, on behalf of the native converts, the benefits they have already received, in relation to their social and moral improvement, from the schools that have been so liberally sustained by the Government under His Excellency's administration, and also express their cordial approval of the wise and comprehensive plan he has suggested for future Educational effort."

14th. --To-day the state of the Mission churches in the District was examined, and it was found that we had 105 Chapels, 148 other preaching-places, 322 Local-Preachers, 5 Catechists, 4,500 Members, and 10,864 attendants on public worship; --a great work this for the pastoral oversight of 20 Missionaries, who have also to superintend the schools.

On inquiring very particularly into the spiritual condition of our church members, I learned that, whilst some were not entirely delivered from the influence of superstition, and others were resting in the form of godliness, there were many in the possession of the saving power of the Gospel, and who were adorning the doctrines of God their Saviour in a consistent walk and conversation. Encouraging statements were also made in relation to the holy confidence and abounding joy evinced by many native Christians in the time of affliction, and in the article of death.

In the evening the Colonial Secretary and the Colonial Treasurer called upon me. Their voluntary testimony as to the labours and success of our Missionaries in New Zealand was highly gratifying. They spoke of the Educational efforts of the Society in the highest terms. The Secretary said, that when he went into the country to botanize, as he frequently did, he made a point of asking the different natives he met with, the names of the various plants he had collected; and that three out of every four not only gave the names, but took his pencil and wrote them for him in his book.

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15th. --The Meeting to-day examined the financial state of the Society. Every item of expenditure was analyzed; and the Missionaries, on hearing the pressing claims upon the Mission-fund, nobly agreed to relinquish £1,000 of the annual grant made to the District. This could not be done without considerable sacrifice; but, rather than reduce the Missionary staff, and leave any of their flocks in the wilderness, they submitted to it without murmuring. I was greatly delighted with the spirit in which this was done. "Look not every man on his own things, but every man also on the things of others." This apostolic injunction was observed, and beautifully exemplified in the proceedings of this day.

For some years the Missionaries to this land had gone forth taking little or nothing of the Gentiles; but the churches raised by their instrumentality having become so far matured, and the people greatly improved in their worldly circumstances, it was thought the time had now arrived to teach them more fully the Christian duty of supporting their own Ministers, and measures were accordingly adopted for that purpose. I could not but regret that the excellent men who had commenced the New Zealand Mission, should not from the first have taught their converts this Christian duty. Had they done so much misconception amongst the natives would have been prevented, and their successors who have sought to explain and enforce this New Testament requirement, would not have been accused of "preaching another Gospel." It might have been prudent at the beginning of the Mission not to receive any contributions, still, however, the teaching of God's word on the subject ought not to have been kept back, but clearly and fully stated.

16th. --The Mission property throughout the country was considered by the Meeting. With few exceptions the titles were found satisfactory, and the several chapels, &c., settled according to the Connexional Deed. Upon the whole there was a debt only of. £360, and that would soon be liquidated. Much credit is due to the Missionaries for their exertions and skill in the erection of so many Chapels and Mission-Houses, with little or no cost to the Parent Society.

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17th. --The subject of attaching the Missions in New Zealand to the Australian Conference occupied the serious consideration of the District-Meeting; and, after a lengthy and free conversation, resolutions approving of the arrangement were unanimously and cordially adopted.

In the afternoon the Meeting closed its sittings. They had all been marked with delightful harmony; and on no subject had there been the utterance of a word or the manifestation of a spirit incompatible with brotherly kindness and charity. Much spiritual conversation was held, and the Missionaries separated in the finest temper of mind, determining to make full proof of their ministry, and to spend and be spent in the faithful discharge of their important duties. In my intercourse with them, I received a most favourable impression as to their religious character, and their general adaptation to the work of the New Zealand Mission.

18th. --Sabbath. In the morning I preached on behalf of the Missionary Society. The congregation was highly interesting, and the collection more than tripled that of the former year. In the evening Mr. Boyce preached, but a heavy rain prevented many from enjoying the treat of his excellent sermon.

19th. --Attended the Missionary-Meeting. Captain R------ occupied the chair, and bore a highly satisfactory testimony to the self-denying and successful labours of the Wesleyan Missionaries in New Zealand. The meeting was addressed by the Rev. Messrs. Whiteley, N. Turner, T. Williams, (from Feejee,) Boyce, Young, and a Presbyterian Minister. It was an occasion long to be remembered. Mr. Turner, one of the first Missionaries to this country, made some affecting statements in contrasting the present with the former condition of New Zealand. Mr. Whiteley, who occupies a "bush" station, after some instructive remarks, read a long list of subscribers to the Mission-fund, principally natives, making the sum raised at his station for the year £50; and Mr. Williams produced thrilling effects by his communication respecting Feejee. The collection was £40.

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20th. --Having proposed the following questions to the Rev. J. Whiteley, I received this morning the annexed replies. Mr. Whiteley had been twenty years in this country, and, being a man of extensive observation, and acknowledged sobriety of judgment, his statements may be depended upon.

"1. You have been in this country twenty years: in what particulars, and to what extent, have the natives become changed during that period?"

"So far as the question relates to our natives, I may say that they then worshipped in a room ten feet square; they now worship in chapels that will contain hundreds. Then, there was but one single native baptized, named George Morley; now, we have them by thousands. Then, they were under the constant bondage of tapu; now, that system of superstition is broken, and its remains are rapidly disappearing. Then, they were either constantly at war or preparing for it; now, their fortifications have fallen into ruins, their pas are abandoned, they are quietly cultivating the soil, and, with occasional exceptions arising out of conflicting claims to the land, there is universal peace. Then, cannibalism was practised to a fearful extent; now, no such atrocity occurs in any part of the country. Then, they were in constant dread of some superstition or imaginary 'Atua;' now, they believe that the Lord our God is one Lord, and that 'the Lord, He is God.' Then, they were miserably clad in dirty mats and filthy rags; now, they very generally wear European clothing. Then, they were regarded as thieves and liars; now, our merchants entrust them with goods on credit to the amount of hundreds and thousands of pounds. Then, polygamy and concubinage everywhere prevailed; now, the man is generally the husband of one wife. Then, many captives taken in war were held in bondage as slaves, and subject to the terror of the tomahawk; now, they have either been liberated, and sent home to their friends, or, by intermarriages, have been incorporated with the respective tribes. Then, the natives probably had not a grain of wheat in the country; now, it is universally and extensively cultivated. Then, they had no property save their oven-houses, pigs, muskets, war-

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canoes, little Ropapas, and useless lands; now, they have vessels, mills, horses, cows, oxen, ploughs, and money. Then, they had so little to do, and spent so much time in idleness and smoking, that for a full pipe of tobacco you might get them, in their way, to do a large stroke of work; now, they are so fully engaged with their own affairs, and so fully occupied with their own pursuits, that you can scarcely get them to do a day's work, either for love or money. Then, they had faults purely Maori; now, they have faults both Maori and English."

"2. What influence, in your opinion, has colonization had upon the Maori population?"

"Colonization has produced excitement and industry; also avarice, and various forms of dissipation. The introduction into the country of so large a number of Europeans, and the consequent purchase of land, have led the natives to look after their real or fancied claims in all parts of the country as they never did before, and they have gone from place to place, and spent weeks and months after land-sales, land-committees, land-quarrels, and in hunting after property which their friends have received in payment for land; and dissipated habits have thus been induced. I fear that the morals of the rising youth, visiting the towns, have been sadly deteriorated by the examples of vice with which they come in contact. The increase of property by trade, would necessarily produce much excitement, in addition to that produced by land-disputes; and as the natives find, in comparing present prices with those of former days, that they have been on a rising scale, the idea naturally suggests itself that prices must continue to rise, and that it is their business and interest to push them up as fast as they can. It appears therefore right, according to their mode of reckoning, to aim high, and to extort as much as they can. Their past experience, as they understand it, tells them that they have not had justice; and, as they know not of any limit to the white man's wealth, their business is now to get all they can. The demand for native productions, as wheat, potatoes, timber, &c., leads to great industry; but they prefer working each one for himself, that he may have the pleasure

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of selling his own produce, driving his own bargain, and handling his own money. Many of the Chiefs, however, are prevailing upon their people to subscribe each one his sovereign, &c., for the purchase of a plough, or horse, or for the erection of a mill. And many, in various ways, are copying the example of the English agriculturist. One effect of colonization has been the reverse of what might have been expected. Instead of following the example of the 'pakeha,' by centralizing themselves, and settling down in towns and villages, they have spread themselves abroad, over a much greater surface of country. Each family, party, or individual, has been on the look-out to secure and establish his claim to different and distant localities, in order to prevent the land being sold by others, or to secure his share of the payment in the event of a general sale at a future day. Hence the natives have wandered from creek to creek, from valley to valley, --sometimes on one side of the harbour, sometimes on the other, --as the weather or their work may have suited their convenience. Putting up a little temporary shed, and cultivating a small patch first in one place and then in another, the Missionary is sometimes puzzled to know where to find his people, and can only meet with them as by accident, and in small detached parties. The remedy for this state of things appears to be a good central school at each station. Let the Missionary get hold of the children, and that will draw the parents around him; and thus, that waste of time, strength, and life, which has so long been a fearful tax upon the New Zealand Missionary, in climbing mountains, wading swamps, and traversing forests, will give place to something like civilized, ministerial, and pastoral duty, and his strength, and time, and mental energies, will be devoted to his proper and legitimate work."

"3. What is the feeling generally entertained by the natives of New Zealand towards the colonists?"

"Generally that of respect. They acknowledge the white man's superiority; and although they despise the profligate and profane, and hold themselves as the lords of the soil, and would resist unto blood all unrighteous attempts to dispossess them,

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yet they know that, as a race, they are infinitely our inferiors in riches, intelligence, wisdom, and power; and although in many places they are very unwilling to part with their lands, yet, generally, they regard it a privilege and an honour to have the pakeha for a neighbour."

"4. What are the traits of character most prominent in the natives of New Zealand?"

"The following may be noticed. A revengeful spirit. An injury or an insult is never forgotten until 'utu,' satisfaction, is obtained. The offence will be remembered, and handed down from generation to generation. A man at Hokianga was offended, or injured, and, taking a hatchet, went out, declaring he would have satisfaction. After travelling about a mile, he met a woman, and killed her on the spot. This was the secret of the Wairau massacre, in 1847. A Chief woman had been slain, and revenge called for large satisfaction. Christianity, where cordially received, has of course counteracted this spirit. Covetousness is another characteristic of the Maori, --cunning, crafty, and calculating covetousness. Pride and independence may also be placed in this category. The authority of a master is looked upon as similar to the tyranny of a Chief over his slaves in former days; and having seen the evil of that, they carefully watch the assumption of authority on the part of the master, and the moment it begins to pinch, they throw off the yoke, and return to their Maori liberty. This feeling, as a national feeling, is becoming stronger, and more general; and it requires our utmost wisdom and caution to avert its natural consequences. This undoubtedly led to the 'war of the flag-staff;' and it is this feeling which prevents the tribes of Taranaki from parting with their land, although they have millions of acres lying useless. They are also patient and forbearing. In their assemblies on public matters, they will listen for hours to a Maori speaker with the strictest order. The most provoking language, and the severest irony, may be used without offence. And if two orators get into disputation, as is often the case, they will go to the most frightful lengths in insulting language, and in threatening and defying gesticula-

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tions, coming to close quarters with each other, and brandishing their spears or tomahawks, and manifesting the most fiend-like rage; but not a blow is struck. Cowardice in such cases may perhaps have some influence; for, notwithstanding their exhibitions of apparent recklessness, they shrink from death. A farther trait in their character is a sense of honour. They very much like to be regarded as honourable men; and when traders have entrusted them with property, they have generally been found most honourable in their transactions; and if a distant Chief or tribe send a present, or give a feast to another tribe or Chief, an honourable return is sure to be made. Their attachment to Europeans is worthy of notice. I mean to those who have been kind to them, and with whom they have been intimate. They will forgive their faults, defend their rights, take care of their property, and, if honoured with their confidence, will be more faithful to them than they would be to their own friends. Respect for the Chiefs may also be mentioned; and yet it sometimes seems as if they were without influence. But if a Chief undertake any great matter, all will join to help him. Two of the Kawhia Chiefs have each undertaken the project of getting a large water corn-mill built, each to cost £400; they and their people in both cases providing all the timber and manual labour, and the millwrights fin ding machinery and skill. All hands are exerting themselves to raise the required sum; the little boy, or little girl, who has a pet pig, gives it as a contribution: the young men and old plant wheat, potatoes, (fee, for sale, to realize the money, and the women do the same. Then all go to the forest to fell trees, prepare timber, &c.; and all this because the head Chiefs have said it. And when a Chief sickens and dies, they all become mourners, and show great respect."

"5. Is it your opinion that the native population is decreasing? If so, how do you account for it?"

"The population is decreasing, but I think not so rapidly as has been supposed. The causes of decrease are the following: --

"Early betrothment. --Children in their infancy are betrothed by their parents, and often with great inequality of age. This

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betrothment is regarded as being 'tapu;' and whatever objections might spring up in after-life to the marriage of the two persons thus betrothed in childhood, the woman, at least, is not regarded as at liberty to be married to another.

"Early marriages. --Often have I been urged to marry mere children, and when I have refused, worse consequences have followed. Such early marriages often result in quarrels and separation; and a woman, though thus abandoned by her husband, is regarded as still belonging to him; and if another man should venture to take her to wife, the former husband, though married to another woman, would make a 'tana' upon him, and take her away, unless the matter were compromised by large payments.

"Unequal marriages. --Old men and young girls; old women and young boys.

"Marriages with Kindred. --The tribes are as tenacious of their women as they are of their lands; and as a tribe becomes small, the ties of kindred, of course, become closer, so that the marriage of cousins is very common.

"Improper management of infants. --Many children die from the want of proper nourishment; and especially at the period of weaning and teething. Disease is also induced by the want of proper clothing and cleanliness.

"Unwholesome food. --Formerly the natives used much fern-root; but they always used with it either shell-fish, or some other 'kinaki' Thus they had a good substantial food, and a considerable portion of salt therewith in the shell-fish. Now they subsist chiefly on potatoes, without salt, or any other 'kinaki' at all. In respect to this, however, they are improving, and will, I hope, soon have cows to supply their children with milk.

"Improper clothing. --The blanket is a great evil, simply because it is abused, --wearing it day and night, hot or cold, wet or dry. Often, after having been saturated with rain, they will sit in their wet blankets, and even sleep in them. Colds and consumptions are the natural consequences. Formerly they wore but little clothing, and besmeared their bodies with

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oil and red-ochre. The friction thus used was beneficial to the skin; and the application of the oil, &c., made it almost impervious to cold and damp.

"There may be other causes tending to the decrease of the Maori population, found in polygamy, and in the prostitution of females in the English settlements, as well as in the excessive use of tobacco. Of course it is the anxious endeavour of the Christian Missionary, and the direct tendency of the Christian religion, to counteract these causes. Great good in this respect has already been effected; and my hope is, that the remedy which Christianity supplies will prevail throughout the land, and the people be saved. Amalgamation of the races, however, I think will take place to a great extent, and a more healthy and numerous population will be the result."

"6. What proportion of the natives in your opinion can read? And what proportion can write?"

"Three-fourths of the adult population, I should say, can read; and two-thirds can write their own language correctly. But the children, being neglected to a great extent, are growing up in ignorance; and unless more schools for them be established, they will, indeed, in many parts of the country, be 'as the wild ass's colt.' Arrangements, I am happy to say, are now being made to supply the want."

"7. Is the present Government arrangement, as to the sale of lands, generally satisfactory to the natives?"

"I think when the natives are willing to part with their lands, they do not object to sell them to the Government. But Europeans have, from self-interest, persuaded them that they ought to have the liberty of selling to other parties, as well as to the Government. As to the sale of land by the Government to Europeans after it has been purchased of the natives, they are willing that profit should be realized. They now understand that Government has to incur a vast amount of expense in surveys, deeds, registers, roads, &c., &c., and are prepared to allow that there must be a large profit on the land, in order to meet these items of expense. Formerly, however, it was a most puzzling subject to them, that the Govern-

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ment should buy land from them at 6d per acre, and sell it again for £1, or from that to £100 per acre."

"8. What is the estimated native population of New Zealand? And what proportion has embraced Christianity?"

"The population has been variously estimated from 60,000 to 120,000. I think it nearer the higher than the lower figure. It is my opinion that nine-tenths have embraced Christianity. Indeed there are very few who do not consider themselves as belonging to one or other of the following Denominations: namely, Wesleyans, Church of England, Romanists, and Germans. In many cases, however, their Christianity is merely nominal. They feel not its saving power. May the Lord graciously pour out his Spirit upon them, and make them Israelites indeed!"

But, although many of the natives have not received the Gospel in its renovating influence, it has saved all of them from cannibalism and other atrocities, which formerly so greatly darkened the Maori character; and not a few of them, having felt its saving power, are walking in the fear of the Lord, and in the comfort of the Holy Ghost.

1   The initials signify the different parties by whom the works have been prepared and published. C. M. for Church Mission; W. M. for Wesleyan Mission; R, C. for Roman Catholic; Gov. for Government.

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