1847 - Selwyn, G. Annals of the Diocese of New Zealand - APPENDIX.

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  1847 - Selwyn, G. Annals of the Diocese of New Zealand - APPENDIX.
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Bishop of the Diocese.

Consecrated Oct. 17, 1841.
Landed in New Zealand, May 30, 1842.

Examining Chaplain--The Ven. Archdeacon WM. WILLIAMS, B.A.
Domestic Chaplain--Rev. W. C. COTTON, M.A.
Inspector of Native Schools--Rev. S. WILLIAMS.



St. Paul's Church--Rev. J. F. CHURTON.

Orere--Rev. W. C. DUDLEY, B.A.

Rural Dean--Rev. R. MAUNSELL, B.A. Waikato Heads.

Archdeacon--The Ven. HENRY WILLIAMS, Paihia.
The Waimate--Rev. R. BURROWS. Kaikohe--Rev. R. DAVIS.
Kaitaia--Rev. J. MATTHEWS.


Archdeacon--The Ven. ALFRED NESBIT BROWN, Tauranga.
Tauranga--Rev. C. P. DAVIES. Rotorua--Rev. T. CHAPMAN.


Archdeacon--The Ven. WILLIAM WILLIAMS, Turanga.
Rangitukia--Rev. C. L. REAY, M.A. The Wairoa--Rev. J. HAMLIN.

Ahuriri--Rev. W. COLENSO.


Archdeacon--(Not appointed.)


Wellington--Rev. R. COLE, M.A. Waikanae--
Whanganui--Rev. R. TAYLOR, M.A. Taranaki--Rev. W. BOLLAND, B.C.L.
Nelson--Rev. H. GOVETT. Rev. H. BUTT.

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St. John's College, New Zealand.


1 Thess. iv. 11. "That ye study to be quiet, and to do your own business, and to work with your own hands, as we commanded you."

2 Thess. iii. 8. "Neither did we eat any man's bread for nought, but wrought with labour and travail night and day, that we might not be chargeable to any of you: not because we have not power, but to make ourselves an example unto you to follow us. For even when we were with you, this we commanded you, that if any would not work, neither should he eat. For we hear that there are some which walk among you disorderly, working not at all, but are busy bodies. Now them that are such we command and exhort by our Lord Jesus Christ, that with quietness they work, and eat their own bread."

1 Thess. ii. 9. "Ye remember, brethren, our labour and travail: for labouring night and day, because we would not be chargeable unto any of you, we preached unto you the gospel of God."

1 Cor. iv. 11, 12. "Even unto this present hour we labour, working with our own hands."

Acts XX. 34, 35. "Yea, ye yourselves know, that these hands have ministered unto my necessities, and to them that were with me. I have showed you all things, how that so labouring ye ought to support the weak, and to

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remember the words of the Lord Jesus, how he said, It is more blessed to give than to receive."

Acts xviii. 3. "Because he was of the same craft, he abode with them and wrought: for by their occupation they were tentmakers."

The general condition upon which all students and scholars are received into St. John's College, is, that they shall employ a definite portion of their time in some useful occupation in aid of the purposes of the institution. The hours of study and of all other employments will be fixed by the Visitor and Tutors. No member of the body is at liberty to consider any portion of his time as his own, except such intervals of relaxation as are allowed by the rules of the College.

In reminding the members of St. John's College of the original condition upon which they were admitted, the Visitor feels it to be his duty to lay before them some of the reasons which now, more than ever, oblige him to require a strict and zealous fulfilment of this obligation.

The Foundation of St. John's College was designed--1. As a place of religious and useful education for all classes of the community, and especially for candidates for Holy Orders. 2. As a temporary hostelry for young settlers on their first arrival in the country. 3. As a refuge for the sick, the aged, and the poor. The expenses of those branches of the Institution which are now open already exceed the means available for their support; and a further extension will be necessary to complete the system. The state of the colony has made it necessary to receive a larger number of foundation scholars than was at first intended. The general desire of the Maori people for instruction will require enlargement of the Native Schools for children and adults. The rapid in-

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crease of the half-caste population in places remote from all the means of instruction must be provided for by a separate school for their benefit. The care of the sick of both races, and the relief of the poor, will throw a large and increasing charge upon the funds of the College.

The only regular provision for the support of the Institution is an annual grant of 300l. for the maintenance of Students, from the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. It is the intention of the Visitor and Tutor to devote the whole of their available income to the general purposes of the College; but as the sources from which the greater portion of their funds is derived are precarious, and as this supply must cease with their lives, it is the bounden duty of every one to bear always in mind, that the only real endowment of St. John's College is the industry and self-denial of all its members.

Even if industry were not in itself honourable, the purposes of the Institution would be enough to hallow every useful art and manual labour by which its resources might be augmented. No rule of life can be so suitable to the character of a Missionary College as that laid down by the great Apostle of the Gentiles, and recommended by his practice: "Let him labour, working with his own hands the thing which is good, that he may have to give to him that needeth."

It will therefore be sufficient to state once for all, that any unwillingness hi a theological student to follow the rule and practice of St. Paul, will be considered as a proof of his unfitness for the ministry; and that incorrigible idleness or vicious habits in any student or scholar will lead to his dismissal from the College.

The Visitor desires to impress upon the minds of all the Members of St. John's College, that it is the motive which sanctifies the work; and to urge them to carry into the most minute detail of their customary occupations the one living principle of faith, without which no work of man can

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be good or acceptable in the sight of God; and to endeavour earnestly to discharge every duty of life, as part of a vast system, ordained by Christ himself, "from whom," St. Paul teaches us, "the whole body fitly joined together and compacted by that which every joint supplieth, according to the effectual working in the measure of every part, maketh increase of the body unto the edifying of itself in love." (Eph. iv. 16.)

Young men coming out to settle in this country will be allowed to reside in the College for a limited time, provided that they bring a personal and satisfactory recommendation to the Bishop. They will be required to conform strictly to the regulations.

The expense of tuition, commons, and attendance, does not exceed 30l. per annum.

There are four Scholarships in the gift of the Visitor, open to such Students as are unable, without assistance, to defray the expenses of their college residence; viz.--

The Whytehead Scholarship, endowed by a legacy of 681l. 3 1/2 per cent. Reduced Bank Annuities, bequeathed by the late Rev. Thomas Whytehead, M.A., Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge, and Chaplain to the first Bishop of New Zealand.

The Meyrick Scholarship, endowed by Edward Meyrick, Esq., of Park-street, Windsor, with the sum of 300l., already invested; and with a further sum of 300l., the interest of which is retained by the founder during his life.

The Lady Margaret Scholarship, the election to which will take place in England, has been founded by the Fellows and other Members of St. John's College, Cambridge, with an endowment amounting to 700l.

The Marsh Scholarship, endowed with 500l., and two allotments of land in the suburbs of Auckland, to be given, caeteris paribus, to the children of Missionaries and Candidates for Holy Orders.

The late Henry Appleyard, Esq. bequeathed by his will

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500l. to be employed for the benefit of St. John's College, at the discretion of the Bishop of New Zealand.

The following Students have been ordained by the Bishop of New Zealand, and appointed to the offices subjoined to their names:--

RICHARD DAVIS, ordained on Trinity Sunday, June 11th, 1843, to be Deacon for the District of Kaikohe.

WILLIAM BOLLAND, ordained Deacon on Sunday, September 24th, 1843, and Priest on Sunday, September 21st, 1845, for the District of Taranaki.

HENRY FRANCIS BUTT, ordained on Sunday, September 24th, 1843, to be resident Deacon and Inspector of Schools in the District of Nelson.

THOMAS CHAPMAN, ordained on Sunday, September 22d, 1844, to be Deacon for the District of Rotorua.

JAMES HAMLIN, ordained on Sunday, September 22d, 1844, to be Deacon for the District of the Wairoa.

JOSEPH MATTHEWS, ordained on Sunday, September 22d, 1844, to be resident Deacon and Inspector of Schools under the Archdeacon of the Waimate.

CHRISTOPHER PEARSON DAVIES, ordained on Sunday, September 22d, 1844, to be resident Deacon and Inspector of Schools under the Archdeacon of Tauranga.

WILLIAM COLENSO, ordained on Sunday, September 22d, 1844, to be Deacon for the District of Ahuriri.

HENRY GOVETT, ordained on Trinity Sunday, May 18th, 1845, to be resident Deacon and Inspector of Schools in the District of Waikanae.

SAMUEL WILLIAMS, ordained on Sunday, September 20th, 1846, to be resident Deacon and Inspector of Native Schools at St. John's College.

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New Zealand Itinerary.


AUCKLAND to-- Miles. Descriptions of Journey.
Onehunga 6 Open cart road.
Cross Manukau Harbour to Orua 10 Dangerous.
Waikato River (Boat) 30 Good beach.
Whangaroa River (Boat) 35 Open and hilly.
Aotea Harbour (Boat) 18 Woody; open.
Kawhia Boat 5 Open.
Tapirimoko 25 Wood; beach; cliff.
Mokau (Boat) 25 Good beach at low water.
Waitera River (Boat) 35 Cliffs; beach at low water.
New Plymouth 10 Open cart road.
Mokotuna 20 Beach; stones; grass.
Otumatua 30 Open; grass; sand.
Waimate 18 Beach at low water; stones.
Patea River (Boat) 26 Beach; stones; sandhill.
Wai Totara 16 Tide beach; sandhills.
Whanganui River, M. S. (Boat) 18 Ditto; good beach.
Whangaihu River (Ford) 9 Sand; beach.
Turakina River (Ford) 3 Ditto.
Rangatiki River (Ford) 17 Ditto.
Manawatu River (Ford) 13 Ditto.
Otaki River, Mission Station (Ford) 20 Ditto.
Waikanae, Mission Station 10 Ditto.
Porirua 24 Sand; wood.

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AUCKLAND to-- Miles. Descriptions of Journey.
Kaweranga, Mission Station 40 By sea.
Land at Te Rua Kowhawhe 50 River Thames. (Waiho.)
Matamata 21 Plain; swamp.
Te Toa, Patatere 26 Plain; rivers.
Rotorua Lake 27 20 m. wood; 7 m. open.
Cross Lake, to Te Ngae, Miss. Sta. 6 Boat.
Tarawera Lake 10 Hill; open; lake.
Rotomahana Lake and Hot Springs 10 8 m. lake; 2 m. plain.
North end of Taupo Lake 34 Hills; plain; deep streams.
South end of Taupo Lake. Te Rapa 25 Lake; by land, 35 m.
Makokomiko, on Whanganui R. 42 Open; woody; deep fords.
Mouth of Whanganui, Miss. Sta. 150 River; rapids.



Kaweranga 40 By sea.
Opita--Sacred Creek 30 River Thames (Waiho.)  
Katikati 25 Open.
Te Papa--Tauranga, Miss. Station 20 Boat, along Tauranga Bay.
Maketu 15 1 m. boat, 1 m. plain, 13 beach.
Otamarora 19 Deep rivers; beach.
Wakatane 14 Hills; beach; deep rivers.
Opotiki, Mission Station 20 Beach.
Turanga--Poverty Bay, M. Stat. 90 Hills; beach; no villages.
Nuhaka 38 Hills; wood.
Wairoa River, Mission Station 20 Beach.
Waikare River 31 Beach; cliffs.
Arapaoanui 15 Steep hills.
Ahuriri, Mission Station 24 23 miles land, 1 mile water.
OPOTIKI to-- Miles.
Tunupahore 16
Te Kaha 18
Whangaparaoa 21
Te Kawakawa, Miss. Stat. 33
Rangitukia, Mission Station 20
Waipiro 20
Uawa, Mission Station 21
Pakarae 16

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AUCKLAND to-- Miles. Description of Journey.
Patangata 21 Plain; deep river.
Rotoatara Lake 10 Open; downs.
Rua Taniwha Plain 22 Open; grass plain.
Manawatu River 22 Long wood; plains.
Te Rewarewa 70 Course of Manawatu River.
Mouth of Manuwatu 9 Sandhills.


AUCKLAND to--    
Mangatawiri Creek, on Waikato 45 Open; wood.
Pepepe, Mission Station 35 Course of Waikato, rapid.
Puehunui 37 Course of Waipa, still.
Otawhao, Mission Station 10 Open; fern.
Rangitoto 25  
Tutakamoana 28 Open hill; plain.
Waihoura, on Taupo Lake 8 Open hills.
Pukawa 12 Lake.
Matahanea, on Whanganui River. 26 15 miles open, 11 miles wood.
Mouth of Whanganui River 150 Course of Whanganui, rapid.


AUCKLAND to--    
St. John's College 6  
Papakura, native village 15 Plain; cart road.
Tuimata 10 Fern hills.
Tuakau 10 Fern hills and woods.
Tukupoto, M. S. 45 Up Waikato river.
Puehunui 37 Course of Waipa river.
Arowhenua 25 Open.
Tuaropaki 28 Open hills and plain.
Tutakamoana 12 Ditto.
Pakaunui 18 Ditto.
Pukawa, on Taupo Lake 10 Ditto.
Tauranga River, on Taupo Lake 12 Lake.
Tangoio; Hawke's Bay? 60 Hills; woods.
Ahuriri; Mission Station 17 Beach; harbour; beach.
Waimarama 19 Sand; ridge; sand.
Manawarakau 13 Ditto.

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AUCKLAND to-- Miles. Description of Journey.
Porangahau 30 Stones; sand; stones.
Pakuku 18 Fern hills; swamp; grass.
Mataikona 20 Stone; fern; sand.
Rangiwhakaoma 15 Sand.
Leave Beach    
Whareama 6 Steep bare hills and valleys.
Kaikokirikiri 30 Woods; hills; grass plain.
Hurinui o rangi 9 Short woods and plain.
Ahieruhe 4 Grass plain.
Huangarua River 8 Ditto.
Otaraea 9 Ditto.
Tauanui 7 Ditto.
Mouth of Lagoon 8 Ditto.
Parangahau 21 Stony beach.
Petoni 12 Ditto.


AUCKLAND to--    
Rotorua Lake 164 See No. II.
Ohinemutu 6 Lake.
Rotokakahi Lake 8 Grass hills and wood.
Ohaki; hot springs 25 Dry hills; plain.
Te Takapau 5 Dry plain. Waikato.
Taupo Lake, north end 11 Ditto.


AUCKLAND to--    
Ngunguru river 14 Open hills; beaches.
Whangararu Hoarbour--Owae 35  
Waikare River, Bay of Islands 22 16 miles water, 6 miles land.
Paihia, 1 Mission Station 10 Course of Waikare River.
The Kerikeri, 2 Mission Station 16 Cross the Bay of Islands
Whangaroa, Mission Station 25 Open; hills.
Mangonui 16 4 miles water, 12 miles land.
Taipa River, [Oruru] 5 Open.
Kaitaia 17 Ditto.
1   Paihia to the Waimate, 15 miles.
2   The Kerikeri to the Waimate, 10 miles.

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AUCKLAND to-- Miles. Description of Journey.
Head of Waitemata River 14 Tideway.
Head of Kaipara River 15 Open; hills.
Mouth of Kaipara River 40 Tideway of Kaipara River.
Te Otahi, Wesleyan Miss. Station 80 Tideway of Wairoa River.
Mangungu, 3 Wesl. Miss. Stat. [?] 70 River; wood.
Mangamuka 15 Tideway of Mangamuka River.
Kaitaia 25 14m. wooded ridge, 11m. plain.
3   Mangungu to the Waimate, 20 miles.


AUCKLAND to--    
Waikouaiti 842  
Otakou 17 Steep hills.
Taiari, Whaling Station 30  
Molyneux Harbour. Matau River 18  
Tautuku, Whaling Station 18  
Awarua, The Bluff, Whaling St 57 Flat; beach.
New River 6 Ditto.
Aparima, Jacob's River, Whal. St. 12 Beach.
Whakaputaputa 6 Ditto.


AUCKLAND to--    
Awarua; the Bluff 982  
Ruapuke 12 Foveaux Straits.
Stewart's Island, The Neck, Paterson's River 8 By sea.
Half-Moon Bay 2  
Horse-Shoe Bay 2  
Port William 2  
Murray River 4  
Saddle Point 6  
Raggedy Point 11  
Codfish; Passage Island 3  

The land distances In the above Itinerary were chiefly measured by Payne's Pedometer; but as that instrument is liable to errors on hilly and broken ground, the measurements cannot be entirely depended upon.

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NAME. USES. Stiffness. Strength. Toughness.
Leiospermum racemosum.
All purposes to which mahogany is applied. 93 96 99
Podocarpus spicata (1)
Cabinet work and musical instruments 73 67 61
Hartighsia spectabilis
Furniture and fancy work, for which cedar is used 81 72 60
Podocarpus Totarra (2)
All works exposed to water, or under the ground, and for panel-work of houses 49 61 57
Metrosideros robusta
All purposes to which oak and beech are applied 89 103 38
Vitex littoralis (3)
Piles under water or ground; also ground-plates, sleepers, posts, &c. where durability is required. Same qualities as English oak 100 100 100
  N.B.--Puriri, being equal to the English oak in stiffness, strength, and toughness, has been made the standard of comparison.      
Metrosideros buxifolia
Very hard and heavy, fit for cabinet work -- -- --
Leptospermum scoparium (4)
Turning, carving, &c. -- -- --
Avicennia tomentosa?
Agricultural implements, oars, and all the uses of ash 89 119 160
Dammara australis
Scantling, plank, ship spars, &c. 90 99 102

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NAME. USES. Stiffness. Strength. Toughness.
Phyllocladus trichomanoides (5)
Spars of small vessels; outside work 98 103 134
Podocarpus ferruginea (6)
Uses similar to Tanekaha -- -- --
Pittosporum tenuifolium.
Chair making and carpenters' tools 78 92 103
Knightia excelsa (7)
Axe-handles, wheel-spokes, small cabinet work. 54 60 85
Metrosideros tomentosa (8)
Timbers of ships, and all work in which curved timber is required. 126 109 94
Metrosideros florida
Cabinet work, in which satinwood is used. -- -- --
Dacrydium cupressinum (9)
All building purposes. 90 81 95
Eugenia Maire
Two varieties, white and dark; white, good for sheaves, cogs, &c.; the dark for cabinet work -- -- --
Edwardsia microphylla
Cabinet work, instead of rosewood -- -- --
Laurus Tarairi (10)
All uses to which cedar is applied -- -- --
Rohutu. Chair and cabinet making -- -- --
Dacrydium excelsum (11)
Inside building work; packing cases 54 68 85


Phyllocladus trichomanoides
Yields a black or brown dye from the wood and bark.
Eleocarpus Hinau (12)
Yields a black dye from wood and bark.
Coriaria sarmentosa (13)
Gualtheria antipoda
A blue black dye from wood and bark.
Friesia racemosa
Entelea arborscens
A blue dye from wood and bark.

Alluded to in the foregoing pages.

Corynocarpus laevigata(14)
See ante, page 94.
Laurus Tawa (15)
See ante, page 52.

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I.--FLAX scraped with the nail only (Tihore).
1. Paritanewha, found chiefly at Maungatautari.
2. Ratawa found chiefly at Hauraki.
3. Kohunga found chiefly at Maungatautari.
4. Rerehape found chiefly at Maungatautari.
5. Oue found chiefly at Maungatautari.

II.--FLAX scraped with the shell (Haro).

1. Raumoa, found chiefly at Taranaki.
2. Ate found chiefly at Hauraki.
3. Common swamp flax, found in all parts.

III.--Coarser kinds, used only for rough garments and floor-mats.

1. Aonga, variegated flax.
2. Whararipi.

I. All the varieties of flax of the first class must be planted. They require rich, moist, and flat land, but not swampy, and should be planted in rows, six feet apart, with spaces of six feet between the plants. The ground must be kept clear of weeds. The best season for planting is April or May. The plants will be fit to cut in two years, and will yield a crop every year afterwards. The flax requires only to be rent with the hand and nails, without scraping, and is prepared with the greatest ease.

II. The more common species of flax requires to be scraped with a shell, then steeped in water for four days, afterwards taken out and beaten to clear it of the refuse, and then dried again and scraped a second time.

III. The third class Is of no value for European manufacture.


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(1) Podocarpus spicata.--This Pine resembles the English Yew In the form of its leaf; the fruit is a black berry, about the size of a wild cherry, sweet, and rather slimy in its taste.

(2) Podocarpus Totarra.--This Pine is regarded with great esteem by the natives; whilst growing, and when it has acquired sufficient magnitude, it is felled to construct canoes, its lightness, toughness, and durability, giving it a higher value than even Kauri itself. The Totarra is a red Pine, of stately erect growth, from 20 to 60 feet in height to the branches, and hence furnishing excellent spars. The value placed by the natives on this Pine, the trunk of which varies in circumference from 6 to 18 feet, is sometimes the occasion of quarrels, if cut down by any excepting the party by whom it is claimed; for which reason a small mark is placed on the tree, in order that it may be known to whom it belongs: it is then suffered to remain until it has acquired a sufficient bulk for use, so that it is not unusual for a Totarra to descend from the father to the son.

(3) Vitex littoralis (Puriri).--This tree, from its hardness and durability, has been denominated the New Zealand Oak. The wood is of a dark brown colour, close in the grain, and takes a good polish: it splits freely, and works well, and does not injure from exposure to damp, twenty years' experience having proved that in that time it will not rot, though in a wet soil under the ground. For ship building, it is (like the Teak, which belongs to the same Order,) a most valuable wood; for the injury which it has received from being perforated in various places by a large grub, peculiar to the tree, does not essentially diminish its worth for the timbers of ships, or for the knees of boats. It grows from 15 to 20 feet without a branch, and varies from 12 to 20 feet in circumference.

(4) Leptospermum scoparium.--A stunted tree, flourishing in barren clayey soils, and producing a very hard red wood, sometimes used by the natives for the corner-posts of their larger fences. The perfume which the blossoms exhale is very fragrant. The leaves of this shrub are a very common substitute for tea. It produces also a saccharine substance, like manna, called Pia and Tohika, which is eaten.

(5) Phyllocladus trichomanoides.--A tree of straight tapering growth, occasionally obtaining the height of 60 feet, seldom however exceeding a diameter of three feet. The wood is a shade darker than the Dammara, or Kauri: it has a closer grain, smells strongly of turpentine, and, being less affected with wet than any other pine, is regarded as an exceedingly valuable wood. It is used for all kinds of outside work, such as posts and floors for verandas, and is much sought after for the decks of vessels. Its bark is used by the natives for dyeing a red colour, which is prepared by them in the following way:--"The bark," says Mr. Bennett, "is pounded and then placed In a vessel of cold water, into which hot stones are placed until the water boils, this being the native mode of heating water, since, having no knowledge of pottery, they have no vessels which can be placed on the fire. After the bark has been boiled for some hours,

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the decoction becomes of a dark red colour, it is then left to cool, when it is strained, and ready for use."

(6) Podocarpus ferruginea.--A tree, growing from forty to sixty feet high, but never arriving at a larger circumference than twelve feet. It produces a brittle, close-grained, durable wood, of a red colour; planes up smoothly, and appears capable of receiving a high polish. It is, however, too brittle for the cabinet-maker, or it would not be a bad substitute for mahogany. The fruit is about the size of a small plum, rather flattened, in colour not unlike the yew-berry: the flavour is rather bitter, but very aromatic, resembling that of the nutmeg. It is the favourite food of the kereru, or wood-pigeon.

(7) Knightia excelsa. (Rewarewa.)--The wood of this tree is beautifully variegated, being mottled with red, upon a ground of light brown; it is, therefore, well adapted for making articles of elegant furniture. Nevertheless, as it spills with freedom, it is far more frequently employed for paling-fence; but shingles for roofing, made of it, have been found to warp readily with the sun.

(8) Metrosideros tomentosa.--An ordinary-sized tree, inhabiting usually the immediate sea shore, where it is readily distinguished among other plants by the brilliancy and abundance of its crimson flowers, with which are often mingled those of the Loranthus tetrapetalus, a parasitical plant, which attaches itself to the tree. The wood of this tree is exceedingly hard, close-grained, and heavy, and is equally valuable for ship-building, and in the manufacture of implements of husbandry. It usually enlivens the shores of the northern island with its blossoms in December. See ante, page 49.

(9) Dacrydium cupressinum.--A noble tree, and by far the most beautiful of the New Zealand pines. It comes to its greatest perfection in shaded woods, and in moist, rich soils. Its topmost branches are about eighty feet from the ground, and the diameter of its trunk seldom exceeds four feet. Its foliage is remarkably graceful and beautiful, especially in its youthful days. Captain Vancouver, who met with it in abundance in the forests at Dusky Bay, cut down several of the trees to refit his vessel, and found the timber solid and close-grained, and very much resembling the Bermuda cedar. From the younger brandies, which give out a bitter resinous juice, Captain Cook, on his second visit to these islands, prepared a kind of spruce beer, which he found excellent in the scorbutic disorders with which some of his seamen were affected. Its fruit ii much prized by the natives; and the smallness of its size is compensated by its abundance. It also produces a resin, very bitter, but eatable.

(10) Laurus Tarairi.--The large leaves of this beautiful tree are extremely bitter, and may be used in the same way as Peruvian bark.

(11) Dacrydium excelsum.--A white pine, of tall, stately growth, exhibiting, oftentimes, a clear stem of 80 feet, and, with its branched head, attaining the height of 120 and 130 feet; the diameter of such trees exceeding five feet. Excepting for common canoes, in the construction of which it is employed by the natives, on account of the great length of its trunk, its wood is seldom used, being of so soft and spongy a nature as

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to rot in a few months, if exposed to the weather. The fruit of this pine is similar to that of the Rimu (Dacrydium cupressinum): its wood and resin also have the same qualities as the former. Captain Cook brewed beer from it for his men during his stay in New Zealand.

(12) Eleocarpus Hinau.--The wood of the Hinau is remarkable for its whiteness, but it is almost valueless, on account of the way in which it splits, when exposed either to wet or warmth. Its chief use is, that it makes an excellent dye, either a light brown or puce colour, or a dark black, not removable by washing. The natives use the outer skin of the bark for the purpose of dyeing the black threads of their garments. It produces a berry with a hard stone, which, though commonly eaten by the natives, has a very harsh taste.

(18) Coriaria sarmentosa.--The fruit of this shrub is produced in clusters, not unlike a bunch of grapes, of a purple colour, and of an agreeable flavour. The expressed juice of the fruit is very palatable, and is drunk by the natives, or used with their fern-root, which, when baked, is soaked in it. The Missionaries also make a wine (Tutu) from the fruit, which, in flavour, has a great resemblance to that usually prepared in England from the berries of the elder. As the natives are well aware that a very poisonous property resides in the seeds, they are careful to strain them from the juice, for if they are eaten in any quantity, violent convulsions and delirium have been brought on, and sometimes even death has been known to ensue. The wine, when boiled with Rimu, a sea-weed, forms a jelly which is very palatable. It contains so much colouring matter that it may be used as a dye.

(14) Corynocarpus laevigata.--This beautiful laurel produces a fruit about twice the size of a large acorn: it is of an orange colour, having somewhat the flavour of the apricot, but by far too strong to be agreeable: the kernel is as large as an acorn, but until it has been cooked and steeped in a running stream for a fortnight, it is very poisonous; but after it has undergone this process, it is much prized as an article of food by the natives.

(15) Laurus Tawa.--The fruit of this tree has somewhat the appearance of a wine-sour plum: it is very sweet, with a slight flavour of turpentine: the kernel when cooked is also eaten: the bark when infused furnishes the traveller with a wholesome as well as a grateful beverage, which does not require the addition of sugar.


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Letter from the Bishop of New Zealand to the Subscribers to the Fund collected in aid of the Diocese of New Zealand.

"St. John's College, Bishop's Auckland,
6th October, 1846.


"YOU will not, I hope, have thought me ungrateful for your zeal in behalf of the Church in New Zealand, because I have delayed so long to express my sense of your kindness. The duty laid upon me by the liberality of my numerous friends, of founding and organizing various useful Institutions, added to the necessity, which has hitherto recurred every year, of visiting the distant parts of my diocese, has left me little time to revise the account of the large debt of gratitude which I owe to those dear friends in England, who have contributed to place us in the position which we now occupy. The prospect of a year of residence in my own district encourages me to hope, that I shall he able to give a more detailed account of the mode in which your contributions have been applied: at present it may be sufficient to assure you, that, under the blessing of Divine Providence, we have hitherto prospered beyond our utmost expectations; and that nothing more effectually awakens in us the feeling of gratitude to our friends and contributors at home, than the hopeful state of the Institutions which their benevolence has enabled us to found. We have now more than 130 persons in connexion with the College, contained in the Theological College, in the English Boys' School, in the Native Adult School, and in the Native Boys' School. The Hospital is on the point of being completed, and the new

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buildings for the Native Department commenced forthwith. Before the end of the summer we hope to be concentrated on the site of the College. At present the Native Department is in temporary buildings, distant about a mile from the College. The College Estate is being brought rapidly into cultivation by the labour of all the students and scholars, according to their powers and ages; and every increase, thus procured, in the means of maintenance, will lead to an extension of the numbers admitted into the various institutions. The subscribers, therefore, to our fund may have the satisfaction of knowing that, if it should please God to continue to prosper our work, every subscription which we receive will be likely to produce a still greater amount of benefit, by developing more and more the internal resources of the institution itself.

"To my warmest thanks for your timely liberality, I may be allowed to add the expression of such sentiments of personal affection as the names of most of the subscribers must excite in my mind, from recollection of the time when 'we took sweet counsel together, and walked in the house of God as friends.' In offering to all, such a blessing as I am privileged to bestow, may I beg of you that further aid which is needed to make that blessing more effectual, that, as you have given me of your alms, so you will not withhold from me the benefit of your prayers; and may He, in whose name all offerings are made, so bless you, that your prayers and your alms may go up together as a memorial before God.

"Believe me to be, my Christian Friends,
"Your truly grateful and affectionate Friend,

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No. 2.

The Bishop writes thus, under date October 13th, 1846:--

"We have now passed through a winter of hard work, and are beginning to be much more settled; our distant work in importing materials being nearly at an end, and the prospect before us being now the more pleasant employment of bringing our own domain into a productive state, and thereby extending the number of our scholars. At present, by the doubling of all prices by the war, I find that I am living beyond my income, even with the present establishment, which is not near enough to make an impression upon the people. We must have seven Schools of 100 each, which will give about one soul for every acre of the College Estate. The whole College plan is this:--

  The Bishop.
  1 or more Chaplains.
7 Deacons: 1 Native Adult School.
" " " 1 Native Boys' School.
" " " 1 Primary English School.
" " " 1 Lower Collegiate School.
  1 Hospital.
  1 Bursar.

"The Deacons to have Sunday duties in Chapels in the surrounding district, which will soon be oikoumeni kata komas [Greek] sufficiently to keep them all in full employment. All this I believe may be done by prudence and industry; and about half of the scheme is already in operation. Knowing the exigencies of the Church in other places, we shall take care to be as little exactious as possible in our demands upon England, being more willing to dig than to beg; still I must say, that a sturdy spirit of independence, which we encourage in moderation, does not prevent us from accepting, most thankfully and shamelessly, the offerings of our friends."

R. Clay, Printer Bread Street Hill.

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