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ASSAULT ON KINGI -- 11TH SEPT., 1860.
(Air) "The young Crusader." -
O'er Waitara's broad and lovely plains, all clad with verdant green,
The British trump' of war is heard, and British troops are seen,
With firm step advancing quick, upon the rebel foe,
While the sun shoots down his brightest beams, to gladden all below.
Like wolves into their covert lair, to the bush the rebels fly, --
Too well they know that on the plains, to meet us is to die.
To the forest verge we follow them, led by our General brave.
Oh! let them show us fight, to-day--'tis all, 'tis all we crave.
Now from the British forces bold, loud sounds of cannon rise,
And quick as Heaven's lightning-flash, the fiery rocket flies!
The shells burst forth like thunder-peals, and spread destruction wide,
While fierce consuming flames arise, from pahs on every side.
Now from the wood-clad hills on high, now from some ravine deep,
The flash of Maori musquetry, through smoke is seen to peep;
But the rebel hands that fire them shake, with paralyzing fear, --
'Tis hard to take a steady aim at Britons though they're near.
Again the roar of cannon loud, is shaking earth and skies,
And with unceasing random shot, the Maori still replies,
Protected by his giant trees, he thinks (in vain), to vie,
With all the force of Britain's pow'r--and has boldness to defy.
The storm of war now rages wild, our hearts are bounding high,
For vengeance on the rebel tribes, and victory seems nigh,
But though the sword is lifted up, we're made withold the blow,
And from the glorious battle-field, reluctantly we go.
Then proudly wave the British flag, throughout New Zealand's coast, --
United let us round it stand, and vie who loves it most,
We have soldiers and militia bold, brave tars and Volunteers,
Who would bear that flag to Kingi's pah, and hoist it with three cheers!
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Between the Waikato river and the Manukau Harbour there is a portage of about a mile in length, over which for some years the natives had been in the habit of carrying their cargoes of wheat and flax, and of dragging their canoes--a simple process, requiring but little capital, but a good stock of back and patience, both of which the natives are possessed of.
It was thought that by the expenditure of a little money, which the Province might well afford, a canal of a couple of miles in length might be made to allow of the passage for the canoes, and three gentlemen were appointed to examine the swamp and report about the canal.
They were called "The Scientific Commission."
They looked at the swamp, and did not like it.
That it would never do for a canal, was as clear as mud in a wine glass.
They objected to sink floating capital in a canal.
It would incur a debt too heavy to be liquidated, so they threw cold water upon it altogether.
They had been sent to reserve a canal--and they reserved two railroads.
Mr. Ormsby said they were rather too fast.
He tried trigonometry at the Waiuku, and the Provincial Secretary said he was too slow.
It was natural that the slow coach should be in opposition to the railroads.
The Waiuku Improvement Company said they could raise the water to fill the canal, if they could first raise the wind. Difficulties presented themselves, but subscribers did not.
While the "Scientific Commission" declared that the high water level was above the swamps, "a Surveyor" declared that whatever that level might be, to ascertain it was above the level of their abilities. In short what with high water and swamps, and low water and canals, the "tide in the affairs of Man" --is nothing to the tide in the affairs of Manukau!
HOW THE LAND WAS SOLD IN New ZEALAND.
It was first sold in England; this is a bull, but it is true; for it was sold there before it was bought in New Zealand!
It was sold at a pound an acre, and a town lot was thrown in.
Buyers tossed for first choice;
But afterwards complained that it was on the plan of
"Heads, I win; and tails, you lose."
Evidence proved that there was more land bought in New Zealand than the Islands containe;--
The "surplus" was for the use of the Natives!
The land was abused in every possible language:--
At Wellington, it was "nothing but hills";
At Nelson, it was "nothing but swamps";
At the North, it was "rugged and wild"--
At the South, it was "poor and uncultivated":--
So they made College and Grammar School Reserves,
But did not improve the land!
The old claimants demanded titles but could not show what title they had for doing so. Government yielding to outward pressure, Commissioners were appointed to sit on the claims, and the claims were very much compressed by the process. The Commissioners made their Reports, and "report" said they were illiberal:--
"It was sold by those who never saw it,
And bought by those who never paid for it;
Those who sold it had been bought over.
And those who bought it were 'sold.'
It had been bought by Agents for "the Company" purposes,
It had been bought by whalers, in order to etch whales!
It was sold at the Bay of Islands
For a fig of tobacco!
For a musket!
For a cask of gunpowder!"
So the Commissioners awarded to each claimant 2,560 acres; and the claimants wouldn't take it.
HOW THE LAND WAS SOLD IN AUCKLAND.
The Colonial Minister ordered that "the supply should exceed the demand." Now, the Government had got only a little surveyed, so, in order to comply, they demanded a very high price for the little they were able to supply. But, strange enough! the people paid it, and, like Oliver, "wanted more."
It was sold in large lots.
It was sold in small lots,
It was sold in town lots.
It was sold "in lots to suit purchasers."
It was granted to miners at Kawau; it was granted to majors in the army; to pensioners who had fought in India; to private soldiers who had fought anywhere; but not to those who had fought in New Zealand!
It was sold for £100 an acre,
It was sold for a penny an acre,
It was sold for a pound an acre,
It was sold for 3d. and a pint of beer.
Its history might be described alphabetically: A, was an allotment; B, bid for it; C. conveyed it; D, divided it; F., entered a protest against it; G, got quit of it; his successor H, "hook'd it"'--for I, imposed taxes on it; K, kept out of it; L, legislated for it; while "M," mortgaged it, &c, &c.
At Wellington, all this while, the poor land was abused up hill and down dale; until the volcanic soil had good grounds for action; so, being of a hot nature, it turned over a few houses, without giving "notice of motion," and smashed the Bank, where all the land titles were held in security. As the chimneys fell, the price of land fell, for titles were all adrift; so the Legislative Council met on its Standing Orders, and passed a Quieting Titles Bill--which the claimants considered exceedingly unsatisfactory.
After this there was very little land in the market; so having locked up what there was, people turned their attention to its management.
Pasturage regulations were made about it,
Mining regulations were made about it;
Old regulations were made about it;
New regulations were made about it;
Until, at last, after being sufficiently locked up. Sir George Grey let it out again, and the door was opened to speculators:--
"Land at 10s. an acre, with the roads thrown in! Bring your own Surveyors!" was announced, and every one rushed to buy land.
They bought swamps; they bought mud flats;
They bought a fern hill, and called it "Warkworth."
They had Alma-street and Inkernann-street, Raglan-street and Wyndham-street.
Sailors bought inland; and land-sharks bought the water frontages!
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THE NEW ZEALAND LAND QUESTION,
Epitomized by " Vox."
How They Surveyed the Land in New Zealand.
First, they surveyed Auckland on board ship!
With a pair of compases the then Surveyor General drew out Quadrants and Crescents, and "Vheels vithin vheels, Sammy!" which, on landing, he tried to adapt to the ground. But the ground was rugged, and "Nohow"; and had not a mathematical turn; so the Quadrant was turned inside-out; and the Crescent was on too great an incline, yet not at all inclined to look symetrical. The early Newspapers abused this Crescent, and between the Crescent and the "Cross" the first Surveyor General had no peace.
The Colonial Minister next tried his hand at surveying; and got an Engineer Captain to engage two wood-men, with Bill-hooks, who went to work at six one fine morning, in the "New Forest" to see how long a line they could cut before six at night, while their chiefs went to work to cut up and clear away an amazing quantity of "Venison" and champagne.
Both the Bill-hooks and the bill were charged to the account of the Colony, and some calculations were made which showed clearly that the whole of New Zealand could be surveyed and nicely laid out in about two years.
After cutting down the scrub in the new Forest, the Colonial Minister proceeded to cut down the Colonial expenses--a very scrubby proceeding--and ordered a Chess-board system of survey, cutting the land into square lots of 640 acres, with their halves and quarters. The roads run between the squares, and were all at right angles, running from places no one ever left, through swamps, straight to places no one ever arrived at. The land at the East Tamaki and Pukaki was laid out in this way and remained unsold until surveyed over again in 1850, when it was at once bought up and cultivated.
When Sir George Grey's Regulations came into operation, any one who selected in an out of the way situation might privately get the land surveyed. Thomas, Richard, and Henry, (I dislike nicknames,) were employed, and cut up the land to the best of their ability: but their employers were dissatisfied, and cut up the Survey Staff from the Chief to the Chainman. One claimant was exceedingly affronted about his frontage, and another, whose choice fell on a Reserve, was neither choice or Reserve when speaking about it.
But with all their disadvantages these Regulations were very much suited to the character of the country, and its requirements, on so extended a coast-line, where round every point there is a boat harbour or shipping anchorage, with yet, perhaps, but an inconsiderable extent of good land behind, any large system of Government Survey is most likely to be behind the wants of a continually increasing and enterprising population.
By the system of private survey and immediate possession, each new-comer obtains the spot most suited to his views, as that which he thinks is so, and works on it with twice the energy he would if compelled to select from a narrower field. Mill-sites also, and spots most suited to ship-building are obtained with facility. Trading and sawing stations are legally obtained by those who would otherwise be but squatters.
It was the nearest approach to Free trade in Land!
Now land-selling being no body's business in particular, every one has a crotchet on the subject, every one says "open up the land," and denounces all plans but his own as the very means of shutting it up. One party says "Working Settler's Land wo'nt work," and that Special Occupation lots are not occupied. The other party thinks when a Land Commissioner proposes the yearly payment of interest, that he has interested motives. And the other Commissioner, who explains a system of credit, gets no credit for his system!
Why not have free trade in laud, as in corn?
Fancy there being "Working Settlers corn" or
Special Occupation Beef.
Beer for small-holders, or
A particular kind of milk for those who have paid their own passages!
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THE VOLUNTEER AND MILITIA OFFICERS.
[OUR readers will remember that allusion was made to an unfortunate dispute between the officers and privates of these corps. The following explanation has been sent to us by one upon whose word we can rely.]
On Thursday eighty men of the militia and volunteers were warned to go on an expedition against the Maoris at Matarikoriko; but it was understood that this was not a general order, as the General said, with justice, that the settlers had lost enough already in lives and property, and he had plenty of troops now; but if any of the settlers liked to volunteer to go they might; but if he took them out to the field he should have to leave soldiers in their place.
Instead of any of the officers saying anything to the men about it (which of course would have been beneath them, as they seem to think them mere machines or ladders on which they may mount to fame and profit) they went and informed the General that eighty men wished to go; and accordingly they detailed that number for it, who are the same men that have been out on every expedition in which militia and volunteers have been engaged. Great dissatisfaction prevailed everywhere on account of the contemptuous manner in which they had been treated, and ther greater number said that, come what would, they would not go. Accordingly at bugle call on Friday morning only fort-seven of the maen appeared, and on the Sergeant asking the Captain whether he should send for the rest of the men, the Captain said, 'No, let them go to ------' The Colonel coming up shortly after and seeing that they had not all assembled, said, 'Is your number correct?' To which the Major replied that it was the men's wish to go, and he could not understand why they were not there. He might have understood had he, and others like him, behaved to the men as if they were Englishmen. However, the Colonel, guessing perhaps how things really stood, dismissed them all, which made the officers to rage.
During the day the men who had not appeared on parade in the morning were summoned to attend at the Militia Office to give a reason why they did not do so, which was merly a form, as no one was [...]
Another inducement taken from [?] that all arms or plunder have to [?] collected by men appointed for the purpose and none of which ever comes to the [?] share. Besides all this the field [?] taken away, and it is reduced to fifteen [?] a day. Under these circumstances the [?] considered their place to be in the town to protect it and their families. However they were sent to a blockhouse in the vicinity of the town, called Fort Murray, and [?] confined, and allowed to go into town once a week.
Two of the men have been imp[?] and had their hair cropped; one, b[?] it was said that he laughed when he was marched off to the blockhouse; the other (who, by the by, had saved a soldier's life by bayoneting a Maori), for refusing to come out of the guardroom, in which he was confined, to go on the expedition.
It is by such conduct that all patience has been driven out of the men of the Province, and all inducements to fighting have been taken away, because if a settler [was] to get disabled in service and is not [able] to get his living by his hands, he is immediately offered his discharge without any promise of pension or support in any way. A case of this kind occurred the other day [?] a man who was wounded int eh attack on Kihihi, by which all the muscles [?] destroyed, so that he will not be able to labor for his bread, he refused his discharge on that plea.
It becomes a serious question to any who have families, how they are to be maintained if the men be killed or wounded.
NEW ZEALAND PROVERBS.--He who is [?] in fight is apt to humble, but he who is v[igorous?] in cultivating food will die of old age.
Fuel is only sought against winter but [?] required all the day long.
We can search every corner of the ho[?] the corner of the heart we cannot.
A small man is not to be despised, [?] thought small, he may be like the tought t[?]
Passing clouds can be seen, but not [passing?] thoughts.
They who give as well as take shall pro[sper?]
If a man yawns when fishing, he will c[?] fish.-- Dr. Arthur Thomson's Story of New Zealand.
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RE-NAMING NEW ZEALAND.
[ABRIDGED FROM A PAPER BY W. H. BLYTH, CONTRIBUTED TO THE AUCKLAND INSTITUTE BY W. D. CAMPBELL.]
While on the one hand the poet exclaims, "What's in a name? the rose by any other name would smell as sweet," making but a trifle of the matter, on the other hand, an old saying, "Give a dog a bad name, and hang him," views the subject in a much more serious light, maintaining that the ill-gifting is fatal. Though the latter saying doubtless refers to a bad name in a moral sense, yet, without controversy, it is an advantage to have an euphonious name. Even genius is handicapped with a commonplace or ugly one. It is justly felt that worthy things need adequately worthy and appropriate names. Names, however, as a rule, are a matter of inheritance and accident, and so are the more easily acquiesced in, and in a case where the name, however commonplace originally, has been redeemed by a long series of illustrious deeds, one not only gets reconciled to it, but even proud to bear it. Nevertheless, in a literal sense, "A good name is as ointment poured forth."
Many suggestions have been put forth at different times for the correction of the Dutch misappellation, New Zealand, and now that the federation of the Australasian Colonies is becoming realisable, a good opportunity is offered of acquiring a more congenial name. None have more vigorously denounced the present one than the late Mr. Charles Hursthouse in his work, "New Zealand, the Britain of the South." Mr. Hursthouse says:-- "It appears to me that the name which New Zealand bears is a very mean and sorry one. No man ever did less for any country he discovered than the Dutchman Tasman did for New Zealand. He came, saw, and left it; he never even set foot on its shores. It is doubtful whether he was even the first discoverer. The name, moreover, which Tasman gave is the name of a flat little province of Holland, no more resembling New Zealand than a jelly-fish resembles a whale. Unfortunate in her name as a country, New Zealand has been equally unfortunate in the matter of the naming of the divisions of the country, New Ulster, New Munster, and New Leinster. Happily, however, these Colonial-Office-born names are gradually becoming a thing of the past, although they, in common with 'Eahino Mawe,' 'Tavai Poenamu,' 'Te Ika-a-Maui,' and the like nomenclatural jargon, still disfigure some of our maps." Mr. Hursthouse goes on to say:-- "Swan River has been changed, to West Australia, Port Philip to Victoria, Van Dieman's Land to Tasmania, Moreton Bay to Queensland. I think, then, there are substantial reasons why this re-christening process might be extended to New Zealand."
It may be interesting to enquire, Why it has been so easy a matter re-naming the Australian Colonies and yet so difficult to rename this country? It is plain we have precedents in plenty for such change. The inappropriateness of the name is as urgent an argument in this case as in that of the sister colonies. What hinders, then, the desired consummation? An answer is given, and it is hoped a satisfactory one, in this paper.
It will conduce much to the elucidation of this point to continue the comparative method shadowed out by Mr. Hursthouse, and enquire, What forces operated to bring about the change for the Australian Colonies? Have such forces been active in this country? If so, what counter current may be conjectured to have modified the impact of these influences, and secured the retention of the present name? Is the triumph of this counter current final, or is it still possible to re-name New Zealand? And, if it be yet possible, how is this end to be secured?
The only influence, other than patriotism, that secures the retention of a physicially inappropriate name is, so to apeak, the mechanical one, retention by authority, in a case where the mother country occupied the territories, or at least maintained her sovereignty over them. Were the rule to pass into other hands, that is, hands alien to the mother nationality, the names would be fated, being unable to bear up against their native inappropriateness, combined, as it would now be, with the inimical influences setting in under the new regime.
As far as the Australian Colonies are concerned, it is undoubted that this influence was most potent in changing the old Dutch names. New Holland gave place to Australia. Edel Land, Nuyts, De Witts, &c, gradually disappeared from the maps. The same influence has in the past clamoured for change of name for this country. On this head, then, the cases of these different colonies are identical, for the same all-powerful agency, still at work, seems undermining the name of the island.
In one respect, however, there seems to be less urgency here for such change than presented itself in the sister colonies. As an able article in the Auckland Weekly News pointed out, the Australias felt the necessity for veiling their antecedents, and for toning down the notoriety that clung to the early English names of the Australian Colonies (there being no prejudice against these from an alien point of view). This is doubtless the true cause provoking the farther change of name. New Zealand is on this head sans reproche. She has nothing in her past to regret in the way of respectability, having at the hands of the mother country enjoyed the advantage of the most favoured nation. But it must be remembered that New South Wales, the oldest of the penal settlements, still retains her original name, and that even the notorious Botany Bay is not interdicted. However, it may be alleged that the view advanced is sufficiently correct, and that the Australias were glad to break from the names of sorrow, and hail the names of brighter import. But, while the Australias were thus desirous to forget, a wish to remember has conserved the name New Zealand beyond its demerits, and this result, conservation, has been mainly due to the interest that has ever attached to its aboriginal people. The Maori, by his native worth, has made the name so conspicuous in the past that its expungement would almost seem as the symbol of the effacement of this most interesting of so-called savage races. Nevertheless, even such sacrifice might advantageously be made, if a really suitable but euphonious name could be substituted. This is the one desideratum, the hitherto suggested names, for the most part, being monstrosities.
The following may serve as specimens:-- Amongtst the earliest and best, perhaps, is Zealandia. But here we have no severance if the Dutch connection, and the jelly-fish objection is here as valid as in the case of New Zealand. Mr. Hursthouse, who commended this substitute, also advocated the merits of South Britain or the Britain of the South. In the form of Austral Britain it might do. Another proposed Sea Land, but this is simply the Dutch name in an English dress, and the hissing sibilant of the substitute is hardly an improvement on the softer Zealand of the foreigner. Someone else, with an ear attuned, one would suppose, to appreciate a cat concert, thought of Maoria, but Maoria and Maorians are names hardly to be desired. The late Richard Taylor favoured Australbion, but there would be the difficulty of designating the people "Australbions" or "Australbonions" or what? Dr. Haast suggested Cooksland, but there is a certain flavour about this non-euphonious name that very naturally modified the honour sought to be conferred on our country's true discoverer, Captain Cook.
Two forms of names, it will have been seen, have particularly been favoured in the naming of these Southern regions. The classical one already indicated as Australia, Tasmania, and the combinations with land, as Queensland, Southland, and Westland. The latter were peculiarly favoured by the Dutch in these seas, who, imagining that their discoveries embraced part of the Terra Australia Incognita, the fabled Southern land, gave the names Van Dieman's Land, De Witt's Land, Endraght Land, Edel Land, Nuyt's Land, &c, to the supposed portions. In choosing a name for New Zealand, it would be better perhaps to exclude the forms in land, reserving such for divisions of the country, as the principle has already been adopted to some extent, and consider only the classical candidates, some name with the termination "ia" beside those already examined. It is thought probable that New Zealand was visited earlier than the time of Tasman by the Spaniards, as there exists a remarkably correct Spanish chart of Dusky Bay of very early date, and Dusky Bay was not a place which Tasman appears to have visited. Would that the Spaniards had had the naming of this land, for they were very princes in the art! We should probably have had little cause for change or regret. It is impossible to say exactly what associations would have guided these people to a choice. Most of their names have a religious bearing, but it might be that the name their own country had once born would have commended itself-- Hesperida, the Land of the Evening, or the Setting Sun. The Greeks first gave the name to the lands they discovered to the west of them, that is, Italy. The Latins sent the name to the land to their west, Spain. Spain in turn rendered the name untenable by her discoveries of yet remoter regions to her west. Then, if it be true that from these remoter western lands she yet pushed her discoveries to that debate-able region, "Where the west is east, and the east is west," and found the true land of the evening, what better name could she have given than Hesperia? What hinders the choice now? Is it impossible to revive the old name Hesperia? In its configuration, in the axis of its mountains, its Alpine, its volcanic feature, its general trend in inverted form, there is much in our country to recall the original Hesperia, Italy.
In the event of federation becoming un fait accompli, Australia, Tasmania, and Hesperia would go well together. Despite the fact that New Zealand lies to the eastward of Australia and one and a-half degrees, or about 30 miles, on the eastward side of the Greenwich meridian, the name would hold good, as New Zealand belongs to the Western Hemisphere, as recognised by the civilisation of Europe, and is sufficiently distant from Australia to retain her individuality in the new relationship. And, then, Hesperia would be no more a misnomer in her federal connection with Australia than Australia (that is, the Great South Land) would be in her connection with Hesperia (that is, the West Land), seeing the former lies somewhat to the north of the latter, otherwise New Zealand that now is.
The apparent anomalies presented by the names would be rather an advantage than otherwise, symbolising independence with union, and pointing to the mother country (Great Britain) as the grand local point of sympathy. The Australian Colonies would be sisters, as it were, through their relationship to the mother country, Australia and Tasmania the farthest south, Hesperia (New Zealand) the farthest of her daughters west. The beauty of the name Hesperia few will dispute. The continued shiftings, as already indicated, mark the horizons of the old world discoveries. The vaster discoveries of Spain left the name in abeyance, till the possibilities of farther discoveries in the undiscovered west should haply reach the borders of the east, and it would seem, from waiting so long in abeyance the name passed from among the possessions of the earth and lived only as a memory in the world. That land of the west, emphatically the land of the setting, or evening, sun, has been found, and wondrously satisfies the Ideal of the old poets. If names should symbolise thoughts, the dream of such a land, as realised in this our country, should, one would think, from the fitness of things find expression in the revival of the old name.
Does it follow, however, that Hesperia, or, in fact, any name, will succeed in supplanting the old historic New Zealand? Who shall say? It may be that, after all is said, "The gods themselves cannot recall their gifts."