1879 - Gudgeon, T. W. Reminiscences of the War in New Zealand - [Front matter], p i-xiv

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  1879 - Gudgeon, T. W. Reminiscences of the War in New Zealand - [Front matter], p i-xiv
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Sampson, Low & Co., London
Vincent Brooks, Day & Son, Lith.

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This Work





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The best method of governing the natives of the Islands of New Zealand having been a continual source of discussion up to the present time, it would be well to consider the policy adopted by the Home Government, and the result obtained; for when Great Britain took possession of these Islands, the policy hitherto adopted by civilised nations towards savages was altered. Instead of assuming sovereignty over them, and then dealing out the benefits of civilisation, as they could comprehend and enjoy them, a treaty was made whereby they were acknowledged the lords of the soil, and on their part they agreed to sell their land as the Government required, for immigration purposes. This agreement the Maories fell into readily; the waste lands of the country were of no value to them, as they were alike unable and unwilling to cultivate more than was required for their own gardens; neither could they regard their land as hunting grounds, as the North Americans did, for no animals existed except the rat, nor bird, with the exception of the pigeon or parrot, for them to make an article of food of. The uncultivated lands of New Zealand were nothing but barren fern wastes and bush, which the natives offered, in miles to the first settlers for a blanket or a gun. But as the British Government began this policy, so would it carry it through, and

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the early settlers (the pioneers) were made to disgorge the gifts of the natives, and pay a fair price before any lands were alienated. It was the absolute worthlessness of the waste lands in the eyes of the natives on our first arrival that led to all the after disputes; for, finding the land after the Pakehas' improvements changing hands amongst ourselves at much higher prices than they originally obtained for it, they not only began to increase their demands, but to protest against former sales; and to appease them, many large blocks of land were repurchased by the Government at a considerable increase, to be, after all, given back to the native owners in order to avoid a war. And so cunning had the natives become, that in the blocks offered by them for sale, they not only managed to include thousands of nearly useless acres, but to mark out all the best parts as reserves, so that by the time the Government had paid for the presents necessary during the negotiations, the agreed price per acre, expenses of survey, &c, &c, they were in many instances considerable losers by the transaction; and the natives, finding that the more they demanded the more they obtained, the chiefs, being mostly native assessors with good salaries, finished by entering into a league, proclaimed a king, and declined to sell any more land. Thus was a treaty founded in good faith and love for our fellow man, be he black or white, upset by the avarice or obstinacy of the parties benefited.

On the day I landed at Taranaki twenty-seven years ago, Sir George Grey, then Governor, was arguing with the natives at a meeting held on the beach the question of the Waitara block, already twice purchased by the Government. Negotiations for the quiet occupancy of this block had then extended over a period of ten years,

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and at last was only settled by conquest after ten years' further patience, backed by inducements of expensive presents of flour, sugar, blankets, and guns. So let no one accuse the Government of not keeping their part of the treaty as well as their patience. Governor Gore Brown, who had in the meantime succeeded Sir George Grey, was a man eminently adapted to govern the natives, being possessed of too much firmness of character either to trifle, or to submit to being trifled with. Finding that all previous negotiations had failed, and that the more he gave way the greater were the demands, he decided to occupy the Waitara lands so fairly purchased, a resolution which led to the results I have taken upon myself to relate. From the commencement of the war in 1860 down to 1864, the colonial forces took only a subordinate part in the campaign; but the time was at hand when they would, have to take the field not as auxiliaries as heretofore, but as principals unsupported by the Imperial troops, and depending solely on their own exertion for success. The Imperial forces, in consequence of representations made to the British Government by the commanding officer (General Cameron), were being slowly but surely withdrawn, and that at a most critical time when the spread of the Hauhau religion through the Island had embroiled us with the whole Maori population, with the exception of the Napuhi tribes of the extreme north. Perhaps it was as well it was so, for to this circumstance we owe the self-reliant policy of Messrs. Weld and Stafford; and whatever difference of opinion may exist as to the wisdom of that policy, it had the effect of training the settlers into a firm and well-grounded belief of their capability, if well handled, of dealing with the Maori difficulty in its worst

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form. The Taranaki settlers, where the war commenced, probably fought and suffered more than any other men in New Zealand; yet they would laugh at the idea of not being a match for the most active and daring of their foes. With the political aspect of affairs as the war proceeded, I shall not deal; they have already been treated by abler pens than mine; my task, self-imposed, is a lighter one--a simple narrative of events, of skirmishes and expeditions grandiloquently called campaigns, in which the colonial forces of this country took a more or less prominent part.


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Preliminary Chapter...... 1

I. Landing of Troops at Wanganui.... 2

II. Colonial Forces under Imperial Rule: Battle of Waireka.. 9

III. Colonial Forces under Imperial Rule---continued: Battles of Mahoetahi, Mauku, Wairoa Ranges, Waiari Stream, Orakau, Rangiaohia, Haerini, and Te Matata 14

IV. The Origin and Progress of the Hauhau Religion. 23

V. Progress of the Hauhau Religion: Ahu Ahu and Sentry Hill........27

VI. Progress of the Hauhau Religion--continued: Mr. Booth's Adventure...... 31

VII. Progress of the Hauhau Religion--continued: Battle of Moutora and Ohotahi.....34

VIII. Progress of the Hauhau Religion--continued: Murder of the Rev. Mr. Volckner and of Mr. Fulloon.. 40

IX. Capture of the Weraroa Pah.....48

X. Relief of Pipiriki.......60

XI. The Opotiki Expedition: The Landing... 66

XII. The Opotiki Expedition--continued: Taking of the Pua Pah........69

XIII. The Opotiki Expedition--continued: Adventure with Kereopa and his Twelve Apostles--Surrender of Mokomoko and Hakaraia--Return of the Force to Wanganui........74

XIV. The East Coast Expedition: Waiapu--Attack on Pakairomiromi Pah......81

XV. East Coast Expedition--continued: Poverty Bay... 89

XVI. East Coast Expedition--continued: Te Maru Maru and Te Kopani........97

XVII. Murder of Keriti, of Mr. Charles Broughton, and of Trooper Smith.......103

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XVIII. General Chute's Campaign: The Fight at Okotuku...107

XIX. General Chute's Campaign-- continued: Fight at Te Putahi and Otapawa--Narrow Escape of the General....111

XX. General Chute's Campaign--continued: Ketemarae --March to Taranaki--Fight at Waikoko....114

XXI. Colonel McDonnell's Campaign: Fight at Pokaikai...120

XXII. Colonel McDonnell's Campaign--continued: Te Pungarehu.......126

XXIII. Colonel McDonnell's Campaign--continued: Te Umu, Popoia, Tirotiromoana, Rotorua......133

XXIV. Skirmishes on the East Coast: Wonderful Escape of Wilkinson and Livingstone--Murder of Moore and Beggs........141

XXV. Skirmishes on the East Coast--continued: Colonel St. John at Opotiki--Murder of Mr. Pitcairn....149

XXVI. Outbreak at Napier--The Fight at Omarunui and Petane under Colonel Whitmore...154

XXVII. Titokowaru's Outbreak: Year of the Lamb--Colonel McDonnell and sixty Armed Constabulary sent to Hokitika........161

XXVIII. Return from Hokitika: First and Second Visit to Te Ngutu o te manu--Murder of Cahill, Clark, and Squires........165

XXIX. Hauhaus' Attack on Turu Turu Mokai: Death of Captain George Ross, Sergeant McFadden, Corporal Blake, and seven Privates....170

XXX. First attack on Te Ngutu o te manu with the new Levies........175

XXXI. Second Attack on Te Ngutu o te manu: Death of Von Tempsky, Captains Buck and Palmer, Lieutenants Hunter and Hastings...180

XXXII. The important Difference between Disciplined and Undisciplined Men, a Fact never sufficiently recognised by the New Zealand Government: Death of the Traitor Kimball Bent--Tactics of Titokowaru........189

XXXIII. Reconnoitring the Hauhau Position at Taiporohenui--Resignation of Colonel McDonnell: Colonel Whitmore takes Command--Murder of Collins and McCulloch.......195

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XXXIV. Battle of Moturoa: Death of Captain Hunter-- One-fourth of the Men engaged either killed or wounded--Colonel Whitmore falls back on Nukumaru........ 198

XXXV. Five hundred Hauhaus within a Day's March of Wanganui--Colonel Whitmore suddenly ordered with all his available Force to Poverty Bay, Te Kooti having massacred the Settlers there....202

XXXVI. Te Kooti--His Escape from the Chatham Islands and Landing at Whareongaonga, Poverty Bay...205

XXXVII. Te Kooti's Progress: The Fight at Paparatu: the Colonial Troops defeated with Loss of two killed, ten wounded, and £1200 worth of Horses and Camp Equipage......209

XXXVIII. Te Kooti's Progress -continued: The Fight at Te Konaki--The Hauhaus again Victorious....214

XXXIX. Te Kooti's Progress--continued: The Fight at Ruakituri-- Loss of Captain Carr, Mr. Canning, and three others--Captain Tuki and Te Kooti wounded.....219

XL. Te Kooti's Progress-- continued: Threatens the Poverty Bay Settlers; kills the Uriwera Chief Te Munu........223

XLI. Te Kooti's Progress -- continued: The Massacre at Poverty Bay of thirty-three Settlers, Men Women, and Children, and thirty-seven friendly Natives........227

XLII. Te Kooti's Progress---continued: Attack at Te Karetu - Defeat of Te Kooti, and Loss of his principal fighting Chiefs, Namu, Kehu, Henare Pai ata, and thirty-four Men......236

XLIII. Te Kooti's Progress-- continued: First Attack on Ngatapa by Rapata......242

XLIV. Te Kooti's Progress--continued; Second Attack on Ngatapa--Massacre of Settlers in Arai and Pipi whakau Bush--Death of Captain Brown......246

XLV. Te Kooti's Progress--continued: His Escape from Ngatapa: the Chase--The Hauhau Chief, Nikora Te Whakaunua, and one hundred and twenty Men killed........252

XLVI. Operations against Titokowaru: Fort Lyon--Ambush at the Peach Grove: Massacre of Sergeant Menzies and six Men.....255

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XLVII. Operations against Titokowaru--continued: Murder of the Rev. Mr. Whitely, Lieutenant and Mrs. Gascoigne, and three Children --Skirmish at Otauto on the Patea River--Attack on Te Ngahiere........259

XLVIII. Operations against Titokowaru--continued: Colonel Whitmore marches on General Chute's Track to Taranaki--Hunting up Stragglers--Capture of Pakakohi by Major Noake......264

XLIX. Campaign against the Uriwera Tribe: Reasons for the Campaign--March of converging Columns.....269

L. Campaign against the Uriwera Tribe-- continued: Te Kooti attacks Whakatane--Taking of Ahikereru--Death of Lieutenant White--Doings of Colonel St. John's Column....272

LI. Campaign against the Uriwera Tribe-- continued: Ruatahuna--Death of Captain Travers--Major Roberts' Column......278

LII. Campaign against the Uriwera Tribe-- continued: Te Kooti--Attack on Mohaka--Murder of Lavin, his Wife, and three Children, Wilkinson, and Cooper........282

LIII. Campaign against the Uriwera Tribe--continued: • Te Kooti--Attack on the Huke Pah--Massacre of Men, Women, and Children....286

LIV. Campaign against the Uriwera Tribe--continued: Te Kooti attacks Hiruharama--Gallant Conduct of Trooper Hill......291

LV. Campaign against the Uriwera Tribe--continued: Doings of Colonel Herrick's Column--Death of Trooper Noonan--Waikare Moana...296

LVI. The Taupo Campaign: Massacre of Colonel St. John's Escort at Opape--Te Kooti's Visit to the Waikato and Return to Lake Taupo...300

LVII. The Taupo Campaign--continued; Colonel McDonnell assumes Command--Skirmish at Te Pononga....304

LVIII. The Taupo Campaign-- continued: Arrival of Major Kepa and the Wanganuis--The War-dance......310

LIX. The Taupo Campaign--continued: the Fight at Kaiteriria--Death of Captain St. George.....314

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LX. The Taupo Campaign--continued: Searching for Te Kooti - Skirmish at Tapapa - Capture of eighty Horses and considerable Loot...321

LXI. The Taupo Campaign continued: Te Kooti's Attack on Ohinemutu: succeeds in again reaching the Uriwera Country......328

LXII. The Patatere Campaign: The Doings of Ropata's Column--Te Kooti's Attack on the Opape Settlement--Fight at Maraitahi--Death of Hakaraia....334

LXIII Operations at Waikare Moana....342

LXIV. Te Kooti's Raid on Tologa Bay....349

LXV. Ropata's continued Search after Te Kooti...352

LXVI. The last Expedition in Pursuit of Te Kooti: Te Kooti surprised by Captain Porter at Ruahapu-- Capture of Kereopa, and Escape of Te Kooti into the King Country.....360


Appendix: List of Killed and Wounded during the War from 1860 to 1870 inclusive....369

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LIEUTENANT GUDGEON........Frontispiece
SIR GEORGE GREY, K. C. B ........4
TITOKOWARU ........30
KEREOPA. ........40
REV. C. S. VOLKNER ........42
MAJOR KEPA ........81
TE KOOTI......... 96
MAJOR HUNTER.........172

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