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HOUSE OF HIWIKAU, MOTHER OF TE HEUHEU.
AND FALLS KO WAIHI, AT TE RAPA, TAUPO LAKE.
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THE HOUSE OF HIWIKAU, AND THE FALLS KOWAIHI,
AT TE RAPA, TAUPO LAKE.
IT is truly a romantic spot where Hiwikau, the brother of Te Heuheu, has fixed his residence, at the extremity of the straggling Kainga of Te Rapa, on the shores of the Lake of Taupo: the red dwelling-house, of Maori architecture, with a savage image adorning the summit of its gabled verandah, stands overlooking the broad expanse of the lake--now blue as the vault of heaven that overhangs it, and now black and sullen, and ruffled into countless crisp and foaming waves by the sudden tempests that sweep down from the neighbouring mountains. Behind the dwelling, rise steep rocky cliffs, clothed with every variety of foliage, and the tree-ferns spread their rich and graceful forms over the half-hidden glen, where the thundering falls of Ko Waihi, make endless music, that has long since ceased to be heard by the dwellers hard by, whom constant habit has rendered insensible to the murmuring sound. In New Zealand there is no severe and rigorous winter as in the north, where the leafless trees stretch their naked branches to the inhospitable sky; neither is there any parched and burning summer, that with its scorching breath causes the verdure to wither, and the watercourses to fail. Year after year, the trees are always green, and the waterfall of Kowaihi flows on from generation to generation, amidst a region of perpetual spring and summer.
The chief and his wife are represented sitting in the verandah of the dwelling, where food is generally eaten in wet weather: the inner apartment consists of a spacious sleeping chamber, which has no orifice besides the door and window opening into the verandah.
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CHILDREN ON THE BANKS OF THE WAIPA.
CHILDREN AT THE BOILING SPRINGS, NEAR TAUPO LAKE.
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CHILDREN ON THE BANKS OF THE WAIPA.
THE fertile banks of this beautiful river are thickly scattered with native inhabitants; and the numerous kaingas or villages, together with the abundance of cultivated land on both sides of the river, attest the industry and peaceful habits of the Maori population. The accompanying sketch represents three children, with a portion of a Kopupa, or river canoe, the bottom of which is laid with fern for the comfort of travellers; the scene lies at Hopetui, one day's journey from the junction of the Waipa with the Waikato.
CHILDREN AT THE BOILING SPRINGS, NEAR TAUPO LAKE.
IN the very heart of the interior, light or golden coloured hair may occasionally be observed, though it is by no means a circumstance of common occurrence; the boy whose portrait is given in the centre figure of the annexed group, is the son of one of the chiefs of Tukanu, a settlement close to the boiling springs near Taupo Lake, where no mixture with European races could have taken place; the natives regard the boy with considerable pride, and he is known by the appellation of "Ko Tiki," which means an heirloom or treasure.
The sitting figure is Papuka, a lame boy, nephew to the great chief Te Heuheu of Taupo; and the girl to the right is Tao, one of the children at the settlement of Tukanu. They all belong to the Nga-ti-tuaretoa tribe, which inhabits the district of the Taupo Lakes.
Near the children is a calabash for water, the orifice of which is tattoed in a similar manner to the lips of a woman; in the background the boiling springs are introduced, at which the natives of the vicinity cook their food.
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TOMB OF HURIWENUA, A LATE CHIEF OF THE NGA TI TOA TRIBE
QUEEN CHARLOTTE SOUND.
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TOMB OF THE LATE CHIEF HURIWENUA,
QUEEN CHARLOTTES SOUND.
AT a small and now entirely deserted Pah on the shores of Tory Channel, not far distant from the entrance of Queen Charlotte's Sound, stands the recent tomb of Huriwenua, a late celebrated chief of the Nga-ti-toa tribe.
The enclosure, which presents an imposing appearance from its being coloured red, is situated in the centre of the pah: a double row of palings or fencework surround the wahi tapu, or sacred place of the dead; these are ornamented at intervals with the white feathers of the albatross placed crosswise, where the stakes are fastened together by means of flax; within the inner enclosure is an upright monument, composed of a portion of a canoe, decorated at the summit with a profusion of kaka feathers, and richly painted with red and black in arabesque spirals; at the top is the nmae of the chief, with the date of his decease. The body lies buried beneath the upright canoe, enclosed beneath two smaller canoes, wrapped in the choicest mats, and ornamented with the feathers of the huia. Since the period of the erection of this tomb, the whole village has been made tapu, and no native dare venture upon the sacred ground under any pretence whatever. My visit to this spot, for the purpose of making the drawing of the tomb, which is given on the annexed plate, was made from the water by stealth, and was attended with some difficulty and danger.
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A CHIEF OF THE BAY OF PLENTY, ON THE EAST COAST.
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A CHIEF OF THE BAY OF PLENTY.
THE annexed portrait represents one of the leading chiefs at the Bay of Plenty, on the East coast of the northern Island of New Zealand; his dress consists of a rich topuni, or war mat, of white dog's hair, with a deep black border, which is worn over a flax mat ornamented with tufts of dyed wool. Like most of the New Zealand chiefs, Rangitakina displays that dignity of carriage and nobility of deportment, for which these people are so remarkable --the proud and stately step--the slow, dignified carriage--the perfect ease and manly grace that is manifested in every action, added to the commanding figure of the individual, clad in the picturesque garb of his race, constitute him one of Nature's kings, and show that man, even in a savage state, is lord of the creation. The East coast swarms with natives, belonging chiefly to the Nga-ti-kahunis, and also to a division of the Nga-ti-awa tribe; the entire population of these districts cannot be less than 50,000.
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MAKETU HOUSE AT OTAWHAO PAH.
BUILT BY PUATIA, TO COMMEMORATE THE TAKING OF MAKETU.
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MAKETU HOUSE AT OTAWHAO.
THIS remarkable edifice was built by Puatia, the late chief of Otawhao Pah, to commemorate the taking of Maketu on the East Coast. It stands amidst ruin and decay, the only remaining building of any importance that the hand of time has yet spared, within the limits of this once populous Pah. Like all similar carved and painted houses belonging to the New Zealanders, Maketu House is constructed entirely of wood, and thatched with raupo: the interior rafters are beautifully painted with spiral arabesque work, and the carving bestowed upon the figures that so profusely adorn this "war temple," exhibits a wonderful degree of labour and skill.
The two principal figures, with protruding tongues, that are placed on each side of the verandah entrance, are intended to represent Hikarea, a chief of Tauranga, killed at Te Tumu, when three hundred of the enemy fell; and Tarea, another chief, and a friend of Puatia, who was killed at Tauranga. The lower figure supporting the centre pole, is Taipari, a chief of Tauranga, and now a convert to Christianity; he was one of the principal warriors at the taking of Maketu. The two carved spaces further up the pole, are also designed to represent warriors; the upper one is for Tara, who was slain at Taranaki. The figure ornamenting the centre of the gable, represents Puke, killed at Roturua, and the one surmounting the top, Wakatau, who fell at Maketu. Pokana, the present chief of Mata Mata, then so actively engaged in the Maketu war, has his image under the rafters, inside the verandah, looking down from the ridge pole, with a pipe in his mouth.
The figures surrounding the exterior of the house, are all intended to represent various parties connected with the war, and possess significant meanings,
This remarkable building is "tapu," and has continued so ever since the death of Puatia, by whom it was constructed.
Puatia, during his last illness, embraced Christianity; for several months he lay sick at Otawhao, and was attended by the Rev. J. Morgan, the Church Missionary there; he was then removed to Whatawhata, where he died; his last words to his people were,"Receive the word of God, and hold fast on Jesus Christ."
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A YOUNG WOMAN OF BARRIER ISLAND.
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E TOHI, A YOUNG WOMAN OF BARRIER ISLAND.
THIS portrait shews the manner in which the hair is usually worn over the forehead by the unmarried girls of New Zealand. The dress consists of a magnificent Kakahu of strings of rolled flax, dyed black at alternate intervals^ and bordered at the top by bosses of scarlet wool; this is worn over a finer description of garment, also made entirely of flax, and ornamented with rolled strings and tufts of wool.
Although formerly the natives used feathers for the decorations of their mats, wool of the gayest colors has long been preferred by them. Blue and scarlet caps, and variegated "comforters," brought by the traders, find a ready market amongst the women, who pick them to pieces to form the tufted ornaments of their dresses.
The outer mat worn by E Tohi, as represented in this plate, is thickly covered with long strips of flax leaves rolled up like tubes, resembling porcupine quills; these dangle from the garment, and produce a loud rustling noise as they jostle together, at every movement of the wearer. These tubes are thus formed: a strip of the flax-leaf is scraped on one side with a sharp mussel-shell, and the epidermis is cut crosswise at intervals, and alternately removed or permitted to remain; the leaf is then steeped in a decoction of hinau bark, and, on being taken out, those portions from which the epidermis has been removed, exposing the fibre, are dyed of a permanent and glossy black, whilst the parts where the outer covering still remains, having rejected the dye, retain their original yellow color; the strips are then rolled up, and fastened in at intervals with the fabric of the mat.
In the background is a primitive native house, the gable of which is adorned with a grotesque image of the proprietor, on which has been placed a burlesque European hat.
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MUNGAKAHU, CHIEF OF MOTUPOI,
AND HIS WIFE, KO MARI.
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MUNGAKAHU, CHIEF OF MOTUPOI, AND HIS WIFE.
IN the very heart of the interior of the Northern Island of New Zealand, is the lake of Roto-aire; and upon a promontory jutting into that lake, stands the Pah of Motupoi. The principal chief belonging to this remote and strongly fortified Pah, is Mungakahu; he is a man above the average height, with a noble dignity of carriage and expression; his manners towards strangers are courteous and polite, and there is an affability of character about him, which is very pleasing. His finely tattoed face marks the savage, but soul and intellect of a high order are manifest in his conduct. His dress consists of a couple of large blankets, above which is a remarkably picturesque kakahu of flax; the leaves are arranged in alternate patches of black and yellow, fastened into a fabric of fibres beneath; this garment is perfectly unique, it being the only one I have met with throughout New Zealand. In his hand is the hani, a staff with a carved head and tongue, ornamented with parrots' feathers and pieces of dog's skin.
His wife, Ko Mari, affords a good example of a woman of the interior; in her ear is a bunch of gull's feathers, and around her neck a large tiki, made of green jade.
In the distance are the snowy heights of the Tongariro.
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THE VOLCANIC REGION OF PUMICE HILLS,
LOOKING TOWARDS TONGARIRO AND THE RUAPAHU.
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THE VOLCANIC REGION OF PUMICE HILLS, LOOKING TOWARDS TONGARIRO AND THE RUAPAHU.
THE Tongariro is the great centre of volcanic action in New Zealand; beyond it, rises the lofty mountain of Ruapahu, and, extending southwards, are other snowy ranges. The altitude of these two remarkable mountains is very considerable, and probably exceeds ten thousand feet: they are covered with perpetual snow, that on the Ruapahu especially, extending very far down its sides; the heat and steam arising from the crater of Tongariro, cause much of the snow there to melt, which, running down the fissures of the mountain, descends in dark and troubled torrents to the lakes beneath.
The accompanying plate represents a scene between Taupo and Otawhao, not many miles from the native village of Tutukamauna; it was thus described in my journal at the moment: "Nov. 4th. A splendid sunrise ushered in a cloudless day. There was ice this morning as thick as a half-crown on the loose hills of pumice that bordered the stream at the foot of the hill of Tutukamauna: All day we travelled through a grassy but wild-looking country: pumice was everywhere thickly scattered about, and the whole region was exceedingly desolate. The views of the Ruapahu and Tongariro from this point were magnificent; the broad unsullied snows of the former stood out like a pearly cloud against the blue sky; the high snowy ranges of the Ruatahina mountains stretched away towards the south, and the scene was one of vastness and solitary grandeur.
The little stream that winds along between the abrupt pumice hills, is a tributary of the Waipapa: the trees on its margin are the ti, a species of dracaena, or dragon-tree (Dracaena Australis).
My native guides, Rihia, and E Pera, are seen pursuing the path over the rise of one of these miniature volcanic hills; they have their toko tokos, or travelling sticks, and each bears upon his back a pikau, or bundle, containing my slender stock of baggage, and a supply of sketching materials; with tobacco for presenting to the natives in return for their hospitality, where we had occasion to halt for food.
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OR BLIND SOLOMON.
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OR BLIND SOLOMON.
ONE of the most interesting individuals at the Mission Station of Otawhao is Horomona Marahau, or "Blind Solomon," who has for some years acted very efficiently as a native catechist and teacher in connexion with the Church Missionary Society.
The account of the early life and exploits of this once celebrated warrior, and his subsequent change to Christianity, as narrated to me from his own lips, and translated by Mr. Morgan, affords a fair example of the troubled life of many of the New Zealand chiefs.
From a boy, Horomona accompanied his father on all his fighting expeditions. At the taking of a Pah at Waingaroa, he saw great numbers captured as slaves; he then went to Hanga, where many were slain and eaten; and at the taking of the great Pah at Maungataritari, forty men were killed, besides women and children, and all eaten. At a second fight at Maungataritari, whither Horomona accompanied his father, sixty men were killed and eaten. After this, an attack was made by the Nga-ti-Raukawa tribe upon the Pah in which Horomona resided; the assailants retreated, and were pursued by Horomona and his party, but the Nga-ti-Raukawas rallied again, turned back upon their pursuers, and slew upwards of one hundred of them; Horomona himself narrowly escaping. At Kawhia fight, sixty were killed and eaten. At Mokau, Horomona's party were beaten off and two hundred of them killed; here the chief met with another hair-breadth escape, Returning to Mokau, Horomona succeeded in taking the Pah, when two hundred were killed and eaten, and numbers of women and children taken as slaves. During the engagement, Horomona took the principal chief prisoner, but finding that on a former occasion his own brother had been saved by this chief, Horomona, as an act of gratitude, led his captive to the mountains, to enable him to get clear of his enemies, and then let him go.
The next expedition of Horomona was to Poverty Bay, where two hundred men were killed and eaten, or taken as slaves. He then went to Wanganui, and to Kapiti; the inhabitants of both Pahs flying at his approach. After this, Taranaki became the seat of war, great numbers being continually killed on both sides, and cannibal feasts held
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almost daily. At Waitara, Horomona and his tribe were attacked by Rauparaha's party, and ten of their number killed; they then fled to Poukerangiora, where they were surrounded by Rauparaha and his followers, and remained besieged for several months. When at length their supplies of food were exhausted, they contrived to send out a spy by night, who passed through the enemy's encampment, and reached the mountains in safety; travelling along the forest ranges until he reached the Waikato district, where he gave information of the condition of the besieged. Te Whero-whero, and Waharoa of Matamata, went to their rescue with a large party; they were, however, all beaten off by Rauparaha and twenty of their number killed; but the Waikatos again rallied, renewed the attack, rescued their friends, beat back Rauparaha, and returned home in triumph.
After this, the Nga Puis, from the Bay of Islands, headed by the famous E Hongi, who had then just returned from England with fire-arms and gunpowder, came down upon them like a host, and made an attack upon the great Waikato Pah called Matuke tuke; the Waikatos had only native weapons with which to beat off their enemies, and with so unequal an advantage, the Nga Puis took the Pah in a few minutes. Horomona and Te Whero-whero were amongst the captured inmates. At this dreadful carnage two thousand were slain; and feasts were held upon the dead bodies on the spot where they lay So numerous were the slaves taken during this attack, that the Nga Puis killed many of them on their road to the Bay of Islands, merely to get them out of the way. The escape of Horomona from the general slaughter was almost miraculous; he fled to the mountains, and after the retreat of their northern enemies, his tribe once more collected together, and marched to Poverty Bay, where the Pah was taken by them, and six hundred were killed, and eaten after the fight was over.
Not long subsequent to the attack on the Pah at Poverty Bay, Horomona became blind at Otawhao, where he first met with the missionaries. For the last four years he has been a native teacher under the Rev. J Morgan; and may be seen every Sabbath-day with his class, instructing them in the truths of the Scriptures, with an earnestness and energy truly admirable. The memory of Horomona is quite wonderful: he knows the whole of the Church Service by heart, and repeats hymns and many long chapters verbatim; at a late examination in the Catechism Horomona was the only individual who knew every word correctly.
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WHATAS, OR PATUKAS,
Storehouses for Food.
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WHATAS, OR PATUKAS,
STOREHOUSES FOR FOOD.
IT is customary amongst the New Zealanders to erect within their Pahs, or about their Kaingas and plantations, storehouses for the reception of food, and the preservation of maize, kumeras, and other seeds and roots: these storehouses are universally elevated from the ground by one or more posts, in order to preserve their contents from the destructive attacks of the native rat, which is extremely numerous in some parts of the country; they are termed "whata" in the northern parts of the Island, whilst on the west coast, and about Taupo, they are more commonly styled "patuka"
1. Represents an ordinary patuka, for holding seeds, at the small kainga or settlement of Te Pahe, on the Waiharikiki River, (flax water,) which falls into the harbour of Ahu-ahu on the west coast: in the background is a potatoe store, or ware, and a potatoe basket lies near the enclosure of the patuka. In the centre of the sketch is the dwelling-house of Te Ohu, a heathen priest and chief, at the village of Te Pahe; the sides are built of raupo, a species of rush, and the roof is thatched with tohi-tohi grass.
2. An ornamented patuka belonging to Ko Tariu, a chief of Taupo, at the settlement of Te Rapa, on the shores of Taupo Lake. This, like most of the native buildings in the interior, is coloured red, and more decoration is observable here, than with those on the coast, and in districts where the natives have come in contact with Europeans; this erection is intended as a storehouse for food; the law of tapu in connexion with the food eaten by a chief rendering it necessary for such food to be kept sacred, and apart from that eaten by the women and slaves. Some of these storehouses are very richly ornamented with carving and feathers, but it is only amongst those tribes where heathenism still exists, that these primitive works of art are to be found; as the tapu becomes of less importance with the Christian natives, the erection of such elaborate structures for its preservation has consequently been discontinued.
3. Another storehouse for food, belonging to the chief Te Heuheu, at Taupo.
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4. Rangihaeata's whata, in his Pah at Porirua. Beyond is a sleeping house or ware pune, partly sunk into the ground, with a verandah in front: kumera baskets are hung upon adjacent posts for that purpose; and in front are two large calabashes for holding water.
5. Represents a woman engaged in beating flax: this is one of the processes that this article has to undergo before it is rendered sufficiently fine to be manufactured into mats; it is beaten with a stone pestle for some time, and then washed with water and laid in the sun to bleach.
In the background is a portion of the fence-work or palisading of a Pah.
6. The Kaka, or Southern Nestor, (Nestor meridionalis,) fastened with a flax cord upon a stand of bark: these birds are commonly domesticated by the New Zealanders, and fed on potatoes.
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I. A GIRL AT PIPITEA PAH. II. A BOY OF TE ARO. III. E RANGI & E TOHI, GIRLS OF PORT NICHOLSON, WITH KIKO, AN OLD WOMAN OF TIAKIWAI.
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NATIVES OF PORT NICHOLSON.
1. A girl at Pipitea.
The subject of this sketch is a Maori girl belonging to the small Pah of Pipitea, close to the town of Wellington in Port Nicholson Harbour: she is clothed in a coarse garment of unbleached flax, beneath which an old shawl is visible: in her ear is the mako taniwa, or tooth of the tiger shark. In the background is a carved stile ieading into a potato garden.
2. A boy of Te Aro.
Whilst Pipitea occupies the suburbs of Wellington on the one hand, Te Aro Pah bounds it on the other: both Pahs are however fast decreasing since the establishment of the town, and some of the natives now occupy cottages built by Europeans. The boy whose portrait is here given is son of one of the inmates of Te Aro, and belongs to the Nga ti awa tribe: he is clad in a piece of blanket. Beyond is shewn a portion of the fence-work dividing one courtyard within the Pah from another: the stem of the tree fern is frequently employed for this purpose, amongst the upright stakes. In the distance is a dog's skin stretched out to dry between a framework of sticks, to which it is fastened by means of flax cord.
3. E Rangi and E Tohi, girls of Port Nicholson, with Kiko, an old woman of Tiakiwai.
These portraits were sketched in an old cook-house at Tiakiwai, a small settlement close to Pipitea: the old woman, Kiko, affords a strong contrast to the more pleasing faces of the girls, who are paying a visit to the aged crone in her dilapidated hut. E Tohi, the girl to the right, is dressed in a kaitaka, richly ornamented; and her companion, who is squatting on a sleeping mat of green raupo, wears a plainer variety, the fringe of which is dyed with a decoction of hinau bark.
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MOTUPOI PAH, WITH ROTO-AIRE LAKE.
TONGARIRO IN THE DISTANCE.
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MOTUPOI PAH, WITH ROTO-AIRE LAKE.
TONGARIRO IN THE DISTANCE.
THE Pah of Motupoi is erected upon a neck of land that juts out and rises like an island from the bosom of Roto-aire Lake: this Pah is strongly fortified, and at the time of my visit, the native inhabitants were busily employed in repairing and completing the fortifications; the fact being (though it was kept a secret), that they were expecting a sudden attack from some of the Waikato tribes, in retaliation for an old offence which had lately been brought into notice. Mungakahu, the chief of this Pah, is a pikopo, or Roman Catholic; several of his people have also embraced popery, and at sunset vespers were said in front of the chief s house.
The fortifications consist of three separate rows of palisading formed of stout posts, with smaller ones intervening, all lashed firmly together with flax or aha: the outer stockade is very strong, and a double fence runs along inside to render it still more secure; within the third enclosure upon the summit of the hill, are the dwelling houses of the inhabitants, and it is to this stronghold that the women and children retreat during an attack from some hostile tribe. On the summit of the hill to the left is a small enclosure or wahi tapu; a sacred place containing a patuka, in which are deposited the bones of a distinguished chief.
In the foreground, near a bush of the phormium tenax, or New Zealand flax, is a fallen post, carved at one end with the grotesque representation of a human figure, which has been used for supporting the fence-work of the Pah; a group of natives are resting beside it, preparing to start across the lake with their potato baskets to the opposite village. The lower crater of Tongariro forms a magnificent object in the distance, with the snow stretching down its precipitous sides.
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POAHU AND E KOTI. TWO LADS OF POVERTY BAY.
CHILDREN OF TE PAKARU, THE CHIEF OF KAIOHIA [KAWHIA].
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POAHU AND E KOTI;
TWO LADS OF POVERTY BAY.
DURING my stay at Paripari in the Mokau district, a party of natives arrived from Poverty Bay upon a visit to the chief Taonui; they brought with them presents for the chief and his family, as is usual on such occasions, consisting chiefly of fine mats, for the manufacture of which the people of Poverty Bay and those about East Cape are celebrated throughout the island.
Two of the youths accompanying the party before alluded to, are portrayed in the adjoining plate: Poahu, the sitting figure, is son of a celebrated chief; his head is ornamented with the wings of a hawk fastened on by means of flax. E Koti, his companion, also wears hawks' feathers in his hair, winch is daubed with red ochre and shark oil: in his ear is a medal of the Jesuit mission: both the dresses are handsome mats of the variety called E Koroai.
CHILDREN OF TE PAKARU,
THE CHIEF OF KAWHIA.
ONE of the most interesting and intelligent chiefs of the Ngatimaniapoto tribe is Te Pakaru, or Apokea, of whom a portrait is given in a subsequent plate: his children are gay, lively young creatures, and afford favourable examples of the rising generation in New Zealand: the family of the chief resides not far from the Mission Station of Ahuahu, on the banks of Kawhia Harbour: and the children are universal favorites at the Mission house, where they learn to read in the native school. The Maori population about Kawhia is a very interesting one: the people belong to a division of the great Waikato tribe, and have benefitted much from the labours of the missionaries amongst them. The tallest girl is called Powharo, and the younger one, who is sitting upon the ground, Rangiteriwi, or Juliana, the latter name being her baptized one: they both wear Kaitaka mats, the borders of which are richly embroidered in angular designs. The boy, Taraunahi, is clad in a rough Kakahu of undressed flax leaves; a garment usually worn in wet weather, and by the natives when working at their plantations.
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TARA OR IRIRANGI,
PRINCIPAL CHIEF OF THE NGA TI TAI TRIBE.
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TARA is chief of a small tribe residing in the vicinity of Auckland, called Nga-ti-tai. Besides Ngeungeu, the widow of the late Mr. Maxwell, whose portrait was given in plate III., he has several sons who are grown up: they are remarkably tall, good looking young men; the youngest was for some time under the tuition of His Lordship, the Bishop of New Zealand, and had made considerable progress in his studies.
Tara is a frequent visitant at Auckland for the purposes of trade: he bears an excellent character, and is quiet and inoffensive in his disposition. He has not rendered himself particularly conspicuous by any remarkable feat, but is known and respected as the friend of Europeans, and a loyal adherent to the government.
Tara has a fine intellectual head: the New Zealanders, though inferior to many civilized nations in the enjoyment of mere sense, are, however, possessed of reasoning and reflecting powers, equal, if not superior even to those of Europeans. No civilized people can more carefully, patiently, and deliberately consider the merit of a subject or given line of conduct, than the New Zealanders, every action of whose life is almost the result of reflection. The New Zealander is to all intents and purposes an intellectual being, who might well stand the comparison with our own countrymen.
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PARATENE MAIOHA, A CHIEF OF WAINGAROA.
Wearing the PARAWAI, or Dog's skin Robe.
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PARATENE (Broughton) whose native name was Te Maioha, is a cousin of Te Wherowhero, and one of the leading men of the Ngatimahuta branch of the Waikato Tribes. He generally resides in a village (or Kainga) on the northern banks of the picturesque little harbour of Waingaroa, on the west coast of the Northern Island; and the correctness of his general conduct, and the gravity of his demeanour, have obtained for him a marked ascendency over many of his equals in rank.
Eccentricity is the principal feature in the character of this chief; and the scrupulous attention which he invariably pays to those trifling circumstances which constitute his notions of etiquette, often renders his conduct highly amusing. He has gained, by unwearied application, a smattering of arithmetic; and one of his most self-satisfactory exploits is the correct solution of some such important problem as the value of a pig of a certain weight at a given price per lb., making the usual deduction for offal. His erudite qualities, and the dignified gravity of his carriage, have commanded the deferential respect of his people, and encouraged them to consider him quite an oracle.
One little incident will place the harmless foible of this chief's character in a striking light: when the author was about to employ his pencil in the delineation of his figure, Paratene desired to be excused for a few moments; having gained his point, he sought an interview with Mrs. Wallis, the missionary's wife, (under whose hospitable roof this portrait was taken), and prefacing his request with some solemn intimations of its paramount importance, begged "Mother" 1 to lend him a looking-glass, that he might compose his features in a manner suitable to his own ideas of propriety ere he took his stand before the easel of the artist!
But notwithstanding these humourous peculiarities, Paratene is a sensible and intelligent man, and much esteemed by those Europeans to whom he is known. Beneath the portrait is a fac-simile of his autograph.
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A FEAST AT MATA-TA, ON THE EAST COAST
Mt. Edgecumbe in the distance.
THROWING THE SPEAR. THE MODE OF SALUTATION
A Party of Visitors arriving.
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A NATIVE FEAST AT MATA-TA.
MOUNT EDGECUMBE IN THE DISTANCE.
ON all great occasions, it is customary with the New Zealanders to hold feasts, many of which are on a large scale, and continue for days and even weeks together. At such periods as these, the neighbouring tribes are invited to join in the general festivity, and the war dance is performed at intervals during the feast. The quantity of food that is wasted at these meetings, (which are called hui), is almost incredible; and the consequence frequently is, that the unlimited profusion of the feast is followed by a season of scarcity amongst those tribes by whom the entertainment is given. The provisions usually consist of dried shark and pigs, with enormous baskets of potatoes and kumeras; these latter are planted in large quantities in anticipation of the hui, and at the time of my visit to the celebrated Te Wero-wero, about one thousand of his people were engaged in planting kumeras in the grounds at Whata-whata, preparatory to a great feast which that chief intended to give to all the Waikato tribes in the ensuing summer.
THROWING THE SPEAR.
THE MODE OF SALUTATION.
WHEN a party of visitors arrives at a Pah belonging to another tribe, it is usual to receive them with some show of ceremony; the salutation is commenced by a spear being thrown by one of the chiefs: the visitors then sit down, and after some time has been passed in silence, they exchange civilities by the performance of ongi or pressing noses; this frequently occupies a considerable time, and when it is concluded, feasting immediately commences.
The scene represented is not far from Maungataritari, beyond Waipa; on the right is a portion of the fencing of of a Pah, before which the inhabitants are drawn up in a body to receive their visitors; a space being cleared between the two parties, for the throwing of the spear.
The elevated house in the centre of the sketch is a very lofty patuka, or storehouse for seeds, erected outside the Pah, the access to which is by the notched steps cut in the pole upon which it stands.
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TO NGAPORUTU AND HIS WIFE, RIHE. AT WAKATUMUTU.
NGAWHEA, OF TE MAHOA. A CHIEF OF THE NGATIMANIAPOTO TRIBE & NGA MIHO, WIFE OF RANGITUATAEA.
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NGA PORUTU AND HIS WIFE RIHE.
IN a wild and secluded part of the district of Mokau, which extends from the West Coast towards Taupo, is situated the native village of Whakatumutumu, of which Nga Porutu is the chief. This man was formerly a distinguished warrior, belonging to the Nga-ti-Maniapoto tribe, but has lately embraced Christianity. Previously to his becoming a convert, this chief, according to the heathen custom, had several wives; but he has since put away all excepting Rihe, the one whose portrait is given in the plate; this lady whom he has retained as his partner in life, was originally purchased for thirty pigs, and belongs to the Wanganui tribe. The cast-off wives are all anxiously waiting for Rihe to die; each one hoping that she may be the successful candidate for the next wife.
NGA WHEA AND NGA MIHO.
NGA-WHEA is one of the numerous chiefs of that large division of the Waikato tribe called Ngatimaniapoto; he belongs to Te Mahoa near Kawhia harbour on the West Coast, and is still attached to the heathen religion of the Tohunga.
Nga Miho (the teeth) is a celebrated priestess, and wife of Rangituataea, the old chief of Ahuahu, who was wounded at Taranaki.
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ENTRANCE TO A DWELLING HOUSE AT RAROERA PAH, WAIPA.
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ENTRANCE TO A DWELLING HOUSE AT RAROERA PAH.
SOME of the finest Maori works of art still extant, are to be met with in the ruined and deserted Pah of Raroera, about four miles beyond Otawhao, near the River Waipa. In one of the former plates was given a representation of the elaborately carved mausoleum erected in this Pah by the great chief Te Wherowhero, above the remains of his favorite daughter; not many yards from that tomb is the house which forms the subject of the present illustration; differing from the usual style of Maori architecture, with the pointed gable roof, the entrance to this building displays the more simple form of porch belonging to the dwellings of some of the inhabitants of the earliest ages, and its close affinity to many of the temples of Egypt is at once obvious: there is a nearer relation between the architecture of this Maori dwelling-house, and that of the temple of the Serpent Knuphis in Upper Egypt, or the ancient temple of Taetfa, than one might at first be disposed to imagine; but the singular resemblance the works of these people bear to those both of Egypt and Mexico, is a fact to be accounted for by theory alone.
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NATIVE ORNAMENTS, &c.
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NEW ZEALAND ORNAMENTS AND DECORATIONS.
1. An ornament worn in the ear, formed out of poonamu or green jade; a stone which is very highly valued by the natives, and brought from the Southern Island.
2. A mako or tooth, wrought from pellucid jade, in imitation of the mako taniwa, or tooth of the tiger-shark; this is a decoration but rarely to be met with, and is much prized.
3. A small tiki or heir-loom, also formed of green jade, and worn round the neck by both sexes; the tiki generally from father to son, and when thus passed from one generation to another is regarded with an almost sacred veneration: in form the tiki varies but little; its usual shape is that of a grotesque image of the human figure, but instances occur where they are made to resemble the supposed taniwa or river-god.
This and the preceding figure were drawn from offerings on a wahi tapu, consecrated by the parents to a deceased child, as being the most precious articles they possessed; although exposed amidst the ruins of a deserted Pah, so strict is the law of tapu, that no one dare touch these valuable relics.
4. A larger tiki: the eyes are filled up with a red composition resembling sealing-wax: this figure is of the usual size of the tiki.
5 and 6. Ear-rings formed of green jade or poonamu.
7. The Mako taniwa, or tooth of the tiger-shark, worn in the ear as a mark of rank: the fangs are covered with a similar red preparation to the eyes of the tiki.
8. A tail feather of the huia (Neomorpha Gouldii), worn in the hair by chiefs, on ail important occasions; this bird is abundant about Taupo, but so shy, that the natives have great difficulty in procuring it.
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9. A shell (nat. size) found in Cook's Straits, and worn suspended in the ear by the natives.
10 and 11. Wooden combs, used for confining the long hair of the warriors, when knotted up before battle.
12. A child at Te Rapa, Taupo Lake.
13. The fan-tailed fly-catcher (Rhipidura flahellifera) worn suspended in the ear in many parts of the interior.
14. The head of the huia, also worn in the ear, as is the entire skin of the body with the wings and tail removed.
15 and 16. Patterns of the angular designs forming the border of the Kaitaka or finest variety of flax garment: these rich and elaborately embroidered borders are entirely worked by the women with a bone needle, and frequently occupy several years in completion.
17. Tattooing instruments; formed of sharp pieces of bone fastened into wooden handles; these are driven into the flesh with a small mallet along the desired lines, and charcoal is then rubbed into the wounds, which, when healed, become of a permanent blue colour.
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A GROUP AT TE ARO PAH;
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A GROUP AT TE ARO PAH;
THE sitting figure is Terewarewa, a young man of the Nga-ti-Awa tribe, wearing a large mat of various colors, over which is a blanket of ample dimensions: his cheeks are ornamented with a spot of Kokowai, or red ochre, mixed with oil.
The centre figure represents a boy of Taranaki called Ware, with his autograph: he is clad in a very thick and rough Kakahu, and holds in his hand a tokotoko or walking stick, an implement very necessary in travelling, with which the natives feel their way through the mud and swamps.
The girl Ko Repo, is daughter of the principal chief of the Nga-ti-ruanui tribe: she wears a necklace of European manufacture, with a tiki and ear-ring of green jade. Below is her autograph. In the background are Piko, a young man of the Nga-ti-Awa tribe, and Aitu, a half-caste, belonging to the whale fishery.