1843 - Russell, Michael. Polynesia; or an Historical Account of the Principal Islands in the South Sea [New Zealand Chapter Only] - Chapter X. New Zealand, p 335-376

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  1843 - Russell, Michael. Polynesia; or an Historical Account of the Principal Islands in the South Sea [New Zealand Chapter Only] - Chapter X. New Zealand, p 335-376
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New Zealand.

New Zealand discovered by Tasman--Description of its Inhabitants--Cook examines the Coast--Makes a Passage through the Straits which bear his Name--Ungenerous Conduct of Surville--Expedition and Death of M. Marion--Loss sustained by Captain Furneaux--Intercourse between New Zealand and Australia--Tippahee--Moyhanger visits England--Murder of the Crew of the Boyd--Missionaries land at Rangihoua--Two Chiefs appear in London--Are introduced to the Prince Regent--Missionaries increase their Stations--Favour manifested by the Chiefs--Measures proposed for forming a regular Church in New Zealand--Number of Stations--Desire of Improvement among Natives--Original State of European Population--Associations formed for Colonization--New Zealand Company's Establishment at Port Nicholson--Great Immigration--Obstacles opposed by Government--Sovereignty of the Queen proclaimed--Charter granted to the Company--New Settlement called Nelson--Town of Auckland--Reflections on the actual State of the Colony and its Prospects.

THE group which passes under the name of New Zealand was discovered by Abel Jansen Tasman, in September 1642. At that period, Anthony Van Diemen was governor of the Dutch possessions in the East Indies, who, being desirous to add to the knowledge of maritime geography, more especially towards the unexplored regions of the South Pole, despatched this celebrated captain in charge of two small vessels, with instructions to ascertain the boundaries of the continent which was supposed to occupy all the antarctic parallels of the Pacific

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Ocean. The first reward of Tasman's exertions was the discovery of an island, which he named, in honour of his patron, Van Diemen's Land.

After examining the coasts with some attention, he proceeded towards the east, and when in latitude 38 deg. 10' S., and longitude 167 deg. 21' E., he again saw land about a degree to the south-south-east. It was not, however, till he had attained the northern extremity of it that any inhabitants appeared, who, sounding a trumpet, probably composed of a shell, attracted his attention to an address which, being uttered in a strange dialect, he could not understand. He describes them as being of common stature and strong boned, their colour between brown and yellow, and their hair black, which they wore tied up on the crown of the head, like the Japanese, each having a large white feather stuck upright in it. Their vessels were double canoes fastened together by cross planks, on which they sat. It is remarked, that their language bore no resemblance to that used in the Solomon Islands, with a vocabulary of which Tasman had been furnished at Batavia. Notwithstanding his earnest desire to secure their good opinion, he could not prevent an attack upon a boat's crew, which occasioned to him the loss of several lives.

Having no hope of being able to establish a friendly intercourse, he left the "Bay of Murderers," and proceeded towards the north; and finding the coast still stretching to a great extent in an eastern direction, he imagined that he had at length discovered the great southern continent,--the Terra Incognita Australis,--which he at first called Staten Land, and afterwards New Zealand. Of this important country no farther account was taken till the year 1769, when, in the month of October, it was seen by Captain Cook, while engaged in his first circumnavigation of the globe. There is reason to believe, however, from certain communications made by the natives to this distinguished seaman, that some European ship had touched on the coast a short time before his arrival; and as this visit was never reported in Eng-

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land, there is but too much reason to apprehend that the crew were massacred by the barbarous inhabitants. 1

As Cook approached New Zealand from the east, he landed on the side opposite to that which had been surveyed by Tasman. At first he had to encounter the usual difficulties; nor was it until the fierce people had failed in an attack upon him and his two friends, Solander and Banks, and had experienced the fatal effects of firearms, that he succeeded in establishing a temporary intercourse with them. While employed in search of fresh water, in the interior of the bay, he met one of their fishing canoes returning from the sea, having on board four men and three boys. As soon as they perceived the English boats, they plied their paddles with so much activity, that they would have effected their escape, had not the captain ordered a musket to be fired over their heads, in the hope that this display of power would induce them to surrender. But in this expectation he was unfortunately disappointed; for although, on the discharge of the piece, they laid aside their paddles and began to strip, it was only that they might be prepared to meet their assailants and give them battle. Accordingly, as soon as they reached their enemies, they commenced the attack with their simple weapons; and so obstinate was the resistance made by them, that the encounter did not terminate until the four men were killed. On witnessing this catastrophe, the boys leaped into the water, whence, after considerable opposition, they were taken up and placed in the boat. At first they seemed to have no expectation but of instant death at the hands of their captors. Upon being kindly treated, however, and furnished with clothes, they soon laid aside their apprehensions, and even seemed to forget the fate of their countrymen who perished in the conflict. When

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dinner was set before them on hoard the Endeavour, they ate voraciously; and being encouraged by Tupia, a native of Otaheite, they even consented to entertain their captors with a song. Indeed, they would willingly have continued with their new friends, being afraid that, if put ashore by the English, their enemies "would kill and eat them." But the commander, resolved to afford no ground for the suspicion that he meant to kidnap the inhabitants, gave strict orders that the youths should be landed on the nearest point of the coast. He afterwards learned that no injury befell them, though committed to the keeping of a hostile tribe.

No one could regret more than Cook the melancholy result of the fortuitous meeting with the canoe, as just described. "I am conscious," says he, "that the feeling of every reader of humanity will censure me for having fired upon these unhappy people; and it is impossible that, upon a calm review, I should approve it myself. They certainly did not deserve death for not choosing to confide in my promises, or not consenting to come on board my boat, even if they had apprehended no danger; but the nature of my service required me to obtain a knowledge of their country, which I could not otherwise effect than by forcing my way into it in a hostile manner, or gaining admission through the confidence and good-will of the people. I had already tried the power of presents without effect; and I was now prompted, by my desire to avoid farther hostilities, to get some of them on board, as the only method of convincing them that we intended them no harm, and had it in our power to contribute to their gratification and convenience. Thus far my intentions certainly were not criminal; and though in the contest, which I had not the least reason to expect, our victory might have been complete without so great an expense of life, yet in such situations, when the command to fire has been given, no man can restrain its excess, or prescribe its effect." 2

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Cook did not discontinue his researches until he had ascertained that the country is divided into two principal islands by the strait which still bears his name. The northern one is called by the natives Eaheinamauwee, the southern, Tavai Poenamoo; contiguous to which last there is a smaller body of land which has not yet risen into any consequence. The whole are situated between lat. 34 deg. and 47 deg. S., and long. 166 deg. and 180 deg. E. The appearance of the coast is bold and rocky; in some parts the general aspect of the land is rather rugged; and several of the mountains in Poenamoo are covered with perennial snow. In the other island, where the Europeans have established their principal settlements, the soil is in many parts extremely fertile, and capable of a very high degree of cultivation; suited, it is supposed, not only to the growth of wheat and other grain, but also to the more delicate fruits and varied productions of the most genial portions of the temperate zones. The potato has been cultivated with great facility and advantage. Though but lately introduced by foreigners, it furnishes a valuable addition to the means of subsistence enjoyed by the natives, and also an article of sea-store to the numerous ships by which New Zealand is annually visited. Cattle, sheep, and poultry are also reared in abundance, proving at once a source of wealth to the poorer settlers, and an agreeable variety to the tables of the more wealthy. Moreover, the coasts are well stocked with several species of fish, which European skill has taught the inhabitants both to catch more plentifully and to cure with greater success. The climate is

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described as being both pleasant and salubrious. In Eaheinamauwee, the thermometer ranges from 40 deg. to 80 deg.; being a pleasant medium between the heat of the tropical regions and the sudden colds which affect the more variable sky of the temperate latitudes. 3

While Cook was on the coast of New Zealand, a French ship, commanded by M. de Surville, was struggling with the high seas and boisterous weather which the English navigator has recorded in his usual graphic language. His reception by the natives formed quite a contrast to the spirit which they displayed towards the English. The chiefs bestowed upon the invalids of his crew the greatest attention. Naginoui, the lord of an adjoining village, surrendered his house for their accommodation, supplied them with the best food he could provide, and would not accept the smallest compensation. But this humane conduct was most cruelly requited. Surville having missed one of his small boats, probably lost during the storm, and suspecting that the inhabitants had stolen it, determined to be avenged for this supposed injury. Accordingly, seeing one of the chiefs walking on the shore, he invited him with many professions of friendship to come on board his ship; the other no sooner complied than he found himself a prisoner. Not satisfied with this outrageous treachery, he next gave orders that a village to which he pointed should be set on fire, and it was accordingly burnt to the ground. To aggravate the crime against personal freedom and property, this was found to be the very village in which his sick men had, a few days before, been so kindly received, and the leader whom he had inveigled on board the Saint Jean Baptiste was the generous Naginoui, who had acted towards them the part of the good Samaritan. The unfortunate captive was carried away from his own country by the stranger whom he had assisted, but he

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did not long survive the separation from his family and the land of his birth; he died of a broken heart, about three months afterwards, near Juan Fernandez, on the passage to Peru. The termination of Surville's own career, which took place a few days later, may be regarded in a retributory light. After a vain cruise of nearly a twelvemonth in search of an imaginary island full of gold and precious stones, he found himself compelled, though his ship was victualled for three years, owing to the ill health of his crew, to return towards the coast of South America. On the 5th April 1770, he arrived at Callao; and, being anxious to obtain an early interview with the viceroy, he put off from his vessel in a small boat and perished in the surf. 4

The reports that had reached Europe respecting the soil and climate of New Zealand increased the interest taken by the court of France in a country which seemed to hold forth numerous advantages to enterprising settlers. With this view, in October 1771, they despatched two ships, under the command of M. Marion, who received instructions, after attending to some less important objects, to make himself intimately acquainted with the resources of the two islands recently visited by the English navigator. Arriving at Cape Brett on the 3d May the following year, he forthwith established an amicable intercourse with the natives, who readily went on board his vessel, and accepted his civilities in a very good spirit. Encouraged by these symptoms of a friendly disposition towards his people, he landed the sick sailors on one of the numerous islands with which the adjoining bay is studded. Abundance of food was now brought to them by the inhabitants of the neighbouring villages, who, in this respect, were indefatigable in their endeavours to gratify the strangers; while their communication with each other was rendered at once more easy and agreeable

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by the discovery that the language spoken in this part of Polynesia was essentially the same with the dialect of Otaheite. So intimate, indeed, did they become, and such was the state of mutual confidence in which they lived, that while the New Zealanders went at all times freely on board the ships, and occasionally remained all night, the Frenchmen, on their part, were wont to move about on shore with the greatest freedom, and even to make excursions into the interior, entering the houses of the people, and sharing their meals. Crozet, the first lieutenant, from whose notes the account of the voyage was compiled, remarks, that he himself was almost the only one of the officers who did not quite forget all precaution.

A dreadful crisis was now at hand, the motives that led to which it is impossible to comprehend. On the 12th June, Marion went on shore with a party of sixteen men, including four officers, who, being attacked by the treacherous cannibals, were literally murdered and eaten. Next morning, a boat's crew landed for the purpose of procuring wood and water, and being still free from suspicion, they also allowed themselves to be surrounded by a multitude of the savages, who put to death eleven of the twelve individuals of whom the party consisted. The survivor saw the dead bodies of his companions cut up and divided among the assassins, each of whom carried away the portion he had received. But with the thoughtlessness characteristic of barbarians, they used no means to avert the tremendous retribution to which they had exposed themselves. A powerful body of French were landed from the two ships, who, after ascertaining the horrible fate of their commander, and even collecting some remains of his mangled corpse, seized an opportunity presented by the murderers themselves of inflicting a severe punishment. Repeated volleys of musketry were directed against the miserable rabble, who, stupified with terror, allowed themselves to be slaughtered without any attempt either at resistance or retreat. No light has ever been thrown on the cir-

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cumstances which led to this shocking catastrophe. Crozet repeats the assurance that his countrymen gave not the islanders any cause of offence whatever during their residence among them, and that down to the fatal day when Marion was put to death, the two parties had lived together in the greatest cordiality, occupied in the reciprocation of kindnesses. If the assault on the foreigners was premeditated on the part of the natives, these last are justly chargeable with a degree of deceit not usually incident to such rude minds; but if we suppose that intelligence relative to the conduct of Surville had reached their shores, their atrocity may be explained, though not in any degree palliated. 5

A similar event took place in the year 1773, when Captain Furneaux, who commanded the Adventure on Cook's second voyage, lay in Ship Cove, waiting the return of the Resolution. In the month of December he sent a boat to the land, under the care of a midshipman, with instructions to gather a few wild greens, and to return in the evening. The crew, which consisted of ten men, were killed and eaten, as on the former occasion. It was not till 1777, when engaged in his last voyage round the world, that the commodore obtained any explanation of this atrocious crime. Having desired Omai to ask the chief, Kahoora, why he had killed Furneaux's people, the savage folded his arms, hung down his head, and appeared to expect instant death. But no sooner did Cook assure him of his safety than he became cheerful. "He did not, however, seem willing to give me an answer to the question that had been put to him, till I had again and again repeated my promise that he should not be hurt. Then he ventured to tell us, 'that one of his countrymen having brought a stone hatchet to barter, the man to whom it was offered took

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it, and would neither return it nor give any thing for it; on which the owner of it snatched up the bread as an equivalent, and then the quarrel began." 6

About the end of last century, some intercourse began to take place between New Zealand and the penal colony established in Australia. Two natives of the former were induced to visit Norfolk Island, where they were kindly treated, and afterwards accompanied home by Governor King, who was exceedingly desirous to become acquainted with their method of cultivating and dressing flax, the most valuable produce of their country. About the same period, ships engaged in whale-fishing in those distant seas found it convenient to land on the coast, and hence an intimacy was gradually formed with the natives, who, though suspicious of the views which led to it, were by no means disposed to resist the approaches of a civilized people. Availing themselves of this opportunity, the authorities at Port Jackson occasionally sent presents of cattle, sheep, pigs, and seeds, with such other things as seemed fitted to add to their comforts, as well as to create among them a taste for the conveniences of cultivated life. At length, a chief named Tippahee, whose dwelling was near the Bay of Islands, expressed a desire to see the English colony. He was accordingly conveyed to Port Jackson, accompanied by five sons; and, during his stay there, he examined with the utmost attention every thing that fell under his observation, manifesting the greatest anxiety to acquire a full knowledge of the various arts and manufactures which he saw carried on by the settlers. He was so much affected by the contrast between their knowledge and the ignorance of his own countrymen that he burst into tears.

It is not unworthy of notice that, on all occasions, the

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New Zealanders preferred things useful to those which were merely showy or decorative. The first of them who landed in England, whose name was Moyhanger, regarded with much more interest the iron goods and comfortable clothing which he saw in the shops of London, than the brilliant equipages and splendid attire that afterwards met his eyes. It was not without a feeling of dejection that he first beheld the magnitude, bustle, and wealth of the metropolis; remarking, that in his own land he was a man of some consequence, but that in this country his consequence must be entirely lost. While in town he was taken to visit Lord Fitzwilliam. The ornamental parts of the furniture did not make such an impression upon him as was expected. Of the mirrors and other showy works of art, he merely remarked, that they were "very fine;" and while it was thought he was admiring the more striking objects, it was discovered that he was counting the chairs. Having procured a small piece of stick, he had broken it into a number of fragments to assist his recollection; and upon completing the process of enumeration, he said, "a great number of men sit with the chief." It was a mystery to him at first how such an immense population could be fed, as he perceived neither cattle nor crops; but the droves of oxen and wagon-loads of vegetables he afterwards saw coming in from the country satisfied him upon this head. 7

The favourable opinion which began to be entertained in regard to the people of New Zealand received a material check in the year 1809, when an atrocious murder was perpetrated on the crew of the Boyd, a ship of five hundred tons burden, which, with seventy persons on board, called at the Bay of Wangaroa, to land some natives who had been resident in Australia. Among these last was an individual named Tarra, though he bore among the sailors the more familiar appellation of George, who, having been punished for neglect of duty,

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resolved to have his revenge when the vessel should come to anchor in the neighbourhood of his tribe. He first attacked the captain and a party of men in the woods, whither they had gone to cut timber, and with the aid of his associates murdered them all. Elated with their success, the infuriated savages next proceeded to the Boyd. It was now dusk, and as they went alongside in the boats belonging to the ship, dressed in the clothes of the seamen whom they had slain, they were hailed by the second officer, who, in reply, was informed by them that the captain, intending to remain on shore all night, had ordered them to take on board the spars which were already cut down. Under this pretext, they were allowed to go on deck, when they instantly commenced an indiscriminate slaughter of men, women, and children, leaving none alive except one female, two children, and the cabin-boy. 8

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The fearful atrocity now described had the effect of reviving the impression, already beginning to subside among navigators, as to the ferocious character of the natives. Vessels, no doubt, continued occasionally to visit the islands, and to engage in the wonted traffic, but confidence had in a great measure ceased, and the hope that they would soon ascend to a respectable place among civilized nations, was not any where cherished with the same ardour. Even the means which had been devised by certain benevolent individuals to accomplish that good end were for a time suspended. The Church Missionary Society, moved by the representations made to them by Mr Marsden, senior chaplain of Australia, had resolved to send some christian labourers into those islands, to infuse into the minds of the inhabitants the elements of true religion, to wean them from their sanguinary habits, and to teach them the arts of social life, more especially agriculture with its kindred pursuits. The committee in London sent out three individuals, whom they placed under the direction of Mr Marsden; assigning, at the same time, the annual sum of five hundred pounds, to supply them with the means of establishing a mission. But the alarm occasioned by the horrible massacre at Wangaroa deterred them from proceeding farther than Port Jackson; nor was it till the latter end of the year 1814 that they reached the scene of their important enterprise, in the northern island of New Zealand.

It was at Rangihoua, a native village near the Bay of Islands, that they planted their first station; and notwithstanding a very powerful opposition, as well from false friends as from open enemies, the gospel has never since been entirely driven away from that place. Privations of every kind were to be endured, want of food, want of clothing, and want of society; added to which were the menaces of the barbarians whom they were

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endeavouring to instruct, which, on some occasions, were so frightful as must have compelled them to withdraw had they been able fully to comprehend their meaning. Ignorance of the language concealed from them the extent of their danger. It is painful to learn, too, that the worst enemies of the mission at a later period were some of their own household. The number of teachers was increased; "and some, influenced by the spirit of the wicked one, early crept in among the faithful few. So far, indeed, did some of them dishonour the self-denying doctrines of the Cross, which they had been sent here to teach, that no less painful a plan could be adopted than an ignominious erasure of their names from the Society's labourers." 9

The main obstacle at the commencement was unquestionably the ignorance under which the missionaries laboured of the peculiar dialect in use among the natives, because so delicate are its idioms, that the slightest departure from the wonted arrangement of words in a sentence, might convey either an insult or a ludicrous association of ideas. Nor did the rude audience consider it necessary to conceal their impressions. On the contrary, sometimes in the middle of the service they would suddenly start up, with the cry of "that's a lie! that's a lie! who will stay to hear what that man has to say? Let us all go, all go." But as soon as they were able to converse with the inhabitants, and could in some degree make themselves intelligible, the clouds began to pass away, and light dawned upon their future course. 10

About the period to which we now allude, two chiefs, Hongi and Waikato, paid a visit to England, where they were introduced to the prince regent, who loaded them at once with gifts and civilities. At length, after having seen some of the wonders of art and of cultivated

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mind in various parts of the country, they returned to their own land with a large supply of everything on which the people of New Zealand set the highest value. From this epoch the missionaries rose in the estimation of the natives at large, and enjoyed, more especially, the protection of the two favoured leaders. To the friendship of Hongi, in particular, may be attributed, under God, the safety of their small establishment. On several occasions he threw himself between them and death, prevented attacks upon their property, and, at all hazards to his own interests, he was ever ready to defend theirs.

It is remarked by an intelligent author, as a disadvantage in New Zealand, that there is no king over the whole group, nor even over one of the larger islands. The people are governed by a number of chieftains, each indeed a sovereign over his own narrow territory. A desire to enlarge their domains, increase their power, or gratify revenge, leads to frequent wars, strengthens jealousy, keeps them from forming any common bond of union, and precludes the adoption of a general or consistent plan for spreading among them the benefits of civilisation. In the Society and Sandwich clusters, on the other hand, the missionaries found great advantage from the circumstance that each island had its chief, and that, in some instances, several adjacent ones were under the government of a ruler whose authority was supreme, and whose influence predisposed them, as a nation, to receive the instruction imparted by individuals whom he had been pleased at once to countenance and protect. 11

Finding the original station at Rangihoua no longer suited to their more extended views, the missionaries purchased or otherwise obtained permission to settle at Tepuna, Kerikeri, Paihia, and finally, at the Waimate,

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whence they had a more easy intercourse with the interior of the island. A narrative of the proceedings at Paihia, from August 1823 to June 1831, which was sent to England by desire of the committee of the Church Missionary Society, presents several interesting details relative to the progress of religious knowledge among the natives in that quarter. Two preachers with their families settled in the wilderness, in the midst of tribes who occupied the land on each side to a considerable distance. A house, composed chiefly of rushes, was soon erected for them, in which they spent the first year, using every means in their power to induce the young people to accept instruction, and become the objects of their kindness. Their habitation was continually beset from daylight till dark by their simple neighbours, who were attracted by the novelty of the things they beheld. A few boys and girls were permitted to live with the missionaries; but a single word from any of the chiefs sent them all off in an instant. Frequently, too, when particularly wanted, they all ran away into the bush, thinking thereby to show to their new countrymen how necessary they were to their proceedings. This conduct continued, in a greater or less degree, about two years; afterwards, the members increased, and their demeanour became much more orderly.

At the date of the Report, the buildings at Paihia were a chapel, two dwelling-houses, several workshops, and sheds for the cattle. The number of native baptisms was thirty, including ten children, and the behaviour of the converts, generally speaking, was not unworthy of the vocation to which they had listened. The Sunday services are conducted as follows:--At eight in the morning the inhabitants of the vicinity are assembled together with the mission families at the station, and such foreign residents in different parts of the adjoining bay as are disposed to attend. The prayers of the church and one of the lessons are read in the New Zealand language, and the natives are also addressed in the same tongue on their faith and duties. The remainder of the

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service, with a sermon, is said in English; and, when these are ended, the ministers, accompanied by some of the better instructed among their converts, proceed to different settlements, within a short distance, where attentive congregations are generally found awaiting their arrival.

While they are thus employed, the schools are open for the children of both sexes, who are catechised by the missionaries' wives, aided by baptized youths, selected for this office on account of their piety and acquirements. At three o'clock, divine service, exclusively in English, is performed; and at six the evening prayers are offered up in the dialect of the islands. The attention shown on these occasions by the indigenous inhabitants is an abundant encouragement to the prosecution of the great work; and many of them, from time to time, are added to the church. 12

But hitherto the stations may be said to have reference to the convenience of the Europeans occasionally resident near the Bay of Islands, rather than to the direct improvement of the general population. The missionaries had been hovering, as it were, on the skirts of the country; and with all the efforts made by them no permanent footing was yet established beyond these outposts. They had been watching the workings of the native mind, and looking for the openings of Providence to indicate the path which they ought to pursue. Still

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they felt assured that no great work would be accomplished till they could form a regular establishment in the interior of the country, in a more populous and improved district than they had yet been permitted to occupy. The principal persons had refused, during nearly fifteen years, to allow any one to reside near their larger villages in the cultivated portion of the island; and had always rejected the proposals, from time to time made to them, for the furtherance of the gospel in the vicinity where they themselves resided. But towards the close of 1829 a great change became manifest in their opinions on this important subject, and the most pressing invitations were now given by individuals, who, a short time before, would not listen to any terms of negotiation. Experience had convinced the New Zealand chiefs that the objects of the missionaries were truly benevolent; pointing not only to the eternal welfare of the ignorant people, but also to their temporal comfort through the medium of letters and a knowledge of the useful arts. Yielding to the solicitations repeatedly addressed to them, the local committee resolved to select a place on the Waimate, which should at the same time possess the advantage of proximity to the greatest number of natives, and a portion of good ground for the purposes of agriculture. A spot was marked out, presenting in a high degree both these recommendations. The people expressed their willingness to part with it, and the land was forthwith conveyed in proper form to the agents of the Society. 13

The improvement which usually attends the progress of Christianity soon became apparent at this new station. To all the native residences in connexion with the district, stretching about thirty-five miles to the south-west,

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roads were immediately cut by the people, to facilitate the visits of the missionaries. The villages are very numerous, and the inhabitants scattered over an extensive tract of country; but in all places, where the population was so large as to require them, chapels were erected on the native plan, and dedicated to the service of the Redeemer. Some of these structures were spacious enough to contain two hundred persons; and the service of the English church was regularly performed whenever the weather did not prevent the necessary travelling. At every station schools were opened, under the sanction of the chiefs, for all ages and classes of the people.

Waimate could soon boast of an infant seminary, where the children were at once taught to read, and to acquire habits of industry. A school for youths was established, in which the usual lessons are given from six till eight in summer, and from seven till nine during the winter months. The remaining portion of the day is devoted to the work of the settlement, all of which is done by natives, under the superintendence of the lay members of the mission; for, excepting a millwright to erect a mill, and a blacksmith to prepare the iron implements, no European has been employed in manual labour. Upwards of fifty thousand bricks were burnt, most of which were used in building chimneys; while more than seven hundred thousand feet of timber were felled and sawn up into planks, boards, and scantlings. "Three substantial weather-board dwelling-houses, forty feet by twenty, with skilling at the back and returned at the ends, have been erected; likewise stables for the accommodation of twelve or fourteen horses, stores, carpenters' shops, blacksmiths' shops, outhouses, eight or ten weather-board cottages, twenty feet by fifteen; and a spacious chapel, capable of holding from three to four hundred persons. The mission-houses are fenced in with paling, and surrounded by more than thirty acres of cultivated land." 14

Such, we are told, was the state of Waimate early in

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1834, the commencement of its fourth year. The whole of the ground within the fences was broken up, part of it laid down with clover and part with grass. Other portions were appropriated to orchards, well stocked with fruit-trees, or to vegetable gardens, as well for the use of the missionaries as for the families of the married natives. In the more open land, or what might be properly called the farm, there were nearly fifty acres sown with wheat, barley, oats, maize, and lucerne. Justly is it remarked by Mr Yate, that a prospect more pleasing could not meet the eye of a philanthropist than the sight of the British plough breaking up the deserts of New Zealand, under the direction of indigenous labourers. The introduction of ploughs and harrows, all of which were made at Waimate, did, without doubt, constitute a momentous era in the history of that country. Till these implements were brought into use, the people little knew what their land was capable of producing, as only small portions had been brought into cultivation, owing to the great difficulty of working it with the hoe and the spade. 15

Similar advantages followed the introduction of the gospel in other respects, the sanctifying and enlightening

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power of which is not diminished in these latter days. Effects hardly less astonishing than those which marked its progress in the days of the apostles have manifested themselves among the heathen of New Zealand; turning their hearts from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan to the service of the living God. Next to the blessings of a more spiritual nature may be stated the thirst for knowledge which has been very generally excited; some professing the utmost readiness to contribute part of their slender income towards the purchase of books, slates, and other school-materials. The inhabitants, we are assured, are an inquiring people, and the knowledge thus obtained is communicated from one district to another; sometimes it is conveyed to tribes at a great distance, who were thought to be in total ignorance. Persons who were made prisoners of war, and reduced to slavery at the Bay of Islands, have been educated in the miss ion-schools; and these, after procuring their freedom by favour or purchase, have carried with them among their relations the little stock of information they had acquired, and even commenced the work of instruction. This step once taken, the result has, in most cases, proved very gratifying. Their rude neighbours listened with wonder to all the strange things which they had to tell, and hence became more inclined to receive from their lips the elements of the pure faith which had also been revealed by the white men. When they found that the returned captives had at the same time learned the arts of the blacksmith, carpenter, and brickmaker, and could thereby render essential aid in building houses, and in otherwise adding to their comforts, they lent a more respectful ear to their spiritual admonitions, as coming from a source which, on other accounts, they were disposed to venerate.

In such circumstances it is scarcely necessary to add that the domestic character is much improved. Children are now more carefully brought up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord. Polygamy is almost every where abolished, and the inhuman practices which so

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deeply disgraced the land, are generally suppressed. It was customary, at no distant period, for the relations of a departed chief to kill a number of slaves, male and female, as a satisfaction to his ghost, and in order that they might do him service in the world of spirits. Fears were entertained that at the death of Hongi, their most distinguished leader, many victims would be immolated to their cruel superstition; but so complete a change has taken place in the feelings and principles of the natives, that not one of his retainers was demanded by the priests.

Nothing can be more agreeable to those who are interested in the welfare of a people still in the earliest stage of civilisation, than to be informed that their wandering, thievish propensities are gradually giving way to more settled, honest, and industrious habits. They are now inclined to build better habitations for their households, and to connect the enjoyment of comfort with the idea of home. A deserted village is now rarely observed. Every where the men are seen cultivating the ground or improving their dwellings, while the women are employed in some way calculated to be beneficial to themselves or their families. Religion has taught them to extend their interests into the future; to reflect on the past, and to anticipate events for which they now labour to prepare the way; in a word, to discharge the functions of reason with reference to their own well-being in this world and the next. The rulers of these little nations already perceive the benefits of knowledge, and more especially of the arts. "What are these missionaries come to dwell with us for?" asked one of them when contemplating the important changes which were taking place under their auspices. Answering himself, he said, "they are come to break our clubs and establish peace." Again, following up his own idea, he subjoined, "they are come to break our clubs in two--to blunt the points of our spears--to draw the bullets from our muskets--and to make this tribe and that tribe love one another, and sit down as brothers and friends." 16

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The advantages of religious knowledge having become so manifest, new stations were established in various places, in particular, at Kaitai and Puriri, on the Thames, both fertile and very improvable districts. The former is placed in a beautiful valley, situated nearly at an equal distance from the eastern and western coasts; the island at this point being so narrow, that the roaring of the surf on both beaches can be distinctly heard. In connexion with this settlement, there are many natives who can be regularly visited; and they themselves have cut roads in order to facilitate their intercourse with the missionaries, whose instructions they highly value. In regard to the other, it is mentioned that the banks of the Thames are remarkably fruitful. Thousands of acres of the finest flax flourish there undisturbed; and nothing but machinery is wanted to render this production extremely valuable. Farther up are found large fields of potatoes and corn, the result of European cultivation, interspersed with native villages, where the rural labourers reside.

Preparatory to the founding of these infant churches in the northern island, two of the brethren travelled over a large extent of country, visiting all the harbours on the western coast as far southward as Albatross. They found that all of them except Manukau were greatly obstructed at the entrance by dangerous bars, on which the sea almost constantly breaks, while the depth of water was too scanty to admit ships of any considerable burden. They crossed many large rivers, which seemed to pass through fertile lands, inhabited by a numerous population, and composing part of the district called Waikato. Here, as in other sections of the island, where the natives do not live in fortifications for security, they are found to reside in villages at the distance of a few miles one from the other. Their cultivated spots are still more scattered, upon the principle every where adopted, that should they be attacked by what they call a stripping party, only one portion of their food may be carried away, and that they may still have something to depend upon, after their enemies have removed everything that they appeared to possess.

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"We are now," says Mr Yate, "become pretty well acquainted with the number of inhabitants in all parts of the country, from the North Cape as far south as Table Cape; and the time is not far distant when we may hope to extend our researches as far as Entry Island, in Cook's Straits; and shall thus soon know the whole of the northern island of New Zealand, in the length and in the breadth thereof. Every effort is now made to discover, and to bring into service, the resources of the country itself, that we may be enabled to form new and distinct stations, without incurring much additional expense. By this method also the natives themselves will be materially benefited, as the work will be accomplished principally by their agency; and they will see that their land affords them many necessaries, as well as some other articles of luxury, with which they now supply themselves from other nations, at a very large expense of labour or of property,--labour which might be much better applied, and property which might be turned to far better account." 17

The most satisfactory account of the New Zealand mission, and of the fruits produced by their labours, is found in a narrative which was addressed to the directors by the Bishop of Australia, who visited the colony in the year 1889. At every station which he personally inspected, the converts were so numerous as to bear a considerable proportion to the entire population. He states, that in most of the native villages where the missionaries have obtained a footing, there is a building, containing one room, superior in fabric and dimensions to the ordinary dwellings, which appears to be set apart as their place of assembling for religious worship, or to read the Scriptures, or to receive the exhortations of their spiritual teachers. In these edifices generally, but sometimes in the open air, the christian classes were assembled be-

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fore him. The gray haired man and the aged woman took their places to read, and to undergo examination, among their descendants of the second and third generations. The chief and slave stood side by side with the holy volume in their hands, and exerted their endeavours each to surpass the other in returning proper answers to the questions put to them concerning what they had been reading. These assemblages he encouraged on all occasions, not only from the pleasure which the exhibition itself afforded, but because he was thereby enabled in the most certain and satisfactory way to probe the extent of their acquirements and improvement. The experience thus obtained induced him to apply the term "converts" to those alone who, in the apparent sincerity of their convictions, and in the extent of their information compared with their limited opportunities, might be considered Christians indeed. 18

As the missionaries employed in those islands were, generally speaking, members of the English establishment, the committee in London had opened a communication with the bishop just mentioned, in order to establish, through his instrumentality, "such an exercise of the episcopal functions as the nature of the case would admit." It was in some degree in consequence of this application that he proceeded thither, hoping, as he expresses it, "to set in order the things which are wanting, and to confirm the native converts in their adherence to the doctrines of that church whose teaching first conveyed to them the glad tidings of redemption." The directors did not lose sight of that important object: on the contrary, they expressed a unanimous concurrence in the opinion which he conveyed to them, after his professional visitation to New Zealand, that "the Church of England requires to be planted there in the full

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integrity of its system." It is probably known to most of our readers that the desire here expressed has been cheerfully met on the part of the government, who, a few months ago, sanctioned the appointment of a bishop to New Zealand, now formally recognised as a colony under the protection of the crown.

The stations, which bear some reference to the fourteen districts into which the northern island may be conveniently divided, amount to nearly the same number. The extent of the several congregations may be estimated from the following statement, supplied by one of the ministers in a recent communication to the board in this country:--

Kaitaia, in which chapels are erected at every principal point, averages.................................................1020

Bay of Islands, including Wangaroa, .....................1940

Thames, comprehending both sides of the firth, ...........700

Tauranga, with Matamata and Maungatautari, ..............1000

Rotorua, including the central parts of Taupo, ..........1400

Bay of Plenty, Opotiki, Toure, and Motu, .................500

East Cape,...............................................1200

Poverty Bay, including Hauna, ...........................1000

Wairoa, partially visited, has no return.

Entry Island, under the instruction of native teachers.

Waikato, divided by churchmen and Wesleyans.

Taranake, Hokianga, and Kapiti, not returned.

The summary of the mission is given as follows:--

Stations, ............................................ 12

Communicants,................................... 233

Attendants on public worship, ...............8760

Schools,............................................. 72

Scholars, viz. Boys,.................... 163

Girls,....................................... 159

Sexes not distinguished,..............1245

Youths and adults,..................... 229


It is not maintained by the missionaries that all who rank as Christians are either sincere or well-informed. Mr King, one of their number, remarks, that "many of those who make a profession of the gospel relapse for a time, and then come forward again; so that they do not give satisfactory evidence of their sincerity, and thereby

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perplex our minds. The number of natives under christian instruction, and favoured with the means of grace, is very large; but the number of those only who are, in my opinion, decidedly christian, is very small." Nevertheless, no one can view the past and the probable future without claiming that tribute of respect to the missionary body which, by persons who have, on the spot, paid a candid attention to the subject, has never been withheld from them. It ought not to be forgotten, that to their self-denying and persevering exertions it is owing that New Zealand has become what it now is. To them are due the introduction of agriculture and gardening, the use of the spade, the plough, and the mill; they carried thither cattle, sheep, and horses; they have built houses and chapels; they have cut roads through forests, and constructed bridges over rivers; they have, in a word, been the honoured instruments of rendering that important country safe to emigrants and settlers. 19

Ever since Europeans set their foot on the shores of New Zealand, the natives have been animated with an eager desire to make themselves acquainted with the great secret of civilisation. With this view they occasionally resorted to the British colony of Australia, served on board our merchant ships, and assisted in the operations of whale-fishing. Their country, in return, became the asylum of many individuals who could boast of no other. Down to the year 1839 the European population in the northern island consisted of the very refuse of society; of convicts who had escaped from the penal settlements; of runaway sailors; of needy adventurers, whose improvident habits and bad characters had expelled them from all intercourse with those who respect the decencies of life; and of a few enterprising persons who had atoned for their offences by enduring the regulated period of bondage. 20

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So early as 1825 an attempt was made to colonize New Zealand by a Company formed in London, who proceeded in their design so far as to purchase some ground and send thither two ships with suitable cargoes. But this undertaking, impeded by many unforeseen difficulties, was soon abandoned. Nothing more was done till the year 1836, when an association was formed, at the suggestion of some members of the House of Commons, whose main object was the improvement of the islands. This body consisted of two classes; first, heads of families, who intended to establish themselves in the proposed settlement; and, secondly, public men, who, on their own responsibility, were willing to undertake the difficult task of carrying the measure into operation. But neither was this project crowned with success. The ministry being decidedly opposed to it, a bill brought into Parliament for the purpose of forming "a provisional government of British settlements of New Zealand" was thrown out. Such exertions, however, could not be made without some advantage. A committee of the Lords was named, who collected a great mass of valuable evidence, which at once enlightened the path and confirmed the hopes of future adventurers. 21

The original association was indeed dissolved; but some of the same individuals soon afterwards formed another with an adequate capital, and, early in the year 1839, they became possessed by purchase or negotiation of large tracts in the northern island, called by the natives Eaheinamauwee. The New Zealand Company began their operations by an announcement to the public, that their "attention and business will be confined to the purchase of tracts of land, the promotion of emigration to those tracts directly from the United Kingdom, the laying out of settlements and towns in the

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most favourable situations, and the gradual resale of such lands according to the value bestowed upon them by emigration and settlement." In May, their first ship sailed, under the direction of the Company's chief agent, who was instructed to pay particular regard to the mode of dealing with the natives in the purchase of land, to the acquisition of general information respecting the country, and to preparations for the establishment of settlements. From the outset, a strong preference was manifested for Cook's Straits, as being in the main track between Great Britain and her Polynesian colonies. The directors accordingly secured the whole of the territory on both sides of the Straits, including Port Nicholson, said to be one of the finest harbours in the world; and there the principal colony has been successfully formed, which now contains upwards of four thousand inhabitants. Nor have the interests of the natives been in any degree overlooked. There is reserved to them one-tenth of the whole lands purchased; an inheritance which, in a little while, will become of greater value to their families, and the source of more extended comfort, than if they had retained possession of the whole district in its wild state.

The views of the Company touching the aborigines have hitherto been fully realized in the colony, not merely by their own officers, but by the settlers at large. In particular, their agent, Colonel Wakefield, has all along acted on the most liberal and conciliating principles. By his equity and good temper, qualities to which the natives are not blind, he soon succeeded in gaining their confidence; and, accordingly, when the first body of emigrants arrived, they found a predisposition to receive them with friendship, and to perform for them such services as they immediately required. In constructing the basis of this colony, the Company assigned eleven hundred acres for the town called Wellington, and one hundred and ten thousand acres to form the rural sections of one hundred acres each. These lands were divided into eleven hundred sections, each

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comprehending one hundred rural acres and one town acre. Deducting the land reserved for the aborigines, the remainder was offered for sale at one pound the acre, or a hundred and one pounds for each section. On paying this sum, the purchaser received a land-order on the Company's local officer, entitling the holder to select his section according to priority of choice, determined by lot. The amount realized in the course of a few weeks was £99,990, after deducting the native reserves. Of this sum, seventy-five percent., or £74,992, 10s., was set apart to form the emigration-fund: that is, to supply means for defraying the expense of conveying settlers to the colony, and thereby to increase the value of the lands already sold. By the conditions of sale, indeed, the buyers of land-orders were entitled to 75 per cent, of their purchase-money, either in the shape of free passages for themselves and families, or for their servants and labourers; and where no claim was made, the benefit was equally conferred on the landowner, as the whole of the emigration-fund would be devoted to the conveyance of useful hands to the colony. 22

It was in the month of July that the land-fund was formed, and before the close of the year between eleven and twelve hundred persons were conveyed to the colony. Of these the great majority were labourers, well fitted by their age and physical qualities to realize the purpose of their mission; being for the most part in the prime of life, in full health, and of approved moral character. Among the wealthier classes were some of birth, education, and refinement, who, carrying out with them the seeds of civilisation, will soon extend the happy fruits of it over the whole land which they have adopted for their home.

At this stage the government, who had hitherto felt themselves impeded by difficulties arising from the pecu-

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liar condition of New Zealand, resolved to take steps for erecting a part of it into a British colony. Captain Hobson was instructed to proceed thither in quality of consul, to treat with the chiefs for the cession of part of their territory to the crown of England; it being understood that the islands were to be held as free and independent until the transference now contemplated should be accomplished. This step, as it implied the relinquishment of all claim on the ground of discovery and occupation, was attended with the inconvenience of throwing open the country to all European powers who might think proper to form colonies in it. France, immediately availing herself of the privilege thus tacitly granted, sent out sixty settlers in a regular transport, who were only twenty days too late to take possession of the southern island in the name of Louis Philippe. Captain Hobson, probably aware of this expedition, had in the mean time proclaimed the queen's sovereignty over the whole group, including the smaller islands on the coast.

But ministers seem not to have been prepared for so decided a measure on the part of their agent. On the 18th March 1841, there was laid on the table of the House of Commons the "Correspondence with the Secretary of State relative to New Zealand;" when, after some discussion, a memorandum was recorded, in which the pretensions made in behalf of her majesty to the sovereignty of New Zealand were repelled, and that country declared to be a substantive and independent state. Soon afterwards a public meeting was held in the city of London, when a petition to the queen and the two houses of parliament was numerously signed, praying that the subject might be taken into immediate consideration, and "these valuable islands preserved to the British dominions." The cabinet now saw the propriety of no longer opposing the wishes of the public, or of subjecting the emigrants to the disadvantage of being surrounded by foreign settlers, who, besides proving rivals in trade, might rouse the jealousy of the natives against the local government. Towards the end of October, the Company were enabled

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to announce that the differences which had existed between Government and themselves were finally adjusted. It was made known, at the same time, that New Zealand was no longer to be a dependency of New South Wales, as originally stipulated, but was thenceforth to be held as a separate and independent colony. A charter was granted to the Company, on certain equitable conditions, and the process of settlement has, since the autumn of 1840, been conducted with great success. 23

The geographical features of both islands seem to justify the peculiar mode of settling which the Company have adopted; for, being long and narrow, the line of seacoast is necessarily very great in proportion to the extent of surface. There are at short distances some splendid harbours, in the neighbourhood of which the Europeans have generally established themselves; but the limited space between the central hills and the ocean precludes the possibility of large rivers, though some are said to be well adapted for internal navigation. Port Nicholson, if allowed to derive the full advantage from its situation and fine haven, will, it has been predicted, make Wellington the great commercial metropolis, not merely of New Zealand, but of our whole Australian possessions. The Bay of Islands has been long partially settled, but not under such favourable auspices, having been indebted for part of its population to the class of adventurers to whom we have already alluded, and whose circumstances imperatively required a change of scene. The Company have resolved to form another settlement, to be called Nelson. The extent of land allotted for it is two hundred one thousand acres, divided into one thousand allotments of one hundred and fifty rural acres, fifty suburban acres, and one town acre. The

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price of each allotment is £300, so that the total sum placed at the disposal of the Company is £300,000, which will be thus distributed: £150,000 for the emigration of young couples to this particular settlement; £50,000 to defray the cost of surveys; and £50,000 for public purposes, such as the establishment of a college, religious endowments, the encouragement of steam navigation, and similar objects. Fifty thousand pounds will remain to reimburse the Company for their expenses and the use of capital.

Captain Hobson, it appears, has selected the harbour of Waitemata, on the Firth of the Thames, as the seat of his government, where he has also made preparations for the building of a town, to be named Auckland. It contains at present about two hundred inhabitants; and although, under the fostering influence of the chief ruler, it will doubtless increase, "it must ever remain insignificant compared with the commercial capital Wellington." To that and the other settlements separate municipalities will be given; with which view suitable appointments have been made, and officers properly qualified have been sent out. 24

With reference to the advantages of New Zealand, it is pleasant to remark, that a communication with it will probably be opened by the Isthmus of Panama and the Pacific Ocean. A steam navigation company have contracted to carry the West India mails for a certain number of years. From Jamaica to Porto Bello, the distance is only 550 miles, which will be accomplished by steam; and it is now proved beyond all doubt, that a railroad or a ship-canal through the neck of land itself may be effected at a moderate expense. From Panama a steam conveyance is already established as far as Lima, and even occasionally to Valparaiso; all, therefore, that remains to be done, is to establish a regular intercourse between the western coast of America and Cook's Straits or the Bay of Islands. Callao in Peru is mentioned in the

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Report of the Directors of the New Zealand Company as the place most favourable for carrying on such communication. At present, the average time occupied in a voyage to the colony at Port Nicholson is one hundred and twenty days, whereas, by the isthmus, it would not in general exceed eighty days; being a saving of one-third, as well as a security against the hazards which assail navigation in the vicinity of either cape.

Reflecting on the statements now made, in connexion with the effect which must be produced on the character and condition of the natives, we feel ourselves somewhat prepared to answer the question, whether our settlements in New Zealand are likely to promote the benevolent objects contemplated by the wise and good men who have recently countenanced the formation of such colonies. It may be remarked, in the first place, that, so little have the inhabitants availed themselves of the natural advantages of soil and climate, they cannot be said to have taken possession of the country which they call their own. It is still the uninvaded domain of nature; and they are merely a handful of stragglers who wander about its outskirts. They have no arts or manufactures which minister to wealth and comfort; no commerce, domestic or foreign; no distribution of the people into trades and professions, and no coin or circulating medium. The country is nearly a wilderness; all swamp or woodland, except a few scattered patches by the seaside, or along the courses of the rivers. Their villages are merely small groups of hovels, that dot the earth like so many molehills, hardly affording a shelter from the weather.

The appearance, too, of the natives, and the state of their personal accommodations, distinguish them almost as much from the people of a civilized country as if they were another species. It is said that there is a wild unsettledness in the very expression of their countenances, which assimilates them to a troop of predaceous animals. They have in most cases a profusion of fantastic decorations painted or engraven upon their bodies, while clusters

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of baubles dangling around them, combined with coloured earth, grease, filth, and even vermin, complete the humbling spectacle. Their food is coarse, and their cooking rude to a degree that almost takes from it the right to be called by the same name with the art which, in a civilized country, heightens the enjoyment of the poorest man's meal with no inconsiderable variety of preparation. Their furniture is equally scanty and inconvenient. Generally speaking, they have neither tables nor chairs; their beds are usually the floor; and their covering for the night the same mats which serve them as clothes during the day. Unacquainted with the useful arts, the savage has rarely made any progress in those which improve the taste or elevate the imagination. His ignorance of letters, too, keeps the community almost in the same situation with a herd of the lower animals, in so far as the accumulation of knowledge or intellectual advancement is concerned. The New Zealanders, for example, seem to have been in quite as enlightened a state when Tasman discovered the country in 1642, as they were when Cook visited them after the lapse of a hundred and twenty-seven years. 25

But it is not to be imagined that they are incapable of being civilized. Ferocious as they are, their habits and feelings are not more beyond the reach of improvement than were those of the ancestors of the most polished nations of Europe; and it deserves notice, that with all their savage propensities, they are possessed of many high qualities, both moral and intellectual. The means, too, which are actually employed for their elevation in social life, are unquestionably the most gentle and efficacious that could possibly be devised. Knowledge is merely offered to those who may be pleased to accept it; their prejudices are opposed by argument alone, not by violence or intimidation; the arts of civilisation are simply transported into their country, and allowed to recommend themselves to the inhabitants through their utility and

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importance. This experiment can scarcely excite any reaction or rouse feelings of jealousy, while every day that its beneficial effects are witnessed may be reasonably expected to add to its triumphs. The natives not only find their property improved, and their command over its productions increased, but its exchangeable value greatly augmented. 26

We may add, on the authority quoted below, that the earliest scheme for the accomplishment of this object was suggested by the celebrated Dr Franklin. In the year 1771, only a few months after Cook's return from his first voyage, the American statesman, who was then in England, proposed that a subscription should be set on foot, in which he would join, in order to fit out a vessel which should proceed to New Zealand with a cargo of such commodities as the natives were most in want of, and bring in return so much of the produce of the country as might prove equal to the expenses of the adventure. But the principal object of the expedition was to promote the improvement of the people, by opening to them the means of intercourse with the civilized world. Franklin drew up a series of proposals for the conduct of the enterprise, accompanied with an address to the public; in which last he remarks that the island of Great Britain is said to have originally produced only sloes, and that this fact may teach us how great and wealthy a country may become, even from the smallest beginnings, under the renovating influences of industry and the arts. He then proposes that the object to be kept in view should be to put the natives in possession of hogs, fowls, goats, cattle, corn, iron, and the other means of enabling and inducing them to exchange their roving warlike life for the peaceful pursuits of agriculture. It need not be added that the plan, owing to the difficulty of procuring subscriptions, or other causes, was never executed, and we now refer to it simply with the intention of showing that the wise suggestions it contains

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have been made the basis of the scheme pursued by those benevolent individuals who have carried to New Zealand the elements of knowledge both divine and secular. 27

Proofs have already been afforded of a striking peculiarity in the character of this people, which is very encouraging to the hope of their ultimate civilisation; namely, the eagerness they have shown to visit foreign countries, and to see with their own eyes whatever might gratify curiosity or prove subservient to usefulness. Even in the days of Cook this spirit of research displayed itself; and every one is aware of the difficulties which in more recent times have been overcome by these enterprising islanders in seeking an acquaintance with distant lands. Mr Marsden remarks, "my opinion is, that if half the New Zealanders were to die in their attempt to force themselves into civil life, the other half would not be deterred from making a similar effort; so desirous do they seem to attain our advantages." It is well known, too, that they are proud to array themselves in the dress of Europeans, and endeavour, as far as they can, to imitate their manners, and even their modes of feeling and thinking. Nay, many of them understand the language of their English visiters, and are themselves fond of speaking it; while the desire for European clothes, blankets, tea, sugar, bread, and other comforts, has become general in the neighbourhood of the missions. 28

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From the facts now detailed, it is manifest that the process of civilisation has commenced in New Zealand under very favourable circumstances. The natives, so lately separated from the cultivated portion of their species, not more by their geographical position than by the deep barbarism in which they were involved, are now brought into the light of knowledge and religion, and are no longer ignorant that there are other pursuits than those of war, and other enjoyments than those of revenge. Christianity, which is in every sense of the word the religion of civilisation, has gone forth among them attended by literature and the arts, and it is not possible that she

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should not eventually triumph over all the ignorance, prejudice, and ferocity with which she has here to contend. Such is the mild sway which her sublime faith is exercising over their rude minds, that it can hardly fail to restrain their destructive animosities, and abolish their sanguinary superstitions. Perhaps no feeling less ardent than a sense of religious duty could have supported the labourers in such a cause, surrounded by the difficulties and discouragements which met them at almost every step. But their task has gradually become easier and more cheering; while few gratifications can be equal to that which they must enjoy, when they contemplate, as the fruit of their efforts under a benignant Providence, a general amendment of manners and a great increase of comfort among the savage people whom they had undertaken to instruct.

It has been justly observed, that if we stop at the present point of our advancement in the attempt to civilize the New Zealanders, there would be room for doubt whether we have not rather inflicted an injury upon them than conferred a benefit. They are still savages in almost every thing except their knowledge of the wealth and power of their European visiters, and in their possession of a few of the products of our manufactures which they themselves have not yet learned to practise. Besides, some of the worst propensities of the native character are inflamed; and bad habits, formerly unknown, have been acquired. For example, they have probably carried on their wars with greater destruction of life than formerly, since they got muskets into their hands. The remedy for all these evils is the continuance of the training in religion, letters, agriculture, and the more simple of the arts. Sound and useful knowledge will at once occupy their minds, improve their feelings, and spread around them the blessings of security and competence. In this way we shall fulfil one of the most important duties incumbent on a commercial and maritime country. It is the price which we are called upon to pay for the many benefits we derive from our intercourse

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with the whole race of mankind in the East and in the West. 29

On no other foundation than on that of mutual kindness shall we be able to establish our settlements in New Zealand. The people have not concealed that they will resist every intrusion of strangers who may threaten to reduce their tribes to slavery; and this they would do with an obstinacy which, though it might not succeed in warding off the usurpation, would certainly prolong the contest till the best blood in the land should be shed, and the spirits of the survivors permanently alienated. Even the small colonies already founded by our countrymen have not a little alarmed the patriotism of some of the chiefs. One of them on his deathbed expressed many apprehensions as to the ulterior designs of those formidable Europeans whom he had been the principal means of introducing to his native shores. Another revealed to a missionary his serious fears lest the English should in a little time increase their force, drive the inhabitants into the woods, and take possession of their

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territory. Wheety, a third individual of the same class, who appears not to have been so devoted a patriot as some of his brethren, was wont to predict, as an event neither to be hindered nor regretted, "that New Zealand would one day be the white man's country." Were such suspicions to be generally entertained, the bloody retribution with which they have on several occasions avenged their real or imaginary wrongs, may prove to us an earnest, both of the consummate cunning they can employ in devising their plans of murder, and of the remorseless cruelty they display in putting them into execution. Our interest, therefore, is closely connected with our duty in pursuing the generous path into which the government has entered; carrying to the interesting people whose inheritance we seek to share the invaluable boon of a divine religion, and a portion of that useful knowledge which, while it gradually elevates the barbarian into the philosopher, secures to him all the benefits for which society was formed.

While we write, an Act has been passed under the auspices of ministers, "for regulating the sale of waste land belonging to the crown in the Australian colonies," and for promoting emigration on a large scale. This resolution seems to be founded on "Extracts of Correspondence relative to New Zealand" laid before the House of Commons in the course of 1841; in which are contained very ample details concerning the steps previously taken for establishing a regular colony in that settlement. In pursuance of the plan submitted to the Secretary of State, the extensive districts not yet occupied will, with the concurrence of the natives, be exposed to sale at the upset price of one pound an acre, in such quantities as may best promote the improvement of the country and the interests of the emigrants themselves. By these means an end will be put to the abuses which have hitherto more or less attended the appropriation of land, even in cases where neither violence nor fraud was meditated. The same arrangement will tend not only to augment the trade of the islands, but also to secure it

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for Great Britain, more especially that branch of it which is necessarily connected with the valuable fisheries established on the coast by numerous foreigners, as well from Europe as America.

It is provided in the Act just mentioned, that the lands to be sold shall be distinguished into three separate classes, namely, Town lots, Suburban lots, and Country lots. The power of conveying such property is vested in the governor, who is authorized and required, in name of her majesty, to alienate it in fee simple to the respective purchasers. Of the three descriptions of land, the two former must be sold by public auction; the last may be conveyed by private contract, if it shall have been previously offered for sale and not bought, but not for a smaller sum than the amount of the upset price. It is farther provided, that all such sales shall be for ready money; in other words, that a deposit of ten per cent. shall be paid at the time of purchase, and the remainder at the signing of the contract.

The stream of colonization has hitherto chiefly directed its course towards New Ulster, the northern island, owing principally to the accommodation found in its bays by the masters of whale-ships. But as New Munster presents many inducements to the agriculturist, and still more to the stock-farmer, whose wealth consists in the number of his cattle, there can be no doubt that its extensive valleys and green hills will be soon occupied by industrious settlers.

1   In Cruise's Journal, p. 86, it is mentioned that he was told by one of the natives, an old man, of a ship that had been lost on the west coast, at a comparatively recent period. A boat's crew having gone on shore to trade for provisions, were, he said, cut off by the savages. See also The New Zealanders (12mo, Lond. 1830), p. 27.
2   Hawkesworth's Account of the Voyages of Byron, Wallis, Carteret, and Cook, vol. ii. p. 290. A motive of humanity induced Captain Cook to leave that part of the coast. "As soon as we were drawn up on the other side, the Indians came down, not in a body as we expected, but by two or three at a time, all armed, and in a short time their number increased to about two hundred. As we now despaired of making peace with them, seeing that the dread of our small arms did not keep them at a distance, and that the ship was too far off to reach the place with a shot, we resolved to re-embark, lest our stay should embroil us in another quarrel, and cost more of the Indians their lives."--P. 293.
3   In an "Account of the Settlements of the New Zealand Company," by the Hon. H. W. Petre (Lond. 1841), the islands are named, beginning at the north, New Ulster, New Munster, and New Leinster.
4   Regarding this transaction more ample details will be found in Rochon's Voyages aux Indes Orientales, tome iii. p. 388, extracted from the Journal of P. de l'Orme. In this work, the name of the chief is spelled Naginouni.--New Zealanders, p. 39.
5   Crozet, whose narrative is embodied in the volumes of the Abbe Rochon, remarks, that "they treated us with every show of kindness for thirty-three days, in the intention of eating us the thirty-fourth."--Voyage de Marion, p. 121, quoted in The New Zealanders, p. 53.
6   A Voyage to the Pacific Ocean, performed under the direction of Captains Cook, Clerke, and Gore, in the Years 1776-1780, vol. i. p. 133. Cook adds, that "the remainder of Kahoora's account of this unhappy affair differed very little from what we had before learned from the rest of his countrymen."
7   Savage's Account of New Zealand, p. 94-110.
8   See "Particulars of the Destruction of a British Vessel on the Coast of New Zealand."--Constable's Miscellany, vol. iv. p. 323. The author of these "Particulars," Captain Berry of the ship City of Edinburgh, says, "we found the wreck of the Boyd in shoal water at the top of the harbour, a most melancholy picture of wanton mischief. The natives had cut her cables, and towed her up the harbour till she had grounded, and then set her on fire and burnt her to the water's edge." Mr Berry's statement differs from that more commonly given as to the proximate cause of the massacre. Tippahee, he observes, who happened to be at Wangaroa, went into the cabin, and after paying his respects to the captain, begged a little bread for his men; but the other received him very slightingly, and desired him to go away, and not trouble him at present, as he was busy. The proud old savage, who had been a constant guest at the governor's table at Port Jackson, being highly offended at this treatment, immediately left the cabin, and after stamping a few minutes on the deck, went into his canoe. But as soon as the captain left the ship, Tippahee, who remained alongside in his canoe, came again on board, soon after which the massacre began. In short, Mr Berry ascribes the catastrophe to the resentment of this chief; whereas other authors trace it, with greater probability, to the vindictive feelings of George, the native sailor. His narrative, however, is extremely interesting.
The account given in the Library of Entertaining Knowledge (New Zealanders) corresponds, we are assured, with that which first appeared in the Sydney Gazette of 1st September 1810, and which has been reprinted in the Journal of Captain Cruise. It was derived originally from the report of a native of Otaheite, who was on the spot at the time.
9   An Account of New Zealand, and of the Formation and Progress of the Church Missionary Society's Mission in the Northern Island. By the Rev. William Yate, Missionary (small 8vo, Lond. 1835), p. 168.
10   Ibid. p. 169.
11   Ellis, Polynesian Researches, vol. iii. p. 360. He remarks, notwithstanding, "that to the eye of a missionary, New Zealand is an interesting country, inhabited by a people of no ordinary powers, could they be brought under the influence of right principles."
12   Yate's New Zealand, p. 176, where the "account of operations" is quoted from the records of the Church Missionary Society. It is added, that "a large addition has of late been made" by purchase to the Society's land on either side of the settlement, by which a good supply of timber for fuel has been secured. The land is generally barren, consisting for the most part of hills; the patches of low ground are available for cultivation, and afford also pasturage for the cattle. During the year, fourteen hundred bushels of potatoes have been raised towards the maintenance of the schools." "Imperfect," says the Report, "as is the sketch of this station which has thus been traced, it contains enough to show that the missionaries have abundant reason to view the past and the present with thankfulness, and the future with hope."
13   Yate's New Zealand, p. 190. "The parent committee," says the author, "have ever recommended the growth of wheat for our own subsistence, and have lent most substantial aid in furthering so very desirable an object. They thought, and justly too, that if the natives saw somewhat of the blessings of civilisation, and the effects of industry, they would themselves become both civilized and industrious."--P. 189.
14   Yate's New Zealand, p. 197.
15   Yate, p. 198. The author adds, that besides making carts, wagons, drays, ploughs, harrows, the natives had dug three wells upwards of fifty feet deep; erected a dam, and cut out a race for the mill; and that the whole was accomplished by forty youths and forty adults, who had never before been accustomed to labour. But of all the triumphs of civilisation, there is nothing so gratifying as the progress of the people in letters and religious principle. They have aided in the translation of the liturgy into their own language, and, accordingly, can worship God in the public assembly, in a form of words used by the most enlightened nation in the world. "The church at this time," says he, "is crowded to excess by an attentive and devout congregation; and I have seen hundreds pressing for admittance, for whom room could not be obtained. How many happy Sabbaths have I spent at the Waimate! and how my inmost soul rejoiced as I have seen the once-deluded people of this land listening with delight to the sound of the church-going bell, and hastening with willing feet to the house of the Lord. There is something peculiarly pleasing in the sound of the bell amidst the wilds of New Zealand."
16   Yate's New Zealand, p. 206.
17   Page 269. In the Appendix to his little volume, the author has annexed a variety of letters which he had induced the natives to write to him on religious subjects. Some of these are very interesting as the first efforts of untutored minds.
18   Proceedings of the Church Missionary Society, 1840, p. 85. According to this Report, the mission consists of 8 missionaries, 1 surgeon, 1 farmer, 1 superintendent of press, 1 printer, 17 catechists, 3 artisans and other assistants, 2 female teachers, and 43 native teachers.
19   Fortieth Report of Church Missionary Society, p. 96.
20   New Zealand in 1839: or Four Letters to the Right Hon. Earl Durham, Governor of the New Zealand Land Company, on the Colonization of that Island, and on the Present Condition and Prospects of the Native Inhabitants. By John Dunmore Lang, D.D. (Lond. 1839), p. 7.
21   Report: Present State of the Islands of New Zealand. Ordered by House of Commons to be printed, 8th August 1838.
22   Encyclopaedia Britannica, article New Zealand. Information relative to New Zealand, compiled for the use of Colonists, by John Ward, Esq., Secretary to the New Zealand Company. Lond. 1841.
23   Encyclopaedia Britannica, article New Zealand. At the end of 1840, the white population of New Zealand, being chiefly emigrants from this country, was as follows:--
Wellington and Port Nicholson,..................3177
Other parts of New Zealand,.......................2350
24   Encyclopaedia Britannica, part cxxv. p. 982.
25   The New Zealanders (Library of Entertaining Knowledge), p. 399. This little work contains an interesting variety of facts, together with many judicious reflections.
26   See Dodsley's Annual Register, quoted by the author of The New Zealanders, p. 410.
27   The settlements planted and fostered by the missionaries can now boast the following productions:--"Wheat, oats, barley, pease, horse and kitchen beans, tares, hops, turnips, carrots, radishes, cabbages, potatoes, lettuce, red beet, brocoli, endive, asparagus, cresses, onions, shalots, celery, rock and water melons, pumpkins, cucumbers, parsley, vines, strawberries, raspberries, orange, lemon, apple, pear, peach, apricot, quince, almond, and plum trees, pepper and spear mint, sage, rice, marigolds, lilies, rosepinks, sweetwilliams, rosemary, featherdew, lavender, Dutch clover, meadow, feschu, rib, and sweet-scented vernal grasses."--Twenty Second Report of the Church Missionary Society, p. 199.
28   Proceedings of Church Missionary Society, 1820, 1821, p. 364. At first, considerable difficulties were encountered in the attempt to ingraft new habits on the untutored mind. Mrs Williams, wife of one of the missionaries, remarks, that "the best of the native girls, if not well watched, would strain the milk with the duster, wash the tea-things with the knife-cloth, or wipe the tables with the flannel for scouring the floor. The very best of them will also on a hot day take herself off, just when you may be wishing for some one to relieve you, and swim; after which she will go to sleep for two or three hours. If they are not in a humour to do any thing that you tell them, they will not understand you: it is by no means uncommon to receive such an answer as 'what care I for that?' The moment a boat arrives, away run all the native servants---men, boys, and girls, to the beach. If there is any thing to be seen, or any thing occurs in New Zealand, the mistress must do the work while the servants gaze abroad: she must not censure them, for, if they are 'rangatiras,' they will run away in a pet; and if they are 'cookies,' they will laugh at her, and tell her that she has 'too much of the mouth.' Having been forewarned of this, I wait and work away till they choose to come back, which they generally do at meal-time." The teachers, who had nearly similar complaints to make, soon found that it was no easy matter to obtain a regular attendance from their restless pupils. It was not enough that the children were fed; the parents thought proper to insist upon being paid for permitting the young ones to attend school. Indeed, after the first month, they got tired of the school-room altogether, and the masters were obliged to follow them into the woods. By a more liberal expenditure of provisions, however, they at last brought them under more regular government. At the best, the scene was somewhat tumultuous. 'While one child,' says Mr Kendall, 'is repeating his lesson, another will be playing with my feet, another taking away my hat, and another my book; and all this in the most friendly manner.'"--Nineteenth Report of Church Missionary Society, p. 200.
29   It is known to most readers that Tooi, a young chief, and his friend Teeterree, visited England in the year 1818, where the former, more especially, conducted himself with great propriety, and seemed fascinated by the usages of civilized life. Next year, having returned to New Zealand, he went on board Captain Cruise's ship, who remarks, that "at breakfast he conducted himself quite like a gentleman." It is added, however, that his conversation all the time was "a continued boast of the atrocities he had committed during an excursion which he and Krokro had made two months before to the river Thames; and he dwelt with marked pleasure upon an instance of his generalship, when having forced a small party of his enemies into a narrow place, whence there was no egress, he was enabled successively to shoot two and twenty of them, without their having the power of making the slightest resistance. To qualify this story, he remarked that, 'though all the dead bodies were devoured by the tribe, neither he nor his brother ate human flesh, nor did they fight on Sundays. When asked why he did not try to turn the minds of his people to agriculture, he said it was impossible; 'that if you told a New Zealander to work, he fell asleep; but if you spoke of fighting, he opened his eyes as wide as a teacup; that the whole bent of his mind was war, and that he looked upon fighting as fun.'"--Cruise's Journal, p. 39. New Zealanders, p. 419.

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