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The Colony of New Zealand has attracted much attention and interest in England, as a most advantageous channel for emigration, and numerous accounts have been published in former years of that part of the North Island, in the immediate vicinity of the Bay of Islands; and---more recently, of the shores of Cook's Straits, where have been established the settlements of the New Zealand Company.
But these are only portions of a Colony as large in extent as Great Britain, situated at the two extremes of the North Island, and distant six degrees of latitude from each other.
The large Gulf of Houraki, nearly midway between the North Cape and Cook's Straits, on the eastern coast of the North Island, has several fine rivers discharging into it:---the Waihou or Thames, Piako, Wairoa, Tamaki, and Waitemata. On the south bank of the latter, has been established Auckland, the Government and Metropolitan city of New Zealand.
In various excursions, and during a residence of more than twelve months, on the shores and districts adjacent to these rivers, for the purpose of ascer-
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taining the true capabilities and resources of the country,---of witnessing the character, customs and habits of the Natives,---and of learning their language,---notes were made, from personal observation and investigation, as well as from communication with respectable persons, long resident on the Islands.
These memoranda accumulated to a considerable extent; and, on returning to England, in the latter months of 1841, their arrangement and condensation was an occupation to beguile the monotony and tediousness of a long voyage.
The description of Auckland, the capital, and of the neighbouring country and coasts will, doubtless, excite considerable interest; but replete with higher importance and deserving of serious consideration are the very peculiar circumstances in which New Zealand is placed, by its becoming a dependency of the British Crown.
These circumstances, which it is presumed are little known and understood in England, are---
The novel position of the Government, as regards the territorial possessions of the Aborigines :
The numerous and extensive Land Claims of Europeans, by alleged purchases from the Natives, previous to the Declaration of the Sovereignty of Her Majesty, who, by proclamation, has declared, "it is not intended to dispossess them, if acquired on equitable terms."
The effect which the adjudication of these claims have on the Government sales of Crown lands,
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and on the fund for the purposes of emigration;--- and, lastly,
The unavoidable necessity, from the extent of coast and the various settlements throughout the Islands being so distant from each other, of the expenditure on the first and many subsequent years exceeding to a large amount the revenue, very disproportionate to the population, and bearing no analogy to other colonies.
To elucidate and fully explain therefore these important circumstances is the object of the following pages;---not only, that the public mind may be disabused, and rightly informed, on the present real state of the Colony of New Zealand;---but also, with a fervent hope, that a humane and just policy may be adopted, by the British Government and Legislature, towards a noble race of Aborigines, whose native land has resources and capabilities to render it, by judicious measures, one of the most valuable colonial appendages of the British Crown.
1st May, 1842.
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HISTORY OF THE COLONY OF NEW ZEALAND.
Early periods of the Colony---British Resident---British Consul---Lieutenant-Governor---Arrival of Lieutenant-Governor at Bay of Islands ---Proclamations of Her Majesty---Treaty with the Natives for the Sovereignty at Bay of Islands---Treaty of Waitangi---Treaty with the Natives for the Sovereignty at Hokianga--- at Kaitaia---Speech of Native Chief---Treaty with the Natives for Sovereignty---On the East Coast---On the Southern Island---On the Middle Island . . . . 3
Town of Russell---The Waitemata---Harbour and Town of Auckland ---Mount Eden---The Nga te Whatua Tribe---Orakei---River Tamaki ---Mount Wellington---Manakao Harbour---Waikato River---Coromandel Harbour ---Mercury Bay---The River Waihou or Thames---The River Piako---Island of Waiheki---Maurangi---Matakana---Tutukaka --- Russell---Wangaroa . . . . . 28
Auckland---Separation of the Colony from New South Wales---Captain Hobson appointed Governor of the Colony of New Zealand---Councils and Government Officers---First Session of Legislative Council ---Speech of the Governor---Ordinances---Building of Auckland--- Erection of a Metropolitan Church---Roman Catholic Church--- Newspaper and Bank . . . . . 46
Provisions---Animals---Vegetables---Nature of the Country---Supply of Provisions---Price of Provisions---Rents and Wages---Shipping--- Climate and Weather--- European Population . . . . . 55
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ON LAND CLAIMS IN NEW ZEALAND.
Land Claims peculiar to New Zealand---Effect of the intention of Home Government---and of the Plan of the New Zealand Company --- Purchases from the Natives---Proclamation as to Land Claims--- Governor Hobson's Letter to the Marquis of Normanby---Bill to appoint Commissioners---Principles of the Bill---Case of the Port Phillip Association---Case of New Zealand Company---Arguments against the Bill---Reasons for it---Preamble---Clauses---Schedules of the Bill---Despatches of Sir George Gipps to Lord John Russell . . . . 71
Appointment of Commissioners---Ordinance of Legislative Council of New Zealand---Nature of Claims---Number of Claims---Claims in North Island, or New Ulster---Claims in the Middle Island, or New Munster---Claims in Stewart's Island, or New Leinster---Area of the Three Islands---Consideration given for Land---Mode of investigation of Claims---Tenure of Land among the Natives---Amount and Date of Consideration given---Example of Claims . . . . . 90
Large Claims on Middle Island---Reasons for immediate Decision on Land Claims---Effect of Land Claims on Sales of Crown Lands--- Necessity for Increased Numbers of Commissioners---Question as to Surplus of Land from good Claims---Claims to Land by Intermarriage of Englishmen with the Natives---Lands of the Aborigines . . . . 107
CHAPTER IV. ABSTRACT OF LAND CLAIMS.
Land Claims on North Island, New Ulster---West Coast---Hokianga---Kaipara---Manakao---Rivers Waikato and Waipa---Kawia---Wangaroa---Taranaki--- On East Coast---Doubtless Bay---Kaitaia---Mongonui---Wangaroa---Bay of Islands---Tutukaka---Wangari and Bream
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Bay---Waitemata---Coromandel Harbour---Rivers Thames and Piako ---Mercury Bay---Tauranga---East Cape---Poverty Bay---Hawkes Bay---Table Cape---Cook's Straits---Islands of Rangi Toto, Motu Tapu, Motu Te, Motu Koreho, Great Barrier---On Middle Island, New Munster---West Coast---Cape Farewell---Mistaken Bay---Port Adventure---Dusky Bay---Foveaux's Straits---East Coast---Otako--- Akaroa---Cook's Straits---Blind Bay---Admiralty Bay---Islands of Manna, Kapiti, Kanarra, Ahamataroa, Green Island, Spencer's Island ---On Stewart's Island, New Leinster---The whole Island and the Island of Erecochere . . . . . 12
ON THE SALE OF CROWN LANDS IN NEW ZEALAND.
Colonial Regulation for the Sales of Land---First Sale of Town Allotments at Auckland---High Prices---Cause of High Prices---Land Jobbers---Re sale of Town Allotments---Government Controul of Sales---Impolicy of Large Areas---Letter of the Surveyor-General . . . . 129
Sale of Country Lands---Necessity of Settlers obtaining Land with facility---Injustice of Reservation of Land---Nature of Country Allotments---Sale of Government Land---Impolicy of Large Allotments---Formation of Villages and Towns---System in New South Wales . . . . . . 147
Necessity for Restrictions on Re-sales of Land---Importance of Measures as regards the Sale of Crown Lands---Difference between New Zealanders and other Natives---Effect of Land Claims on Sales of Crown Lands---Competition of New Zealand Company in Sales of Land---New Zealand compared with Upper Canada---Doubts of any Funds from Sales of Crown Lands for Emigration . . . . . 160
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ABORIGINES OF NEW ZEALAND.
Origin ---Population---Causes of Decrease of Population---Language--- Address of the Protector to the Aborigines in the Native Language ---Education of the Natives---Missionaries---Roman Catholics---Protestant Bishop and Clergymen . . . . 175
Character of the Natives---Forbearance of the Natives---Consideration of the Natives---Natives not Aggressors---Barque Harriet---Rutherford's Narrative---Supposed Acts on English Coast---Recent Instances of Aggression by Europeans---Forbearance and judicious conduct of the Natives . . . . . 193
Protection of Aborigines---Difference between Australian and New Zealand Natives---Reserves of Land for Natives---Treatment of Natives as British Subjects---Protection of Aborigines---Dangers of Injustice to the Natives---Former Errors of Civilization of Aborigines---Protectors of Aborigines---Fund for the expense of Protection of Aborigines . . . . . 204
ON THE FUTURE PROSPECTS OF THE COLONY.
Resources and Exports---Timber---Kauri---Labour in bringing Timber from Forests---Timber for Ship-building---Tanikaha---Pohutukaua---Comparative prices of Timber---Flax---Whale Fishery . . . . . 227
Labour and Agriculture---Distinction between New South Wales and New Zealand---Sheep and Wool---Convict Labour---Roads, Bridges, &c.---Assigned Servants---Native Labour in New Zealand---Agriculture in New Zealand---Labour and Expense of Clearing---Corn as an Export---Small Farms---Class of Emigrants adapted to New Zealand ---New Zealand the seat of Manufactures . . . . . 254
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Revenue and Expenditure---Taxes in Mauritius and Canada---Extent of Coast in New Zealand---Estimates for 1841-1842---Civil Establishment---Customs---Mounted Police---Instance of Native Tact---Abstract of Government Estimates . . . . 262
Proposed Measures---Inconsistency of Measures as regards Land Claims ---As regards Sales of Crown Lands---Sources of Revenue---Proposed Measures---Land Tax---Colonial Land Commissioners---Imported Labour---Uncultivated Land Tax---Example of a Farm---Cultivated Land Tax---Example of the Land Tax---Small Farms---Future Measures . . . . 284
A.---Proclamation asserting Her Majesty's authority in New Zealand . . 305
B.---Proclamation declaring all Titles to Land in New Zealand null and void . . 307
C.---Treaty of Waitangi between Her Majesty and the Native Chiefs . . 309
D.---Sailing Directions for Auckland . . 311
E.---Charter for erecting the Colony of New Zealand . . 314
F.---Table of Duties of Customs payable in New Zealand . . 321
G.---Ordinance of Governor and Council to appoint Commissioners for Land Claims . . 322
H.---Estimates of the Colony of New Zealand for the year 1841-1842 . . 337
I.---A Bill for regulating the Survey and Sales of Lands belonging to the Crown in the Australian Colonies and New Zealand . . 356