1843 - Selwyn, George Augustus. New Zealand Mission: Views of the Bishop of New Zealand. - The Bishop of New Zealand's Views of the Mission.

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  1843 - Selwyn, George Augustus. New Zealand Mission: Views of the Bishop of New Zealand. - The Bishop of New Zealand's Views of the Mission.
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Church Missionary Society's Mission







Price Sixpence.

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Red Lion Court, Fleet Street.


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THREE year's ago the Committee of the Church Missionary Society published, in this form, a Letter from the Bishop of Australia, detailing his Lordship's views of the Society's New Zealand Mission. The Bishop visited the Mission at the request of the Committee, in order to impart to it the advantage of the exercise of his episcopal functions. He reached New Zealand at the close of 1838. The testimony which the Bishop bore to the state of the Mission, was corroborative of the Reports received by the Committee from the Missionaries, of the beneficial influence of their labours on the Natives.

The Rev. George Augustus Selwyn, D.D., having been appointed Bishop of New Zealand, sailed for his Diocese in December, 1841. The Committee have

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recently received communications from his Lordship, detailing at large the results of his visits to almost all the Society's Stations in the Island.

His Lordship's interesting Letters fully confirm all preceding Reports of the signal manner in which it has pleased God to bless the Gospel of His grace, both to the temporal and spiritual welfare of the Natives. It is, too, very gratifying to find the Bishop's mind so favourably impressed, as it has been, with the character and conduct of the Missionaries. The Bishop has been pleased to testify his high esteem of the two Senior Missionaries, the Rev. H. Williams and the Rev. W. Williams, by appointing the first, his Commissary in the Bay of Islands, in the vicinity of which his Lordship has at present taken up his residence; and the second, his Archdeacon for the East Cape District, in which the Rev. W. Williams is located.

The views and feelings of the Bishop of New Zealand, are thus expressed at

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the close of his Letter to the Committee, of the 29th of July last:--

I hope this Letter will have put you, in some degree, in possession of my feelings toward the Natives, and toward the Mission. If you have gathered from it, that I have imbibed the strongest regard for this native people, and a very high respect and esteem for the members of the Mission in general, you will have drawn a right conclusion from this very imperfect statement of my real feelings. I would rather that you should give me credit for feeling more than I express, than incur the danger of seeming to exaggerate beyond the facts of the case. God grant that the facts may every day more and more speak for themselves, and prove this country to be, as I believe it to be, the ground-plot of one of the most signal mercies which God has ever granted to the Missionary exertions of His Church.


May 26th, 1843.

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The Bishop of New Zealand's Views of the Mission.

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THE Bishop's first Letter is addressed to the Honorary Clerical Secretary, and is dated, Brig "Victoria," Gulf of Hauraki, July 29, 1842; the Bishop being on his voyage from Auckland to Wellington and Nelson. It first notices

His Lordship's Sojourn at Sydney.


You may have heard, already, that I arrived at Auckland on the 29th of May, after a delightful voyage of five months, including a detention of five weeks at Sydney; during which, I enjoyed the great privilege of conversing deliberately with the Bishop of Australia, upon every subject relating to the New Zealand Mission. I had also the pleasure of becoming acquainted with several members of the family of the late Rev. S. Marsden; and of officiating in his Church at Parramatta. In speaking of our stay at Sydney, I must not

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omit to mention the great kindness which we received from the Society's agent, Mr. Robert Campbell, who placed a large house at my disposal for the reception of the party; and thereby enabled me to avoid an expense, on their account, of at least one hundred pounds.

The present state of the native population of New South Wales, is a frightful warning to all who are entering upon the deep responsibility involved in the care of a savage race. They are not deficient in intellect, as some have said; but, from causes too various to be accurately traced, have sunk into a state of the most abject misery. May God preserve the New Zealanders from such an end, as that to which the Aborigines of New South Wales are fast approaching !

Departure from Sydney, and Arrival at Auckland, New Zealand--Arrangements for stationing the new Missionaries.

An accident to the Ship "Tomatin," in the harbour of Sydney, led to so much delay, that I left my family and party, and went on in the Brig "Bristolian;" in which I arrived at Auckland, as I have said, on the 29th of May. Here I found the Rev. G. A. Kissling, and Mrs. Kissling, and Mr. S. M. Spencer and Mrs. Spencer; who arrived, in the "Louisa

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Campbell," about a fortnight before me. Mr. Kissling brought me a letter from you, in which you suggested a change in the location of Clergymen proposed in your Letter of December last. I should willingly have acceded to this, if Mr. Kissling had not represented to me that his residence in a hot climate would make it very painful to him to be placed in a very wet and windy situation, which is the general character of the South Western District of this country. I have therefore consented to his going to the more genial climate of the East Cape; and am now on my way to station the Rev. C. L. Reay, in connexion with the Rev. O. Hadfield and the Rev. J. Mason. The exact spot for his station I cannot decide, till I have seen the country, and conferred with those Gentlemen on the subject. The Rev. W. C. Dudley and Mrs. Dudley, have gone to stay with Mrs. Selwyn, at the Waimate, till the return of the "Columbine" from Poverty Bay; after which they intend to go without delay to Wairoa, south of Poverty Bay, a Station at present under the care of the Rev. W. Williams. I have requested Mr. Kissling to continue to give to Mr. Spencer the assistance which he has afforded to him, with good effect, during the voyage; and they hope shortly to go down together in the "Columbine" to

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the Station allotted to Mr. Kissling, near the East Cape. Mr. Spencer's acquaintance with the mechanical arts will enable him to assist Mr. Kissling very materially in his first settlement.

Interview with Messrs. Maunsell and Hamlin--Commercial Intercourse of the Natives with Europeans.

Soon after my arrival at Auckland, I was visited by the Rev. R. Maunsell and Mr. J. Hamlin; two of the best linguists in the Mission. From them I obtained an account of the state of their districts; which seems to be highly satisfactory, with the one exception of the unsettled and wandering habits of the Natives, caused by their frequent visits to Auckland, for the purposes of trade. The extent to which this is carried on may be judged from the fact, that nearly the whole population of the town is supplied with pork, vegetables, fish, and firewood, by the Natives; who receive very fair prices for their commodities, and buy, in return, English clothing, tools, and other goods. This free intercourse has had the good effect of encouraging habits of industry, neatness, and cleanliness; but, on the other hand, it has taken the Natives away from the care of their Missionaries for long periods, and has introduced irregularity, especially into their

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Schools. Still, their habits of daily worship remain unchanged; every morning and evening they are still heard singing their hymns, in the temporary huts which they have built in the little bays near the town--and especially near the houses of Mr. G. Clarke, late of the Waimate, and now Protector of the Aborigines, and of Mr. Martin, the Chief Justice, who is a devoted friend to the native people, and is seldom without a little family of his friends encamped under his house in the little bay in which he lives, at the distance of a mile and a half from the town. On my first landing, I was delighted to see a large party of Natives working for him; the conditions being specified in a written contract drawn up by him in their own language. Mr. Swainson, the Attorney General, another zealous friend of the Natives, lives in the same bay, and has in his employment one of the most intelligent and well conducted Native women whom I have yet seen.

Voyage to Te Puru, in the Thames, to visit Te Raia, a Heathen Chief.

On Monday, June the 6th, I left Auckland in a small Schooner, in company with Mr. Clarke, to go to the mouth of the Thames, to inquire into the circumstances of an attack made by an Heathen Chief, named Te Raia, upon

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some of the inhabitants of the district of Tauranga.

Notice of William, Native Teacher at Waiheke.

On our way, we called at Waiheke, a beautiful island in the frith, where I saw the first specimen of a thoroughly native village; and I can assure you the sight filled me with joy. We were met on the beach by the Native Teacher William, a man of tall stature, and face deeply tattooed; but with all the mildness and courtesy of a civilized Christian. He showed us his Chapel, a large room built, after the fashion of the country, of reeds neatly bound upon a strong framework of wood; and invited us to pass the night in a house which he was building for himself, of the same materials, but with glass windows presented to him by the Chief Justice. The house, he says, is to have four rooms; one for eating, one for sleeping, one for cooking, and one for a study--for writing has now become one of the greatest pleasures of the New Zealanders; and it is very unusual to find one who cannot both read and write.

Visit to Orere, the probable Site of a Native College.

We landed next at Orere, a village on the mainland; midway between Auckland and the Station occupied by Mr. J. Preece. This may be called a village of Native Missionaries; for

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the Teachers from this place conduct Public Worship in all the neighbouring villages for several miles around. The exertions of Mr. W. T. Fairburn in this neighbourhood, while his health allowed him to visit the Natives at their own Settlements, have certainly been blessed with very great and lasting fruit. Orere is the place which I have selected in my own mind for the site of a Native College, for the education of the more hopeful scholars from the Mission Schools; with a view to their assimilation in habits and character, as well as in religion, to the better portion of the English Settlers. The Natives are willing to give me a site for this purpose; and, with the effectual support which I can obtain from the chief persons in the Colony, there will be no lack of means for its maintenance. A radius of 25 miles, from this place, describes a circle comprising the whole of the inhabited part of the Estuary of the Thames.

Arrival at Hauraki, Mr. J. Preece's Station.

On Tuesday, June the 7th, we reached Mr. Preece's Station, late in the evening, and landed in the midst of a most picturesque party of Natives, bearing lighted torches to guide us to the Mission House. I had been told that the New Zealanders were dishonest; and thought it desirable to look after the numerous articles

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which we brought with us in the boat. But I soon found that they were bringing everything up to the house with the greatest care; and I have since learned, that property of the most tempting kind may be left in the hands of the Christian Natives, in the darkest night, without fear of losses from theft. On arriving at the Mission House, we were most hospitably received by Mr. and Mrs. Preece; whose family justify the praise which has been bestowed upon New Zealand, as a climate most peculiarly favourable to European children.

Walk to Te Puru--Notices of Te Raia, and another Chief.

On the following morning, we walked along the beach to Te Puru, the village of the Heathen Chief Te Raia, one of the few remaining examples of the race of savages, who have now almost entirely passed away before the advance of Christianity. As we walked through the villages which line the coast, we were struck with the goodly sight of a numerous population of infant children, growing up in places, which a few years back were overrun and depopulated by the Northern Tribes. The right bank of the Frith of the Thames is now so thickly set with villages, that we passed five or six in a walk of not more than twelve miles; and in

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all we saw the same signs of abundance, if not of comfort, in the English sense of the word. The situation of some of these native dwellings, in the midst of woods, and sheltered under steep hills, was often singularly beautiful. On our way, we learned, upon evidence which could not be doubted, that the bodies of at least two of the persons killed in the attack, had been eaten by the conquerors! I fervently pray that this may be the last instance of this horrid practice among the New Zealanders, and I have good reason to think that it will; for this massacre has called forth an expression of indignation from all the midland Tribes, which the Governor and the Missionaries together have scarcely been able to restrain from breaking out into acts of retribution.

The behaviour of Te Raia was a striking instance of the indirect effect of Christianity even upon the unconverted. When he spoke of the wrongs and insults which he had sustained from the people of Tauranga, the fury of the savage shewed itself in every look and gesture; but after the "korero,"(speech) when we conversed quietly on the sinfulness of murder, his manner to us was as mild and subdued, as if he really believed and felt all that we said to be true. Many of his own people had

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become Christians, and had refused to share in the Expedition.

The Chief who accompanied us from Mr. Preece's Station, was another striking instance of this partial change of character. He was the man, who many years ago was frustrated by Mr. Fairburn and Mr. J. A. Wilson in his attempt to cut off the inhabitants of a distant village. By great exertion, the Missionaries arrived in time to warn the inhabitants of their danger; so that the last canoe paddled off at the moment when the enemy came in sight. Still, such was the consciousness of this Chief and his party, of the truth of the principles upon which the Missionaries acted, that, without expressing any resentment, they built huts for the night, and provided food, for the men by whom their whole plan had been defeated, before they took any thought for themselves. 1 These, and a hundred similar instances, of the influence of the Gospel upon the native character, in its worst form, will show how universally the whole mass has become leavened with a knowledge of the truth. The force of evil habits still remains; but they are not justified or defended: they are known to be contrary to the laws of God and man,

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and even the most savage of the Heathen Chiefs seem to be waiting only for a fitting opportunity to lay down their arms, without compromising their false principles of honour. The interference of the Government will furnish them with the excuse which they desire, for living henceforward at peace one with another.

Among the Christian Natives, I have met with most pleasing instances of the natural expression of deep and earnest feelings of religion. In their affectionate and childlike behaviour to their Missionaries, it is impossible not to recognize their sense of incalculable benefits derived from them. The Missionary is their friend and adviser on all occasions; having gained their confidence by imparting that which they know to be the most valuable of all knowledge. I can only add, in few words, that my experience of the native character, in the highest sense, has more than equalled all my anticipations.

Administration of Baptism at Hauraki.

On the following day, I administered the Sacrament of Baptism to several adults of Mr. Preece's District, in a very large and well-built native Chapel, capable of containing at least 500 persons.

Visit to Mr. Fairburn, at Maraetai.

On my return to Auckland, I spent two days

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at Mr. Fairburn's house at Maraetai, and performed Divine service to a small congregation of natives; the greater number of his people having gone to a more distant settlement.

Voyage to the Bay of Islands.

On Thursday, June the 16th, I left Auckland in the Schooner "Wave," in company with Mr. and Mrs. Kissling, and the Rev. W. Cotton, and reached the Bay of Islands, after a rough passage, on Monday, June the 20th.

At Paihia I had the satisfaction of finding the Rev. Messrs. H. and W. Williams, which gave me the opportunity of the fullest conference upon every department of the Mission, with the senior Clergymen of the body. Mr. Williams received me into his house, and placed his boats, and every other kind of assistance that he could command, at my disposal.

Visit to Waimate, calling at the Kerikeri.

On Tuesday, June the 21st, Mr. Williams escorted me in his boat to the Kerikeri, where I was received by Mr. J. Kemp, who kindly undertook to prepare a compartment in the Mission Store for the reception of my library and other goods.

We then proceeded, with the Rev. R. Taylor, to the Waimate; the first sight of which, by

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moonlight, revived all our recollections of England: the white church--and the Mission houses, with their neat gardens and fields, presenting an appearance of settled comfort, which is scarcely to be found in any other part of New Zealand.

On the following day, I walked round the whole of the Mission Station, with Mr. Taylor and Mr. R. Davis; first visiting the house lately occupied by Mr. Clarke, which I found to be suitable as a temporary residence for my family, till I can determine the place of my future abode. When I arrived, a negotiation was in progress for letting the farm, with Mr. Clarke's house, as a residence, to a Scotch gentleman. The terms which he offered seemed to me to be low, and I shall gladly consider myself as the tenant of the Society on the same terms, if this proposal should meet with the approbation of the Committee. I am anxious that the Mission Farm should not be let, except to persons more or less under the influence of the Church; for otherwise the whole character of the Station, and its effect upon the native mind, may soon be essentially changed for the worse, by the introduction of a promiscuous body of labourers. I look upon the Waimate as the heart of the Mission. More than 400 Native Communicants, I am informed, sometimes assemble there at the Lord's Table. Its Church is at

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present the best in the Colony. The neighbourhood is chiefly occupied by the sons of Missionaries; all, as far as I could observe, showing the effects of early education, by pursuing a line of conduct far more regular than that of ordinary settlers. A great effort, I think, ought to be made to maintain and extend the influence of this Station.

School for the Sons of Missionaries: its proposed reorganization: removal of the Rev. R. Taylor to Wangaroa.

The Northern Committee have made an urgent request to me, and to which I have assented, that I would form a Collegiate School under my own superintendence, as Visitor, in connexion with an Institution of a higher kind, for the education of Candidates for Holy Orders. This, they think, will meet many of the difficulties which they feel at present in providing for the education of their children. My own views of the necessity of such Institutions, in a new Colony, are quite in accordance with those expressed by the Committee; but I should not have been prepared to take upon myself, at so short an interval, the serious duty of organizing such an Institution, if I had not felt that the representations of the Body were too urgent to be resisted. I have therefore acceded to the wish of Mr.

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Taylor, to be relieved from the charge of the School after Christmas, and to be removed to a Mission Station. The place recommended is at Wangaroa; to act as much in connexion with Mr. J. Shepherd as may be found possible.

I will endeavour, after Christmas, to re-establish the School upon a different basis, if I can meet with a gentleman qualified to undertake the duties of Head Master. I think that the Society ought not any longer to be responsible for the expense of the establishment, which might be made to support itself. I have therefore recommended, that, for the future, the Society should be called upon to do no more than provide the school buildings, and a stated annual sum for the education of every Mission Scholar, leaving it to the Master to augment his own income by the success of his own exertions. In this work he shall have my cordial assistance, and the best advice which I can give him.

Appointment of the Rev. W. Williams as Archdeacon of the East Cape District--The Bishop's Ordination Regulations.

I have acted upon the advice of the Bishop of Australia, confirmed by my own personal observation, in appointing the Rev. W. Williams to the office of Archdeacon of the District of the East Cape. I have also requested him to act, in

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conjunction with the Rev. T. Whytehead, as one of my Examining Chaplains, especially for the native language; a knowledge of which I mean to require from every candidate for Holy Orders, and from every Clergyman licensed to any Station, either in the towns or country. For I find, that, from causes already mentioned, the Natives are becoming so mixed with the English, that every Clergyman must be prepared, when called upon to minister to the spiritual wants of both classes of the inhabitants. This is already the case at Kororarika, where the Rev. R. Burrows conducts four services every Sunday--two for the English Settlers, and two for the Natives--and derives his income partly from the English and partly from the Society.

Many of the Society's Catechists have applied to me to be admitted as Candidates for Holy-Orders. In answer to these applications, I have told them that I will consider proficiency in the native language, and the visible signs of a blessing upon their exertions among the Natives, as a qualification for Deacons' Orders, without a knowledge of the original languages of Scripture; but that I cannot admit any one to Priests' Orders without a competent knowledge of the Greek Testament. It will be desirable that the Catechists so admitted to Deacons' Orders,

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should be stationed in the Districts least frequented by the English; such as the neighbourhood of the East Cape, Rotorua, &c., where they can be visited periodically by Archdeacon Williams, for the administration of the Lord's Supper. The favourable opinion which you expressed of Mr. Davis has been confirmed by my own personal observation; and I have encouraged him to place himself in communication with Mr. Whytehead, on his arrival at the Waimate.

Administration of the Lord's Supper at Paihia.

On Sunday, June the 26th, I administered the Lord's Supper to 150 Native Communicants at Paihia, and was much struck with their orderly and reverential demeanour. All were dressed in European clothing; and, with the exception of their colour, presented the appearance of an English Congregation. In few English Churches, however, have I heard the responses repeated in the deep and solemn tone with which every New Zealander joins in that portion of the service.

Visit to Kororarika.

On Sunday, July the 3rd, I assisted Mr. Burrows at Kororarika, where I found a very respectable wooden Chapel, occupied alternately

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by a Native and English Congregation. His position there is very important, as that place is the head quarters of the French Bishop; and the best proof of Mr. Burrows' usefulness is, that so little progress has been made by the French Missionaries, even in their own immediate neighbourhood. I have been unable to ascertain the slightest foundation for the Bishop's statement of many thousand Natives having joined him. His converts, as far as I can learn, are not numerous.

Return to Auckland.

On Tuesday, July the 5th, I returned to Auckland in the "Tomatin," leaving Mrs. Selwyn in the care of Mr. Williams, who promised to escort her to the Waimate, as soon as Mr. Clarke's house should be prepared for her reception.

Farther Account of the Station at Waiheke.

Since my return, I have been occupied in visiting the native villages in the neighbourhood of Auckland; among others, the village of Putiki, in Waiheke, already mentioned; in compliance with a well-written invitation from the Native Teacher. Wirima received me in his new house with a natural politeness and good

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feeling which would not have disgraced an English gentleman; and provided everything for our comfort to the best of his ability. On this occasion I was accompanied by Mr. Maunsell. Saturday evening was spent in reading and explaining Scripture; and the Sunday, in Divine Service and School. The School was conducted in the most orderly manner; grownup men, in full English dress, standing round in Classes, according to proficiency, and reading and taking places with all the docility and good humour of children. After the reading, they marched in perfect order into the Chapel, where they repeated by heart a chapter of the New Testament with great accuracy, and were afterward questioned by Mr. Maunsell. All this was the more surprising, because this village is but rarely visited by an English Missionary, since the illness of Mr. Fairburn prevented him from going about among the Natives.

Proposed Formation of a Translation Committee.

The intercourse of the Natives with the English is fast leading to a corruption of their language; and I am therefore anxious, while the language is still spoken in purity, to fix the standard, as much as possible, by a very careful revision of the versions of the New

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Testament and Liturgy. For this purpose I am requesting all the Missionaries to send in to me written remarks with reference to any errors in the published versions, which I intend to classify, and then submit them to a Translation Committee composed of the two best grammarians, and the two best oral scholars, with myself as Chairman. Archdeacon Williams, Mr. Maunsell, Mr. Hamlin, and Mr. W. G. Puckey, are generally acknowledged to answer respectively to the above description; and would represent the dialects of a very large portion of the whole country. I am of opinion that we shall not find much requiring to be altered; but, as Bishop Marsh said of Dr. Kennicott's work, it will be well worth the labour, to be sure that there is but little to be done.

Projected Route in returning from Wellington to Auckland.

I am now on my voyage to Wellington and Nelson; and if it please God to give me health and strength, I purpose to return by land, in company with the Chief Justice, Mr. Martin, by the following route:--

From Wellington to Waikanai... Rev. O. Hadfield.

Waikanai to Wanganui... Rev. J. Mason.

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Wanganui by Taupo to Ahuriri, to meet Archdeacon Williams.

Ahuriri to Wairoa ... Rev. W. C. Dudley.

Wairoa to Turanga ... Archd. Williams.

Turanga to Waiapu ... Mr. J. Stack.

Waiapu to Opotiki ... Mr. J. A. Wilson.

Opotiki to Tauranga ... Rev. A. N. Brown.

Tauranga to Rotorua ... Mr. T. Chapman.

Rotorua to Otawao ... Mr. J. Morgan.

Otawao to Kaitotohe ... Mr. B. Ashwell.

Kaitotohe to Waikato ... Rev. R. Maunsell.

Waikato to Orua ... Mr. J. Hamlin.

Orua to Auckland.


I hope this letter will have put you, in some degree, in possession of my feelings toward the Natives, and toward the Mission. If you have gathered from it that I have imbibed the strongest regard for this Native people, and a very high respect and esteem for the Members of the Mission in general, you will have drawn a right conclusion from this very imperfect statement of my real feelings. I would rather that you should give me credit for feeling more than I express, than incur the danger of seeming to exaggerate beyond the facts of the case. God grant that the facts may every day more and more speak for them-

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selves, and prove this country to be, as I believe it to be, the ground-plot of one of the most signal mercies, which God has ever granted to the Missionary exertions of His church.

With my earnest prayer for the success of all your undertakings,

I remain,

My dear Sir,

Yours very faithfully,

(Signed) G. A. N. Zealand.

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The Bishop's second Letter is also addressed to the Honorary Clerical Secretary, and is dated, H. M. Colonial Brig "Victoria," off Kapiti, Nov. 3, 1842; his Lordship being on his voyage from New Plymouth to Waikanai, in pursuance of the arrangement laid down in the last Letter.


In a Letter which I wrote to you about the end of July, I gave you some account of my visit to the Stations on the Frith of the Thames, and at the Bay of Islands. At the time of my writing, I was on board the above vessel, bound from Auckland to Wellington. In fact, I find very little time for writing, except on ship-board, as my days on shore are much occupied with travelling, or with the business arising out of my duties in the different places which I visit.

Notice of Barrier Island.

On my way to Wellington, I touched at the Great Barrier Island, Aotea, where I found a

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party of forty Natives in a deplorable state of ignorance; all their intercourse with the English having been confined to traffic with whale-ships. On my return to the Waimate, I hope to send them some books; and, if possible, a Native Teacher.

Visits to Two Villages at the East Cape--Notices of Wellington.

Being detained by contrary winds off the East Cape, I landed on Sunday, August the 7th, in Hicks' Bay, at a village called Kawakawa, where the Natives were just assembling for afternoon service, under the direction of a Native Teacher sent by the Rev. W. Williams. The Chapel was crowded with a most attentive and orderly congregation. The change in the habits of the Natives on this part of the coast, since the establishment of the Mission, is so great, that even the master of a small coasting vessel, a class of men not usually favourable to the Mission--spoke of it as exceeding anything that he could have believed.

As the wind still continued contrary, I landed again on Monday morning, to fulfil a conditional promise that I would bring medicine for some sick in the village. This gave me an opportunity of going to another large village, about a

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mile from Kawakawa. In both I was particularly pleased to find a large proportion of young children; which is not the case in all parts of the country, especially at the south, near Port Nicholson, where the numbers are decreasing; principally, I believe, from the imperfect adoption of English clothing. The Physician appointed for the care of the Natives at Wellington attributes the mortality principally to the injudicious use of blankets; which are worn day and night, and wet and dry. It is most important to bring up the rising generation to a complete adoption of English habits; for which purpose boarding-schools are essentially necessary. The proceeds of the Native Reserved Lands, and the Fund arising from the sale of lands by the Government, will probably be applied chiefly in this way.

The state of the Natives at Wellington requires great care. They are there placed in the midst of the town, and exposed to all the temptations to English vices; from which, however, the greater part of them have kept themselves clear. Mr. Hadfield has great influence with them; and Mr. Aldred, the Wesleyan Missionary, is much respected by the portion of the population which has attached itself to him. I have requested Mr. Cole, the resident Clergyman at Wellington, to use all diligence in learning the

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native language; and I have no doubt that he will soon qualify himself to conduct their regular services, and to act as their friend and adviser.

Visit to Nelson--Necessity of a resident Clergyman, and temporary location of the Rev. C. L. Reay.

From Wellington I proceeded to Nelson, in company with Mr. Reay; the other Clergyman whom I expected from England, for the care of that Settlement, not having arrived. Here I found that the state of the natives absolutely required the residence of a Clergyman, competent to communicate with them. Scarcely a single person in Nelson speaks the native language; and, as the natives were flocking as usual in great numbers to buy and sell at the New Settlement, differences were beginning to arise, which threatened to be destructive of all good feeling between the two races. In fact, the towns are at present the keys to the native character in the neighbourhood. If the intercourse of the Natives with the English in the Settlements be not carefully watched by some person resident on the spot, the character of the people will soon, I fear, be changed for the worse, over a wide circle in the neighbourhood of the English Colony. My own observation, at every town

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in New Zealand, has impressed me with the certainty of this fact. I therefore decided to leave Mr. Reay at Nelson, till I can supply his place by another resident Clergyman, when he will go to his Station, which will probably be between Wanganui and New Plymouth; where a large native village is likely to be formed by the return of many of the Taranaki natives, who were expelled from their own country by the irruption of the Waikato Tribes. In the meantime I have undertaken to supply one half of his income from the funds placed at my disposal by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, in consideration of his services to the English Settlers. He conducts the daily services of the Natives who come to Nelson; of whom, during the period of my stay, we had a constant succession of congregations. He also visits the neighbouring settlements, which formerly belonged to Mr. Hadfield's district.

Return to Wellington--Death of William Evans.

From Nelson I returned to Wellington, where it pleased God to visit me with a heavy affliction, by depriving me of my dear young friend and travelling companion, William Evans. During his last illness, he spoke, with the deepest feeling, of the impression which had been made

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upon his mind by the sight of the native congregations assembling every morning and evening for their devotions.

Departure from Wellington, and Visits to Waikanai and Otaki.

After the funeral of my friend, I made preparations for my land journey, and left Wellington with a party of twenty-eight natives, and arrived on the second day at Mr. Hadfield's Station at Waikanai. Mr. Hadfield is highly respected along the whole of this coast; not only by the natives, but even by the sailors employed in the whale fisheries at Mana and Kapiti. His house is in the native village, a situation generally supposed to be inconvenient; but, I believe, very advantageous for the instruction of the natives in English habits.

On the morning after my arrival, a large Congregation assembled in the Chapel; and I afterward went to the School, at which I saw 400 Natives arranged in classes in a very orderly manner. I passed through the whole of the classes, and was much pleased with the proficiency of the people in reading and writing, and, above all, by their acquaintance with the Scriptures. In fact, there is scarcely an intelligent Native, who will not readily find any passage in the New Testament which may be

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quoted. A new Chapel is being constructed at Waikanai; the materials for which are ready on the ground. Among the rest, I saw the ridge-piece, of one solid tree, 76 feet in length--a present from the neighbouring tribe at Otaki, who, till Mr. Hadfield's arrival, had been at enmity with the people of Waikanai; but have now forgotten their animosities, and presented them with this appropriate peace-offering.

On the following day I went on to Mr. Hadfield's second Station at Otaki, where another numerous congregation assembled to meet me; but I had not time to see their School arrangements, as I was anxious to go on toward Wanganui. Mr. Hadfield accompanied me part of the way; but was obliged, by lameness, to return; which I much regretted, as his company was a great assistance, and a real pleasure, to me.

Indisposition of the Bishop--His Arrival at Wanganui, and Visits to several Villages.

When I arrived within twenty miles of Wanganui, I was obliged to halt for three days, in consequence of a painful inflammation in one of my feet. Mr. Mason, on hearing of my approach, sent me his horse, on which I reached Wanganui. I rested one day in his house,

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and assisted at his Native Services. In the evening I had much conversation with the Natives, on their disputes with the English Settlers, and advised them to be quiet, and await the arrival of the Commissioner, to settle all their land questions. At present the Land Claims are a serious cause of dissension between the Natives and the Settlers; but there is now a prospect, I hope, of a speedy adjustment.

My lameness continuing, I left Wanganui on Mr. Mason's horse, to go with him to visit his various Stations on the West Coast, between Wanganui and Taranake. He has houses in many of the principal villages, which will enable him to spend a few days in each of them from time to time--a plan more likely to be productive of permanent good than a succession of short visits. These little dwellings are built, after the Native fashion, with reeds; and we found them very serviceable during the bad weather with which we met on the journey. The weather certainly justifies Mr. Kissling's apprehensions, as strong gales are very common on this coast, accompanied with much rain. The population, also, is much scattered; which was another difficulty on his part. His wish is, in the present state of his health, to be placed in the midst of a

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large and concentrated population; for which the East Coast offers the greatest facility.

Admission of the Rev. J. Mason to Priests' Orders.

I forget whether I mentioned in any former letter, that I admitted Mr. Mason to the order of the Priesthood, at Wellington, on the 25th of September, in the presence of 300 or 400 Natives. The Ordination Service was translated into the native language for this occasion, by Messrs. Hadfield and Mason. It was a most interesting ceremony to me, as being my first Ordination; and I was very glad that the first exercise of this function of my office should take place in the presence of a native congregation. After the service, I distributed among them copies of the small edition of the Gospel of St. Matthew, printed, at my request, by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, with a small label, containing a memorial of the day.

Journey to New Plymouth.

My journey along the coast was the means of making me acquainted with a very large number of natives; from all of whom I experienced the greatest respect. At another season of the year, the Congregations would have been

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larger, as this is the time when many of the men are absent at their cultivations.

On Friday, October the 28th, I arrived at New Plymouth, and on Sunday received a very large Congregation of Natives in a temporary building used for Divine Service. A Clergyman will shortly be stationed here, to whom I have given the same direction to study the native language, and to be ready at all times to minister to the Native population of the Settlement, and to all others who resort to it for purposes of trade.

Proposed Station for the Rev. C. L. Reay.

In the present unsettled state of the tribes in this district, I am unable at present to decide upon the most advantageous position for Mr. Reay to occupy. The Port Nicholson Natives, who accompanied me on my journey, state, that it is the intention of a large body to assemble and form a Settlement at Mokotunu, twenty miles from New Plymouth, toward Wanganui. These will all be from the congregations of Mr. Hadfield and Mr. Mason, and therefore Mr. Reay may very likely find that the most advantageous centre for his operations. Mr. Reay will then be 110 miles from Mr. Mason, and Mr. Mason 70 miles from Mr. Hadfield.

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Future Proceedings.

I am now on my way to Waikanai, from New Plymouth, in order to ascend the Manawatu River, to join Archdeacon Williams, on the East Coast at Ahuriri.

With my earnest prayer for the Divine blessing upon these and all your endeavours,

I remain,

Yours very faithfully,

(Signed) G. A. N. ZEALAND.

1   See pp. 231--233 of the Church Missionary Record for October, 1836.

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