1853 - New Zealand and its Six Colonies Historically and Geographically Described. - Chapter VIII, p 61-64

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  1853 - New Zealand and its Six Colonies Historically and Geographically Described. - Chapter VIII, p 61-64
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Directions for, and advice to emigrants--New Zealand Company; Canterbury and Otago Associations--Land-purchases --Persons most wanted--Which settlement to choose --Fares for passengers--What emigrants require--Wages--Prices of provisions.

WE shall conclude this little manual with some brief directions for, and advice to emigrants.

The New Zealand Company has resigned its functions as a colonizing body, and those who wish to emigrate must apply for information--either to H. F. Alston, Esq., the Secretary to the Canterbury Association, at 9, Adelphi Terrace, Strand, London; or to J M'Glashan, Esq., the Secretary to the Otago Association, 27, South Hanover Street, Edinburgh. At present, those associations exercise the functions of colonizing bodies; but it is not improbable that they will both follow the example of the parent society, and abandon them. As an associated company, the Canterbury Association is involved in difficulties, and Government has refused a charter to that of Otago. Rut whatever may be the fate of these bodies, there is no doubt that the colonies they have founded will, under divine protection, do well and prosper. Emigrants with small capitals, and possessed of industry and perseverance, must succeed in creating a comfortable competence, if not wealth.

At page 30 we have stated what the Canterbury Association require in colonists. There is no restriction as to the class or persuasion of persons emigrating to Otago; out of the purchase-money of the land in the possession of the Association, three-eighths are appropriated towards the free emigration of labourers, two to each property of 60 1/4 acres; or if the purchaser pay 7l. 16s. additional, three labourers will be sent out; or if the purchaser be a farmer, who intends to till his own land, the allowance will enable him to convey himself, his wife, and a child, to the colony.

The Canterbury and Otago Associations have purchased considerable districts; and the intending emigrant going to either of them, will have no difficulty as to his title. But

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the Government has acknowledged the title of the natives to the waste lands; reserving merely the "right of pre-emption; that is to say, it retains the privilege of being the only purchaser from the natives, and prohibits its subjects from doing so." This step was taken to put an end to the practice of "land-sharking," by which bodies and individuals obtained large tracts of land for considerations absolutely worthless; and out of these transactions sprang those disputes with the natives which ended in the war of 1848. "Hence, it is through the instrumentality of the Crown alone (or in other words, of the Colonial-office and the local government), that every acre which is to be reclaimed from the waste, and subjected to colonizing operations, must be obtained. And it follows, that every private right must, to be valid, be traced back to the Crown." "This privilege," observes Mr. Fox, "which the Crown claims, is not a mere feudal or prerogative one, but is founded on a wise and constitutional principle, by virtue of which it assumes the office of regulating the future settlement and occupation of the country. In the absence of such an exclusive power, there would result a general scramble, and colonization would be an impossibility."

The class of persons most wanted in the colonies are agricultural labourers, firm-servants, shepherds, and domestic servants. There is, also, a demand now for mechanics, but it is not so great as it is in Australia. Industrious persons of the above classes, are almost certain of finding employment at any of the settlements; whilst men of capital can hardly fail to make profitable investments. It requires no large sum to start with in New Zealand. A merchant may make his way with from 1,200l. to 1,500l.; a farmer or a tradesman might do with about one-fourth of those sums, or even less. As a general rule for emigrants, Mr. J. Ward, who is settled at Nelson, recommends "Nelson for farming purposes, or New Plymouth, perhaps, may be as good; Wellington for mercantile pursuits; Auckland for a storekeeper or a situation; Otago, Port Cooper, and Canterbury or Wairau, for sheep-keeping." The emigrant, however, would do well to consider, whether he has any friends or connections in any of the settlements. If he has, no doubt his comforts would be greatly increased by settling amongst them. In the ships of the Canterbury Association,

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the charge for passage is for each passenger fourteen years old and upwards, 42l. in the chief cabin; 25l. in the fore cabin; and 16l. in the steerage. Children between one year and fourteen years, half-price; and under one year, free.

Emigrants should take nothing but that which is useful; for money will generally go farther than goods: and it is better to take their money in a draft upon the bank than in cash. A good supply of clothing is requisite; it should be strong and serviceable; and in a new settlement it might be well to take the iron-work necessary for a house, with a few tools; and cart-wheels, wedges, beetles, and a blacksmith's forge, would be found useful. There has been much written with respect to the course an emigrant should pursue on landing; but as things stand now, he had much better trust to the advice of those already in the colony. One piece of counsel given by Mr. Ward, already alluded to, we cordially second:-- "If you are well off and comfortable, STOP WHERE YOU ARE. But if your prospects are bad, if you cannot see your way clear, without slavery and starvation, then I can safely say you would be ten times better off at New Zealand, where, if you are able and willing to work, and keep yourself sober, you would in a little time be surrounded with abundance of bacon and eggs, bread, butter, milk, cream, pudding, fowls, and all kinds of vegetables." Idle, dissolute, drunken parties, will fail in New Zealand as they will elsewhere.

We subjoin some information as to the rate of wages and the prices of provisions.

WAGES. s. d. . . s. d.
Farm and other labourers, per day ............ 3 0 . to . 4 0
In Canterbury............................. 0 0 . to . 4 0
Mechanics, sawyers, carpenters, cabinet-makers,
carpenters, coopers, wheelwrights, &c, &c.....
5 0 . to . 6 0
Labourers................................. 2 6 . to . 3 0

The day's work is from 8 to 6.


AUCKLAND. --Bread, 2 lb, loaf, 6d,; beef and mutton, 5d. to 6d. per lb.; pork, 5d. per lb.; potatoes, 4s. 6d. per cwt.; cheese (English), 1s. 6d. per lb.; (Auckland), 1s. per lb.; butter, (fresh), 1s. 6d. per lb.; (salt), 1s. per lb.; eggs, 1s. per dozen; tea, (6l 10s. per chest), 2s. 0d. per lb.; sugar (moist, 28s. to 42s. per cwt.), 3d. to 5d. per lb.; coffee, 1s. 6d. per lb.

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CANTERBURY. --Flour, 35s. per 100 lbs.; bread, 8d. the 2 lb. loaf; potatoes, 3l. per ton.

NELSON, Sept. 25, 1852--Wheat, 6s., 6s. 9d., and 7s. per bushel; flour, 18l. to 19l. per ton; barley, 5s. per bushel; oats, 5s. per bushel; fresh butter, 1s. 3d. per lb.; cheese, 10d. per lb.

NEW PLYMOUTH. --Wheat, 6s. per bushel; fine flour, 17l., and seconds, 15l. per ton; maize, 2s. 6d. per bushel; potatoes, 3l. per ton.

OTAGO, Oct. 16, 1852. --First flour, 28s., Sydney, 28s., and second, 21s. per 100 lbs; bread, 1s. per 4 lb. loaf; wheat, 8s., and oats, 4s. to 5s. per bushel; beef, 4d. to 6d.; mutton, 5d. to 6d.; pork, 4d, to 6d.; ground coffee, 1s. 4d.; raw coffee, 1s.; tea, 2s. 3d.; new sugar, 3 1/2d. to 4 1/2d.; mould candles, 9d.; cheese, 1s. to 1s. 2d. per lb.; milk, 4d. per quart; potatoes, 2l. 10s. per ton; eggs, 1s. 2d. per dozen.

WELLINGTON. --The prices range much about the same rate as in England.


Since the pages were stereotyped in which we have noticed the discovery of gold and the present condition of the natives, later information has been received from the colony. The discovery of gold is confirmed. The gold field is on lands the property of the natives. They are quite willing that it should be searched for, and the Government has undertaken to pay them, for any number of persons under 500 digging between Cape Colville and Kauiarago, 600l. per annum for three years; for 500 to 1,000, 900l.; for 1,000 to 1,500, 1,200l.; for 1,500 to 2,000, 2,000l.; and so on in proportion. The diggers are to pay 30s. per month for licenses.

As to the natives, --a settler, Walter Brodie, in a letter dated Auckland, Oct. 25, 1852, and published in the Times, of March 26, 1853, speaks of them as the "backbone of New Zealand." He says-- "During the last six months they exported, along with Europeans, but of their own growth, 50,000 bushels of wheat, besides maize, and hundreds of tons of potatoes. One settlement alone, at Rangeawhea, on the Waikato and Waipa River, had, last year, 2,500 acres under cultivation, and five water-mills, which cost on an average 600l. each, At Tauranga, on the Bay of Plenty, they have sixteen moderate-sized schooners." According to Mr. Brodie, therefore, the Maories are a very important part of the population.

London: Printed by STEWART and MURRAY, Old Bailey.

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