Extracts from Rev. Burrows's Diary.
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Extracts from Rev. Burrows's Diary.
FOR the information of those who may be inclined to read at their leisure the following extracts from a journal kept during the time of what is known as "Heke's war," a brief outline of the facts and circumstances which occurred prior to the commencement of hostilities between the Government and Heke may serve as an
It is tolerably well known by all who have read any one of the many books and pamphlets which have been written on New Zealand, that when Capt. Hobson, the first Governor, landed in the Bay of Islands, he found a considerable number of Europeans, Americans, and some of other nations, congregated in a little bay known as Kororareka (the present site of the town of Russell). There were also two Maori pahs standing in the forefront, containing, as tolerably permanent occupants, about 100. This mixed population, making altogether from 600 to 1000, had their own laws, which were not of a very defined character, nor very rigidly carried out. Perhaps the least said as to the social and moral character of many of the inhabitants the better. Among the number were to be found some who were absent from Sydney and other penal settlements without leave. Most of these, on the arrival of a mounted police force from New South Wales, made themselves scarce.
The trade carried on in the Bay at this time was chiefly between the American whalers and the Maoris; the latter exchanging their wares of potatoes, kumara, fish, etc., for blankets, guns, tomahawks, etc. Several merchants had also established themselves in the Bay, and were doing a brisk trade both with the natives and the whaling vessels. There was likewise a considerable export of flax, timber, etc.
Shortly after the arrival of the Governor a meeting of most of the influential chiefs living in the districts of the Bay of Islands, Hokianga, and Kaipara was convened at Waitangi, which resulted in the signing of the famous "Treaty of Waitangi," on the 5th February, 1840. Upon this followed in due time the establishment of "Her Majesty's Customs." The nature and necessity of this tax, levied upon all imported goods, especially upon goods from America, the natives did not understand, but were soon made to feel, by the higher prices put upon the articles they purchased, that such a law existed; and there were not wanting, as may be supposed, among the white population, those who told the natives that this was the outcome of their having signed the Treaty of Waitangi, and thus ceded their country to the Queen. The flagstaff, which had been set up on the hill above the town, and from which was flying the English ensign, was often pointed to as a sign that the mana (power) of the native chiefs had been superseded by that of the Queen.
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During the short stay in the Bay of Captain Hobson and his party after the signing of the Treaty an attempt was made to establish law and order, which only partially succeeded. Up to May, 1841, we were supposed to be governed from New South Wales, and a Lieutenant Smart and some half-dozen mounted police had been sent down to help in the administration of justice by upholding the hands of the Resident Magistrate, who also had been sent by the New South Wales Government. Many attempts made to bring delinquents under the power of the law failed, especially in the case of runaway sailors, who had only to find their way to some native settlement and they were safe, so long as the Maoris thought proper to give them shelter. The masters of the whalers, however, had adopted the best method they had at hand to get their runaways returned to them, namely, paying £2 or £3 per head for each man brought back. It was no uncommon sight, therefore, to witness a canoe manned by two or more natives, landing on the beach, or conducting up the side of his ship, some unfortunate culprit, with his hands fast bound with flax.
Drunken quarrels were frequent on the beach between some of the inhabitants and the sailors, as well as among the settlers themselves. The magistrate very wisely did not encourage the interference of the policeman in every case, but the combatants were either left to fight it out, or some person or persons of influence managed to put a stop to the quarrel. The parson's services were occasionally called in.
As may be supposed, the Magistrate's Court, when a sitting was held, did not always present the quiet and orderly appearance the law required; nor were all the decisions strictly according to English law or justice. One case, to which the writer of this was an eye-witness, may be named as an instance of how the law was often sought to be administered. A vessel named the Sukabaya arrived from South America with a cargo of horses, which sold at very high prices, varying from £30 to £70 each, but the vessel was condemned as unseaworthy. She was sold to the highest bidder, who happened to be the late Mr. Benjamin Turner, of the Manukau road Three men were employed by him to break her up, and a written agreement entered into. The men soon found they had made a bad bargain, and applied to Mr. Turner for additional pay. This application was refused, and the men struck work. On examining the agreement entered into between Turner and the men it was found that only one out of the three had signed it. This one expressed his willingness to go on with the contract, but his companions refused. Mr. Turner, however, was not to be treated in this way. A summons was at once obtained, and the three men sought for to appear before the magistrate and his coadjutor. The two who had not signed the agreement refused to obey the summons and took themselves off; but Gibb (the name of the one who had signed) was then and there taken into Court and in less than half-an-hour sentenced to three months' imprisonment with hard labour, and at the end of the term to return to the vessel and finish his contract.
This decision was no sooner known outside than the less law-abiding of the population were for breaking open the hut, which
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then served as a lock-up, and releasing the prisoner. Wiser counsels, however, prevailed; and one of the residents undertook to obtain a hearing from the Governor, who was then living at what is now called Old Russell. Having heard the facts of the case, his Excellency expressed his surprise in very warm language at the decision of the Bench, remarking that the case was a civil one, and therefore not within the jurisdiction of a magistrate. The magistrate happened to be at the time on the wharf below, and the Governor sent his orderly to ask him to come to his office. "Mr. B., is it so," asked his Excellency, "that you and S. have sentenced a man to three months' imprisonment with hard labour for a breach of contract?" The magistrate replied, "We treated him as a hired servant, sir, and made it a criminal offence." "By what law?" "By a recent Act of the New South Wales Legislature." Captain Hobson reached from his shelf a book called "The Australian Magistrate," and requested to be shown the Act. As the administrator of the law required time to look up the Act applicable to the case, he was given till ten o'clock next morning; when, unless it was made clear to the Governor that their decision was according to law, he would have to release the prisoner. Suffice it to say, that before eleven o'clock the following morning Gibb was landed from the police boat on what is now known as Russell beach, and, amid the shouts and rejoicing of half the people of the place, was set at liberty.
Shortly after this the Governor and his staff left the Bay of Islands for Waitemata harbour, where the survey of the present city of Auckland was then being carried on.
The removal of the Government to Auckland led, as a matter of course, to the departure of many of the European population from the Bay of Islands. A considerable number, however, remained. The whalers continued to visit the port in considerable numbers (the writer of this counted at one time forty-two anchored between what is now called Russell point and the loading ground), and a brisk trade continued to be carried on.
Even before Captain Hobson arrived in the Bay as Governor, John Heke was known among both the native and European population as a "busybody in other men's matters." On the signing of the Treaty at Waitanga, he had given considerable trouble. He had married the daughter of the celebrated Hongi, which gave him a position of influence among Ngapuhi he would not otherwise have had.
As early as 1841 Heke had managed to get around him a party, chiefly of young men, who were ready to do his bidding. With these he frequently visited different parts of the district, and soon found pretexts for demanding utu (payment) for some alleged grievance, and generally returned to his home with spoil of some kind. Nor was his meddling confined to his own race; he was sometimes heard of amongst the Europeans, either as the arbitrator in some dispute between the white man and the Maori, or in some purely white men's affairs, where he was encouraged by one party to take up their cause against the other.
In May, 1842, Bishop Selwyn (the Bishop of New Zealand) arrived, and shortly afterwards took up his temporary residence at the Wai-
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mate, a Church Mission Station about twelve miles inland from the Bay of Islands, where he set on foot St. John's College. The Bishop and Heke never got on amicably together. Although the latter was always friendly to the missionaries he regarded with considerable jealousy the movements of the Bishop, and in several instances was a source of annoyance to him. His lordship appealed to Heke in his capacity as Bishop, and tried to impress upon him that as a member of the Church, and as one who had acted as a Lay Reader, he was in duty bound to obey him, and leave off his troublesome ways. Heke, however, did not acknowledge any episcopal authority over him, and the Bishop, not knowing then the native character so well as he did after living and travelling more among them, presumed upon his office to reprimand the proud man, reminding him that he had come to New Zealand under the authority of the Queen. This did not tend to mend matters, and up to the departure of the Bishop and his staff, in October, 1844, Heke did not treat his lordship with that respect which was due to his office.
During 1842 and 1843, Heke, whose home was supposed to be Kaikohe, was heard of in different parts of the district interfering in matters with which he had no right to meddle. His visits to the Bay became more frequent, and his intimacy with some of the settlers, especially with those who were not of English birth, became more marked. He was told by those who were not friendly to English rule of the way in which other countries had been taken possession of, and the aborigines ill-treated, and driven off their lands, etc., etc. The missionaries were often appealed to as to the truth of these statements; and as they had taken an active part in obtaining signatures to the Treaty of Waitangi they were sometimes accused, in no measured terms, of having deceived the natives, by withholding from them these facts. The strong reasons always given by the old missionaries for assisting in the establishment of British rule in New Zealand were the then state of the country, and the attempts that were being made by the French and by the New Zealand Company to colonize the country; and it is a well-known fact that we were not any too soon in obtaining possession of the whole of New Zealand. Many an hour was spent by the late Archdeacon Williams and other missionaries in pointing out to Heke the benefits which had been secured to them by the Treaty of Waitangi. Then, again, there were other influences at work which tended to prejudice the minds of Heke and others against British rule; and the flag flying on the hill above the town pointed at as a "tohu" (sign) that their country had gone from them. Early in 1844 Heke's visits had become very frequent to the Bay, and it became clear to those who watched his movements and conversed with him on various subjects, that he was contemplating mischief. In July he went to the Bay with a considerable number of followers, and after committing several depredations both among Maoris and Europeans, he found a grievance at Kororareka itself, where lived a man of the name of "Lord," who had married a native woman, which woman was accused of having cursed Heke. He stripped the house of the European, and after-
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ward ascended the hill with his party and cut down the flag-staff. After committing other depredations he returned inland.
The news of this act of Heke's having reached Auckland, the Governor sent to Sydney for troops, and some 160 men, commanded by Colonel Hulme, were sent down, and forwarded to the Bay. In the meantime, Tamate Waka Nene, who lived at Hokianga, and whose name and doings will often come before us in our after-jottings, got together some of the leading chiefs of the districts around, and met Governor Fitzroy at the Waimate. At this meeting his Excellency was induced to accept the assurance of these chiefs that they would keep Heke in check, and they, as a pledge of their faithfulness, offered to make any compensation required for the injury done by Heke; begging, at the same time, that the troops who had now arrived in the Bay might be sent away. The Governor acceded to their request, and asked for ten muskets as an acknowledgment of their determination to fulfil their pledge. The said firearms were at once laid at his Excellency's feet; their quality was not first rate. The soldiers, who had been landed at Kororareka, and had pitched their tents in the little bay behind the town named Matauhi (generally called Matavia) were now ordered to re-embark. A circumstance occurred whilst the soldiers were encamped in this Bay, which might have proved most disastrous, had the mistake not been discovered at the instant. The friendly natives from the Rawiti and the immediate neighbourhood had assembled at a short distance from the camp, and some with firearms and some without--among whom were also a few women--were drawing near, intending in a friendly way, to dance the war-dance. The officer in command of the troops had not been informed of this movement, and mistaking the act as a hostile one, he mustered his men, and had given the command to "stand to their arms and take good aim." Just in the very nick of time the Maoris were checked in their forward rush (which always precedes the war-dance), and the commanding officer informed that the visit was one of welcome. Thus the disaster was avoided.
Either before or immediately after the troops left the Bay a second flagstaff was erected, and the English ensign hoisted as before. The native chiefs who had met Governor Fitzroy at the Waimate returned to their homes, and for a short time matters remained tolerably quiet. Before Governor Fitzroy left the Bay he declared it a free port. Heke was kept well informed of all that took place at the meeting with the Governor, and made sport of the pledge given by the handing up of a dozen or so of rusty muskets.
In October of this year (1844), the writer, who had been living at Kororareka from April, 1840, ministering both to the English congregation and the natives, removed to the Waimate, to take charge of that station on the final departure of the Bishop of New Zealand and his whole staff to the Tamaki. I had become tolerably well acquainted with Heke by seeing him on his several visits to the Bay, but our opportunities for meeting and for conversations were more frequent after my removal inland. By the remarks he made on one or two occasions, in reference to the meeting of the Governor with Waka Nene and other chiefs, and the erection of a second flagstaff,
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it was not difficult to see that he was bent upon cutting that down likewise; which we know shortly afterwards took place. This was done, however, in a much quieter way than the former had been, and without any pretext for so doing, further than his determination to have his own way. What wounded Heke's pride more than anything else which took place at the meeting with Governor Fitzroy was the chiefs present pledging themselves to keep him in order, and to prevent his doing further mischief. "Let Waka," he said, "keep to his own side of the Island, Hokianga, and not interfere with me."
The destruction of the second flagstaff by Heke was followed shortly afterward by the preparation, on the part of the Government of another of more lofty pretensions, and in due time it was erected --the lower part cased in iron--a block house built, and a moat of considerable dimensions and depth dug around it. Some thirty soldiers were sent to the Bay to protect the staff. Whilst these works were going on, Heke was not idle. His messengers might be seen and heard of in different parts of the district, as far north as Mongonui, and as far south as Whangarei, as well as in the interior. Heke himself was almost constantly on the move with a small party of his followers, and we came in contact two or three times at our station, Waimate, where at this time we were carrying on a native girls' school of considerable dimensions. He encouraged us, in words at least, to continue our work, but blamed us for the efforts we were making to keep our immediate people from joining him. We lost at the end of the year 1844 several of our elder scholars; some were taken away by their friends, and two or three left voluntarily; but after the holidays the school re-opened with some forty girls.
It now became evident that further mischief was brewing. Small parties were seen passing through the settlement (Waimate) armed. A visit to Kaikohe, Heke's home, and a conversation with him, convinced us that another move to the Bay, with a much larger party than he had before managed to muster, was intended.
On the morrow I rode down to Paihia to report to Archdeacon Williams my visit to Kaikohe, and the result of my interview with Heke. The archdeacon had recently been up the Kawakawa, where he found Kawiti and a number of the natives of that district evidently preparing for mischief; indeed, they had already commenced plundering some two or three of the settlers in the neighbourhood. Both of us had been treated with civility by these men, and they heard in silence our warnings; Heke only replying to my remarks, that he was "mate" (sick) for some fish, and he should probably go to the sea shortly with his net."
During the short interval which intervened between this and the 3rd of March, 1845, Archdeacon Williams, Mr. Davis, and myself were in and out among the natives of our several districts, using our influence to prevent as many as possible from joining Heke.
My journal dates from March 3, 1845, from which time I kept a tolerably correct, and on some days a very full, account of events as they transpired. The following record, therefore, will be extracts from the said journal, interwoven with such remarks and explana-
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tions as may be thought necessary to make the whole as intelligible as possible to the ordinary reader.
A messenger arrived last night (Sunday) to inform us that Heke was about to pay us a visit on his way to the Bay.
March 3.--Heke arrived, as had been announced, with some 150 men. He told Mr. Davis and me that, having heard we were about to remove our families to Auckland, he had come to assure us that no harm would happen to us or ours. To our remarks as to his movements, followed by over a hundred men armed, he reminded me of what he had said when I visited him at Kaikohe--viz., that he was longing for some fish, and that they were going to the sea with their nets. Pointing to the firearms, I asked, "Are these required for fishing?" "Is there not," he quickly replied, "a man-of-war in the Bay, and are there not some red-jackets at Kororareka? We must not go without our 'pu'" (musket).
Heke was met here by Broughton, of Te Ahuahu, and Ruhe, the father of the late Maketu and other chiefs. Both of these chiefs warned him that if he went to the Bay and did mischief, they would join Waka and others in opposing his return inland. By this time, two o'clock p.m., many of the natives from the pahs around had come into the settlement, which could not now have numbered less than 400. Long speeches were made, and some strong language used on both sides. Most of the visitors having returned in the evening to their homes, and Heke and his immediate followers having encamped outside the settlement, I left for Paihia after dusk to advise with Archdeacon Williams, leaving Mr. Davis in charge of his own family and mine. Arrived about nine o'clock, had a long talk with the Archdeacon. We agreed to leave early in the morning, with a view to meet Heke on the road from the Waimate, or if he had not left, to ride the whole way.
Tuesday, March 4.--We left Paihia early, and met Heke with some 150 men, all armed, about four miles from Waitangi. At his request we returned to Whaowhaoroa. Here Archdeacon Williams opened the conversation by pointing out to him the trouble he was bringing upon himself and his people by his foolish proceeding. He was very civil for some time, and said he had no wish to injure either sailor, soldier, or any of the settlers; but the third flagstaff had been erected without any reference to him; moreover that £100 had been offered by the Governor for his apprehension (he presumed, dead or alive). He did not attempt to hide from us that if he had a chance he would attempt the destruction of the third flagstaff. Heke did not allow this opportunity to pass without alluding to the Treaty of Waitangi, and of having been deceived by the Archdeacon and others in inducing so many chiefs to sign it, when they must have known that they (the chiefs) were signing away their lands, etc. Heke, however, had his match here; for with that peculiar look which the Archdeacon knew how to give over his spectacles, accompanied by a stern sort of half-smile, he replied, "Your salvation is in that treaty;" and then he stood up, and in a speech addressed to all present he related to them the circumstances which led to the missionaries then in the country taking part in obtaining signatures to the treaty, (1) to
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prevent another nation coming in; (2) the anarchy and confusion which was going on and increasing among the settlers and natives; (3) the doings of the agents of the New Zealand Company in the South, who claimed to have purchased so many degrees of territory where they had never seen either the land or the owners thereof.
Late in the afternoon Heke and his whole party left Waitangi for the other side of the Bay, and encamped between Wahapu and Kororareka. Knowing that our families at the Waimate would be anxious for my return, I rode home after dark.
Wednesday, March 5.--A messenger from the Bay this afternoon, bringing the news that Kawiti had arrived from Kawakawa, and that his followers had been molesting some of the settlers living outside of the town. More natives passing through the settlement, on their way to join Heke and Kawiti.
Thursday, 6.--Rode towards Waitangi with a view to gaining information as to Heke's movements; learned that Kawiti had joined him with about a hundred men, and that both parties were encamped within a mile of the town; also that some of their canoes, in crossing the Bay, had been fired at from the Hazard's gunboat.
Friday, 7.--The gunboat was moving about the Bay as yesterday. Lieutenant Philpots and a midshipman left the boat, and were taking a walk on the sand, when they were suddenly pounced upon by some of Kawiti's people, who were lying in ambush near. They took from Philpots his brace of pistols, examined them carefully, returned one of them and kept the other, cautioned him to take more care of himself for the future, and then let them both return to their boat.
Saturday, 8.--Rode to Paihia this morning to see Archdeacon Williams, as he expressed a wish to spend Sunday at Tepuna, that he might have an opportunity of conversation with Waikato. 1 I offered to remain and take his duty in the Bay. Visited Kororareka during the day, found the inhabitants in a great state of alarm, the male part of the population making such preparations as they could for an attack, which was reported to be about to take place on the Monday.
Sunday, 9.--After holding two services at Paihia, native and English, I pulled round to the Rawiti (a distance of about four miles), and held afternoon service at Orakaua. I was glad to find that none of these natives had joined Heke and Kawiti, and they expressed their determination not to do so. Got back to Paihia between eight and nine, wet and weary. Archdeacon Brown, having a few days before removed from Waimate, with his helpless son, on his way to Auckland, was now at Paihia; he pulled across the Bay, and held service at the native camp. Heke attended the service, with nearly the whole of his people. The Archdeacon took for his text James iv. 1 : "From whence come wars, etc.?" After service Heke quietly walked up to him, and advised him to go and preach the same sermon to the soldiers.
Monday, March 10.--An attack was expected to be made early this morning on Kororareka. Marines and sailors had been landed
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from the Hazard and certain preparations made to meet the enemy. Some few soldiers were also on guard and a number of the inhabitants were under arms. A gun had also been put in position some distance down the flagstaff hill, facing the gorge to the entrance of the town from Matauhi Bay, as it was expected Kawiti and his men would enter this way. This gun was in the charge of civilians, and ready to be worked by them under the direction of Mr. Hector (father of Captain Hector of the P. and O. ship Carthage), by profession a solicitor. No attack, however, was made this morning, and during the day matters remained tolerably quiet.
Shortly after eight o'clock a messenger came to say that the Bishop of New Zealand had arrived in the Bay. Archdeacons Williams and Brown and I pulled across to pay our respects and to advise with his Lordship as to the future. It was arranged that I should return inland and use my influence to prevent others of our people joining Heke; as it was well known he had been urging, both by threats and promises, some of our young men especially to make common cause with him. Was busy the rest of the day, and succeeded in keeping several from going to the Bay. Before dark our settlement presented a lively appearance, as many of the natives from the settlements around had been driven in from fear, as well as several European families who were living in the neighbourhood. We saw no necessity for breaking up our establishment; our girls' school still numbered between 30 and 40, in charge of Mr. and Mrs. E. Williams; and we decided to go on with our work as long as we could.
Tuesday, March 11.--What with the constant moving about and talking of the natives, who were encamped around our houses, we had but little sleep during the night. Rose early, and very shortly afterward we could hear distinctly the reports of the Hazard's guns. Took a hasty breakfast, and then Mr. Davis, Mr. E. Williams, and I, with a number of natives, made our way to a rising hill some three-quarters of a mile distant from the station, where we could get a view of the town and flagstaff, although distant fully ten miles as the crow flies. With the glass we could see that the Hazard's guns were being directed towards the flagstaff, but the flagstaff itself was not visible. Our first thought was that the natives had got possession of "Flagstaff Hill," and that the Hazard's guns were being fired to dislodge them. Before we left we observed an immense volume of smoke ascend from one end of the town. About 2 p.m. a messenger arrived with a hastily-written letter by Archdeacon Williams, informing us that the flagstaff had been cut down, that the natives were in possession of the hill, and that fighting had taken place in the town between Kawiti's men and the sailors of the Hazard. Later news told us that the captain of the Hazard had been dangerously wounded, several of his crew killed, that the inhabitants were deserting the town and were being embarked on board the vessels in the harbour. We now learned that the immense volume of smoke we saw in the morning was caused by an explosion of gunpowder in the stockade, from which only a short time previously the women and children had been removed on board the ships. The greater part of the more valuable moveable property of the town had
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also been lodged in the stockade, nearly the whole of which was destroyed.
Wednesday, March 12.--Another messenger early this morning. I jot down the substance of the news contained in the letter received. "Kawiti with his men entered the town from Matauhi Bay at early morning, were met by Capt. Robertson, of the Hazard, near the church, where a close hand-to-hand fight took place. Capt. R. very severely wounded, several sailors killed, others wounded. On the side of the natives, Kawiti's son killed, with some twenty other natives killed or wounded. Whilst this was taking place in the town, Heke, with his men, had got possession of the block-house, had shot the four or five soldiers who were on guard--also, by mistake, the signalman and a little half-caste girl--that all the inhabitants had gone on board the vessels--the natives in possession of the town, plundering and destroying. More natives have come into our settlements from their own dwellings, bringing with them food, including pigs, horses, etc. Our barn and outhouses are being occupied, and we are in great confusion. Our Bishop, who had been engaged all day yesterday and part of to-day in attending the wounded, helping to get the women and children on board the vessels, etc., came upon us quite unexpectedly after dusk. No sooner was it known that his Lordship was in my house, than the verandah was occupied by an anxious and inquiring throng. It had been reported that the Bishop had come to take our families away to Auckland. At the suggestion of one of my native teachers, the bell was rung, and the crowd rushed into the school-room, where, in a few minutes, the Bishop made his appearance. The first question put to him was, 'Are you come to take away our missionaries?' His Lordship's reply, that he had rather come to sympathise with them in their troubles, and to strengthen their hands, satisfied them. As the Bishop had decided to return to the Bay to-night, in order to be ready to leave for Auckland in the morning, he had only time to give us a very little information of the state of matters in the Bay, and also a short address to the assembled natives, exhorting them to remain with their missionaries, and not join in any way in sharing the plunder from the town. Our girls' school, numbering thirty, was a matter of deep interest to his Lordship, and he remarked, 'What a contrast--that whilst the parents of some of these girls are actually engaged in sacking and burning Kororareka, they are leaving their children in your hands!' The Bishop left us after ten o'clock, to walk back to the Waitangi Falls, twelve miles."
Thursday, March 13.--Employed the whole day in arranging quarters for the natives, who are still flocking into the settlement. They are afraid that Heke, on his return, will have his revenge upon them for not joining him at the Bay, by robbing them of their food, looting their horses, etc. Saw from the hill that the work of destruction was still going on at Kororareka.
Friday, March 14.--As the Bishop had but little time to give us particulars of what had taken place in the Bay, and as we were naturally anxious to obtain further information, I left early for Paihia. Heard particulars from Archdeacon Williams. He had
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been round Tapeka in his boat, and brought in the bodies of the four soldiers who were killed in the defence of the flagstaff, also the bodies of the signalman and the half-caste girl. These two were shot by accident in the block-house, rolled up in their blankets, having been mistaken for soldiers. The signalman's wife was also in the block-house; but she having cried out, they discovered her to be a woman, saved her life; and later in the day, when firing from the Hazard's guns had ceased, Heke sent her down the hill, and she was handed over to the people, who were fast leaving the town for the ships. It does not appear that any natives were killed in the taking of the flagstaff. As near as I could ascertain, the capture of the block-house took place in the following manner Before midnight a select number of Heke's men had placed themselves among the scrub in the gully, some eighty to a hundred yards below the block-house, on the Tapeka side, where they awaited the dawn of day, when they crept up to within about thirty yards of the flagstaff. Some of the guard in the block-house, not suspecting the enemy so near, and hearing a movement in the town (having also, it was reported, some breast-work they were engaged on outside to finish), had opened the door of the block-house, thrown the plank used as a bridge across the moat, and were proceeding, tool in hand, to the unfinished breast-work; but they had either not taken the precaution to have the plank removed and the door closed behind them, or what was more probable, had not time to do so, when the natives rushed and got possession. The soldiers who had left the block-house, and were not shot, found their way down into the town. The labour of destroying the flagstaff was not small, and required time. During the operation a constant fire was kept up from the Hazard's guns; but in the course of an hour and a half the flagstaff fell. On my way to the Bay this morning I met a party of Heke's men coming inland with plunder. It was from them I learned what I have written above of the taking of the hill and the destruction of the flagstaff. On my arrival in the Bay, the houses at Kororareka were still being plundered and burnt. I made a hasty visit to the place, saw and conversed with two or three of those who were at their work of destruction. One was rolling along towards the beach what appeared to be a cask of spirits. I asked him to allow me to knock the head in, but he refused. Another had a bottle of lollies under his arm, which he was deliberately feeding himself with, and invited me to share them with him. Here I was informed that Heke had drawn a line towards the south end of the town, beyond which he had ordered no buildings should be destroyed. Among the buildings thus preserved were our church, what had been my dwelling house, the Roman Catholic Bishop's house and printing office, and other buildings connected therewith; also two or three cottages adjoining. The Roman Catholic chapel, which stands on the hill farther to the north, is also preserved. Returned to Paihia, and after tea and further conversation with Archdeacon Williams rode in to the Waimate. '
Saturday, March 15.--Had to set to this morning and make rules and appoint officers to see them carried out, for the better ordering
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of domestic and social matters among our numerous neutral natives who have taken up their temporary residence in the settlement. This afternoon, a messenger from Hokianga arrived with the news that Waka Nene was collecting his men to oppose Heke's return inland. Our natives received the news without any remark to the native who had brought it. Afterwards a meeting of the chief men was held, and they agreed to request Waka not to occupy the Waimate, but leave the station neutral ground. As may be supposed, I very heartily concurred in this. To-night, at the suggestion of my chief teacher, we held a prayer meeting, when I gave a short address suitable to the occasion. The leading Christian men afterwards met together for prayer.
Sunday, March 16.--Large congregations to-day. Services, 7 a.m. for prayer, 10 a.m. for the usual Native services, and 3 p.m. English service.
Monday, March 17.-- Our usual Monday morning school for adults and children, some 150 present. After school, speeches from the leading men relative to our present position and prospects. All agreed with us of the station that Waimate should be held tapu (sacred), and that Waka be strongly advised not to make the mission station his camping ground, wherein to await the return of Heke inland.
Some of the parents wished to remove their children from school at once, but were advised to wait further news of Waka's movements. Heard to-day that Heke is recrossing the Bay, his people landing their plunder on the Waitangi side and conveying it inland.
Tuesday, March 18.--Great excitement among our people. News that Heke is on his way to this place, and that Waka has likewise left Hokianga to prevent his return to Kaikohe or Mawe. He is reported to have about 300 men with him. Later to-day a native from Heke's camp informed us that he was mustering more men before coming farther inland; having heard that Waka was on his way to stop his return. Before retiring, heard that Waka with a part of his men had arrived at Okaihau and would be in the settlement to-morrow.
Wednesday, March 19.--Our natives all excitement this morning. Waka expected about noon. The women are all busy preparing food for him and his people. About 2 p.m. they marched in with Waka at their head, who came direct to my house, whilst his men seated themselves outside the fence.
After our usual salutation, Waka opened the conversation by saying, "I know that you will preach peace, as Mr. Hobbs (Wesleyan missionary, stationed at Hokianga) has done, but I am determined to put a stop to the doings of that 'hikaka' (proud) fellow," meaning Heke, "and you know that in the step I am taking I am only fulfilling my promise to the Governor made on this spot" (he alluded to the meeting of himself and the other chiefs with Governor Fitzroy, when the twelve muskets were laid at his Excellency's feet). "That man," he continued, "has turned a deaf ear to your warnings as missionaries, and to ours as chiefs of Ngapuhi. Who is John Heke that he should despise our councils, who are older men than he is? does he
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pride himself upon being the son-in-law of the late Hongi? We are also related to Hongi, and have in time past fought his battles for him. He was a friend of the pakeha (foreigner); moreover, I have pledged myself to uphold the law established among us, and I mean to do it." When I suggested to him that as he had not heard from the Governor, had he not better wait until he received a reply to a letter he had written to his Excellency, he said, "Let Heke stop at the Bay where he has done his mischief, and I will wait, but if he returns inland with his plunder I will oppose him, and he will have to fight his way to Kaikohe." After he and his men had finished their food, a meeting was called, and speeches made both by Waka and some of his leading men, and likewise by several of our own people. These latter, one or two of whom were near relatives of Heke's, strongly urged leaving him to the Governor to be punished. At the close of the meeting a second letter was written to the Governor, dictated by Waka, reporting his arrival here, and the readiness of himself and the other chiefs who had given their pledge, to fulfil it. Just as we had separated and were thinking of bed, the whole settlement was aroused by the news that Heke, with only a few followers, was not far from the station. This proved to be not altogether a false alarm; for he had actually come two-thirds of the way on the road with only some half-dozen men with him, but having been met by a native, who had doubtless been sent for the purpose of communicating to him the substance of the speeches made by Waka and others, he returned to Waitangi.
Thursday, March 20.--Saw Waka early, to ask him to use his influence to prevent his men from breaking down our fences for firewood; he did his best, and sent some of the young men into the bush near to cut firewood. Seeing Mr Davis and Waka at the back of the settlement, I crossed over to them and discovered that the former had been proposing to erect a small stockade, not as a fighting pa, but as a protection against a sudden night attack. Mr. Davis, however, after a little private conversation with me, agreed that if possible the station should be tapu, and any pa, either for defence or fighting, should be outside the settlement. We therefore earnestly desired Waka either to move nearer to the Bay or return towards Okaihau and build his pa. A little below us are some half-dozen native huts, and Waka, at my suggestion, set his men to work to put them in order as a temporary camp for a night or two. I visited the camp late, where much speechifying was going on; some councilling leaving Heke to the Government, others, chiefly adherents of Waka, urging active steps to be taken to punish Heke and his followers. During the day some of Waka's men went out and plundered a settlement near where the men of the place had gone with Heke. After taking a considerable quantity of food, etc., they set fire to several huts.
Good Friday, March 21.--Had native service early in the morning, a fair congregation. Some of Waka's young men proposed visiting another settlement as yesterday, but were induced to remain quiet. In the evening a prayer meeting was held in the church. A small attendance.
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Saturday, March 22.--Waka's natives went out as on Thursday and brought in more plunder, chiefly pigs taken from off the land of those who were with Heke. Our own people fetched in also a quantity of food from their own settlement and gave to Waka's men. A long conversation with several of the Hokianga chiefs. Wi Repa and his brother are very desirous to oppose Heke. They are evidently longing for a fight. Waka himself is very quiet. I am not sure he is not a little put out with me for urging his leaving the settlement to prevent bloodshed on the mission station. Had some misgivings to-day as to what is the right step to take in reference to Mrs. B., her infant, and nurse; the nurse is the difficulty, she is becoming very nervous and wants to leave.
Easter Sunday, March 23.--Very large native congregations both morning and evening. Sunday School also well attended. Preached from James iv. 1, "From whence come wars?" All quiet during the day and up to about 8 o'clock, when one of my natives came in to say that Heke's wife had arrived in the settlement alone. Went at once to the camp where I found her sitting near Waka. No conversation had as yet taken place, a simple salute, rubbing of noses, then silence. The presence of Heke's wife was all that was needed to show what she had come for; the act itself was indeed the "olive branch" held out by her husband. After some time Waka rose, and in an apparently angry speech recapitulated his former warnings to Heke; then Heke's perseverance in mischief which had culminated in robbery and bloodshed. Also his pledge to the Governor to put down such doings, finishing up by saying he should treat him as an outcast, and prevent his coming inland to his own home.
Monday, March 24.--:Some dozen of the leading men of the Rawiti arrived this morning, whose object appeared to be to persuade Waka to leave Heke to be dealt with by the Governor, using as an argument that his transgression was against the Government; and with them should rest the punishment of the transgressor. Our people here joined the Rawiti natives in again urging Waka to wait at least further news from the Governor. His men, however, urged quite as warmly a determined resistance to the return of Heke inland. After the meeting several of Waka's leading men had a private interview with him on the question of erecting a pa somewhere in the neighbourhood. In the evening he told me they had been talking over our objection to their occupying any part of the mission property as a site for a pa, and that it was probable they would withdraw on the morrow to Okaihau.
Tuesday, March 25.--Walked over to the camp early. Waka came out of his hut and told me they were about to remove to Okaihau, a distance of some four or five miles further inland, towards Hokianga and the other side of Mawe lake. In the afternoon Waka came to say good-bye, and shortly afterward he left the settlement with his whole party.
Wednesday, March 26.--We are now left with our girls' school reduced to about 25 and those natives who have taken up their temporary residence on the station.
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Thursday, March 27.--Aroused early this morning by the sound of voices under my bed-room window. News had arrived that Heke left for this place yesterday by the way of Pakaraka with some 300 men and might be expected early--hence the confusion. My natives were all astir, and there was great excitement throughout the settlement. It was reported also that Waka, hearing that Heke was on his way to the Waimate, had returned to his old camping place with part of his men. Went down to the place, but found the huts all empty. Afterwards learned that Waka, who had not gone further than Te Ahuahu, a village about two miles off, the night before, had returned early in the morning to the borders of the settlement, but finding that Heke was still at Pakaraka, six miles away, had gone to Okaihau to push on the erection of his pa.
Saturday, March 29.--Yesterday and to-day we have been tolerably quiet. Heke still in the neighbourhood of Pakaraka, apparently adding to his numbers before coming further inland. Rode out to Mawe. Found some of Waka's men taking away food, etc., belonging to natives who are with Heke, whilst Broughton and Ruhe, the two chiefs of the district whom I have mentioned before as having met Heke here on his way to the Bay, were sending their own hands to Waka's camp with food. At this place are the wives and children of men who were at the plundering and burning of Kororareka, who are related to Waka's people. These were doing their best to keep their own kumaras, potatoes, etc., and generally succeeded in doing so. On my return home found a messenger from Pakaraka, who informed us that Heke intended passing through our station on his way to Mawe, a settlement about two miles from Waka's present locality, where it is presumed he will erect a pa if allowed to do so by Waka.
Sunday, March 30.--A most trying day. After morning service the parents of the school girls came to say they must take their children away, as Heke would be here in the morning and fighting would probably take place between the two parties in or near the station. Our worst fears have, therefore, been realised--one half the children have gone. Some of them had become so attached to the school and their teachers that their parents had to use force to get them away. Thus an institution from which we expected much in the future has been broken up, at least for the present, and our hopes frustrated. Late in the evening Ruhe came in from Te Ahuahu to beg me to join him early in the morning and go towards Pakaraka to meet Heke, who, he informed me, was leaving at daylight for this place, and had declared his intention to strip Wi Hau and destroy his pa, because it had been reported to him that he had been talking against him at several meetings and condemning his proceedings. This chief's settlement is about a mile from our station northward. Reluctant as I am to encounter Heke after the mischief he has done and the bloodshed he has caused, I agreed to Ruhe's proposal.
Monday, March 31.--Sent away a native lad at daylight on horseback towards Pakaraka to watch the movements of the Heke party. About eight o'clock the lad returned and reported that they were on
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their way, about two miles from the settlement. I joined Ruhe shortly afterward, and we walked together about half-a-mile on the road, where we met the whole force, numbering about 300 men. They had with them a bullock-dray, drawn by four bullocks, which they had taken, without leave, I believe, from Archdeacon Williams' sons to bring in a small gun, etc., which they had brought with them from Kororareka. Ruhe and I walked in silence before them until we arrived at the Waiare stream, when Heke called for a halt, and a camp was formed on the south bank, which was regarded as outside our immediate station. Preparations were speedily made for cooking. In the meantime Heke, who had waited some time for either Ruhe or me to speak, stood up, and after some friendly remarks, said, "I have heard that the object of you two in coming to meet me is to prevent my stripping Wi Hau; but I mean to do it, and burn his pa" He was allowed to finish what he had to stay, when Ruhe replied, "What! have you not made yourself enemies enough already by what you have done in the Bay? Strip Wi Hau! Burn his pa! but remember that by so doing you are adding to the number of your enemies. All Wi Hau's party have declared themselves neutral, but once interfere with them and you will have them against you." I added a few words to what Ruhe had said, and the affair ended by some kumeras and potatoes, with three or four pigs, being brought into the camp by Wi Hau's people. Heke in the course of the day made a long speech in reference to the interference of Waka. He said that his quarrel was not with him, and that his place was Hokianga; that he should not commence hostilities with him unless he came within his camp at Mawe, where, at the request of Hira te Puri, a chief of the place, who had been with him to the Bay, they were intending to erect a pa. The whole party appeared tired out, and many of them slept during the afternoon. I kept watch over our fences, which reached nearly to the edge of the stream on the other side, to prevent their being taken for firewood. In the evening I reminded Heke that we had succeeded in inducing Waka to move out of the settlement with his men. and that I hoped he intended to move on. He replied: "You have done right in keeping the mission station tapu. Had you allowed Waka to occupy it you would have rendered it noa (common) ground, and it would have been destroyed. You will see in the morning what I will do." Mr. Puckey arrived late from Kaitaia.
Tuesday, April 1.--We went early over to Heke's camp, found them all packing up for a move, and, in a very short time the whole body, numbering over three hundred, marched single file through the settlement, fully armed, and halted for breakfast about half a mile on the other side of our station. I found out afterwards that Heke had given orders over night that no fires should be lighted for cooking food where they were encamped, so that the men might have no excuse for pulling down the fencing for firewood or otherwise interfering with any of the mission property. Our neighbours, the Clarkes, by the side of whose premises Heke and his people halted for breakfast, did not fare so well, as the cooks made free with their fencing to prepare their food with. This morning Heke was joined
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by some 150 natives, who had come over from Whangaroa; many of them are relatives of Heke's wife. About mid-day the whole force moved on to Mawe without meeting with any opposition from their enemy. Seeing now that Heke was determined to make preparations at Mawe to meet an attack from Waka, and that fighting between the two parties was inevitable, involving probably the whole district around in war, I rode down to the Bay to advise with Archdeacon Williams as to what was best to be done with our families. Returned again late at night.
Wednesday, April 2. -- As the Governor has sent H.M.S the North Star to the Bay to take away any European families living in the neighbourhood who may wish to remove, and has given notice that he is about to blockade the port, we decided that Mrs B., infant, and nurse, should go to Auckland for a while, Mrs E. Williams, who had still a few girls in our school, to Paihia. Mr. Davis, for whom a new house had been built at Kaikohe, had made up his mind to go thither, Mrs. Davis being quite willing to go with him.
Thursday, April 3.--A messenger from Broughton and Ruhe, asking me to go out and see them, as they were both very anxious fighting should not take place between the two parties. These two chiefs are neutral and have all along counselled the leaving of the matter with the Government. I had therefore to leave Mrs B. and party in other hands to see them down to the Kerikeri where they were to proceed in a boat to the vessel. Saw Broughton and Ruhe, who asked me to ride on to Okaihau, take a message from them, and use my own influence with Waka to stay hostilities until he should hear further from the Governor. In passing I saw Heke, who at first objected to my proceeding further, as he said some of his men had gone out towards Waka's camp to bring in food from a plantation which belonged to them, and they might be opposed by a party from Waka's pa, in which case fighting would take place. I, however, got permission to proceed, and passed Heke's men a short distance from his camp, who were proceeding very cautiously along the native path, which was lined on either side with tolerably high fern and manuka. Cantering on some mile further I met another party of Heke's men, headed by Hira te Puri, walking briskly back. They told me to be careful as they were being followed by some of Waka's men. I had not proceeded much beyond musket shot when I met Wi Repa and party following up Hira. I told them I was a messenger from Broughton and Ruhe to Waka, and asked them to return to the camp and hear what I had to say. Repa replied, "You will find Waka a little farther on; leave us to takaro (play) a little." And on they went. I found Waka sitting by the side of the path a little distance from where they were erecting their pa, with his wife sitting by his side--Waka with a double-barrel gun in his hand, and she with a long-handled tomahawk. I had scarcely begun to deliver my message when we heard firing. Waka jumped up, saying, "It is too late," and, followed by his wife, he hastened after the party. A hundred or more natives, armed, rushed from the camp, and in a very short time skirmishing
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became general over a good part of the plain towards the lake. Finding myself in an unenviable position. I mounted my horse, and rode to an eminence, some quarter of a mile distant, where I had a tolerably clear view of what was going on, and could occasionally hear a spent shot from Heke's side dropping somewhere in my neighbourhood. The skirmishing lasted about an hour, for there was no close fighting, after which, as if by mutual consent, they ceased firing, and one of Waka's men called out lustily to me to pass on quickly. In riding along the narrow path I saw several of the skirmishing party crouching in the scrub, who saluted me with a grin and told me to clear out of the way. I had not reached Heke's camp when firing recommenced, and skirmishing was kept up, chiefly by the young men, for some two hours. Saw Heke, to whom I related my interview with Waka. He replied, "Well, if he will fight let it be so;" but he was evidently sorry that hostilities had commenced. Stayed in the camp till all skirmishing had ceased, and the wounded on Heke's side were brought in. One only had been killed and four wounded, one of them mortally. He had no less than five gunshots in different parts of the body. This was the first time in my life I had examined and dressed wounds, and must confess to having felt a little nervous. In the evening rode down to the Kerikeri to see the last of my family before their leaving for Auckland.
Friday, April 4.--Returned to the Waimate early, leaving Mr. Kemp to see Mrs. B. on board the North Star, which was lying at the mouth of the Kerikeri river. After breakfast, rode on to Mawe, found Heke had gone with a party to Ohaeawae for ammunition; the native who was mortally wounded still living, but too weak to talk.
Saturday, April 5.--No fighting to-day. Saw Heke and party busy enlarging and strengthening their pa. Was proceeding on to Okaihau, when I met Mr. Davis coming in to Mawe with a message from Waka to Heke, to say that if he broke up his party, and moved out of the neighbourhood, he would not follow him; but if he remained at Mawe, and his people approached his camp, there would be fighting. Heke replied, "We are on our own land. Waka's people have burnt our houses, taken our food, and are now in possession of plantations belonging to us. Let him return to Hokianga." I found that in the skirmishing on Thursday there had been but one killed and one wounded on Waka's side.
Sunday, April 6.--Services and school as usual, with as many as we could bring together, which consisted of those who are living in the settlement or in the immediate neighbourhood. Our native teacher, Anaru, held a prayer-meeting with the people in the evening.
Monday, April 7.--As Heke had asked me to go out and see him on Monday morning, I left after breakfast. He authorised me to say to Waka, that he was prepared to disperse his people, if he would first return to Hokianga. Waka replied, "I am on my own land; here I mean to remain until I hear from the Governor, unless Heke first removes from Mawe." Heke is doubtless anxious to make peace with Waka, but his proud spirit will not allow him to yield to Waka's demand. On the other hand, Waka only awaits the
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Governor's reply to his letter, in which he renewed his promise to his Excellency to assist him in punishing Heke for his misdeeds.
Tuesday, April 8.--Rode out to Te Ahuahu, with the intention of going both to Heke's and Waka's camps; but had scarcely reached the hill when firing commenced in the plain below. This continued and extended a good way around the lake and over the plain near Heke's camp, until about three o'clock p.m. I afterward went to the camp, and found four wounded, one mortally, but none killed. I saw them all, and did what I could under the circumstances. Was on my way to Waka's camp, when I met two natives coming to me for medicine for one of five who had been wounded, four only slightly--none killed. The one who was dangerously wounded was a chief of Hokianga, greatly respected by his people. The ball had entered the side, passed under the ribs, and was lodged there. The report of the men was that he was vomiting a quantity of blood, and was suffering more especially from a difficulty of breathing and a choking sensation. I sent as quickly as possible a mild emetic and also an aperient dose, with such instructions as my little medical knowledge would allow, and promised to follow the man early in the morning.
Wednesday, April 9.--Left home before daylight; but when about half-way met a messenger to say that the emetic had produced a discharge of a large quantity of congealed blood; that the patient was so much better, they had removed him towards Hokianga. Rode over to Heke's camp; found them busy strengthening an old stockade; but Heke and the greater number of his men had commenced a new pa in the open space, some half a mile nearer to Waka's camp, on a piece of rising ground sloping westward towards the Lake and southwards towards Te Ahuahu. Waka's people were also strengthening their position.
Thursday, Friday, and Saturday, April 10, 11, 12.--Both parties engaged erecting and strengthening their pas. To-day (Saturday) a few young men from Waka's camp came over within half a mile of where Heke's people are building their new pa, and fired a few shots, with a view to bring on skirmishing; but as they met with no response, they returned.
Sunday, April 13.--Rather a large congregation of natives this morning, as a number of Heke's people walked in from Mawe, and returned after the service. The English congregation reduced to eight.
Monday, April 14.--Rode out to Heke's pa; found he had gone to Taiamai, but had given instructions that no one should, for the future, be allowed to pass through his camp to Waka's, as he had been informed that two young men (one of them in Government employ), who had been allowed to do so, had brought from Waka a sample of gunpowder, to show the Government how bad it was; and also a letter to the Governor, asking for a supply of ammunition. As I had not in any way been a transgressor in this matter, I pleaded that I might be made an exception; but as I had no special object in going to Okaihau that day, I was content to wait Heke's return.
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Tuesday, April 15.--Skirmishing again to-day. Went to both camps after the skirmishers had drawn in. Found one killed and four wounded on Heke's side, one of the four very severely, and three wounded of Waka's men.
Wednesday, April 16.--The majority of the natives who had come from Whangaroa to join Heke passed through the Waimate this morning on their way home. I congratulated them on their decision to draw out of the quarrel. They replied, "We only came up to please Rewarewa. We had nothing to do with sacking Kororareka. We are related some to Heke and some to Waka; why should we endanger our lives in this quarrel?" I found that in the skirmish the day before some of these men had gone out with Heke's party, and some with Waka's. Rewarewa, who is an old man, and one of the most influential chiefs of Whangaroa, told me that his sympathies were with Heke, because he believed Waka had not taken up the quarrel on account of the Government, but to revenge a grudge he had against Heke. I replied that although I did not agree with him in that, I considered he was acting wisely in withdrawing his men.
Thursday, April 17.--Some of Heke's party foraging about the settlement very early this morning. Our own natives had suspected their intentions, and had been on the watch from dawn of day. Nothing was missing, but as they were disposed to hang about the station, I had to request them to return to their own places, which they did.
Friday, April 18.--All quiet to-day; each party strengthening their position.
Saturday, April 19.--Very sharp skirmishing to-day, lasting three or four hours. One of Heke's men killed; seventeen, more or less, wounded, some severely. Of Waka's, one killed and three wounded. Was out at Heke's camp, but it was too late to go on to Okaihau. Some two or three of Heke's wounded men are not likely to recover.
Sunday, April 20 --A small congregation this morning. Many of our people who have still some of their food at their plantations are out trying to prevent Heke's men (who are gathering in all the supplies they can possibly get) from robbing them. A native came in from Heke's camp this afternoon who informed me that of the natives who were wounded on Saturday two had died. Old Anaru, our native teacher, had been with them.
Monday, April 21.--Rode out to Heke's camp to see the wounded. Found that all who could be moved, and were of no use in the camp, had been taken away by their friends; in fact, two or three of those wounded on Heke's side were relatives of natives fighting with Waka's people, and had been handed over to his party. "A prophet has arisen among us," and two or three of my natives came to me this evening to relate a vision which he had had, the substance of which was that Kawiti was coming this night to kill us all, and burn the station, and, as he was encamped at Paheke on his way to join Heke, the story had taken fast hold upon the people, who proposed to mount guard, some at my house and some in the house below. I raised no objection, and before I went to bed about twenty men duly armed were in my verandah, some rolled up in their blankets, and some on guard.
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Tuesday, April 22.--When I made my appearance in the morning my "body guard" came round me to know if I had slept at all. They were surprised when I told them 1 had had a good night's rest. They said they had not had any sleep, and expressed themselves very confident that had they not been on the watch the houses would have been destroyed. Was out among the belligerents. Some of Waka's young men approached Heke's camp with a view to draw them out for a skirmish, but the men continued at their work, strengthening their fortification. The natives immediately around our settlement who have hitherto remained at home looking after their food, etc., are becoming alarmed at Heke's people, who are every day making their appearance among them seeking for prey.
Wednesday and Thursday, April 23 and 24.--Yesterday and to-day negotiations have been going on between Waka and Heke through some influential chiefs. Waka proposes that Heke shall clear out altogether from the district, take all the natives with him who took any part in the destruction of Kororareka, and locate himself farther inland, either at Hikurangi or beyond Ruapekapeka. If he will agree to this Waka will return to Hokianga, and leave the whole of the Waimate and the Lake District clear. Heke does not accept this proposition, but replies, "We are on our own land where we mean to remain until we are driven off."
Friday, April 25.--The wind being from the westward, we could hear distinctly the firing from the direction of the camps; we knew therefore that skirmishing was going on. Rode out towards Mawe, but firing ceased before I arrived there, and, as far as 1 could learn, there were no casualties on either side.
Saturday, April 26.--All quiet to-day. Heke's people hard at work at their pa.
Sunday, April 27.--The usual native services. We have no English among us. Some fifty natives came in from Te Ahuahu, making our morning congregation about 150. The people were more than ordinarily attentive to-day. They are feeling the critical state they are in as neutrals. Our native teacher was out holding service with Heke's people. On his return he reported to me that Heke had been addressing the people, comparing themselves to the persecuted children of Israel, etc.
Monday, April 28.--After our usual morning school, and just as the people were dispersing, a messenger arrived from Paihia with letters. Heard of the safe arrival of our families in Auckland. About four p.m. we heard the report of guns, which proved to be those of H.M.S. North Star, which was just entering the Bay, followed by two transports, bringing some three hundred soldiers and forty volunteers.
Tuesday, April 29.--Some of Heke's natives were about the settlement very early this morning, with a view to plunder, we presume. Skirmishing to-day; some three or four wounded on each side, but none killed. Heke sent a messenger to some of the men who are neutral, and living on the station, to persuade them to join him, now that soldiers are at hand, as they would have to leave the Waimate to make room for the troops. I reassured them that, even should the troops come to the Waimate, I should be able to take care of them, as the Gov-
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ernor had issued a proclamation to the effect that all natives who had not taken up arms against the Government would be protected.
Wednesday, April 30.--Saw Heke this morning; my chief object being to ascertain his views and feelings now that soldiers are actually in the Bay. He was very civil, but said he meant to wait the result. He had heard that Waka, with a part of his men, had gone down to welcome the troops, and to show them the way inland. "He should watch their movements, but not go away."
Thursday, May 1.--Very early this morning Heke made his appearance on the borders of the settlement, with about a hundred men and a number of dogs. Hearing of their approach, I met them at the west end of the station. They formed in line, and rushed towards me, yelling as if about to dance the war-dance. This demonstration was intended more for the people who were with me than for myself. He told me they had come in to catch some of the pigs which were running about in the scrub near at hand, that they might have a supply of pork in their pas. To my reply that I hoped they would save ours, he said, "If you will give us the ear-mark of yours, I will do my best to save them; but we shall not be particular with the "kupapas" (a kupapa is one who is sitting still, taking no part with either side). Heke said moreover, "My people are wishing to destroy the bridge over the Waitanga, to prevent the soldiers bringing their guns, etc., into the Waimate." My answer was that it was very uncertain as to whether the troops would want the bridge at all; for if Waka led them by the way he had gone out to fetch them--namely, by the Kerikeri, direct to Okaihau--they would not come near the bridge. Some of his men, however, were very eager to destroy it; but after pointing out to them that we who lived on the Waimate side would be the chief sufferers, under any circumstances, by its destruction, they gave up the idea, and went off to pig-hunt. In the afternoon the whole body returned, having caught some fifty or sixty pigs of various sizes.
Just as Heke was leaving, with his party, a native from the Bay rode up to him and told him that Pomare had been taken prisoner in his pa by the captain of the North Star, sent on board, and his pa burnt. Heke turned to me and said, "Davis and you must be a payment for Pomare." The idea of Mr. Davis and I being prisoners in Heke's pa appeared so novel, that I laughed heartily, and Heke joined in the laugh. I told him I believed Pomare would be all safe with the captain. It was known that some of Pomare's people had partaken in the spoils from Kororareka; but as they had done so without their chief's knowledge, he would not be held responsible.
Friday May 2.--One of the C. M. S. horses is missing from the paddock with two or three others belonging to our natives. We fear they were taken last night. Hearing of Pomare having been taken prisoner, I sent a messenger late last night on horseback to bring in the correct news. Found the information was true. Sir E. Home surrounded the pa early yesterday morning with some of his sailors. Nearly all Pomare's natives who were in the pa managed to get away, but Pomare himself made no attempt to leave, and as the captain's object was simply to get him out of harm's way for a
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time, he did not attempt the capture of any of his men. My messenger also brought a note written to Ruhe, at Pomare's request, asking him to send a message to Heke to say that he wished no notice to be taken of his imprisonment on board the North Star, where he was being well fed and kindly treated. In the still of the evening, as I was walking my verandah grieving over the sad effects this war was having upon our work as missionaries, my attention was called to the sound of voices at a distance, and on approaching the spot from whence the sound came, I discovered that four or five of our Christian natives, among them my own teacher, were holding a prayer meeting to invoke God's help in this season of excitement and danger.
Saturday, May 4.--We hear to-day that the troops are being landed at Onewhero Bay, on the west side of the Harbour between Waitangi and the inner entrance to the Kerikeri River. Our usual prayer meeting this evening, about 30 present. Gave a short address suitable to the occasion.
Sunday, May 5.--Very early a party of about 30 natives came into the settlement returning to Whangaroa. They told me they were the few who had remained behind when Rewarewa returned with his party a week or ten days ago--that they had no quarrel with the Governor and had no intention to fight the soldiers. I asked them to wait for the morning service, but their excuse was that they were anxious to get clear of the district before the troops came in. We held our usual services; our native teacher was unable to hold a service at Mawe as Heke's people were working at their Pa. It has been raining more or less a good part of the day.
Monday, May 6.--We heard this morning that, in consequence of the rain and the troops having no shelter on Onewhero beach, they took to their boats again yesterday, pulled up the Kerikeri river, and have landed at the mission station. Our natives here were all alarm and excitement lest the troops should come this way. We have no information further than that they are at Kerikeri, and have occupied every available building, including the little chapel.
Tuesday, May 7.--To our infinite relief we discovered this morning that the troops, marines, and volunteers were being marched across the hills opposite our settlement direct to Waka's pa. There are reported to be 300 soldiers, about 100 marines and sailors, and 40 volunteers, besides Tamati Waka and his men. We could see very distinctly through our glasses the marching on of the force until they entered the bush. I ordered my horse and rode out to Heke. My main object in going was to ascertain whether he had any terms to propose, or any message to send, either to the officer in command or to Waka. He was very quiet and civil. He said he should wait an attack from the soldiers. He should not meet them half way, but leave them to fire the first shot. A superstitious idea prevails among many of the natives that there is "bad luck" in firing the first shot or being the first to commence actual fighting; and I have known parties go out armed with the intention of attacking each other to return without doing anything, simply from this idea. As soon as Heke's men heard that the troops were
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actually on the way they began to work with double vigour. Before I left I obtained a promise from Heke that if any messenger, either English or native, came from the commanding officer to him he would allow him to return. He objected to my passing on that afternoon towards Okaihau, but asked me to come out again early in the morning, and said that in the meantime he would think over what I had been saying to him.
May 8.--Arrived at Heke's pa early, according to promise. On my way, about a quarter of a mile from the pa, I came upon Kawiti with about 150 men, all armed, and closely packed under a small rise, where they were sheltered from any shots coming from the opposite side. A small breastwork had been thrown up by them farther up towards the brow of the hill. Marupo, a chief of Taiamai, objected to my proceeding towards the camp, but when I told him Heke had requested me to see him he allowed me to pass on. I found the whole of the men under arms: some of the few women who were there were hard at work carrying flax, and in other ways assisting to strengthen their situation. I asked Heke if he had any message for me to take to the colonel. He replied, "I presume nothing short of a surrender would satisfy him and I am not prepared for that. No; let him come and attack us." The work that had been done since yesterday in the way of strengthening their position was almost incredible. They must have been working all night. A second line of palisading had been put up on two sides of the pa, with a high breastwork thrown up inside the inner fence, and a deep ditch cut between that and the middle fence. The outer line of perpendicular posts, closely fixed, and varying from five to ten inches in diameter, had been thickly coated with green flax. The whole had been carefully loop-holed. Whilst I was talking with Heke a party from Waka's pa, came to within a mile or so of the place and danced the war dance. Shortly afterward the position was reconnoitred by the commanding officer, who then returned. I once more asked Heke if he had any terms to propose or any message to send to the officer in command of the troops, to which he replied, "No, I have nothing more to say." I then left him, and joined Ruhe and other neutral natives who were waiting the next movement of the troops. I had to pass through Kawiti's party on my way back, who were still in the same position. Scouts had been sent out round the edge of the lake to watch the movements of the soldiers. No attack, however, was made to-day. Heke's people employed their time in strengthening their position. Returned to the Waimate at dusk, Ruhe asked me to go out again early in the morning, to be ready, if wanted, to be the bearer of any proposition Heke might be disposed to make to the officer in command of the forces.
May 9.--Left home at daybreak. On arriving on the other side of Pukenui, I could see that the troops were moving towards Heke's pah. A considerable number of neutral natives had stationed themselves on the west side of the hill, from whence they had a good bird's-eye. view of the whole plain, as far as Okaihau, including Kawiti's party lying in ambush. The attack was made upon the rebels by the discharge of several rockets. Seeing I could be of no
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further use below, I joined Ruhe's party, who had stationed themselves near the top of the hill. After the discharge of a few rockets, some of which fell rather wide of the pa, firing was commenced by the troops from the position they had taken up, which was returned by the enemy. Kawiti, with about one hundred men, had taken up the same position he occupied yesterday--that is, on the opposite side of the pa to where the soldiers were placed. In the meantime a detachment of soldiers had been led round the edge of the Mawe lake under the guidance of a native named John Hobbs, and had taken up a commanding position not far from where Kawiti was lying in ambush, being ignorant at the time of his presence. Their guide leaving them for a few minutes returned and pointed out the whereabouts of the enemy lying in the scrub on the other side of the hill. An advance was at once made, and guided by the same brave fellow the officer in command led his men to the brow of the hill, under the shelter of which Kawiti had placed his men and opened fire upon them. The rebels fearlessly met the attack, and a fierce encounter took place. They, however, soon gave way, and became broken and scattered. In returning from driving Kawiti and his men back, the soldiers were met by some 80 or 100 natives, who had rushed from the pa, led by a chief of the name of Haratua. The scattered party, seeing that they were being reinforced from the pa, returned to the charge, and a close, almost hand-to-hand conflict took place. The soldiers were at the same time being harassed by a constant fire from one of the angles of the pa. The detachment, being thus closely pressed, retreated by the same way they came, exposed more or less to the fire of the enemy on their return and leaving a number of their dead on the field. The rebels who had issued from the pa, now returned again, and firing was kept up by the troops till towards sunset, met by a return from those within the stockade. The officer in command then withdrew his men to Waka's camp, taking two of his killed and all his wounded with him. Night was coming on and heavy rain set in so that it became impossible to look up any dead or dying which might be left behind. A neutral native volunteered to go as far as Kawiti's camp, but was turned back. Seeing that nothing more could be done to-night I returned home.
Friday, May 10.--Up before daylight. I called for volunteers to go with me to look up the dead and dying if any. Two only responded. It was still raining heavily, and before I reached Kawiti's camp I was drenched to the skin. I here learned that Kawiti had been shot in the ear, one of his sons and several of his relatives killed, besides others of his tribe and a number wounded. I was met by a messenger with a request from Heke that I would come to the pa. On my arrival he said he wished me to undertake the burying of the dead soldiers whose bodies had been left on the field. Shortly afterward a native of influence among Waka's people arrived from the colonel's camp, carrying a white flag, the object of which was, as far as the colonel was concerned, to have his dead decently buried. Finding this to be the officer's wish, I called for volunteers from among Heke's people to join me and my
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two natives in collecting the bodies of the soldiers which were scattered over a considerable space. After some time, during which it was pouring with rain, some half dozen came forward and, in the course of two or three hours, we had succeeded in bringing together eleven bodies to the edge of the entrenchment on the side of the hill which had been commenced by Kawiti's party when they first took up their position in that locality. In this ditch, somewhat deepened, the eleven bodies were laid and, in the presence of some thirty of Heke's people, I read in the Maori language so much of our burial service as was considered suitable to the occasion. We afterwards found two more bodies, lying near each other, some third of a mile distant and close to the lake; these we buried on the spot where we found them. After burying all we could find, I went into the pa and saw Heke, also the native chief from Waka's camp, who had come early in the morning with a flag of truce. I requested him to inform the colonel we had buried all the bodies of the soldiers we could find, 13 in number. The number of the natives killed I could not ascertain, but I suppose some 20 or 30. Heke now told me the chief who had come with the flag of truce was urging them to leave their pa to prevent further bloodshed, as the officer in command of the troops was only waiting for the rain to cease to make another attack. I wished much to visit some of the wounded who had been taken to the settlement near, but I was drenched to the skin and thoroughly worn out. I therefore went home a little before night.
Saturday, May 11.--Left the Waimate at daylight. When I arrived at Te Ahuahu, I found Kawiti's people on the move. Passing on towards Mawe, I met one party after another laden with their goods and chattels, such as pots, calabashes, etc. Among the last of the body was Kawiti himself, accompanied by two or three wounded on litters; the body of his son and several other dead had been removed the night before. I was on horseback, and as I approached Kawiti I turned off the path to give him room to pass. His head was bound up; he had a tomahawk in his right hand. As I came abreast of him he called out to me to stop, which I did, but, I fear, not with a good grace. He stepped aside towards me, still holding the tomahawk in his right hand, and I confess to a feeling of nervousness as he drew near; but, to my great relief, he passed the weapon out of his right hand into his left, and held out the former to shake hands. He simply said to me, "Go and gather together the bodies of your countrymen, the soldiers which are lying about, and tell Heke we are leaving." On arriving at the pa I found Heke, with his whole force, preparing to desert the pa, but not in a body; some of the younger and more daring ones were intending to await the approach of the soldiers, then fire a few shots, and follow after their comrades. Shortly after this some natives, who had gone out towards Waka's pa to watch, as they expected, the approach of the troops, returned and reported that the colonel was on his way back to the Kerikeri with all his men, leaving Waka only at Okaihau. In the course of an hour afterward they were seen to emerge from the bush and march on over the open space towards the Kerikeri, taking their wounded with them. I returned as quickly as I could to the Waimate to reassure
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our natives, who were in great fright lest the troops, when they found Heke and Kawiti had deserted the pa, would march through that way, and take up their abode in our settlement.
The main body of Heke's party passed over to Ohaeawai and its neighbouring settlements, while others made their way to their own villages. Before I returned home our miller, an European, had gone off in a fright to the Kerikeri, believing, or rather fancying, that Heke, with his whole force, was on his way to our settlement, to burn and destroy, to prevent the place being occupied by the troops. To his surprise, when he arrived there, he found the colonel and his force were before him. He told most exaggerated stories of what Heke was doing in plundering and destroying, that a large increase had been made to his force, and that he was on his way, with some five hundred to a thousand men, to burn and destroy the buildings at the Kerikeri. The colonel thought it prudent, therefore, to remove all his wounded on board the transport ships anchored at the mouth of the Kerikeri river.
Sunday, May 12.--Our settlement is full, as many of the neutral natives who were living in their own settlement took fright yesterday when they heard correctly that Heke had deserted his pa, but, incorrectly, that he was being pursued by the soldiers. Large congregations at both services. Our usual meeting for prayer this evening.
Monday, May 13.--All being tolerably quiet this morning I decided, after our school, to go to Paihia by way of the Kerikeri. Called upon Colonel Hulme, who was on board the North Star, to try and correct the false statements made by our miller as to Heke's movements. The troops had been passed on to the Bay. The colonel thanked me for the information I gave him, and also for having seen to the burial of the dead he had left on the field at Mawe. The North Star, with Colonel Hulme and some of the wounded men on board, sailed for Auckland to-day. Most exaggerated statements had reached the Bay as to the killed and wounded and the cruelty of Heke's people to the prisoners who were said to have fallen into their hands. Gave Archdeacon Williams as correct a statement as I could of what had occurred at Mawe.
Tuesday, May 14.--Returned from the Bay to-day. Found some natives in the settlement who had been in Heke's pa. Told them the mission station was tapu for neutral natives only. They left us in the course of the day. Ascertained that Heke, with a few of his followers, was at Maungakawakawa. Learned also that Kawiti had rested a night at Paheke with his dead, and had burned down the houses of that place on his departure. The houses were the property of the Rev. R. Taylor, our missionary at Whanganui. Our people all eager for news as to what is to be the next move of the Government, etc.
Wednesday, May 15.--Saw Heke to-day at Maungakawakawa. He was very reticent as to his movements, but very inquisitive about the troops. When I told him the soldiers were at Kororareka, and the North Star had gone to Auckland, with the colonel in her, he
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enquired if she had gone for more soldiers, a question I was glad I was not able to answer. Rode from Maungakawakawa to Ohaeawhai. Saw Pene Taui, who appeared to be busy with his men gathering together materials as if preparing to build another pa; but he made no remark on the subject. Some of Waka's people have moved out to Mawe and have partially dismantled Heke's new pa, which was erected in the open, and are using some of the material in strengthening two old stockades nearer the big hill (Pukenui), one on the edge of the lake, and the other at Te Ahuahu.
Friday, May 16.--Rode down to Paihia this morning. Found that a detachment of soldiers, under the command of Major Budge, had gone up in boats to the head of the Waikare river, to destroy a small pa belonging to that place, as some of the natives had joined Heke in the destruction of Kororareka, and partaken of the spoil. They had due warning of the approach of the troops, and, as a matter of course, had cleared out all they possibly could. Some forty men were in the pa as the soldiers landed, but soon made off into the bush. The detachment returned this evening after partially destroying the pa, and breaking up several canoes; they found little to bring away with them in the way of plunder. A skirmish took place a little way from the pa between some loyal natives who were with the soldiers and the Waikare natives. One of the former was killed and two or three wounded. The casualties of the rebels could not be ascertained.
Saturday, May 17.--Returned from Paihia this morning. Found some of Heke's people in the settlement, relatives of neutral natives who are living on the station. They as well as my own people were anxious for news. I had no other to give them than that of the movements of the soldiers and loyal natives as written above. Learned from Heke's natives who are here that there had been a disagreement between Heke and Kawiti as to where they should erect a second pa, the former wishing to have it at Ohaeawai, the latter at Te Ruapekapeka, a rather strong hold about seven miles from Kawakawa.
Sunday, May 18.--A large native congregation this morning, but few this afternoon, owing to the heavy rain. A native from Ohaeawai to get medicine for Heke, who is reported to be sick. A request from him to go and see him to-morrow.
Monday, May 19.--The heavy rains to-day prevented my leaving home.
Tuesday, May 20.--Rode first, to Ohaeawai; saw Heke who has a bad cold, sore throat, etc. Tried to draw him into serious conversation in reference to the war and its sad effects upon our missionary work. As usual, he tried to justify himself and to throw the blame on the Government. At the close of our conversation he asked, "On what terms do you think the Governor would make peace?" I replied, "I cannot tell; but you had better write and ask him." "One condition," he said, "must be that he does not erect another flagstaff." I smiled and asked, "And what compensation have you to make for the cutting down of the last, and for all the plunder and
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bloodshed which followed?" "What!" he said, "have we not paid enough in the loss we have had in men, houses, food, canoes, etc?" This led to a lengthened argument in which Heke was told, as he had been many times before, that he commenced the mischief which had resulted in the war and its consequence. As usual, he laboured to justify himself. In the evening Archdeacon Williams arrived from Paihia.
Wednesday, May 21.--After relating to the archdeacon the substance of my interview with Heke yesterday, he suggested that we should ride out to Ohaeawae, and see him. Found him away. He returned in about an hour. The conversation soon turned upon terms of peace. The archdeacon suggested certain propositions he might make, such as a letter of humiliation, etc., at which he laughed. After a lengthened conversation, Heke closed the talk by saying he would think over our korero (talk), and perhaps write to the Governor to-morrow. He and Kawiti are reconciled, and the pa is already commenced at this place, Ohaeawae. Found Kawiti busy marking out the lines and otherwise helping on the work. Whilst waiting for the return of Heke I had a good opportunity for observing the locality they have selected as a site for their new pa. It is on a piece of rising ground, sloping rather suddenly towards the south, a small ravine to the westward, a gradual decline eastward and a very easy rise from the northward. It does not require the practised eye of a military engineer to see that they are making one fatal mistake in placing the stockade within long rifle range of a conical hill situated to the west, and bordering on a small forest. The lines of the new pa show that it is to be a much larger one than the last.
Thursday, May 22.--Some of the neutral natives who are living near came to us this morning, complaining that Waka's people had been taking food and other things from their plantations. The archdeacon wrote a note to Waka about it, which I was the bearer of to him. He is still at Okaihau, but talks of removing nearer the Waimate. I again expressed a hope that our station would remain tapu. Waka shrewdly replied, "Have you not natives who shared in the plunder at Kororareka going in and out among you?" I was able to answer that, to the best of my knowledge, none of them remained there more than a short time to see their friends. Waka, on reading Archdeacon Williams's letter, sent to make inquiry as to the plundering which had been reported to have taken place. The only satisfactory answer we could get was "that it was not easy for them to discern between the property of those who were neutral and those who had joined Heke." It is very probable, however, that they have not gone to much trouble to ascertain which is which, but have taken what has first come to hand. The archdeacon told me that some of the soldiers, with a party of Waka's people, had been burning the native settlements at Kaipatiki (a place some two miles inland from Paihia), and destroying other scattered places known to belong to individual natives who had had more or less to do in sacking and burning Kororareka.
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Friday, May 23.--A messenger brought a letter from Heke to be sent on to Archdeacon Williams, who was to forward it to the Governor. As he had read the letter to his people in my presence, I am acquainted with its contents, but do not feel at liberty to quote any portion of it. 2 Suffice it to say that it displayed a great amount of independence, and, he said "it was for the Governor to decide whether there should be further war or not, as he was on his own land," meaning thereby that he should not seek for further hostilities, but wait for the soldiers to come to him if the Governor wanted more fighting.
Saturday, May 24.--Our natives in the settlement are bringing in all the food, etc., they can possibly get together in their own settlements to prevent Waka's people from taking it.
Sunday, May 25.--Very wet day. Our congregation consisted of those natives only who are living on the station. Our usual prayer meeting in the evening.
Monday, May 26.--Saw Heke to-day. The Treaty of Waitangi came under discussion. To my reply that I fully concurred in what Archdeacon Williams had again and again told him, namely, that that document was their salvation, he looked at me and said : "I suppose those rockets and guns fired at our pa at Mawe must be taken as evidence of the truth of what you say." They are making rapid progress with their pa. Kawiti was hard at work helping to drag the timber from the bush close by. When I ventured near and was looking at their work, Peni Taui, the chief of the place, suggested that perhaps I had better not know too much of the construction of their fortification. I took the hint and retired.
Tuesday, May 27.--A considerable mob of Heke's people passed through our settlement on their way to the valley below to take away food, pigs, etc., belonging to Wi Hau's tribe. I remonstrated with them for plundering neutral natives, to which they replied: "If we don't take it Waka's people will."
Wednesday, May 28 --A letter from Archdeacon Williams took me to Paihia to-day. He purposes going to Auckland to see the Governor, as he thinks matters may be so arranged as to prevent further bloodshed. He takes with him certain terms which have been submitted, I scarcely know by whom, upon which peace may be brought about.
Thursday, May 29.--Returned from Paihia by way of Kerikeri. Met Mr. Hobbs, of the Wesleyan Mission, returning from Wangaroa, where he had been to pay a visit to some of their people living at Kaio. He stayed the night with me and I very much enjoyed his company. Ruhe has been down to the Bay and has succeeded in bringing away Pomare to his settlement. He told me he had become surety for him that he would remain neutral, but he is to pay Waka a friendly visit. A rumour reached us to-day that a party from Waka's place, Okaihau, are on their way
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to our station to plunder the neutral natives who are with us. The report originated from the fact that Waka is leaving Okaihau to take up his abode in the pa on the edge of the lake, which they have been enlarging and strengthening.
Friday, May 29.--As I anticipated, the false report that Waka's people were about to overrun the district around the Waimate for plunder having reached Heke at Ohaeawai, about seventy of his people came into our station early this morning, fully armed, and here divided themselves in parties, to get together what they could find in the way of pigs, potatoes, etc. Our neutral natives suffered, as the foraging party did not inquire too particularly who were the owners of what they appropriated to themselves.
Saturday, May 30.--Some of the foraging party very early this morning broke open our mill, and took therefrom a quantity of flour. Two small guns with their carriages, which several years before had been purchased by one of the settlers, had been sunk in the mill pond, with a view to hide them from Heke's people. They, however, were known by one or two of the party to be there, and Haki Tara (a native who had been for some years out whaling, and was a very daring fellow) got together a party, and with great labour managed to get them out, and they were about to drag them through by the path leading to the front of my house. I remonstrated, using my old argument that hitherto no warlike apparatus had passed that way, the path being tapu. After some little discussion I succeeded in getting them to drag the guns by the public road, and round the side of the hill.
Sunday, June 1.--Two native services to-day, and a large school. A message from Heke, expressive of his regret that the mill had been broken into by any of his party.
Monday, June 2.--Expecting a conflict between the two parties this morning, I rode out to Mawe, where Waka now is. I found a number of his people waiting the approach of Kawiti from Ohaeawae, as he had expressed his intention of visiting the locality, to fire some muskets over the spot where his son and some others of his tribe fell when attacked by the detachment of soldiers, as narrated above. Waka had determined that he should not come on to the immediate spot, as he could not do so without passing through where they were working at their two pas. He commissioned me, therefore, if I saw Kawiti, to say he must content himself by firing his muskets at long range.
Tuesday, June 3.--Kawiti, supported by Heke and a considerable party, moved out from Ohaeawae towards Mawe, to attempt to force their way to carry out the former's wishes. They were met under Pukenui by a party of Waka's people. A few stray shots were fired, but no casualties, and the affair ended in Kawiti's party firing off their powder about two miles distant from the spot.
Wednesday and Thursday, June 4 and 5.--Skirmishing has been going on yesterday and to-day between the two parties, taken up chiefly by the younger and more daring of the belligerents. I have heard of two or three being wounded: none killed.
Friday, June 6.--Went to Paihia early this morning; returned
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late at night. Saw the Government brig and another vessel entering the bay. Later in the day heard that two other vessels are behind with more troops; that the whole force, including volunteers when all have arrived, will amount to over six hundred beside Waka's men.
Saturday, June 7.--Sent for this morning to a little native girl, who had been accidentally shot by her brother. The ball entered near the right breast and passed under the left arm. Found her in dreadful agony, but begging her father not to punish her brother. He had been very angry with him for meddling with the gun at all. I dressed the double wound, and did all I could to relieve the poor child.
Sunday, June 8.--Saw the little girl who was shot yesterday early this morning. Found her in great agony. I succeeded in relieving her somewhat, but question if she will live. The usual congregation, but a small school. Our young men especially have become very careless in attending school.
Monday, June 9.--Our usual Monday morning school. A large number present; but I have no doubt a desire for news as to the movements of the troops now in the bay brought in many of them. Some two or three who were there had come in from the bay on Sunday and brought with them the news they had collected there, which was to the effect that the whole force was to be marched into our settlement. They could scarcely believe I had received no intimation of the kind from the Government officer in command. I told them that probably the first reliable information we should have would be a detachment to prepare the way for the main body, if they meant to occupy our station. About 11 o'clock, Heke, with some 100 men, all armed, passed through the settlement to the valley below. I followed them, as it was reported they were on their way to destroy the Waitangi bridge, to prevent heavy guns, &c., being brought over. Before I came up with them they had scattered over the valley and were catching pigs, a large number of which were still running over the land. As Heke said nothing to me about destroying the bridge, and as I saw no attempt to do so, I was silent on the matter. Indeed, at this time they were making good use of the bridge by driving the pigs over they had caught on the other side of the river. Heke had heard of the arrival of the troops in the bay, and asked if I knew anything of their movements. I was glad to be able to say I had heard nothing that could be relied upon.
Tuesday, June 10.-- Heke came to me as he was leaving the settlement this morning to tell me that some of his party had been wishing to destroy the Waitangi Bridge, but that he had not agreed, "He was well aware," he continued, "what a help it would be to 'his friends, the red jackets,' to have the bridge to cross over; but he had considered what I had said the other day, namely, that if they decided to come to the Waimate, the want of a bridge would only give them a little extra trouble to slope down the banks of the river, &c., and that we in the interior would be the greatest losers by the destruction of the bridge."
Wednesday, June 11.--Heke has evidently more certain information than I have as to the movements of the troops, and also of Waka's
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movements. All his people have now drawn off, leaving the Waimate clear. Some of Waka's people are moving down towards the Kerikeri. Heke cautioned me before he left not to allow any of the Colonel's interpreters to go to Ohaeawae; but that if the officer in command should have anything to communicate to him, either Archdeacon Williams or I should be the bearer of the letter. Archdeacon Williams arrived here this evening. We go together to Heke in the morning.
Thursday, June 12.--The Archdeacon and I left early for Ohaeawae. On the way we met a native from the pa, who informed us that Heke was away in the direction of Kaikohe, but would be back by mid-day. We therefore rode over towards Waka's encampment. As we drew near to the hill Pukenui, we could hear firing on the other side, which made us halt, and having been told that Heke had returned, we proceeded to his camp. He had, however, gone out again immediately with a considerable party in the direction from whence the firing was heard. Saw Kawiti working at the pa. As we approached he came towards us, and led us in another direction, evidently not wishing us to see the interior of their stockade. The work done at it the last three or four days has been immense. As we were talking with Kawiti, one of the skirmishing party came in with the blood streaming down his left arm from a shot wound he had received in his shoulder, and hastily despatched three or four women with ammunition, and wrappings intended for binding up wounds. Although his communication to Kawiti and others was given in secret, that is as far as the Archdeacon and I were concerned, it was clear to us that sharp fighting was going on, and that Heke's party was being closely pressed. This occurrence put a stop to any further conversation, and a considerable number of the men, who were at work at the pa, left immediately for the scene of warfare. As we were returning some time afterward towards the Waimate, we met several parties making towards the camp, either carrying or leading wounded men; they hastened on not inclined to be communicative. When we came towards the base of the hill Pukenui, we could see the two skirmishing parties had come to pretty close quarters. Very shortly afterwards Heke's men drew off towards Ohaeawae followed by their opponents. Night was now closing in and firing ceased. We rode on to the Waimate, and shortly after our arrival one of Heke's men was led up to me by a neutral native, who had received him from one of Waka's men, sent to me by Waka himself. He had received a shot in the forehead, which had passed in a slanting direction around some distance over the right ear, and then escaped. I dressed the wound, and gave the man shelter for the night. During the evening a variety of reports came to us of the number of killed and wounded; among others that Heke himself was either killed or mortally wounded.
Friday, June 12.--Left with Archdeacon Williams early this morning, undecided as to which camp we should visit first. Before we had reached Paheke we met a native from Heke's pa, who confirmed what we had heard the night before, namely, that Heke had been severely wounded. We decided therefore to go first to Ohaeawae.
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Found Heke in great pain. The ball had passed through the fleshy part of the thigh; no bone was broken. Haratua, a chief of Pakaraka had also been severely wounded in the stomach. The recovery of the latter is very doubtful. As far as we could ascertain, five of Heke's men had been killed and about twenty-five wounded, several mortally. We saw four or five of them, but all the badly wounded that could be moved had been sent away. It was proposed whilst we were there to remove Heke to Kaikohe at once, and from thence to Hikurangi. All the party appeared very crestfallen. They had gone out the day before fully 450 strong, knowing that a number of Waka's fighting men were away, and had intended to surround Waka's inner pa, which was yet in an unfinished state. As soon as Waka discovered the large numbers Heke had with him, he conveyed a message to his men in the other pa, which was situated about one-third of a mile distant, to leave it and take to the open field, he himself, in the meantime, doing the same. The odds was quite four to one, Waka could not muster at that time more than 120 men, as a considerable number had gone to Hokianga. Here the Archdeacon and I arranged to separate for awhile, as he was desirous to see an old native of his, who was reported to have been mortally wounded the day before, and had been taken away to his own settlement. He therefore proceeded in that direction, and I rode off to Waka's pa. On my way I met some of Heke's men bringing in the body of one of their chief men, who had been shot the day before, and left by them on the field. On my arrival at the camp I was surrounded and pressed with questions as to the killed and wounded on the other side. They had heard that Heke had been shot. Indeed, one of the party had seen him fall and carried off the field. They were very inquisitive as to whether I thought he would die. Five had been killed on Waka's side, all chiefs, and seven more or less wounded. Saw the bodies of the five killed; looked at and dressed the wounds of three or four of the wounded. None appear to be dangerous.
Saturday, June 13.--Early this morning the magistrate from Hokianga, accompanied by several Europeans of that place, and backed by some of Waka's men, entered the settlement, and in the name of the Queen took possession of such bullock drays, carts, etc., as could be found; he also pressed into his service two or three bullock drivers. This was a work of time, so that no move has been made to-day towards the Kerikeri, where we hear the troops are to be landed.
Sunday, June 14.--All tolerably quiet in the settlement to-day. Native services in the church, as usual. Congregation confined to the neutral natives living on the station.
Monday, June 15.--Was informed this morning that Heke had been removed to Kaikohe. The troops are being landed at our station at Kerikeri. The officer in command has asked for the use of the stone store, in which to place his ammunition, supplies, etc. Mr. Kemp has charge of the station.
Tuesday, June 16.--Although I have no official notice that the officer in command intends to occupy this station, yet I have no doubt, from what the magistrate said to me, that he will do so. I have
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removed all I possibly can into my own house and yard, leaving the house vacated by Mr. Davis a short time ago--the school, which is also vacant, and out-buildings--barn and stables all empty. All the natives of the settlement I have drawn to my end, where they are making themselves as snug as they can--some in the sheds, others in huts put up by themselves. About dusk a party of marines and sailors from the Hazard, which is anchored in the Kerikeri river, arrived. They reported that some of the troops had left the Kerikeri on their way in, but were making slow progress, as the colonel would not allow them to march quicker than the bullock drays laden with supplies and ammunition could travel. I showed the officer in charge of the party from the ship where they might shake down for the night; at the same time remarking that I presumed the officer in command of the force would make his own arrangements when he arrived. By eleven o'clock to-night the great body of the troops had come in to the station, but without food, beyond a few biscuits which had been served out to each man; the drays having broken down. A certain number of the soldiers were left to guard the drays during the night. Colonel Despard, as a matter of course, asked for accommodation, and was shown the several buildings vacant.
Wednesday, June 17.--Last night was a sleepless one for most of us, as it was getting on towards daylight before the men could so arrange as to be able to roll themselves up in the rugs they had brought with them. The poor fellows had eaten nothing but the few biscuits they brought with them, they were apparently more hungry than sleepy, for at daylight they were looking for food in all directions, inquiring, in their ignorance of the kind of place they had come to, if there were no stores at hand where they could procure food. Waka the day before had sent in about a ton of potatoes as a present to the colonel; these were pointed out to them, and in a short time little groups were to be seen with fires, roasting potatoes; others had managed to pick up and use for cooking purposes several iron pots, pails, etc., a minute description of which, and of their former uses, it is not desirable to give. We had a considerable number of fowls, which had been accustomed to wander over the station; these were not made a present of to the soldiers, but it is no marvel that they disappeared, and found their way into the pots, etc., named above, which was made apparent by their legs appearing above the tops of the utensils in which they were being cooked. A fair-sized tame pig, which had been accustomed to run about the settlement, was heard to squeak for the last time, and the dividing of the carcase became a matter of dispute among the claimants; but a very short time sufficed to settle the matter, as the whole soon disappeared. A rough bush breakfast, the best obtainable under the circumstances, was put before the Colonel and two or three of his officers. About noon the remainder of the troops, with the loaded drays, reached the Waimate. The men, having had no sleep all night, and having to camp out, looked thoroughly knocked up. By nightfall the whole force was pretty well distributed in the two houses, school-house, outhouses, and barns. The colonel remarked that he had no idea of finding such good quarters.
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Thursday, June 19.--A very wet day, which has prevented any outside work being done; the men busy making themselves as snug as they can. Waka came in to-day to pay his respects to the colonel, and to offer his services if needed. To this offer the colonel replied, "When I want the help of savages, I will ask for it." This reply was not interpreted to Waka. The rain did not prevent several of the soldiers coming into my back yard, and knocking over one or two of the few fowls I had left. When I remonstrated they begged my pardon, and said they thought all was fair sport in war time.
Friday, June 20.--To-day has been occupied in making preparations for moving on to Ohaeawae. Archdeacon Williams is here, and has had an interview with the colonel.
Saturday, June 21.--The necessary preparations are going on for a move towards the pa. The weather continues unfavourable for operations.
Sunday, June 22.--Our church well filled with soldiers, volunteers, and others. The colonel with about 100 men left the settlement after we had commenced morning service, and marched about two-thirds of the way on the road to Heke's pa to examine the position. Heavy rain came on, and they returned about three o'clock p.m. thoroughly drenched. A report reached us this evening that Heke died yesterday.
Monday, June 23.---The camp has been astir from a very early hour preparing to march out to Ohaeawae. The whole force left soon after seven o'clock, but owing to the badness of the road, the time taken in cutting down the banks at the crossings of the several streams on the road to allow them to pass over with their arms, drays, etc., and other obstacles, it was three o'clock p.m. before they reached within range of the pa, where the camp now is. Waka's men amused themselves by hunting in the scrub and fern for pigs on each side of the road over which the troops were marching, but they had little success, as Heke's people had taken all they could find. Waka preceded the soldiers to within some half mile of the pa, and took possession of a number of native huts, which were enclosed within a fence, and situated on the Waimate side.
Tuesday, June 24.--Active operations were commenced this morning by the artillerymen opening fire from a small battery they had erected, directed by Captain Wilmot, but little impression was made upon the defence, consisting as it does of a triple palisading, the outer one being very strong, composed chiefly of small saplings from the bush, and varying in diameter from six to twelve inches. Outside of this is green flax closely and thickly lashed, and loopholes made through the whole. I happened to have seen the depth in which the posts forming the outer palisading were sunk into the ground, quite five feet. What occurred, therefore, could quite be accounted for, namely, that when a small shot struck one of the large posts it lodged in it, and when one of the small ones, it broke it off. A breach of this kind was quickly repaired by the rebels from within. At the colonel's request, Waka with most of his men have taken up their position on the hill described before, as being within rifle range of the pa. Here a breastwork has been
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thrown up and several huts built. A small flagstaff has been erected upon which flies Waka's flag; and a 9lb. swivel brass gun put in position on the top of the hill.
Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, June 25, 26, 27.--The last three days have been spent much as Tuesday, with but very few casualties on either side. The rebels keep close to their pa.
Saturday, June 28.--This morning a party from the pa made a sortie upon a small battery, which had been constructed near the east end of the pa, and behind which two small guns had been put in position and used yesterday. They were soon driven back, with what loss is not known. Three soldiers were wounded, none killed. Nothing further.
Sunday, June 29.--We had our usual services to-day. I offered to go out and hold a service with the troops, but my offer was not accepted; the reason given, "too unsettled for church parade." Carts and bullock drays have been passing on from our settlement during the day under escort.
Monday, June 30.--A 32lb. gun from H.M.S. North Star, anchored in the Kerikeri river, has been brought in, put in position and is being fired occasionally. The occupants of the pa, no doubt, retire into their underground holes as soon as firing commences. These dens to which they betake themselves, are holes dug in the ground, the top closely covered over with thick branches of trees and upon these is thrown the earth taken from the excavation and varying in thickness from three to six feet. These underground dwellings communicate with each other by passages of two or three feet wide, constructed in a similar way to the caves themselves. Ingress and egress is had by an opening in the side of the roof just big enough to allow one man at a time to pass out or in.
Tuesday, July 1.--Archdeacon Williams and I rode out early to the camp. As we drew near we noticed great confusion, especially among Waka's people occupying the huts on the flat. Going into the camp we saw that Waka's hill was being attacked from the rear. At early dawn, or perhaps before, a party from the enemy had left their pas and had gone by a circuitous route through the bush to the back of Waka's hill and fallen upon those who were there. Waka, not anticipating an attack from that quarter, had gone down the hill towards the camp; the colonel himself was, at the time, two-thirds of the way up the hill directing the placing of the 32-pounder higher up. The few remaining on the hill were driven down. The soldier who was posted as sentry over the gun was shot at his post, and the flag captured. Two women belonging to Waka's people who were in the huts were severely wounded, but managed to get down the hill to the camp. I helped to dress their wounds which were not considered by the surgeon dangerous. The hill was very soon retaken by a detachment of the 58th, led by Major Bridge. Within half-an-hour after the disappearance of Waka's flag from the hill it was seen hoisted under Heke's fighting flag in the pa. Hearing that Mr. H. T. Clarke, who was the colonel's interpreter, and was with him on the side of the hill, had been wounded, I was on my way to look for him when I met him being carried in a litter into the camp.
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After all was quiet again, Archdeacon Williams and I saw the colonel, who told us that he had decided to storm the pa that afternoon. It was no business of ours to make any remark either for or against such a step. Saw Waka, Mohi, Tawai, and other chiefs shortly afterwards. They had heard of the colonel's intention and were warmly discussing the pros and cons for such a step. The result of their korero (talk) was a unanimous condemnation of the colonel's resolve. Waka, when asked what part he would take in the attack, positively refused to take any, saying it would be sending men to certain death. The colonel, seeing the native chiefs were very earnest in their talk on the subject, requested Meurant, the interpreter who had taken the place of Mr. Clarke, to tell him what they were saying. The interpreter, not wishing to give a literal translation of the language the chiefs were using, contented himself with informing him that they "thought it an unwise step to storm the pa;" but the colonel insisting upon a literal rendering of what was being said, Meurant, after some hesitation, gave it in language not to be inserted here. Suffice it to say that the opinions of Waka and the other chiefs, which they so plainly and so homely expressed, did not avail, and the storming party was told off. The point selected upon which to make the attack was the side facing Waka's hill, at a short distance from which the ground sloped into a small gully or ravine. In this hollow the storming party were placed, and on the bugle sounding the advance, they rushed to the pa, exposed to a most deadly and continuous fire from the rebels within, who reserved their fire until the advance party were under the pa. For about ten minutes our men laboured to make a breach. Some of the sailors, among whom was Lieut. Philpots, climbed the outer palisading, but were driven back. The retreat was sounded and those who were able drew off. Quite one hundred had been killed and wounded in that short time. Archdeacon Williams and I made our way to the camp, to be of use, if we could, in attending to the wounded who were being brought off the field. At the colonel's request, Archdeacon Williams attempted to draw near the pa, carrying a white flag, the object being to obtain permission to take away the dead and wounded; but he was ordered back. It was now getting dark and the rebels refused any parley that night. Among the missing were Captain Grant and Lieut. Philpots. Among
the wounded were Major MacPherson, Lieut. Beaty and Ensign -----.
Lieut. Beaty, I fear, is mortally wounded. I administered to him what consolation I was able. Several poor fellows had been left on the field, two of whom found their way into the camp during the night; one or two others died of their wounds or were killed by the natives. By 10 o'clock the wounded who had been brought in had been attended to by the surgeons, Archdeacon Williams rendering what help he could in dressing their wounds under the direction of the surgeons. I saw the colonel as I was leaving for Waimate, who offered to have a bed made up for me if I chose to stay; but knowing I should not sleep if I remained in the camp, I declined, but promised to return at daylight.
Wednesday, July 2.--The Archdeacon and I left very early for the camp. At the colonel's request we went both together towards the
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pa, carrying a white flag. After a little parleying at a distance we were allowed to approach, and no opposition was at first raised to our removing the dead; but in a short time a chief of the name of Te Hara came out of the pa to say that the bodies could only be removed on the condition that the colonel withdrew his whole force at once to the Waimate, and from thence to the Bay. We replied we did not think such a condition would be agreed to, but we could name it to the colonel, and I was leaving to do so when we were requested to seat ourselves on a log that was lying near for a korero (talk). There were present five or six of the leading chiefs, but not Kawiti. The first part of the conversation was directed to me, consisting of a story which had reached them, that I had let our blacksmith's shop to the soldiers, and that Harry Blacksmith and I were helping to make bar-shot, several of which had been fired at their pa. When I asked through what channel they had obtained such information, I was told that a day or two previous they took one of Heke's men prisoner. He had made his way, with others, to the back of the pa, hunting for pigs; and whilst hesitating whether they should shoot him at once or take him into their pa, he had commenced giving them the information respecting the bar-shot; but before he had got to the end of his story he suddenly dashed from them. He was fired at, and his cartouch box shot away, but he himself escaped out of their hands. Of course my only reply was that the blacksmith's shop, like all the other available buildings in the Waimate, had been taken possession of by the troops, without asking my leave, and that Harry the blacksmith had been pressed into their service. 3 Much more was said by them which was foreign to the object for which we were there, namely, the obtaining possession of the dead and dying around. We were allowed to walk round and inspect the bodies, but not to touch them. I recognised those of Captain Grant and Lieutenant Philpots lying very near to each other, close under the outer tier of defence. The latter had apparently fallen from the palisading just above where his body was lying, having been shot as he was trying to scale the pa. His eye-glass we found hanging on one of the sticks of the pa. I counted altogether about twenty-four bodies -- soldiers, sailors, and marines; several had been taken into the camp the night before. After spending a full hour and a half in trying to obtain permission to take away the dead, we returned to the camp, promising that one of us would come back if the colonel had any communication to make. As we were leaving we were asked to return next morning, even should the colonel not agree to their proposal, when probably they would allow us to remove the dead. We were both treated with civility by them; they asked very few questions as to the loss on our side. There was no boasting. Peni Taui, the chief of Ohaeawae, who had not joined us in our conversation, called to us from within the pa, saying, "Under any circumstances you will be allowed to take away the tupapakus (the dead bodies) to-morrow morning. Come early." We reported the particulars of our interview to the colonel, who of course did not agree to
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the proposal of the rebels. At our suggestion, however, he agreed to remain quiet till after we had paid our next visit in the morning. After seeing Lieut. Beaty and a few of the most severely wounded in hospital, we rode back to the Waimate, I being scarcely able to sit my horse on account of a very severe headache.
Thursday, July 3.--We both rose before daylight, the Archdeacon intending to ride with me to the camp, and then go on to the Bay, as he was desirous to send away to Auckland as speedily as possible a correct account of what had taken place; but I found myself too ill to venture on horseback, and the Archdeacon pressed me to remain quietly at home, and he would go out and see to anything which we might be wanted to do. Before he arrived there a white flag had been hoisted in the pa, and a messenger sent to say the bodies might be removed. We had taken the precaution to send out four or five of our own natives, in case of the rebels objecting to the soldiers or any of Waka's people going close up to the pa; these had removed a number of the dead before Archdeacon Williams arrived, and in a short time all were brought into camp. Feeling better after a sleep, I followed about midday, and found that the bodies, numbering over thirty altogether, were being placed in one grave, which had been prepared for the purpose, over which the Archdeacon performed the funeral service. On the day previous I had tried to ascertain the loss sustained by the enemy, but they were careful to hide the numbers. Several bodies of chiefs had been taken away. I saw them opening graves behind the pa for four or five. Perhaps about ten or eleven killed, and about double that number wounded, would be near the mark. We saw those of the wounded soldiers who were too ill to be removed. As many as we could prepare room for, and who were able to be removed, have been brought into the Waimate to-day. The body of Lieut. Philpots has also been brought in and interred in our burying-ground.
Friday and Saturday, July 4 and 5.--No attack has been made on the pa since Tuesday, nor have the rebels molested the troops. Yesterday the remainder of the wounded who could be removed into our settlement were brought in, among whom is Lieut. Beaty, who, I fear, will not recover. The less severely wounded, who are not likely to be of any use in the field for some time to come, and who were able to walk so far, have gone to the Kerikeri, to proceed from thence on board the transports lying in the river. A report reached us to-day, that Haratua, who, contrary to all our expectations, has recovered from the wound he received on the day Heke was wounded, is meditating a night visit to the Waimate to burn down all the buildings. This is not without some foundation, for the proposal has been made. The idea that between twenty and thirty of the worst wounded, who are lying helpless on their mattresses in the large play-room, may be burnt in their beds, has harassed me so that I could not sleep all last night. I therefore wrote a note to the colonel this morning, suggesting that if possible some twenty or thirty men might be sent in as a guard. I afterwards saw him, and towards evening Captain Balneavis arrived with about twenty men. The captain, acting upon my suggestion, placed them around the
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house in which the wounded were lying, there being an old carpenter's shop at one end, where they could take shelter from the weather. The second large building and barn, which are some 150 yards off in a different direction, we leave to the care of ten or twelve of our neutral natives, who, at my request, have agreed to mount guard during the night. Both the sick and their guard are inside a close boarded fence, six feet high, which encloses the buildings.
Sunday, July 6.--The Rev. J. Matthews having put in his appearance last night, I was only too glad to take a rest by leaving the two native services to him to-day. No church parade at the camp. In the evening a native arrived from Kaikohe with a message to me not to venture again near the pa, as Kawiti was angry with me for preventing the destruction of the Waitangi Bridge, and thus affording facilities to the troops to bring in their large guns to Ohaeawai. The same messenger also told me that communications were going on between Heke and Kawiti in reference to deserting the pa.
Monday, July 7.--Left early for the camp. On my arrival I was met by Captain Wilmot, of the Artillery, and Mr. Clendon, Magistrate of the Hokianga District, who informed me that the whole force was about to be withdrawn to the Waimate, there to wait for reinforcements from Sydney and Melbourne. Captain Wilmot pressed me to use my influence with the colonel to prevent such a step. I went, as usual, to report myself to the colonel, accompanied by Mr. Clendon. On our way to the tent we noticed nearly the whole camp busy in preparing for a move, After the usual salutations the colonel told us his intentions. Mr. Clendon, who had been primed beforehand, ventured to give it as his opinion that the withdrawal from the situation, leaving the rebels in the pa, would add greatly to their numbers, and enable them to take to the bush and do much mischief. Colonel Despard, who was suffering very much at the time from neuralgia, and had been for several days, replied, "What am I to do? Quite one-third of my men are either killed or disabled; if the rebels from the pa were to come out in force and line the bush all round, I have not sufficient men to go out against them." The reply to this was, "You have Waka here with his men for such work as that should it be needed, but the rebels are not likely to leave their pa in any force to attack you so long as you are here." The colonel was now informed that Waka meant to remain even if the troops were withdrawn, and what he would ask for would be some help in strengthening the stockade his men had put up on the flat a little way to the rear of the camp. Colonel Despard was further informed that it was reported on very good authority that a proposition had been made by Kawiti to desert the present pa, and withdraw to the neighbourhood of Ruapekapeka. It was also suggested to the colonel by Mr. Clendon that the 32lb. gun, lately brought in the North Star, might be so placed as to do much more execution than it had hitherto done. After some further conversation we withdrew, and immediately afterward the order to strike tents, etc., was countermanded. During the day the gun was dragged some way further up Waka's hill, and a steady fire from thence opened upon the pa. At my suggestion the few wounded, who were
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still in the camp, were removed to the Waimate. We numbered now altogether about 30 in hospital. The drays have been sent to Kerikeri for further supplies of ammunition, etc.
Tuesday and Wednesday, July 8 and 9.--The heavy gun has been used yesterday and to-day, also two or three of the smaller ones; but for want of shot the 32-pounder was only fired at fixed intervals. A party of Waka's men made their way to the back of the pa with a view to draw the rebels out, but the larger number remained within their fortification. Some skirmishing took place to-day and Wednesday in which one of Waka's men was wounded; but the loss on Kawiti's side we had no means of ascertaining.
Thursday, July 10.--Firing from the batteries to day. It is evident the rebels in the pa are ill at ease; there has been a great deal of loud talking, the wind blowing from the S.W., the voices could be distinctly heard. Waka's men on the hill reported that they had observed much more moving about in the pa than usual.
Friday, July 11.--Expecting, from what I heard and saw yesterday, that the rebels would not remain much longer in the pa, I left one of my natives in Waka's camp with a horse ready for him to fetch me if anything unusual occurred before my return in the morning. Just at day-dawn he tapped at my bedroom window and informed me that the pa was deserted and that Waka's men were in possession before he left. By the time it was well daylight I was at the camp, and in making my way towards the pa, I had very clear proof that the troops were in possession. Our soldiers were streaming cut with kits or bags of potatoes, kumeras, and such other odds and ends as they could find; but the booty was not large. It was evident that the rebels had been preparing for two or three days to leave. Hearing that a native woman had been found in the pa and made prisoner I was anxious to see her, and was making straight for the hut where she had been placed, when I was reminded by the sentry who had been placed over the prisoner, that I must not speak to her without authority from the officer on duty. I went direct to the colonel and was glad to find him much more cheerful and better than he had been for several days past He asked if I had any idea where the rebels had gone. I was able to reply so far that it was not customary for natives when they deserted a pa to make for one spot unless they had another pa ready, which, in this case, I knew they had not. Moreover, that on my way I had seen several parties going in different directions, some evidently bound for Wangaroa; that the larger number had probably gone towards Kaikohi. To the colonel's inquiry as to whether it would be of any use to attempt to follow up up the rebels, I replied, "None whatever." With the colonel's consent I visited the prisoner, who was crouched in one corner of the hut in which she had been placed, but in attempting to speak to her I found she was quite deaf. This, indeed, had been the cause of her having been left behind, for she was ignorant, when she was roused by the entrance of Waka's men, that the pa had been deserted. As I led her to the camp she was immediately recognised as a relative of Adam Clarke, whose people were with Waka. Two or three of the women
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in the pa came forward to have a tangi (cry) over her, but I had to tell them that they must postpone it until I had obtained her liberty, which was soon granted by the colonel. As the rebels had told us on our inquiry for the body of Captain Grant, that they had buried it at the rear of the pa, a search was made, and after a little while it was found not more than two feet below the surface. It was taken up and sent into the Waimate. The partial destruction of the pa is going on to-day. The two guns mentioned above as having been fished up out of the mill pond at Waimate were found inside. One had been disabled some days before, the other had been but of little use to the rebels. The colonel, after examining the construction of the pa, said, "These natives must have had some European among them experienced in the art of fortifications;" but I was able to assure him that they had no one with them but their own people, with probably two or three men from one of the South Sea Islands. The colonel then ventured to speak very positively that the prodigious work done in the erection and fortifying of the pa could not possibly have been done since the attack at Mawe on May 9th. I was able to reply that I was on the spot some fortnight after Heke and Kawiti had deserted the pa at Mawe and saw the men busy clearing the fern and scrub which was then growing thereon, and that at that date Heke and Kawiti were not even agreed as to the locality where the next pa should be built. "Impossible," replied Colonel Despard, "the work could not have been done in the time." As I was not disposed to argue the point, I walked away.
Saturday, July 12.--Was sent for about two o'clock this morning to Lieut. Beaty, who had for the last day or two given hopes that he might recover, but was now dying. I had scarcely time to offer a short prayer before he was gone. Poor fellow, he was in much earnest about his state from the time he had received the wound, which proved fatal, and let us not doubt that his and our prayers were heard and answered. He was greatly beloved by both his brother officers and his men. Two dead bodies belonging to the rebel party had been left by them in one corner of the pa when they deserted it. These were put on one side yesterday, and I went out to look to the burying of them, but found that some of Waka's people had done it over night. It is one of the melancholy features in this war that near relatives have sometimes been fighting on opposite sides. When skirmishing first commenced between Waka's and Heke's men, it several times happened to my knowledge, that in the evening men from the opposite parties met, and described their manner of skirmishing against each other during the day.
Sunday, July 13.--Our usual services. An opportunity was given to-day for "church parade," but not taken advantage of. Heard in the evening that preparations are being made at the camp to remove in here to-morrow.
Monday, July 14.--The whole force left Ohaeawae this morning, and have returned to their more comfortable quarters at the Waimate, where all are active settling themselves in their old quarters. Now for the disappearance of our fences for firewood, etc.; the work of destruction has already begun.
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Tuesday, July 15.--The remains of Captain Grant and Lieut. Beaty were interred to-day in our consecrated burial ground with military honors. The grief of the soldiers present was very apparent, especially of those forming the company of the lieutenant. He was an officer greatly beloved by his men.
Wednesday, July 16.--This morning the colonel with about 150 soldiers and 50 of Waka's men left here to attack a pa situated about five miles distant, belonging to Haratua and party. It was well known by the rebels that this visit was to be made. They therefore cleared out of the pa. The only person found in the place was an insane woman, left, it was supposed, on purpose. Very little spoil was found. Waka's men skirmished with a few of the rebels in the open, and one of them was taken prisoner, but in consideration of what Waka had done a little while before in sending into the Waimate to be attended to by me a wounded prisoner, who belonged to Haratua's tribe, this man was set at liberty. The troops partially destroyed the pa and then returned. Despatches from Auckland. The two colonels, Despard and Hulme, are to leave with the detachment of the 96th. The others to remain for the present, Major Bridge, of the 58th, to have command.
Thursday, July 17.--The colonel, with the detachment of the 96th, left this morning. Our fences are being deliberately broken down and used for firewood. I spoke to the officer in command to try and prevent, as much as possible, this destruction of property; he promised to do so. We have a flour mill here, driven by water, which is full of wheat. This has been broken into and small quantities of the wheat taken. As the flour required for the troops is being carted in from the Bay, it was suggested that an arrangement might be made with the officer of the commissariat to supply them from the mill. This has been agreed to, and a corporal's guard has been placed in charge of the mill, to prevent any further pilfering. Had to look to the starting of the mill for grinding, our European miller having left us in a fright some time before, as described above. A little while, however, will, we hope, be sufficient to teach one of our Maoris to attend to the grinding, etc., under superintendence.
Friday, July 18.--Our flour mill is in full work and promises to supply for some time the daily ration required for the whole force, thus, not only saving the trouble of carting it in from the bay, but providing the men with "soft bread" daily.
Sunday, July 20.--Native service at 9 a.m., church parade at 11 a.m., and native service again at 4 p.m.
Although my journal for the next two months contains a large amount of matter, much of it is not such as would be interesting to the general reader. I shall, therefore, only copy such portions as may be considered either instructive or amusing, or both.
Tuesday, July 22.--Our settlement is assuming the appearance of a military camp on a small scale; only, in the place of tents, officers and men are housed in two large wooden buildings, a large barn, a school room, and several outhouses. All the wounded who were able to be removed have been sent down to the Bay on their way to Auckland. We have still in the hospital soms fourteen or fifteen.
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Heke has written a letter to the Governor couched in more humble language than his last. He asks "on what terms peace will be made?" Tries to justify some of his past acts. Says the sacking and burning of Kororareka took place against his orders. The letter concludes with a suggestion that the Governor and he should pray for the pardon of their past sins. This letter was publicly read in the presence of his people before it was given to me to pass it on to Archdeacon Williams, who was to peruse it, if he pleased, and then forward it to Auckland. The letter has been duly sent.
Notwithstanding fatigue parties are daily told off and sent out to cart in fire-wood, our fences, and even the shingles of our cow-sheds are disappearing fast. I would say here, however, once for all, that the officers generally, when on duty, do their best to prevent deliberate destruction of property; but we have full proof of the truth of what Dr. Watts wrote long ago--that "Satan finds some mischief still for idle hands to do." I could fill a small volume with stories and incidents connected with the daily mischief that is going on, but I presume the camp at the Waimate is not worse than camps generally are under similar circumstances.
I now made a hasty visit to Auckland and saw Governor Fitzroy. His Excellency conversed freely on the contents of Heke's letter. Asked me if I thought him sincere. Was it so that Kawiti was building another pa? I was shown a document which had been drawn up, containing a series of propositions relative to the forfeiture of land, as terms upon which peace would be made. These propositions were forwarded to Heke and Kawiti. It will be seen by-and-by that they were rejected.
Having arranged that Mrs B. should return home, I left Auckland in a small cutter, leaving her to follow by the first decent vessel. Found on my return that Waka's people (many of whom are in and out of the settlement daily) had been breaking down our outer fences of the farm paddocks, bringing in the material and selling it to the soldiers for firewood, receiving for payments figs of tobacco. On my representing this and other grievances to the officer in command, he quite agreed with me that no natives--either loyal or neutral--should be allowed within the camp except on business.
Major Bridge learning from me that Mrs B. was about to return home, decided to send for Mrs Bridge to join him. I set apart two rooms in my own house for her reception.
At first the boundaries of the camp were very circumscribed, and a double picquet placed to prevent any of the force going beyond them. After a while, however, the limits were extended, and the officers were allowed to visit the settlements of the neutral natives and Waka's people as far as Mawe. The men's bounds were also enlarged. These liberties, pleasing, if not profitable, to all officers and men, did not tend to lesson my work, add to my peace of mind, or help me in my missionary duties. Gambling was strictly prohibited in the camp, but as the men were allowed outside, it was carried on freely, both among themselves and between them and such natives as could be induced to join.
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The monotony of camp life was sometimes enlivened a little by reports brought into the camp of Kawiti with some of his people having been seen in the bush near; or that they were preparing for a night attack on the camp, or some such rumours. Upon the strength of these reports the picquets were strengthened. It may be amusing, if not instructive, to relate one or two false alarms we had which disturbed our midnight slumbers. During the day one of Waka's men had reported that the rebels were actually bent upon a night attack on the camp, and that Kawiti was near at hand with several hundred followers. A treble post was formed; orders given to the outer picquet that in the event of seeing anything of the enemy he should fire and draw in to the centre post. One rather dark night the appointed signal was given by an outer picquet, and acting upon orders from head-quarters, the officer on duty called out the men and the whole camp was aroused. The man who had given the alarm was called and questioned as to the grounds upon which he had fired off his rifle. "I saw," he replied, "a Maori in a blanket creeping up towards me. I fired at him and came in." The locality from whence the man came was duly traversed but nothing seen. We retired to rest again. On the morrow a white cow was seen wandering about in the neighbourhood which had evidently been shot in the eye. We had the poor brute put out of its misery.
A week or two afterwards a similar alarm was given from the opposite end of the settlement. The like process of mustering the men and examining the author of the alarm was repeated. This man (one of the volunteers) had seen a "parcel of Maoris creeping up towards him wrapped in blankets." On ascertaining the locality where the man had stated he saw the Maoris in blankets, it occurred to us at once, who knew the spot, that he had mistaken some eight or ten large stones which lay about thirty yards from his post for Maoris. We took the man with us to the spot; asked him to place himself in the same position he was in when he made his discovery and fired off his rifle. He had scarcely done so when he exclaimed: "There they be now; don't you see them?" He then passed over with us to the spot where the stones lay, and then again exclaimed: "Well; I took them stones to be Maoris in blankets." Several other false alarms disturbed the night slumbers of the camp during the latter end of August and the beginning of September. About the middle of September Colonel Despard returned and resumed command. During his absence the station had been much disfigured by the cutting of trenches, throwing up embankments, etc. He expressed his regret at what bad been done, pronounced the labour worse than useless, and asked me where he should first set the men to work to remedy, as far as possible, the mischief done. Parties were at once, therefore, set to work to level the embankments and fill in the trenches. I had to complain to the colonel of frequent visits of some of the soldiers to my back yard for the purpose of stealing firewood, etc. A corporal's guard was at once placed there, and was kept up night and day until the troops left. The same was done in the case of a clump of very fine puriri trees, which had been a wahi tapu (a sacred place), the best and
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largest of which had been set fire to on a Sunday. In this case the guard was supplied from the company of the men who had been guilty of the act, as their comrade would not inform against them.
About the middle of October the troops removed to the Bay to wait further orders. The colonel offered to leave a detachment behind for the protection of the buildings if I thought there was any danger of the rebels coming and destroying them. I declined the offer with thanks. On his departure the colonel gave me a very kind letter, expressive of his thanks for my attention to his wounded, etc,
A few days after the troops left a party of natives belonging to Heke's tribe came to see me, and, as they expressed it, to tangi (weep) over the Waimate in its dilapidated state. Indeed, scarcely a day passed for some time in which parties from the rebels, Waka's men, or the neutrals, did not pay a visit to our settlement.
November 1st.--I received a letter this morning from Archdeacon Williams, asking me to meet him at Kawiti's settlement at the head of the Kawakawa river. A messenger had come from Heke, who was then in that neighbourhood, to desire the Archdeacon to pay him a visit, to talk over with him the letter he had received from the Government containing the terms upon which peace would be made. I was not able to comply with the Archdeacon's request, but promised to meet him on his return. I had seen an outline of the terms offered, the substance of which was, that Heke and Kawiti, on behalf of themselves and their people, should consent to give up certain specified lands as an acknowledgment of their wrong doings. These conditions are not officially made public by the Government, but are well known among the natives.
November 2nd.--A conversation this morning with natives who have just come from the Kawakawa. From these men I learned that Kawiti denounced the terms at once, and said--"No, let us fight on if they want our lands, and when we are killed they can take them." He is now making good progress with the pa at Ruapekapeka.
November 3.--Our Bishop came upon us quite unawares about one o'clock to-day, having walked in from Waitangi. He stayed about three hours, and then walked back again, to go on in the Government brig to the southern settlements, which is to leave tonight. His lordship spent part of his time in looking at and lamenting over the dilapidated state of the station, but remarked, "It is not worse than I expected." He visited the graves of Captain Grant and Lieutenant Philpot, remarking that he would write to the latter's father, the Bishop of Exeter, and inform him that the remains of his son had been carefully buried. We received much encouragement from his Lordship to persevere in our work.
November 4.--Archdeacon Williams has returned from his visit to Heke and Kawiti. The latter is very decided not to agree to any of their land being taken. Heke also remarked that what they had been told--namely, the depriving them of their lands--the Governor was now trying to accomplish.
November 7.--Native services, as usual, but few in attendance. At the present time the neutral natives, together with some of Heke's
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and Waka's people, are at the sea, fishing, and often pass and repass each other. There does not appear to be any animosity between them. I am trying to get together my native teachers for Monday morning school. A lukewarmness, I am sorry to say, has come over both the teachers and the taught. "Let us have peace." they say, "and then we will return to our former work."
November 9.--Went to the Bay, crossed over to call upon Colonel Despard. He was desirous to know if Heke and Kawiti were likely to submit to the Government terms. My reply was, "I think not." But as they are terms which, if accepted by the rebels, would be, in my opinion, no credit to the Government, I did not prolong the conversation on this point. The pa at the Ruapekapeka is advancing, but there are not many of those who are termed Heke's men taking any part in its erection; most of them are at their own settlements. Waka's people are divided--some at Ohaeawae, some at Hokianga, and some in the Bay. A visit from Ruhe this morning, to press my going to see Heke relative to the terms of peace. He was not aware that Archdeacon Williams had seen both Heke and Kawiti so recently. When I told him the result of the interview, he no longer pressed my going.
Sunday, November 14.--One native and one English service to-day. Some few of Waka's people came in from Mawe. Went to Te Ahuahu in the afternoon, and held service with the natives of that settlement.
Monday.--Had my usual school for natives this morning, specially for native teachers. A fair number present.
Tuesday.--A messenger arrived with letters from Auckland and Paihia. The natives flocked around me to hear the news. When I told them a new Governor had arrived in Auckland, Governor Grey, and that Governor Fitzroy was recalled, one old chief remarked, "This is the Governor, I suppose, who has been sent to punish us more severely, as Governor Fitzroy has been thought too merciful, and wishes to put a stop to war." The old man looked at me for some reply. I could only answer, "He is new to us all: we must wait and see." My letter from Auckland informs me that Governor Grey will be leaving for the Bay almost immediately.
Saturday.--Most of the natives of Heke's party, and also many of our neutral natives, who have been absent the last eight or ten days at the sea fishing, returned to-day. All very inquisitive about the new Governor. Some European had been telling them that he was come to pursue and destroy all those who had been in arms against the Government.
Sunday.--Our native congregation amounted to some 200 this morning, those who returned from the Bay yesterday helping to swell the number. Sunday-school in afternoon.
Monday.--A note from Archdeacon Williams to say that the Governor had arrived in the Bay, and recommending me to go down and pay my respects, etc.
Tuesday.--Left for Paihia early. The Governor, in company with Sir Everard Holme, of H.M.S. North Star, and Colonel Despard, landed on the beach just as I arrived. I was introduced to His
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Excellency by the colonel. He was pleased to say he was glad to see me--that he heard from Colonel Despard of my position among the natives. The Governor asked many questions as to the present state and feelings of Heke and his people.
Wednesday.--The Governor is anxious to get together as many of Waka's people and the neutral natives as he possibly can, and has appointed to-morrow (Thursday) for a meeting to be held at Kororareka. I rode into the Waimate to induce as many as possible of our natives to go down.
Thursday.--A fair number of us left early, and crossed the Bay to Kororareka. A very strong north wind which had been blowing all night prevented the natives from the Rawiti and the islands at the back of Kororareka from coming round, so the Governor agreed to defer the meeting till to-morrow. I paid His Excellency a visit on board the Elphinstone. Our conversation turned upon the present aspect of affairs. Questions asked by His Excellency :--"Was another pa being built?" "Yes." "Did I think the 'terms for peace' put forth by his predecessor were likely to be accepted?" "No." "Did Heke and Kawiti consider them still open for their acceptance "I thought they did." Governor Grey was pleased to communicate to me his views so far, that inasmuch as such terms had been made to them by the late Governor, he would like to write a letter to Heke and Kawiti to ask them, in so many words, whether they accepted or refused them, giving them, say till Tuesday, to return an answer. Heke was at this time at Hikurangi, a settlement about eight miles from Kaikohe, and nearly thirty from the Bay. I offered the Governor to see that his letter was forwarded to Heke without delay, saying I had no doubt Archdeacon Williams would undertake to forward a copy to Kawiti.
Friday.--Sent away a man this morning to take the Governor's letter to Heke, with a message that I would see him myself if he desired it, but that I had no further advice to give him as to the acceptance or non-acceptance of "the terms of peace." About noon the Rawiti natives landed on the beach from their canoes. Some natives also pulled over from the Kerikeri River. At 1 o'clock p.m., His Excellency left his ship, under a salute, and landed on Kororareka Beach. His address to the natives present (numbering, probably, 300) was short, but to the point. "He assured them that he had been sent by Her Majesty the Queen not to set aside the ' Treaty of Waitangi,' but to uphold it. That no portion of their lands would be taken from them, nor alienated in any way without their consent. That they were at liberty to sell or withhold from sale any portion or the whole of it at their discretion; but he would have them to clearly understand that having once sold, it was gone for ever. As to the terms for peace which had been offered to the rebels by his predecessor, he had written a joint letter to Heke and Kawiti, giving them until Tuesday next to send him a decided answer, yes or no. If they refused he should hold no further communication with them." He was sorry, he said, for those deluded men who had taken up arms against Her Majesty, who could, if she wished, destroy them all; but he could assure them the Queen
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desired only their good, etc., etc. He had been told that some of the neutral natives had suffered in the loss of food and other things which had been taken from them during the war. That without inquiring too minutely as to the parties who had done them this wrong, he would see that some compensation should be made. The Governor thanked Waka and his people for their loyalty, and also expressed his satisfaction, and that of the Government, for the course taken by a large number of the natives in remaining neutral. Waka and other chiefs made short speeches suitable to the occasion and the meeting terminated.
Saturday.--Returned to the Waimate this morning accompanied by two or three of St. John's students from the Tamaki who had chosen to come northward to spend a part of their holidays.
Sunday.--Two full native services. Several baptisms. A messenger from Heke to ask me to visit him at Hikurangi.
Monday.--Left soon after daylight. Breakfasted with Mr. Davis, at Kaikohe, and then rode on to Hikurangi. Found a considerable number of natives at the place. On my nearing Heke's hut he saluted me with, "Tena ra ko korua ko te Kawana Hou" (Salutations to the new Governor and you). I heard what he had to say in reference to the document he had received. He inquired if "this Governor was a bigger man than his predecessor? Had he come with more power? Would he be able to obtain more soldiers?" and many more questions in the same strain. I soon found that he had heard the substance of the Governor's speech at Kororareka. A native who was present, and who is a first-rate verbal reporter of anything that transpires at public meetings, had preceded me. I proposed returning in the evening; but Heke objected, saying that his answer to the new Governor's letter was not ready, and, moreover, that many of his people who must agree to the contents thereof would not be in till evening to hear it read. I had no alternative, therefore, but to stay the night. During the afternoon Heke was closely engaged, with two or three of his leading men, finishing his answer to the Governor's letter. Walking out behind the settlement I had an opportunity of seeing something of the extent of their cultivations, and was surprised at the large quantity of kumaras, potatoes, tara, etc., they have growing; evidently preparing to have a place to come to in the event of being followed up after having to desert Ruapekapeka.
Towards nightfall the people from without began to assemble, and in due time the bell rang, and a native teacher who was with us, at my request, took the prayers. Heke then read over again the Governor's letter, commenting upon it as he proceeded. "The treaty of Waitangi," he called out, so as to be heard by all, "he rore kiore (a mouse or rat trap). "Let the Governor and his soldiers go back to England, to the land that God has given them, and leave New Zealand to us, to whom God has given it. No, we will not give up our lands. If the pakeha (foreigner) wants our country, he will have to fight for it, for we will die upon our lands." Several others spoke, all in the same strain. After the despatch from the Governor was duly discussed, Heke's reply was read, some few alterations made, and then
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the question was put, "Shall this letter be sent to the new Governor?" "Ae." The second time, "You all say this letter shall go to the Governor?" The voices raised still higher, "Ae." It was now nearly midnight. I was very tired, and asked to be shown where I was to sleep. I was conducted to a shed standing alone at some little distance from their own huts, and shown a raised platform in one corner, carefully covered over with native mats, and a couple of blankets spread over them. There was neither lamp nor candle; a torch was burning some distance from the doorway of the hut. I was alone, and soon fell asleep.
Tuesday.--Up at daylight. Curiosity led me to lift the mats covering the platform upon which I had been sleeping, and I discovered that it consisted of some twenty kegs of gunpowder, carefully placed upon thick rough-hewn planks laid on the earthen floor, with planks of the same kind laid over them. Had some further conversation with Heke on the contents of his answer to the Governor's letter; counselled its being couched in more respectful language, although he had refused the terms. He replied, "You heard the letter read, and the whakaaetanga (the consent) of all present that it should be sent. I will have a fair copy made, and send it after you." After breakfasting on kumaras and a few dried cockles, I left Hikuranga, rested a little while at Kaikohe, lunched with Mr. and Mrs. Davis, and rode on to the Waimate.
Wednesday.--Heke's letter was forwarded early this morning. I left for the Bay after breakfast, to advise with Archdeacon Williams and to be on the spot should the Governor wish to see me or to communicate further with Heke. As I expected, from the impertinent character of Heke's reply, His Excellency holds no further communication with him. Having heard the document read and discussed, I am of course acquainted with its contents, but do not feel at liberty to copy the document verbatim, leaving it to appear, as I presume it will, among His Excellency's official papers. I may venture, however, to enter in my diary this much, that it contained a direct refusal to submit to any terms which included the forfeiture of land; "had they not already paid enough by the loss of the settlements which had been burnt and destroyed by the soldiers, the plantations rooted up, etc., etc.?" Taking it for granted that notwithstanding I had counselled Heke to soften down the language he had used, he sent the letter as I heard it read, it was one by no means exhibiting respect for the Queen's representative. The Governor had signed himself, in his letter to Heke, as the "Kawana Hou" (the new Governor); Heke, in his answer, signed himself "Hone Heke Pokai Hou" (the new John Heke Pokai).
Saturday.--The Governor has left for Auckland. I returned inland to-day for Sunday services at the Waimate and Te Ahuahu.
Tuesday.--A note from the Bay informs us that the whole force has left Kororareka, and is slowly moving up the Kawakawa River. Rode out to Mawe to see a party of Waka's people, who are there taking care of the food they have planted to prevent any of the rebels (a number of whom are still in the neighbourhood) from destroying it. They wait the removal of Heke and his men to the
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Ruapekapeka before they join Waka in the Bay. Rode round among the various parties of neutral natives who are living in the district. Was glad to find that none of them have joined, and have determined not to join, either party. Among these are living a few of Heke's people who were at Ohaeawae. They would gladly stay where they are, but will be obliged, from fear, to take up arms again, and proceed to the scene of conflict.
Friday.--Letters from Auckland, from which we learn that H.M.S. the Castor has arrived from China, and that troops from India are on their way to New Zealand.
Monday and Tuesday.--The last two days I have been out among some of the natives who have been with Heke backwards and forwards from the beginning of the war. It is clear they are quite tired of the present state of things. When I spoke to them about remaining where they are, they replied they were waiting for Heke. If he went to Ruapekapeka they must go with him. In riding to Paihia I saw several armed natives on their way to the scene of conflict. These had been with Kawiti in the pa at Ohaeawai, and said they could not desert him now.
Thursday, Dec. 18.--The Castor has arrived, and guns and ammunition are being landed to be conveyed up the river. The Governor has also returned, and is with the troops. Archdeacon Williams agrees with me that in the present position of affairs there is little for us to do as missionaries, I therefore decided to return home in the morning.
Tuesday and Wednesday, Dec. 23 and 24.--The last two days I have been out in the neighbourhood of Kaikohe looking up neutral natives and doing my best to keep them from going to Ruapekapeka. Heke has left for the seat of war, and his people are conveying across the country from Hikurangi both provisions and ammunition. I was glad to learn that there has been no addition made to Heke's numbers. All that are likely to join him from this neighbourhood are gone. The remainder of Waka's people have also left Mawe.
Wednesday.--Early service at the Waimate. Congregation confined to the natives in the immediate vicinity.
From this date to Sunday, the 4th of January, 1846, there is little I can report of the progress of the war, as I was not an eye-witness to the daily movements of the force towards the pa. Their progress was of necessity slow, owing to the nature of the country over which they had to take their heavy guns, etc. By the first of the new year they were in a position to annoy the rebels in the pa, and as I learned afterwards, from some of those who were inside, they were becoming very uncomfortable. The chief execution was done with the guns, as the rebels kept closely within their fortification.
Sunday, January 4, 1846.--Neither the force outside the pa, nor the enemy inside, calculated upon this being the last day of fighting, although, as I heard afterward from some of the natives who were in the pa, there had been a talk of deserting it shortly, and they had no intention of allowing themselves to be surrounded, but had made every preparation to leave the pa before their avenues of escape should be closed.
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On this Sunday morning, with a view to hold their religious services without being exposed to the fire of the guns, which from past experience they could not calculate would not be used on that Sabbath, the great body of those within the pa left it by what I have before named as the "back door," and, dividing themselves into two or more parties, were engaged in worship, when a few of Waka's men, having probably surmised from the lack of voices or noise in the pa how they were employed, made their way towards it, and meeting with no opposition, they were quickly followed by others, and in a short time the pa was virtually in the hands of the troops. The rebels made a strenuous, but not a prolonged effort, to regain possession. The description given afterwards of the fighting which took place varies greatly, according as those who were engaged in the conflict described it. The sailors who were in the struggle are said to have discarded all idea of entering the pa, some making their way to the back thereof in pursuit of the enemy, others climbing the palisading to obtain a sight of their whereabouts, whilst many of the soldiers entered the pa, and took advantage of the loopholes to fire indiscriminately, not knowing that "Jack" had made his way round to the rear; so it was very generally stated among the sailors themselves that they suffered more from their friends than from their enemies. After an unsuccessful struggle, lasting for several hours, the rebels retreated, and Her Majesty's forces were left in possession of the place. Thus ended the actual conflict with Heke and Kawiti. Heke, as I learned afterwards, did not take up his quarters in the pa, but remained with his men in the rear, but was engaged in the last struggle. The number of the enemy all told, as far as I could gather after many inquiries among the different tribes engaged, at no time exceeded 400. No attempt was made to follow the rebels into the bush. The pa was partially demolished, and the whole force shortly afterwards returned to the Bay. The Governor went back to Auckland, and in a short time a proclamation appeared, allowing all who had been in rebellion against Her Majesty to return in peace to their homes. It would be difficult, perhaps, to surmise whether the rebels were the best pleased to lay down their arms and go quietly to their settlements, or the Queen's representative to be able, thus honourably, to put an end to a state of things highly distasteful to himself, and bringing neither honour nor glory to anyone.
A short account of the after lives of the two men, Heke and Kawiti, who took the lead in the war, may serve as a finish to these "extracts." Heke had been in very indifferent health before the war ended, and, independent of any other consideration, was glad to be able to retire inland. I saw him shortly after the proclamation was made known. It would have been too much to have expected him to say he was glad to have peace; but he did say "it rests with the Governor; if we are left alone we shall leave the pakeha
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(foreigner) alone, and in no case," he added, "shall we build another pa." Some time after this the Governor paid a visit to the Bay and came inland to see the localities of the two pas where the first and second conflicts had taken place--Mawe and Ohaeawae. His Excellency expressed a wish to "shake hands" with Heke, and asked me if I thought I could arrange a meeting I undertook to do my best, and a morning or two afterwards the Governor and Heke met and breakfasted together at my table. The interview was not a long one, and no reference was made to the past. Heke and the people who were with him were encouraged to return to industrial habits, and assured of the Queen's regard for the welfare of the Maori race, etc. Whilst the Governor was speaking I could see an occasional glance from Heke to the chiefs who were sitting on the floor around, which, from long familiarity with his face and manner, I had no difficulty in interpreting to mean "we will wait and see." He was very nervous, partly from his then weak state of health, and partly from his position. His body-guard, consisting of some eight or ten of his leading men, all armed with some small weapon carefully placed under their blankets, mats, or other garments, kept close by him. A short time after breakfast the Governor shook hands with Heke and several of the chiefs who were present, and thus separated Her Majesty's Representative and John Heke Pokai.
Kawiti was now an old man, but hearty. He, however, had no objection to peace, and quickly settled down at Kawakawa. Before the Governor paid his visit to Heke, Sir Everard Home, then Captain of H.M.S. Caliope, who was visiting the Bay of Islands, and came inland to revisit Ohaeawae and the district around, asked me if I would accompany him and Dr. Shortland to Kawiti's settlement at the Kawakawa, as he was very desirous to see him. The time was arranged, I joined them at the Bay, and we pulled up the river. Kawiti received the captain of the Caliope quietly and without any parade. After a little conversation on other subjects, Sir Everard said, "Well, Kawiti, it is peace now!" Kawiti replied, "Kei a koutou, me he mea kua makona koutou ka mea matou, kau makona hoki matou." (It is for you to say if you have had enough, then we will say we have had enough.) The captain ejaculated, "Well, you are a noble specimen of a New Zealand savage!" When Sir Everard visited the site of the old pa at Ohaeawai I introduced him to Peni Taui, the chief of the place, as the captain who commanded the North Star at the time the war was going on at Ohaeawai. "Oh!" said Peni to me, aside, "this is the captain who supplied the shot we have lying about here," and giving a hint to a youth who was standing by, the lad started off and in a few minutes returned with a bag on his shoulders holding something of considerable weight, and at a nod from Peni he rolled some half-dozen 9lb shot at Sir Everard's feet, the chief asking him at the same time if he had seen them before. Sir Everard was greatly amused and much pleased with his visit. He asked Peni if he felt the place to be his home again. He replied, "It is only now you have paid me this visit that I begin to feel I am on my own land."
The time that intervened between the close of the war and Heke's
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death was some four or five years. It was clear to us who watched him that he was in consumption; he became gradually weaker and weaker. I saw him occasionally; but our missionary, the Rev. R. Davis, who was stationed at Kaikohe, visited him frequently. He lived and died a Christian, by profession, at least. May we not hope he found mercy at last? At his death there was great contention as to what should be done with the body, some wishing for a Christian burial; others tried to get possession of it to put it away in a box or coffin, generally on a stage, with a view to a "hahunga," that is, after twelve or eighteen months, bringing it forth and making a great to-do over the bones and then carrying them away to some Maori burial-place, generally a cave. It was ultimately disposed of in this way:--The body was placed in a permanent coffin, and, at the time appointed, the Rev. R. Davis was requested to perform over it the usual burial service, altering the words "We therefore commit his body to the ground, etc.," to others suitable to the occasion. After the service was over the coffin was committed to the care of a few men chosen for the purpose and conveyed away to a perpendicular cave at some considerable distance, the exact locality not known, even to the present day, to the natives generally, but supposed to be a cave near Pakaraka, called Putahi.
Kawiti lived some years longer, professed Christianity before his death and was baptized.
Tamate Waka Nene was justly treated by the Government when they voted him a pension of £100 per annum for life. He lived chiefly in the Bay of Islands after the war, on friendly terms with all the natives of that part of the district, including those who were more or less mixed up with Heke and Kawiti in the doings at Kororareka. In his declining years he made the little town of Russell his chief place of abode, where he was treated with the greatest respect by both Europeans and Maoris.
Waka died on the 4th of August, 1871. The Government gave him, as far as circumstances would allow, what may be termed a public burial. On the monument erected to his memory by the Government in the consecrated burying-ground surrounding our church at Russell is the following:--
TO THE MEMORY OF
TAMATE WAKA NENE,
CHIEF OF NGAPUHI,
THE FIRST TO WELCOME THE QUEEN'S SOVEREIGNTY IN NEW ZEALAND,
A CONSISTENT SUPPORTER OF THE 'PAKEHAS.'
This stone is erected by the Government of the Colony, which for upwards of thirty-one years he faithfully upheld.
Sage in counsel,
Renowned in war,
He died regretted by all the inhabitants of these Islands, at Russell, on the 4th August, 1871.
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It is not easy even to guess to what dimensions Heke's rebellion would have spread, had not Waka taken up arms in defence of law and order, as a loyal subject of the Queen.
The Government doubtless did right in not inviting the help of the Maori to fight in the ranks of the soldiers against his own countrymen; but in this instance there was great cause for thankfulness that they did so; by it much "blood and treasure" were saved, and the war much more speedily brought to an end.
The plan adopted by the Governor to put an end to fighting was in my opinion, a wise one, and prevented any more humiliating reverses which would certainly have been the result of following the rebels farther into the interior. They had fully decided not to build any more pas, but to entice their enemy into a more inaccessible part of the country, towards Hikuranga. Experience has taught us that an ordinary trained soldier is no match for the Maori in high fern, scrub, and bush, who thinks it no want of courage or bravery
"To fight and run away,
And fight again another day."
Then, again, the not insisting upon certain lands being given up as a compensation for the mischief they had done, and as an acknowledgment of being in the wrong, served to disarm Heke and his party of what they considered their strong argument, namely, "that the Government was fighting to get possession of their country."
From 1846 to the present time the natives of the North have given the Government very little trouble. They have been the most law-abiding of any of the tribes in New Zealand, and as a whole, perhaps, are the most civilized. In social order and religion they are in advance of most of the others farther south. There are at the present time eight ordained Maori clergymen working amongst their own people north of Auckland, in connection with the Church Missionary Society, besides several other ministers who have been ordained by the Wesleyan body.
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