1836 - Marshall, W. B. A Personal Narrative of Two Visits to New Zealand - [Appendices]

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  1836 - Marshall, W. B. A Personal Narrative of Two Visits to New Zealand - [Appendices]
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Referred to at page 48.


"At Cotta a Christian Institution has been formed, the object of which is to communicate to a few of the native youths, of good promise both for piety and capacity, such an education as, by the blessing of God, may render them useful schoolmasters, Catechists, and assistant missionaries. These youths are, for the most part, selected from the central schools of the four stations; but the Institution is open to others who possess the requisite qualifications, and are willing to comply with the regulations of the establishment." 1 p.2.

"There are at this station also a Boys' Sunday-school, containing about 140 scholars, and a Girls' Sunday-school, containing about 80; **** The youths of the Christian Institution are employed as teachers in both these Sunday-schools." p.13.

Twenty one youths have been admitted into this Institution since its commencement in 1828, of these >sixteen now remain (A.D. 1833); and of the five others, three are

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employed under the mission, one as a schoolmaster, and two as probationary Catechists. * * * * * * *

The following statement will shew the course of study pursued, and the progress already made by the students.

Hebrew. --Three boys have read twelve chapters in Genesis, and learned a little of the grammar.

Greek. --Eleven boys have read through the Delectus, part of St. John's Gospel, and half of the Acts of the Apostles.

Latin. --First Class. --Seven boys have finished the Delectus, and the first two books of Caesar.
Second Class. ---Six boys have gone nearly through the Delectus. Both Classes repeat some of the grammar every Saturday, and have lately begun to write Ellis's exercises twice a week.

Pali--Some of the boys have made a little progress in the Pali, Negundo.

English. ---All the students learn English Grammar, write from dictation, and read English and Church History, and books on General Knowledge.

Geography and Chronology are learned by all.

Geometry, Algebra, Trigonometry. --Seven of the students have gone a second time through a compendium of the Elements of Geometry. They have also gone a second time through a small Treatise on Algebra, and have solved many equations from other books. They are now, (1833) studying Trigonometry, Three have begun the same Compendium of Geometry, and five have begun Algebra.

Arithmetic. ---The first seven boys have gone through a Treatise of Arithmetic, and are only examined in it occasionally. The rest are going through it. The general conduct and moral character of all the boys in the Institution are very satisfactory, and afford ground to hope that they will all become useful members of society, showing the excellency of Christian principles in the

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honesty of their lives, and by their endeavours to promote the moral and religious improvement of their countrymen, --p. 13,14.

"RULES AND REGULATIONS OF THE CHRISTIAN INSTITUTION, adopted at the Meeting of the Church Missionaries at Cotta, September, 1827.

I. The general rule for the admission of boys into the Christian Institution is, that they be chosen from among the Singhalese and Tamulians.

II. That the preference be given to boys in the Central Schools of the Church Missionary Society at Cotta, Baddagama, Kandy, and Nellore. 2

III. That the age at which the boys be admitted into the Christian Institution be between 12 and 20.

IV. That the qualifications for admission be, that the boys be able to read and write their own language, and write and construe the English into their own tongue, and understand the first four rules of Arithmetic; and also that they be of good natural parts, and indicate a Favourable disposition to the reception of Christianity.

V. That the time of their continuance in the Institution be understood to be six years, subject to modification, according to the views of the missionaries who have the superintendence of the Institution."--p. 22,23.

THE FIRST PUBLIC EXAMINATION of the youths in the Institution took place on Saturday, December 17th, 1831, in presence of the Rt. Hon. the Governor, Lady Wilmot Horton, and a number of the Civil and Military Gentlemen of Colombo.

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Extract from the "CEYLON GAZETTE," December 21st, 1831.

"The examination commenced with reading the English Bible. Archdeacon Glenie selected for this part of the examination the seventh chapter of the Acts of the Apostles, part of which they read; and he afterwards asked several questions on the Old Testament History, Geography, and Chronology, to which that chapter has reference. The answers given were quite satisfactory. In mathematical and physical Geography all the questions proposed were correctly answered. In Geometry, five or six theorems, some requiring direct and others indirect proofs, were clearly and fully demonstrated. In Algebra, various equations, both simple and quadratic, were solved with correctness; some boys choosing one method of solution, and some another, but each obtaining the same answer. In the Latin Delectus the Governor and others chose several passages, which the youths read and construed with tolerable accuracy. In the Greek Testament they read and construed the former part of the third chapter of St. John's Gospel, parsing several of the words, and answering a few syntactical questions that were proposed by some of the gentlemen present.

"His Excellency, at the conclusion, expressed the pleasure and gratification that had been afforded him by an exhibition of so much talent and industry, which did equal honour to those that taught and to those who had received tuition. He expressed his anxiety to promote the objects of the Institution by every encouragement within the Colony. He should also feel it his duty to report to the Secretary of State the proficiency he had just witnessed. His Excellency expressed his intention of being present at the future annual examinations of the youths of the Institution, and the pleasure he felt at finding the missionaries of different societies in the Island concurring together in such unqualified union in the promotion of the great and impor-

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tant objects of education, He could not express his own opinion more clearly, thin by referring to a passage which had just been construed in the Latin class, 'Nullum munus reipublicae affere majus meliusve possumus, quant si doceamus atque erudiamus juventutem.'"

The Writer visited the above Institution on the 13th of March, 1835, and examined the youths, then 22 in number. The result was highly creditable to the students and their instructors, and, gratifying beyond description to himself. During his brief sojourn under the hospitable roof of his very kind friend, the Rev. Joseph Bailey, opportunities were afforded him of not only hearing and asking those youths questions, but also of witnessing them at their meals, and at their devotions; and of acquainting himself with many particulars respecting them, both in their private and their public conduct. The impression remaining on his mind up to the present hour, as produced by the above visit, is one of unmixed pleasure, and he has no hesitation in avowing that, judging from what fell under his own observation then, the Christian Institution at Cotta might be proposed as a model for any public school in Great Britain.


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See pages 56,57,58.



Lord Viscount GODERICH, one of the Principal Secretaries of State to HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF GREAT BRITAIN----

Na te Rangatira nui, na Waikauta KORERIHA, ko ia nei te tahi o nga tino kai tuhituhi a te KINGI O INGARANI--

To the Chiefs of New Zealand.

Ki nga Rangatira o Nu Tirani.



I AM commanded by THE KING to acknowledge the receipt of the letter which you addressed to HIS MAJESTY, and which you intrusted to Mr. WILLIAM YATE, to forward to England.

KUA mea mai TE KINGI ki hau, kia korero atu ki a koutou, kua tae mai nei ki TE KINGI to koutou pukapuka, i ho atu e koutou ki a TE IETI kia kawea ki Ingarani.

THE KING is much gratified to find that the cause for alarm, which appears to have existed at the time when your letter was written, has entirety passed away; and he trusts that no circumstances may occur in future, to interrupt the internal tranquillity of New Zealand, which is so necessary to the maintenance of a close commercial intercourse between its inhabitants and those of Great Britain,

E hari ana te Kingi no to mea kua pahure ke atu te mea i mataku ai koutou, i te tuhituhinga o to koutou pukapuka, (ara ko te tangohanga o to koutou kainga e te iwi o Mareau), a e hiahia ana ia kia kaua e poka ke a mua atu te tahi mea, hei wakararuraru i to koutou kainga, kei wakamutua hoki te hokohoko o ana tangata o Ingarani ki a koutou.

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THE KING is sorry for the injuries which you inform him that the people of New Zealand have suffered from some of his subjects. But, He will do all in His power to prevent the recurrence of such outrages, and to punish the perpetrators of them according to the laws of their country, whenever they can be apprehended and brought to trial; 1 and THE KING hopes, that mutual good will and confidence will exist between the people of both countries.

E kino ana TE KINGI ki nga mahi kino o ana tangata ki te hunga o Nu Tirani, kua tuhituhia mai nei e koutou. Penei ka tohe nga tangata ki aua kino a mua, ma te Kingi e riri, mana ano e utu aua tangata kino, ki te tikanga o nga ture o to ratou kainga, ua hopukina, ua wakawakia ratou. A e mea ana TE KINGI kia pai marie nga wakaro o koutou katoa ko ana tangata, a te tahi o te tahi.

In order to afford better protection to all classes, both Natives of the Islands of New Zealand, and British subjects who may proceed, or be already established there for purposes of trade, THE KING has sent the bearer of this letter, JAMES BUSBY, Esquire, to reside amongst you as HIS MAJESTY'S RESIDENT, whose duties will be to investigate all complaints which may be made to him.

A kua tonoa e TE KINGI te tangata i tenei pukapuka a TE PUHIPI, kia noho ki to koutou kainga; he tangata hoki no TE KINGI, hei kai wakarite i nga mea o te tangata maori o Nu Tirani, o nga tangata hoki o KINGI WIREMU e noho ana i a koutou, hei kai hoko. Mana ano e wakawa nga mea kino, katoa, e wakapuaki ai koutou ki a ia.

It will also be his endeavour to prevent the arrival

Mana hoki e mea, kia kaua e haere atu ki to koutou

1   Was his Lordship ignorant, at the time of using THE KING's name for such an assurance, that there is no law in the whole British code, for punishing even a murderer, though a British, subject, whose crime may have been perpetrated in any country without the limits of the Empire? It has been so decided by English Judges, both at the Cape of Good Hope and in New South Wales.

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among you of men who have been guilty of crimes in their own country, and who may effect their escape from the place to which they may have been banished, as likewise to apprehend such persons of this description as may be found at present at large.

kainga nga tangata i mahi kino i to ratou kainga, a kua oma i te kainga i herehere ai ratou; mana hoki e hopu aua tangata e haere noa nei i to koutou a kainga.

In return for the anxious desire which will be manifested by the British Resident, to afford his protection to the inhabitants of New Zealand, against any acts of outrage which may be attempted against them by British subjects, it is confidently expected by HIS MAJESTY, that on your parts you will render to the RESIDENT that assistance and support, which is calculated to promote the object of his appointment, and to extend to your country all the benefits which it is capable of receiving from its friendship and alliance with Great Britain, 2
I am,
Your friend,

Na! ka wakaro te tangata o TE KINGI ki te tiaka i nga tangata o Nu Tirani i nga mahi kino o nga tangata o Ingarani, waihoki e mea ana TE KINGI, kia utua tenei wakaro e koutou, ara kia meinga koutou hei hoa, hei kai tiaki i tona tangata, kia puta ai te mea e noho ai ia ki a koutou, a kia wiwi ai koutou ki nga pai katoa e riro ki a koutou, no te mea ka meinga koutou hei hoa mo te KINGI O INGARANI.
Na to koutou hoa,
Hune 14, 1832.

Colonial Office, Downing Street, 14th June, 1832.

2   The recent decision of the chiefs, on occasion of the attack made upon Mr. Busby's house, (see p.293 of the Narrative,) proves their willingness to render that "assistance and support" which His Majesty "confidently expected" at their hinds. But what beyond an "anxious desire" "to afford his protection to the inhabitants of New Zealand, against any acts of outrage which may be attempted against them by British subjects," has the BRITISH RESIDENT authority or power to render to the chiefs of New Zealand? "Desires," however benevolent, or however "anxious," if they be not carried into effect, are like the mirage of the desert, but a cruel mockery after all.

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JAMES BUSBY, Esquire, the British Resident--

Na te PUHIPI, te Tangata o TE KINGI 0 INGARANI--

To the Chiefs and People of New Zealand.

Ki nga Rangatira me nga Tangata o Nu Tirani.

You will perceive by the letter which I have been honoured with the commands of THE KING OF GREAT BRITAIN to deliver to you, that it is HIS MAJESTY'S anxious wish that the most friendly feeling should subsist between his own subjects and yourselves: and how much He regrets that you should have had reason to complain of the conduct of any of HIS subjects.

Kua rongo nei koutou ki te pukapuka 0 TE KINGI 0 INGARANI, i kawea mai nei e hau. E hiahia ana ia kia wakahoatia koutou ki a ia. Ko tana mea kino te mahi kino o te pakeha ki a koutou.

To foster and maintain this friendly feeling--to prevent as much as possible the recurrence of those misunderstandings and quarrels which have unfortunately taken place--and to give a greater assurance of safety and just dealings both to His own subjects, and the people of New Zealand, in their commercial intercourse, with each other--these are the purposes for which HIS MAJESTY has sent me

Ko a hau tenei kua tonoa mai e ia kia meinga ai koutou hei hoa pumau ki a ia. A kia kore ai e tutu nga tangata 0 TE KINGI 0 INGARANI ki a koutou. A kia tika ai te hokohoko a te pakeha ki te tangata maori, a te tangata maori ra nei ki te pakeha. Hei a muri nei ki te tutu e tahi tangata kia koutou, hei reira koutou kite ai, ko a hau te hoa mo te tangata maori.

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to reside amongst you. And, I hope and trust, when any opportunities of doing a service to the people of this country shall arise, I shall be able to prove to you how much it is my own desire to be the friend of those among whom I am come to reside.

It is the custom of HIS MAJESTY, THE KING OF GREAT BRITAIN, to send one or more of His servants to reside as His Representatives in all those countries of Europe and America, with which he is on terms of friendship; and in sending one of His servants to reside among the Chiefs of New Zealand, they ought to be sensible not only of the advantages which will result to the people of New Zealand, by extending their commercial intercourse with the people of England, but of the honor THE KING of a great and powerful nation like Great Britain, has done their country in adopting it into the number of those countries with which He is in friendship and alliance.

No tua iho ano tenei ritenga o TE KINGI O INGARANI kia tonoa e tahi o ona tangata ki nga kainga tawiti o Uropi, o Amerika, o hea, o hea, nga kainga hoki e wakahoatia ana ki a ia. A ka tonoa mai nei a hau e TE KINGI kia noho ki to koutou kainga. Kia mahara koutou, e nga Rangatira o te tangata maori, hei pai tenei mo koutou; ma konei hoki ka hono ai to koutou hokohoko ki a matou, ki nga tangata o Ingarani: kia mahara ano hoki koutou, he wakarangatiratanga tenei na TE KINGI o te iwi nui o Ingarani, ta te mea hoki ka wakahoatia koutou ki a ia.

I am, however, commanded to inform you that in every country to which HIS MAJESTY sends his servants to reside as His Representatives, their persons and families, and all that belongs to them are consi-

Tenei ake ano tenei korero; ka tonoa nga tangata o TE KINGI kia noho kihea kihea, nona pu hoki ia tangata. E kore rawa e ahatia aua tangata, o ratou tamariki ra nei, o ratou taonga ra nei e te kainga e noho ai

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dered sacred. Their duty, is the cultivation of peace, and friendship, and goodwill; and not only THE KING OF GREAT BRITAIN, but the whole civilized world would resent any violence which his Representatives might suffer in any of those countries to which they are sent to reside in His name. I have heard that the Chiefs and people of New Zealand have proved the faithful friends of those who have come among them to do them good, and I therefore trust myself to their protection and friendship with confidence.

ratou. E noho ana hoki ratou hei hunga mo te pai, mo te atawai, mo te maunga rongo. Ki te mea e ahatia nga tangata o te KINGI, ka riri ia me nga pakeha katoa. Oti ra kua rongo a hau, he hunga pai nga rangatira me nga tangata o Nu Tirani, ki nga pakeha e noho ana ki a ratou mo te pai, koia hoki a hau te mataku ai kia noho, ko taku ko tahi anake ano ki to koutou kainga.

All good Englishmen are desirous that the New Zealanders should be a rich and happy people; and it is my wish, when I shall have erected my house, that all the Chiefs shall come and visit me, and be my friends. We shall then consult together by what means they can make their country a flourishing country, and their people a rich and a wise people, like the people of Great Britain.

E mea ana nga tangata wakaro katoa o Ingarani, kia noho pai te tangata maori, kia wiwi ano ki nga taonga o te pakeha. A e mea ana a hau, ka oti te tahi ware moku te hanga, kia haere mai nga rangatira maori katoa kia kite i hau, kia wakahoatia ano ki hau. A kia wakaro ano hoki koutou he pai mo to koutou kainga, kia wakarite ai koutou ki nga tangata e Ingarani.

At one time Great Britain differed very little from what New Zealand is now. The people had no large houses, nor good clothing, nor good food. They painted their bodies, and clothed themselves with the

Inamata riro ko te ritenga o Ingarani kei te ritenga o Nu Tirani. Kahore o ratou ware pai, kahore he kahu pai, kahore he kai pai. He mea pani o ratou hiako ki te ta, ko o ratou kakahu he huruhuru kararehe. A e

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skins of wild beasts. Every Chief went to war with his neighbour, and the people perished in the wars of their Chiefs, even as the people of New Zealand do now. But after God had sent HIS SON into the world to teach mankind that all the tribes of the earth are brethren, and that they ought not to hate and destroy, but to love and do good to one another; and when the people of England learned HIS words of wisdom, they ceased to go to war with each other, and all the tribes became one people.

wawai ana tenei kainga ki tera atu: a ngaro iho nga tangata i te parekura ma koutou ka ngaro nei. Oti ra ka tonoa e te ATUA tana TAMAITI ki te ao, hei ako i te tangata, he teina, he tuakana nga tauiwi katoa i te ao: a he mea he te wawai, te hae; ko te pai ia kei te aroha, kei te atawai. Na! Wakarongo ana nga tangata o Ingarani ki ana kupu pai, mutu wakarere te wawai o ratou ki a ratou ano, ka wakakotahitia ka huihuia taua iwi katoa.

The peaceful inhabitants of the country began to build large houses, because there was no enemy to pull them down. They cultivated their land and had abundance of bread, because no hostile tribe entered into their fields to destroy the fruits of their labours. They increased the numbers of their cattle because no one came to drive them away. They also became industrious and rich, and had all good things they desired.

Ko te hunga mo te pai kei te hanga i e tahi ware nunui mo ratou, kahore hoki he tangata hei wawahi; ka ngakia te wenua, ka hua te kai, kahore hoki he hoa riri hei takahi: ka tini haere nga kararehe, kahore hoki he tangata e wiua ketia ai, e tangohia ai. A ka mahi ano ka wiwi ki te taonga.

Do you, then, 0 Chiefs and Tribes of New Zealand, desire to become like the people of England? Listen first to the word of GOD, which HE has put it into the hearts of HIS servants, THE

E mara ma, E nga Rangatira, e nga Tangata o Nu Tirani, peratia koutou me te hunga o Ingarani? Ma tua ka Wakarongo ki te kupu o te ATUA kua ho mai nei ki ona tangata ki TE MIHANERE.

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MISSIONARIES, to come here to teach you. Learn that it is the will of God that you should all love each other as brethren, and when wars shall cease among you, then shall your country flourish. Instead of the roots of the fern, you shall eat bread, because the land shall be tilled without fear, and its fruits shall be eaten in peace. When there is abundance of bread, men shall labour to preserve flax, and timber, and provisions for the ships that come to trade; and the ships which come to trade, shall bring clothing, and all other things which you desire. Thus shall you become rich. For there are no riches without labour, and men will not labour unless there is peace, that they may enjoy the fruits of their labour.

Kia rongo koutou ko te hiahia o te ATUA kia aroha koutou katoa ki akoutou ano, kia wakateina, kia wakatuakana koutou katoa. A ka wakamutua te wawai, ko reira kake haere ai to koutou kainga, ka pai ano. Ka mutu te kai i te aruhe, kei te taro anake; ka ngakia katoatia te wenua, ka kainga marietia nga kai. Ka nui hoki te kai, ko reira hoki mahia ai he Muka, he Rakau, he Kai ra nei, hei hokohoko mo te kaipuke. A ka riro mai mo koutou he kakahu me nga mea katoa e pai ai koutou. Makonei ka wai taonga ai koutou. Ki te kahore hoki he mahi, kahore he taonga, tena ko te mahi, ma te rangimarie anake, ma te ata noho ka puta ai, kia kite ai te tangata i tana mea i mahi ai ia.



Bay of Islands,
17th May 1833.
Mai 17, 1833.


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See page 77.


Wakapona mai e Ihu,
Au korero ki te ngakau
Kia kaha ai matou
Te wakapai ki te Atua;
Kia hei ai hoki te matau
Ki tona wakaro.


Ma tou Wairua Tapu matou
E wakaako ki au ture;
Mana ano hoki
E tino wakaatu mai ra
Tou rangatiratanga pai
Ki to hungha tika.


Ehiahia ana ki a koe
Nga tamariki kua wanau
I te kupu tapu
E tatari ana ratou
Ki tou haerengatanga mai
Hei kai wakahari.


E Ihu, aua e wakaroa
Te puta mai ki te ao nei,
Kei hemo te ngakau
Hohoro, e te Araki,
Hohoro ki a matou ra,
Au hunga i hokoa

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Literal Translation, by the Rev. W. Yate.

1. O Jesus, cause thy words to be secured in our hearts, that we may be strengthened to praise God, and may be able also to know or understand his thoughts to us.

2. Let thine Holy Spirit teach us thy law; let him also make known thy kingdom of righteousness to the people that are righteous.

3. All the children who are born of thy sacred word are longing after thee, they are waiting for thy coming to gladden, or as the gladdener of their hearts.

4. O Jesus, do not be long in making thy appearance in this world, lest we faint in our spirit. Hasten, O Lord, hasten unto us, the people whom thou hast bought.


See Page 78.


Homai ra pea, e Ihu,
He tikanga ki hau,
Me wakarongo hoki
Ki taku korero.
Ka pikau hau e Ihu,
I aku hara nei
Ka pehia hau ki raro
E ana taimaha.


E mau ra pea, e Ihu,
Ki aku kinonga
Ki runga ki tou rakau,
Ki reira titi ai.
Ka pouri toku ngakau
Kua ngaro i te he;
Mau e wakamarama,
Kia tino tika ai.

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Metono tou karere
Hei arahi i hau,
Ki runga ki te rangi,
Kia noho marie ai,
Ano ka tae ki reira,
Ki tou uma ano,
Ka awi pu ki a koe,
Ka okioki ai.


A ake tonu atu
E tino Wakapai,
Mo tou kororia hoki,
Mo tou aroha mai.
Ho mai ra pea e Ihu
I ou mea pai ki hau
Wakarongo mai ra koe
Ki tinei waiata.

Literal Translation, by the Rev. W. Yate.

1. Give unto me, O Jesus, a righteousness, and listen to my calling. I carry upon my back my sins, O Lord, and am pressed down into the depths by their weight.

2. But, O Lord, I carry all my sins to thy cross, and there I nail them. My heart is often darkened, being buried in errors, do thou enlighten it that all may be perfectly right.

3. Send down to me an angel of thine as my leader to heaven, where I shall sit in perfect peace; and when I arrive there, even into thy bosom, then will I cling closely to thee and for ever be at rest.

4. Without ceasing will I praise thee for thy glory and for thy great love towards me. Give unto me, if it be thy will, 0 Jesus, of thy good things, and do thou listen to this singing.


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See page 109.

A List of the Ships which have visited the Bay of Islands, New Zealand, during the year 1833.


One British ship of war..... 1

One ditto Government store-ship.. 1

Two Colonial Government brigs... 2

British whaling ships...... 23

- British merchant ships....... 6

New South Wales whaling ships... 16

Van Dieman's Land whaling ships . 4

New South Wales trading vessels.. 19

Total British and British Colonial vessels 72

American whaling ships.....11

American trading ships.....4

Tahitian trading vessels..... 2


Total number of ships, 89.

N.B. The same vessels visiting the Bay of Islands more than once within the year, are numbered as distinct vessels on each visit.
British Resident at New Zealand.
Bay of Islands,
Feb.26, 1834.

Having omitted to insert the above in the body of my narrative, I may remark here, that as many or more ships and vessels are said to visit the harbours to the southward; and whether, considering the increasing commerce of New Zealand, the influx of foreign vices with foreign seamen

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into their country, and the fact that at one of the visits paid by H.M.S. Alligator to the Bay of Islands, there were, inclusive of her crew, not less than a thousand sailors dispersed among the shipping then at anchor, I would enquire whether it might not be practicable for the missionaries to direct a little attention to the spiritual welfare of the seamen afloat, as well as to that of the natives on shore; or, if not, whether it would be advisable to institute a mission to sailors expressly. One missionary at Kororarika, one at Cloudy Bay, one in the River Thames, and one as a reserve for either of those places, or for any other where shipping might be attracted, would meet all the exigencies of the case, and prove valuable auxiliaries to those who have more exclusively given themselves to the heathen, five hundred pounds per annum would defray the entire expense of such a mission, from the hour of the four missionaries first landing in the country.



See page 149.



SIR,                Government House, 23d August, 1834.

I have the honour to submit for your consideration the narrative of Mr. Guard, who was master of the barque "Harriet," when that vessel was wrecked on the northern island of New Zealand, near Cape Egmont, in the mouth of April last. In the history of occurrences, in that island

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subsequent to his shipwreck, you will peruse with indignation and regret, the account which Mr. Guard gives of the atrocious conduct of the natives towards the crew, and will perceive that, having lost twelve of his men by the weapons of the savages, Mr. Guard has been obliged to leave nine sailors, one woman, and two children in their hands.

Having brought these transactions under the notice of the Executive Council of this Colony, they have advised, and I fully concur with them in opinion, that an application should be made to you, Sir, to proceed with His Majesty's Ship Alligator, to obtain the restoration of the British subjects now in the hands of the New Zealanders.

Considering the existing relations of Great Britain and this Colony with New Zealand, and the number of British residents on the northern part of the north island, the Council are of opinion that it will be advisable to abstain from any act of immediate retaliation against the guilty tribe at Cape Egmont, LEST IT SHOULD EXCITE a spirit of revenge or hostility in those tribes situated to the northward, amongst whom the British residents being placed, their lives and property are in a great degree at the mercy of the natives. It will therefore be proper to endeavour to obtain the restoration of the captives by amicable means, and to represent to the tribe concerned in these outrages, that a recurrence of such conduct will lead to the destruction of all their vessels, houses, and settlements near the coast.

If the restoration of the prisoners should not be accomplished by amicable means, the Council recommend that force should be employed to effect it, and if it shall appear to you desirable, I will direct a military party to embark on board the Alligator, to assist you in this proceeding.

Having thus stated the course which the Governor and Council consider most proper to be pursued under the circumstances detailed in Mr. Guard's narrative, I have to request of you to adopt the measure they recommend, by

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proceeding on the proposed service at your earliest convenience.
I have the honour to be, Sir,
Your most obedient humble servant,
To G.R. Lambert, Esq., R.N.,
Captain of H.M.S. Alligator.




Examination of Mr. John Guard, Master of the Barque "Harriet," before the Executive Council, 22nd August, 1834.

In proceeding from Port Jackson to Cloudy Bay, New Zealand, the "Harriet" was wrecked on the 29th of April last, near Cape Egmont on the Northern Island. The crew, consisting of twenty-eight men, all escaped on shore, as also one woman and two children. About thirty or forty natives came the third day after we were wrecked. We had made tents on shore of our sails. The crew were at that time armed with ten muskets saved from the wreck. The natives began plundering the wreck, and also what we brought on shore. They shewed no violence at this time, the principal number not having yet appeared. We endeavoured to prevent their taking our things by shoving them from the tents, but offered no violence to them. They must have seen our muskets.

On the 7th of May about two hundred more natives came down, and they told us directly they came, that they had come purposely to kill us. They did nothing that

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day, but on the following day they came all naked, and at least one hundred and fifty with muskets, and the rest with tomahawks and spears. There were not above three or four females with them. They had come purposely for mischief. One of the crew, who had been trading with the New Zealanders for nearly six years, and had lived on shore about thirty or forty miles from whence these natives came, understood their language perfectly; I also understood it partly myself, and they told us plainly that they came to kill us. They did not attack us until the 10th. At night they remained on the opposite side of a river in tents, and we continued under arms expecting an attack. About eight o'clock on the morning of the 10th they again made their appearance in a body under arms, and they struck one of the crew on the head with a tomahawk, and then cut him right in two. Another, named Thomas White, they cut down, and then cut his legs off by the joints of the knees and hips. We immediately then opened fire, seeing that it was their intention to kill us, which they returned. We engaged them nearly an hour, and we lost altogether twelve men. We understood there were twenty or thirty of the New Zealanders shot, but some say there were less. The New Zealanders latterly dug holes in the ground and fired from behind them, leaving only their heads exposed. They closed upon us, and we were obliged to retreat. They got possession of my wife and two children. They cut her down twice with a tomahawk, and she only was saved by her comb. We were making our retreat to a place named Mataroa, about forty miles to the northward, firing as we went. We met another tribe consisting of about one hundred coming up to the wreck. They stopped us, and stripped us of our clothing. We gave ourselves up, having expended all our ammunition. They kept us on the spot for three or four hours, and then permitted us to proceed to Materoa, sending a guide with us. They put us into a fenced place

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which they call a "Par," a sort of stockade. There they kept us three days naked as we were. They gave us some potatoes. The party on the third and fourth days returned from the wreck, and in the morning they took us out from the "Par," each man who had taken off our clothes claiming the man he had stripped as his slave. We went to our several masters, and some of them gave back a shirt, and some a pair of trousers, wearing the rest of the clothes themselves. They several times offered us some of our own people's flesh to eat, which they had brought from the wreck in baskets. About a fortnight after, they told us that one boat remained at the place where the "Harriet" was wrecked, the others had been burnt with the dead. I proposed to them to allow us to go in the boat, promising to return with a cask of powder in payment for it. They went for the boat to the wreck, and brought it to Materoa. They consented to allow me and five more men to go away in the boat, but detained my brother and eight men as hostages. We repaired the boat as well as we could, and departed on the 20th of June, accompanied by three native chiefs, and another of the crew who escaped to us. We were two days and two nights at sea, and fetched into Blind Bay, in Cook's Straits. We could not proceed further at that time in consequence of the wind, we remained there one night. We were visited by another party of natives there, and robbed of our potatoes, and the only pocket knife we had; they also took two of our oars: only for knowing these natives they would have taken the boat altogether. They belonged to Entry Island, called by the natives "Cabitty." We were eight days making Cloudy Bay, having reached it on the 28th June. We found Captain Sinclair, of the Barque "Mary Anne" there, who lent me a boat. I procured some things from Captain Sinclair with the view of returning to Mataroa to ransom my family and the other prisoners. In Port Nicholson we met in with the Schooner, "Joseph Weller,"

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and the Master (Morris) took us on board, agreeing to call at Materoa on his way to Port Jackson, to land at the former place the three chiefs and the ransom, and to take away the prisoners. The wind would not allow us to make Materoa, and we were obliged to bear up for Sydney, whither we brought the three chiefs, having arrived here on Tuesday last.

It is my opinion that the object of attack of the natives was to obtain plunder, and to devour those whom they might kill. They alleged no cause, either on the part of the crew or any other white men, for inducing them to act hostilely. There are not at present any Europeans settled in that part of the Island, except a man named Oliver, who lives at Materoa. The chiefs did not object to being brought to Port Jackson, but they would, I think have preferred being landed at Materoa. I think that the nine men would easily be obtained from Materoa, but that the women and children could only be obtained by paying a ransom, which could be done through the Materoa tribe. The name of the other tribe is "Hatteranui."--I believe if a ship of war were to go there, and a few soldiers landed, they could be got without ransom. The woman is about forty miles to the south of Materoa. With a northerly wind, a ship might go nearer than that.

A blanket, a canister of powder, some fish-hooks, and other trifling articles would be sufficient ransom for each man; but more would be required for the woman and children.

I think that by keeping the three chiefs on board until the whole of the Prisoners were returned would be the means of getting them back, but not without a ransom. I will not rest here if a force is not sent down to intimidate them. --Some years ago a boat belonging to Mr. Jones was taken and the crew murdered, and I recollect having often heard the natives boast that nothing had been done in con-

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sequence. They have got a notion that their outrages will not be avenged.

There are only about one hundred natives in all at Materoa. The tribes could not raise above three hundred men in the whole, and about two hundred muskets. If a ship of war were to go down and threaten to destroy their huts, I think that they might be induced to give up the prisoners. Their "Pars" could be easily destroyed by fire. I have been trading with the New Zealanders since 1823, and have lived a great deal amongst them, and it is my opinion that if once they received a check they never would attack a white person again.

Examination on 23rd August.

I am the only person of those who were wrecked, who came to Sydney; the rest remained at Cloudy Bay.

Before we were attacked by the natives, two of the crew deserted to them, taking with them some slop clothing and five canisters of gunpowder. I am positive they supplied the natives with the powder with which they attacked us-- but I do not think that they instigated them to the attack. These two men accompanied the tribe on their return to Materoa from the wreck and were allotted out as slaves in the same way as ourselves. They remained there when we left, and formed part of the nine that I mentioned as detained there.
(A true copy,)
Clerk Colonies.


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See page 293.

Bay of Islands, May 6, 1834.


SIR, --We whose signatures are hereto subscribed, being resident traders in the Bay of Islands, New Zealand, feel ourselves called upon, for the future safety of our families and our properties, and the property of others entrusted to our care, as well as for the support of the office you come here to fill, to call upon you to take advantage of the present opportunity, to bring the natives of this country to a proper sense of the treatment to be observed to the representative of the British Government, in a foreign country, domiciled for the protection of British lives and properties from violent or unjustifiable oppression, and by so doing, to show them the necessity of paying a proper regard to the alliance or protection sought by them, as well as to afford that protection to those persons who have come to reside among them.

And we feel called to express our opinion, that that desirable end cannot be obtained without, in this early stage of the connexion between the Aborigines and our Government, firmly demanding satisfaction for the affront offered to the government, and the fulfilment of a punishment justly due to the crime committed. We cannot help stating that the repeated attacks made upon individual residents, appears to us on the increase, and should this last attempt upon your premises be suffered to pass without the fullest determination being manifested to enforce satisfaction, that the persons and properties of persons residing in this country, will be left to the arbitrary caprice of every savage's horde.

For these reasons, we call upon you to support the character of your office, and if you deem it also necessary to

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call the aid of every respectable resident, by their personal attendance to a meeting, to be made acquainted with every particular, and to express their several opinions as to the best mode of redress, as well as to concert such measures as may be deemed proper for future protection from outrage. And we further beg to state it as our opinion, that you will be deceiving both us and the body of natives you hove congregated in meetings, and declining from the character of the station you have occupied, should you be either unwilling or neglect to insist upon redress, and draw into your support the countenance of the residents for the same end, and that you will cause us to doubt the intention of our government in appointing you, as stated in your address, for the protection of British subjects, as well as natives. We have the honour to be,
Your most obedient Servants,
British Residency, Bay of Islands,
9th May,


GENTLEMEN, --The extraordinary character of your letter of the 6th instant which has just been delivered to me renders it impossible for me to take any further notice of

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it, than to observe, in justice to the chiefs of the surrounding districts, that on the present occasion they have shewn no want of a proper sense of the treatment to be observed to the "representative of the British government," domiciled in their country--but have hastened almost with one accord, to express to me their abhorrence of the late attack upon my house, and attempt upon my life--and to assure me that they would use every means to search out and bring to punishment the guilty parties.
I am Gentlemen,
Your obedient servant,
British Resident.

To (names as above,) resident traders at the Bay of Islands, New Zealand.

1   Statement of the Ceylon Mission of the Church 3Iission-ary Society, for the year MDCCCXXXII. by the Rev. J. Bailey, Secretary of the Mission, Ceylon: Cotta Church Mission Press. 1833.
2   "There is at each station a central school or seminary, where a number of boys are taught English, reading, writing, arithmetic, grammar, geography, and the elements of algebra and geometry. --p.1.

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