1852 - Gann, A. J. The New Zealand Emigration Circular for 1852 - [Text] p 3-32

E N Z B       
       Home   |  Browse  |  Search  |  Variant Spellings  |  Links  |  EPUB Downloads
Feedback  |  Conditions of Use      
  1852 - Gann, A. J. The New Zealand Emigration Circular for 1852 - [Text] p 3-32
Previous section | Next section      

The New Zealand Emigration Circular, 1852.

[Image of page 3]




IN compiling the following pages I have endeavoured to give a concise reply to enquiries respecting Emigation to New Zealand. Some introductory information in an inexpensive form, on the beautiful settlements now rising in a country, surpassed by no other at the present day as a field for British colonization, may also tend to attract for it a larger share of that attention of the emigrating public which its intrinsic excellences have long deserved.

The past year has witnessed the discovery of "Australian Gold Regions," surpassing oven the far famed California; but though these may dazzle for a time, New Zealand, in her fertile soil and magnificent climate, possesses a more lasting, a more substantial wealth. The great obstacles to her progress hitherto have been the unsettled state of the land question and the feuds between the Government and the late New Zealand Company. These are now removed; and last advices from the Colony shew that her settlers and the shrewd native race, aware that their land is as capable of yielding the precious metal, though in another form, were exerting their utmost energies to supply the gold-finders with the necessaries of life; the flockmasters of Australia, too, unable to keep their shepherds, were stocking with their sheep and cattle her verdant hills and plains; wool and other profitable exports will be at last obtained; and now that the settlers have the promise from her Majesty's own lips of free institutions, it may safely be asserted of New Zealand, that although, like our own fair islands of Great Britain, she may not boast her mines of gold and silver, she yet possesses ample stores of grain, wool, wood, coal, iron, copper, which Anglo-Saxon energy will soon apply to make her chief in wealth and power among the neighbouring states.

The following terse remarks by Mr. Matthew way not be out of place here:-- "Estimating the advantages of position, extent, climate, fertility, adaptation for trade--all the causes which have tended to render Britain the emporium of the world, we can observe only one other spot on the earth equally, if not more favoured by nature, and that is New Zealand. Serrated with harbours, securely insulated, having a climate temperated by surrounding ocean, of such extent and fertility as to support a population sufficiently numerous to defend its shores against any possible invading force, it, like Great Britain, also possesses a large neighbouring continent (Australia) from which it will draw resources, and to which it bears the relation of a rich homestead, with a vast extent of outfield pasturage. In these advantages it equals Britain, while it is superior to Britain in having the weather guage of an immense commercial field, --the rich islands of the Pacific, the gold and silver regions

[Image of page 4]

"of Western America, the vast accumulations of China and Japan --all within a few weeks' sail."

Now that the marvellous discoveries of Gold in Australia are attracting so much attention, a few passing remarks on the comparative advantages of Gold-Digging and Corn-Growing may not be amiss.

If there is any country the inhabitants of which will benefit by these discoveries, it is New Zealand.

Gold-digging in the wild barren districts of the mines is very hard work, exposure to weather, and other hardships experienced in it, ruin health, sometimes destroy life, after all there may be ill-luck and little or no gold found. Food, clothing, and other necessaries become enormously dear, owing chiefly to the neglected cultivation. Many accidents occur which temporarily stop mining, when great numbers have no employment and much distress is experienced, especially among newly arrived emigrants. By this time tens of thousands are on the gold fields, and the greatest prizes probably already secured; there will be concentrated in those regions the very worst characters that can disgrace humanity, the most lawless men of every nation, and it is to be feared there will be a renewal of the scenes of violence which have been witnessed already in California, notwithstanding any exertions of the Government, whose arm is comparatively powerless. In a word, the possession of gold mines has never yet improved the social or moral condition of a people and there is too much reason to believe that in Australia it will for some time to come upset the more useful forms of employment, ruin for a period the export of wool and other produce, and by destroying habits of steady industry among the population, prove a curse rather than a blessing to the Colony.

On the other hand, ---Farming in New Zealand is carried on in a most beautiful country, requires no excessive labour, involves no hardships, and is conducive to health and long life--beyond this, profit in the long run is certain. New Zealand is situated within a few days sail of the Gold Regions, but its inhabitants are too well aware of their present advantages to leave their occupations in any number to go gold digging; their surplus produce in corn and provisions will find a ready and profitable consumption among the Australian miners whose gold will thus find its way into the pocket of the farmer in New Zealand. And above all considerations of mere gain, it should be remembered that a contented population chiefly engaged in agriculture or pastoral pursuits is always the most moral, and therefore the most happy; it is thus in New Zealand, where fortunately no gold mines are yet known, where steady labour pursues the even tenor of its way, where the means of Education and Religion are easily attainable, and where, society is not at all inferior to that of many an English County. These are considerations which must weigh with every prudent man, especially if he have a family to care for. After all, Gold, or its equivalent, may be obtained in an easier, happier manner, by growing Corn, or rearing Sheep on the fertile lands of New Zealand, than by searching for it on the vaunted Gold Fields of California or Australia.

New Zealand may be said to offer advantages to almost every class of intending emigrants. Those who are in tolerable circumstances are recommended to peruse some of the excellent works, of which a list will be found at a subsequent page. It is hoped that this paper may be of use to emi-

[Image of page 5]

grants of more limited means--to small farmers, tradesmen, useful mechanics, labourers of all descriptions; --and to such, the following remarks from one of the works referred to, are more particularly addressed.

"To the labouring agriculturist or shepherd this colony presents unrivalled attractions. There is no winter to require housing of stock, or the collection of winter-food; no season in which verdure ceases to fatten cattle, or which stops the vegetation of crops; no day on which either cold, heat, or excessive drought interrupts out-door employment; and above all no diseases which weaken the constitution, or affect the pursuits of industry. The equability of the climate saves the wear and diminishes the requirements of clothing, and also prevents the weather from corroding houses, fences, and implements, or affecting the health of stock. The soil also is friable, requires little drainage, and facilitates road-making: while, combined with the climate, it yields successions of crops all the year round." 1

New Zealand is pre-eminently the poor man's country; witness tho following account of property accumulated by labouring men, according to Mr. Fox: 2 --

At Wellington, 40 labourers in 7 or 8 years were possessed of 464 acres, or 10 acres each of freehold land cleared; 207 acres, or 6 1/2 acres each of freehold land in crop; 255 cattle, or 5 cattle each.

At Nelson, 50 labourers had amassed 402 acres, or 8 each of freehold land in crop; 589 cattle, or 11 each; 606 sheep, or 12 each; besides goats and pigs.

At New Plymouth, Mr. Hursthouse instances 69 labourers having accumulated in the same period--642 acres, or 9 each, of freehold land in crop; 180 acres, or 3 each, of wild land; 97 cattle, 59 horses, and pigs and goats in proportion. 3

Besides Houses, Goods and Chattels, which are not enumerated.

This result had been obtained by men who on arrival in the colony had not £5. each on the average, and during a period nearly the half of which had been a season of great depression, if not of absolute distress, owing to political causes.

Labour is in great and increasing demand in all the settlements; a year or two of steady, not extraordinary exertion suffices to save sufficient wages to make a small purchase of land, when, as is shewn above, the attainment of a speedy comparative independence (such as to hope for in this country would be an idle dream) becomes in New Zealand a moral certainty.

The attention of philanthropists, of clergymen, and others interested in the welfare of the deserving poor in their respective parishes, is particularly directed to the good which may be effected by uniting the powers given to the guardians of the poor under the Act 12 & 13 Vict. c. 110. s. 20, with the charitable contributions of a few of the parishioners. The sum of £10. allowed by this Act from the poor rates, will defray nearly two-thirds 4 of the passage and outfit of an adult emigrant to any of the settlements in New Zealand, and the remainder could be met by the subscriptions of friends or of wealthy

[Image of page 6]

gentlemen of the parish. The emigrants should bind themselves to repay within a period of two years after arrival in the colony, at least the amount subscribed, together with 10 per cent for charges; and experience in other colonies less favourably circumstanced than New Zealand, has shewn that the greater part, if not the whole, would be recovered, and the fund would then be available for a similar purpose again. It is true the object of removing an expensive, because unemployed individual, by the parochial advance of £10. is equally gained by his passage to America, but it appears to me that this is not all which is to be aimed at. We have to look to the emigrant's own real benefit, and the future good his emigration may effect for ourselves. In the one case he is sent to a country the salubrity of which is in many places at least doubtful, and where whatever producing energy he may exert, goes to increase the wealth and power of a people who profess themselves our rivals in the race of nations. In the other, we send him to the finest climate in the world, where material prosperity is equally certain, and where we shall retain all the advantages of his skill and labour--in effect, but changing his locale from one county to another. These remarks contemplate the case of a willing labourer, having no means whatever of his own; but there must be many persons whom the assistance of £10. added to their own resources, would enable to emigrate, but who will otherwise in a few years probably lose even these small means, and become permanent burdens on their parishes.


New Zealand consists of three islands, called the Northern Island, the Middle, which would be more properly named the Southern Island, and Stewart's, sometimes called the South Island. They are situated in the Great Southern Ocean, nearly at our Antipodes on the opposite side of the globe to Great Britain, and contain about 80 millions of acres of land, being somewhat larger than England, Scotland, and Ireland together. New Zealand being in the Southern Hemisphere, the sun shines from the North instead of from the South, as in this country, while the northern parts of the islands are the warmest; and January becomes the hottest and July the coldest month of the year. In some parts vibrations or tremblings of the earth are occasionally experienced. The general aspect of the country is mountainous; but there are numerous extensive plains, and much cultivable hilly land, more especially in the Middle Island. The mountainous districts abound in forests of pine and other valuable timber, of immense size, while the hills and plains, where not covered with wood, produce fern of the largest growth, flax, and grass. The scenery is spoken of in almost rapturous terms by all lovers of the picturesque. The soil in many places is equal if not superior to any in the world for natural fertility, while the climate renders even the poorest land exceedingly productive. Water, and water-power, is most abundant all over New Zealand. Copper, lead, iron, coal, manganese, sulphur, &c. have been found, and promise considerable wealth when mining operations shall be more generally commenced. The coasts abound with fish of largo size and excellent quality, though the lakes and rivers as yet afford little beyond eels and a kind of trout of fine flavour. Birds are numerous--but wild ducks, pigeons, and green parrots only afford sport; several varieties

[Image of page 7]

of game have, however, been introduced. All the fruits, grain, and grasses grown in England, as well as the vine, olive, Indian corn, &c. of the South of Europe, potatoes and other roots, hops, flax, and vegetables of every description cultivated in this country attain extraordinary perfection in New Zealand. The fuchsia and myrtle are actually trees--all the native forest trees are evergreens, and large tracts are covered with an indigenous or wild kind of flax, used for rope, sacks, &c. and by the natives for making beautiful mats. Sheep and cattle, horses, pigs and other animals, poultry of all kinds, thrive and multiply exceedingly; the average yearly increase of sheep being reckoned at 90 per cent, or nearly double; the wool, when well cleaned, is nearly as valuable as that from Sydney or Port Phillip, while the weight of fleece is much greater. There are no beasts of prey in New Zealand (a few dogs running half wild and fast disappearing cannot be called such); nor is there anything in the shape of scorpion, snake, or venomous reptile; mosquitoes and sandflies in some districts are the chief insect annoyances. Convicts have never been sent to New Zealand.


The number of the natives, or, as they call themselves, the "Maori," has been variously estimated; perhaps the most correct is 120,000, nearly 100,000 dwelling in the North Island. They are generally a tall, strong, well-formed race, of olive complexion, brave, and possessed of great intelligence. Numerous trustworthy writers, among whom are the Bishop of New Zealand, Governors Fitzroy and Grey, bear testimony to the amiable character of the New Zealanders. Their former characteristics in war, are now rapidly disappearing, owing to the exertions of the Missionaries and their own advancement in civilization; and the outbreak against the British Government a few years since (not an outbreak partaking in the remotest degree of the character of a "war of races," but simply a political quarrel provoked by the gross mismanagement of the Land question), abundantly proved that, from bloodthirsty and revengeful, they could become merciful, and even generous, enemies. "The Maori character, presents many contrarieties; honest and trustworthy, true to the letter and spirit of their plighted faith, many of them are given to lying from the mere habit of freely indulging in the vagaries of a romantic imagination. Shrewd traders, and well aware of the value of money, they are naturally generous to their relatives or friends." 5 They are exceedingly desirous of acquiring European knowledge and comforts, and are rapidly advancing in wealth, being owners of coasting vessels, mills, horses, cattle, pigs, &c. chiefly gained by their own exertions and industry. Governor Grey, in August, 1840, writes, 6 that in a very limited district six water mills had recently been erected at a cost of about £1200, and that nine other mills were in course of construction at am estimated cost of about £1700; adding, "that it should be borne in mind that the erection of these mills evidences a total change in the habits and in the mode of agriculture of the people, as also (which is not the least important circumstance) a complete change in the articles on which they subsist; and when it is borne in mind that similar changes are taking place

[Image of page 8]

"in other parts of the islands, it must be admitted that they hold out most encouraging hopes for the future tranquillity and prosperity of the country."

Mr. Shorthand, a recent writer, 7 long intimately acquainted with the native character, says: "The natives of New Zealand differ essentially from those of all other of our Australian Colonies. They are comparatively more numerous; they are given to agricultural pursuits; and have been found to learn and readily adopt the more civilized practices of Europeans; at the name time that their bodily and mental organization is generally considered not inferior to our own. These advantages, added to their natural bravery and love of freedom, constitute them a class who must always have a political weight in their own country." It is pleasing to find that this gentleman who, from his position, must have had every opportunity of forming a correct judgment, combats the opinion that this interesting people are gradually dying away. In pages 11, 60, and 186 of Mr. Hursthouse's work, abundant evidence is afforded of their great and increasing value as labourers, as producers of food and raw produce, and consumers of British manufactures. 8


There can be no doubt that New Zealand has abundance of land, at least equal, if not superior in fertility to that of any other of our colonies, or of the United States, and that it has equally good markets for its produce; whilst, in other respects, it possesses advantages rendering it superior to them all. For instance, in New Zealand the winter is mild, and scarcely distinguishable from the other seasons, instead of being along six months of frost and snow, as in Canada or the United States. There are no beasts of prey, no cobra di capellas, or poisonous snakes, no murderous Caffres as at the Cape or Natal, and there are no droughts or devastating bush fires, such as occur in Australian colonies. In New Zealand, too, Convictism has not spread its moral blight as in Van Diemen's Land or New South Wales, But in balancing the advantages of different fields for emigration, the consideration which, with every prudent man should outweigh all others, is undoubtedly the climate; and Mr. Hursthouse--a gentleman who, from actual personal experience of the Canadas, United States, South Africa, and New South Walts, is qualified to judge--says, "Whatever may be the relative advantages of New Zealand in other respects, it is undeniably true that, as regards climate, it is without a rival. Here it is as superior to Australia as that country may be to Canada or the United States; for although Australia may be said to possess a fine climate, blighting hot winds and severe droughts are everywhere experienced; the summer heats are everywhere excessive: and this, if not the cause of disease, would nevertheless prevent the enjoyment of that robust health experienced in New Zealand, where it may be said that Europeans would be more capable of

[Image of page 9]

"performing hard labour with comparative case than in any part of the world."

The following Table, compiled from official returns, will shew that the climate of New Zealand is more equable than that of Great Britain, being neither so cold in winter nor so hot in summer. Some districts are more subject to rain than others; but although on the whole more rain falls, there are not so many wet days in New Zealand as in this country. The only inconvenience of the climate appears to be the prevalence of too much wind to be agreeable; not that it blows harder than it blows on the English coast at times, but that it blows hard oftener."

Comparative Table of the Temperature of Settlements in New Zealand with London and Madeira.

Comparative Table of the Temperature of Settlements in New Zealand with London and Madeira.

The following Tables are taken from an able report 9 on the climate of New Zealand to the Governor-in-Chief by Dr. Thomson, in charge of the Principal Medical Officers' Department, in October, 1850, showing the TOTAL NUMBER OF ADMISSIONS INTO HOSPITAL, AND DEATHS IN 1870 Troops quartered in New Zealand during two years, from April 1, 1848, to March 81, 1800, at the following Stations:--


[Image of page 10]

This proves that the number of persons attacked with sickness in New Zealand is about one-half less, than what takes place in Great Britain, while the deaths are only 8.7 per 1000 in New Zealand to 14 per 1000 in Great Britain, the comparison holding equally favourable in regard to our other southern colonies.

The following Table shews how singularly exempt from pectoral diseases New Zealand is, and sufficiently accounts for its rising reputation for the cure or alleviation of consumption. Families are actually leaving Madeira to settle in New Zealand, solely for the sake of the climate.

Table shewing the ratio of Admissions and Deaths from pectoral disease, among 1000 Troops quartered in different colonies:--


Annual Ratio of Mortality from all discuses.

Number of Men attacked annually.

Average Number of Deaths during a year, from Pectoral Diseases.





Cape of Good Hope




United Kingdom








New Zealand

8 1/4



"The conclusions arrived at," remarks Dr. Thomson, "cannot fail of proving very satisfactory to those who have already fixed their residence here; but the results may also induce others to select New Zealand as their adopted country, when they find, in addition to a fertile soil, that the island is as healthy as Madeira; and that the climate is found occasionally to check, and without doubt to diminish, the frequency of pectoral consumption--a malady so prevalent and fatal among all classes of persons in Great Britain."


Europeans have now located themselves on numerous parts of the coasts of New Zealand, but the chief Settlements which vessels direct from this country visit at present are the following, the situation of which will be easily recognised on the map:


On the Middle Island--NELSON, CANTERBURY, OTAGO.


The capital, on the North-eastern coast of the Northern Island, has an excellent harbour, and possesses great advantages of situation from the facility of water communication with large tracts of fine country to the North and South. 10 " Auckland is admirably fitted for the residence of a maritime nation. Almost every settler has the sea brought conveniently to his door, or at least close to him by one or other of those long fingers of the great estuaries which almost insulate the town and its suburban

[Image of page 11]

district." 11 It has a considerable extent of cultivable land in its immediate vicinity, 12 though some portion is said to be poor, 13 from being covered with scoria; however, the average of crops of grain and potatoes are stated by the Agricultural Society of Auckland to be:--Potatoes, 6 tons; wheat, 30 bushels; oats, 40 bushels; barley, 30 bushels; clover, 1 1/2 tons hay per acre. "These averages are for land on which manure has not been used," This will shew the New Zealand idea as to what constitutes "poor land." There are also within easy distance large quantities of land, such as the valleys of the Thames and Piako, the Waikato and Waipa, the Wairoa, &c. well suited for agriculture, grazing, and sheep-farming, besides which it possesses the more peculiar advantage of immediate proximity to extensive accessible forests of Kauri pine and other timber valuable for ship-building, and mines of copper, manganese, &c. Auckland is a place of considerable trade, both from being the principal station for the troops and pensioners, and from its proximity to the Natives who are nearly all congregated in the northern portion of the island. It boasts some good streets and shops; among the public buildings are St. Paul's Church, chapels of the Dissenters and Roman Catholics, barracks, a bank, Mechanic's Institute, museum, lecture-room and library, theatre, &c. There are several good hotels: and two very creditable newspapers are established, the advertisements in which shew to be in active operation an Agricultural Society, Masonic Lodges, it Jockey Club, races, and other amusements, with a proposed Yacht Club, proving that the settlers do not forget to enjoy themselves. About four miles from the city is St. John's College, founded by the Bishop for the educational and religious training of the Colonial youth. The European population, exclusive of troops, in Auckland and its surrounding district, cannot now be far short of 10, 000. The settlements of Europeans, which may be said to communicate with Auckland, are Kororarika or Russell, in the Bay of Islands, about 100 miles to the North, the first place in New Zealand settled by the British, Hokianga and Kiapara on the North-West coast, whence the chief export of Kauri timber is made, and other stations, both on the coast and inland, maintained by the Missionaries.

Since the above was written I have been put in possession of an Auckland newispaper, The Southern Cross, of the 3rd October, 1851, from which I extract the following spirited and hopeful article:--

"Let any one compare the present aspect of the country round Auckland with that which it displayed but three years since, let him traverse the district in any direction, and he will be sure to discover an immense amount of beautiful and beneficial conversion. The hedger and ditcher has been untiring in the labours of enclosing. The scythe has been as active in sweeping off the fern and the tea-tree, as the husbandman has been indefatigable in turning over the wheat and the barley crop, the oat or the potato field, the orchard or the meadow close. Saunter along whatever rural or suburban road the traveller may, he will find the natural aspect of the sullen waste giving place to the bright and profitable hues of active cultivation. Three years since, from Mount Eden to Mount Albert, the country was nearly one desolate looking muirland, --contemplate it now, and it will be found largely interspersed with extensive fields of emerald pastures, or brown with furrows ridged up for early croppings. Every day the land is being extensively and skilfully reclaimed. It has been purchased at enormous prices, and the proprietors cannot afford to sink their capital

[Image of page 12]

on an unproductive soil. Industry is everywhere on the alert; and although, of course, that portion of the country under our own immediate observation naturally excites our first attention, still we have been most satisfactorily assured that the progress of agriculture is as remarkable throughout the rural as it is striking in the metropolitan district of New Ulster. These are cheerful and cheering facts, and as they are patent to every one who has made a circuit of a dozen miles round Auckland, we advert to them with equal confidence and pleasure; especially as we can remember Hobart Town at the close of its twenty-fifth year, with not one twentieth part of that cultivation which, even now, adorns and enriches Auckland, and which will, ere long, render her the most beautiful of colonial cities.

"It has been the custom to decry the clayey soil in our neighbourhood, as poor and barren. Experience has shewn this to he a mistake, inasmuch as careful ploughing, exposure to the atmosphere, and skilful husbandry, have sufficed to render it extremely productive. The clay is far from tenacious; on the contrary, so friable is it that it requires but the rays of a summer's sun to decompose and fertilize it. Indeed, in the most uninviting allotments, by the simple operation of trenching, the most satisfactory results have been obtained.

"We cannot allude to this striking advance in the reclaiming and embellishing of the suburbs of Auckland, without a passing notice of the improvements being made by his Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor. One of the most ornamental, as well as profitable of these, will be the clearing of the grounds of Auckland Park, the brown and barren condition of which has long been a public eye-sore. This is now under process of being reclaimed, and instead of a wilderness of rude and russet fern, the eye will shortly dwell on lively slopes of rich nutritious pastures.

"This is as it should be; first appearances are of great weight to the eyes and imaginations of undecided colonists, and the more extensively Auckland can be stripped of her fern-coloured mantle, and invested with the emerald robe she so readily assumes, and which so well becomes her, the more forcibly will strangers be impressed with the geniality and fertility of her soil. Of its inherent riches, and their bountiful development, we entertain no question. And those of our fellow-Cttizens who may be disposed to dwell too gloomily on the seductions of the Australian diggings, would do well to remember that gold, like water, is ever sure to find its level. A temporary pressure we may experience; but if our present monstrous land restrictions were once and for ever set aside, a rich and rapid reaction would inevitably ensue--for no extensive tide of population could then set in towards this quarter of the world without New Zealand acquiring a fair and reasonable share; and no considerable demand for agricultural produce could arise without New Zealand being compelled to assert her easy title to be regarded as the Granary of the Southern Ocean."


about 120 miles to the south of Auckland, on the West coast, does not possess a harbour, ships being obliged to ride in an open but very safe roadstead; it is amply compensated for this want, however, by the extraordinary fertility of its soil, which has gained for it the name of the "Garden of New Zealand." Moreover, on the acquisition of a beautiful portion of the district called the Waitera, a snug river-harbour for coasters and small vessels will be obtained. All accounts concur in praising its agricultural capabilities and beautiful scenery. "No one can speak of the soil or scenery of New Zealand, till he has seen both the natural beauties and the ripening harvests of Taranaki (New Plymouth)." 14 "I have

[Image of page 13]

never in any part of the world seen such extensive tracts of fertile and unoccupied land as at Taranaki." 15 The town, or rather village, slopes upwards from the sea beach, and with its neat white houses, contiguous cultivations, green forests and background of wooded hills, crowned by the snow-capped cone of Mount Egmont, presents a pleasing prospect. It has a substantial granite-built church, besides Dissenting chapels, an hospital, two taverns, a library and Literary Institution, &c. The country around is undulating, broken, and interspersed with dells, which vary in size from half an acre to two or three acres, are densely wooded, and generally contain a small but unfailing spring of fresh water. The intrinsic merits of this settlement are now forcing it into considerable prominence --its English population, of about 2000, is fast increasing--and there is probably no little community in the world where the prosperity and well-being of the people is of a more real and substantial character. It would certainly appear to be the best settlement for those who intend devoting their attention entirely to agriculture, and to such I cannot too strongly recommend the perusal of Mr. Hursthouse's excellent little volume.


is the residence of the Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand, and the seat of Government of the Southern Province. It is situated in the beautiful landlocked Harbour of Port Nicholson, on the southern extremity of the North Island, in Cook's Strait. The country immediately around it is hilly and thickly timbered, but there is exceedingly fertile land in the Valley of the Hutt, across the harbour. The formation of some excellent roads have recently opened up many good agricultural sections within moderate distance of the town, and have brought it into easier communication with extensive plains and downs of fine grassy land, such as the Wairarapa and and the Waikanai districts, capable of carrying large quantities of sheep and cattle. 16 Its fine harbour and central position have made it the outlet for shipment of produce from a large extent of country, and from the Shore Whale Fishery, &c. as well as the depot for goods in return; and being situated almost directly in the track of vessels homeward-bound from the Australian Colonics, ships requiring repairs, provisions, &c., frequently put into the Port. Wellington has thus become a place of much commercial importance, its trade being nearly, if not quite, equal to that of Auckland, The town is very picturesquely situated on two level spaces on the west and south sides of Lambton Harbour. It has a Government House, church, chapels for Wesleyans and Roman Catholics, hospital, Custom House, Exchange, bank, &c. besides many well-built houses and stores, good hotels, a wharf and jetties for landing goods. It supports two newspapers, which notice the races, Masonic Clubs, theatrical and other entertainments, the Horticultural Society, &c. The neighbouring European settlements are the Manawatu and Wanganui or Petre, between Wellington and New Plymouth. The European population of the district may he estimated at about 8000.

[Image of page 14]


lies at the bottom of Blind Bay, on the north-west corner of the Middle Island, or on the opposite side of Cook's Strait, and to the westward of Wellington. It has a good anchorage and harbour, and has some fine land surrounding the town. The settlement includes a neighbouring district called the Wairau, having much good agricultural land, and excellent sheep and cattle runs. Hitherto Nelson has produced by far the greater portion of the wool exported from all the settlements. Mr. Fox 17 adduces Nelson as one of the best examples of an entirely self-supporting self-relying colony in the history of British colonization. The population may be between 3,000 and 4,000. The climate of Nelson is thought to be well suited for invalids, being perhaps better sheltered from the high winds prevalent on other parts of the New Zealand coast. "No one knows what the climate (of New Zealand) is, till he has basked in the almost perpetual sunshine of Tasman's Gulf, with a frame braced and invigorated to the full enjoyment of heat, by the wholesome frost or cool snowy breeze of the night before." 18

The above may be called the older settlements, having all been founded from eight to ten years.


is the youngest of the settlements founded by the New Zealand Company, operations having been commenced in 1849. It is situated on the east coast of the Middle Island, about 200 miles to the south of Wellington. It is said to have a good harbour, and very extensive plains of fine pasturage land, but there is a deficiency of timber. 19 The whole management of the settlement is controlled by the Canterbury Association, who have issued many cheap publications on the capabilities of the country and the plan of its colonization; the chief peculiarity of which consists in charging a present high price for land, and affording proportionate advantages in supplying religious and educational institutions according to the principles of the Church of England, roads, emigration or labour, &c. See "Land." Notwithstanding its youth, the settlement must already contain about 3,000 souls, as large numbers have been sent out by the Association during the last two years. It is feared by many persons that the plan which the Association has adopted of charging so high a price for land, cannot be fully carried, out, and probably ere long will be much modified.


was founded by the New Zealand Company, about two years previous to Canterbury; it is situated about 250 miles to the south, on the same coast. It has an excellent harbour for vessels of considerable tonnage, and the scenery is said to be very beautiful. The settlement comprises, and has in its vicinity, perhaps the most extensive plains and downs, suitable for sheep runs, of any district in New Zealand, 20 besides "much rich alluvial land, in which the production of corn and cattle could be carried on very easily, and to an almost unlimited extent." Like Canterbury, this colony

[Image of page 15]


[Image of page 16]







" " "



" " "



" " "



" " "







" " "



" " "

New Plymouth


" " "



" " "





sq. miles.


Northern Island


or 31,174,100

Middle Island


or 46,126,080

Stewart's Island


or 1,152,000


or 78,452,480


sq. miles.


England and Wales


or 36,909,680



or 18,944,000



or 20,808,320


or 76,752,000

[Map extends across page 16 and 17.]

[Image of page 18]

is sometimes called a class settlement; it is under the management of a body of gentlemen called the Otago Association, in Edinburgh, and is conducted on a similar plan, except that the price of land is not so high, and that the form of religion supported is that of the Free Church of Scotland. This settlement has not been quite so powerfully aided as that of Canterbury; and though older, its population does not yet exceed 2,000. But it seems to be making very satisfactory progress, and, from the proverbial character of the Scotch as persevering colonists, it will doubtless continue to prosper. The report of gold having been found in this district has been officially contradicted.


Many objections have been raised to emigration to New Zealand on the score of the high price of Land, and the difficulty of obtaining any with good titles, and at one time with some reason; circumstances are now, however, changing. Although the lowest upset price of Crown lands is £l, per acre, there is plenty of excellent land with undoubted titles, suitable for agriculture or pastoral purposes, as well as for town sites, to be purchased from private individuals in all the settlements, at prices generally more moderate, but of course, varying according to situation, quality, and other circumstances. Except in Otago and Canterbury, all uncleared and previously unsold lands, called Crown lands, are in the disposal of Government; but as all the settlements are not in exactly similar positions in respect to upset price and other conditions, a few remarks are offered on the peculiarities of each, as far as can be ascertained in this country at the present time.

IN AUCKLAND DISTRICT. --All Crown lands (or lands acquired from the natives by the Government), must have been exposed at least once to public auction; the lowest upset price is £1. per acre; the lands distinguished into Town, Suburban, and Country lots. Town and Suburban lots sold only by public auction; but country lots which may have been already put up to auction and not sold, may be afterwards disposed of by private contract at the upset price. When land is bought in this country the purchaser has the following additional privilege. For every £100 deposited with the Colonial Land and Emigration Commissioners, he will be entitled to nominate, within six months, five persons (not being the purchaser or his family), who must be mechanics or labourers, and approved by the Commissioners, for free steerage passages to the colony, as well as 100 acres of land, such land having been, as already mentioned, previously put up to auction and not sold. In this case, the land must be selected within twelve months from date of the deposit. 21 The privilege thus obtained may be of importance to some persons; but to those who may prefer keeping their funds until arrival in the colony, it may be interesting to know that late advices from Auckland state that small partially cleared farms, with buildings and improvements, and good titles, are frequently to be bought at less than £1. per acre from private parties, a few miles from the town.

[Image of page 19]

IN WELLINGTON, NELSON, AND NEW PLYMOUTH DISTRICTS, land is disposed of at the price of £12. 10s. per town allotment of a quarter acre, and £50. per rural allotment of 25 acres, or £2. per acre; for suburban allotments, the price will be stated as they are laid out by the officers in the colony. Deposits in sums of the above amounts (except for the settlement of New Plymouth, where at present no public land is available for purchasers in this country), can be made to the Colonial Land and Emigration Commissioners. 22 A purchaser thus paying in the United Kingdom will be entitled, at any time within twelve months from the date of making the payment, to receive 3s. 4d. in £1, or 16 2/3 per cent (1-6th) thereof towards defraying the expense actually and reasonably incurred for the passage of himself and his family to either of these settlements at rates approved of by the Commissioners. He will also be entitled to nominate labourers, to be approved by the Commissioners, whose passage will be defrayed to the extent of the following proportions of the purchase money, viz.--

For the settlement of Wellington, 11s. 8d. in £1., or 58 1/2 per cent.
" " " " Nelson, 6s. 8d., " 33 1/2 " "

The settlement must be named at the time of making the deposit, and the labourers nominated and approved within twelve months thereafter, and go by ships approved by the Commissioners. At Wellington, recent letters state that fair land is to be bought at 7s. 6d. per acre from private parties.

In Otago, the price of land is also £12. 10s. per town allotment of a quarter acre; £30. per suburban allotment of 10 acres; and £50. per rural allotment of 25 acres; the treaty for purchase being made through the Otago Association or its agents, instead of the Commissioners. Holders of 20 acres Suburban, or 25 acres Rural Land, are entitled to Pasturage Licenses for twelve months, under arrangements agreed to by an annual meeting of the voters. Land in this settlement can also be bought in the colony of the Association's agent, but when bought in this country, 7s. 6d. in £l., or 37 1/2 per cent of the purchase-money, will be allowed towards the passage of the purchaser and his family, or of labourers nominated by him, and approved by the Association, in certain proportions. 23 If intending to be labourers themselves, and not hirers of labour, the purchasers will be allowed the whole 37 1/2 per cent. towards their own passage.

IN CANTERBURY, all rural land is sold at £3. per acre. Town allotments in the capital of half an acre at £24; in the Port Town, of a quarter acre at £12., to be first put up at auction. Land unsold to be let on pasturage license at 20s. per annum for every 100 acres. Certain privileges as to pasturage licenses and rights of purchase are also granted to purchasers of rural land. One-third part of the purchase-money, or 33 1/3 percent applied to an Emigration Fund; and every purchaser is entitled to recommend emigrants, subject to approval, in proportion to the amount of his contribution to this emigration fund; but only 10s. per acre allowed towards the passage of the purchaser and his family. Applications for purchase of rural land must be made at the Office of the Canterbury Association, Adelphi Terrace, London.

[Image of page 20]

It should be observed, that in paying the purchase-money in this country, it is not any specified piece of land which is bought, but the right to choose from all surveyed and previously unsold land in the Settlement, within a certain period, and under certain conditions. Unfortunately, the adoption of so many different plans for the Sale of Land in New Zealand, causes much difficulty in fully understanding the question; and it is doubtful whether it is prudent to purchase land at all, until arrival in the Colony: but as the allowance for Passage is lost, if the land be not bought here, it appears advisable to state these particulars.

It must also be observed, for the information of those who may not have Capital enough to purchase Land at once, that in all the Settlements, it is easy to "rent" land for a given period at a low rate, perhaps 2s. 6d. per acre per annum in good situations. The agreement should always contain a clause, giving the right to purchase the Land, on the expiry of the term, at a certain specified sum, which secures to the Tenant the benefit of his improvements. A steady, industrious man, can always make certain of being able to pay the purchase-money at the expiry of the term; and it is probable that, with a limited sum at his command, he would do better to rent rather than purchase land at first, as sheep or cattle generally return a larger and speedier profit than Land, which requires some time to bring into cultivation.

On arriving in the Colony, the best plan would be to apply at the proper Government Office for full information as to the regulations which may then be in force for the sale of Government Lands; then, if no payment has been previously made in this country on account of Land, to search the Local Papers for all advertisements of Lands for sale, and thus gain particulars from the auctioneers and agents. It would be well for the emigrant intending to purchase and settle at once on his land, to arrange for his family lodging in the town for a few weeks while he thoroughly acquaints himself with the merits of such sections as may be open for purchase; and by no means to buy land hastily, far less unseen.

The following are the regulations as to Pasture and Timber Licenses in New Zealand; but they apply, it is believed, more particularly to the Northern Province:--


Pasture Licenses. --Pasture Licenses for 14 years, transferable with the consent of the Government, can be obtained for runs on the unoccupied portions of Crown Lands beyond the boundaries of proclaimed hundreds, on lodging with the Commissioner of the District a description of the run. The application, if no objection exists to it, will then be advertised, and cannot be disputed by individuals after three months.

The size of the run is to be determined by the number of sheep or great cattle with which it is to be stocked, reckoning six sheep as one head of cattle; but no run will be granted capable of carrying more than 25,000 sheep.

For each license an annual fee of at least £5. be paid, with a further annual assessment of £1. for every 1,000 sheep above 5,000 which the run shall be estimated as capable of carrying.

Licencees may purchase not exceeding 80 acres for homesteads on their runs; and provision is made for securing to the licencee the value of the improvements on his homestead, in case it becomes necessary to sell it.

Timber Licenses. --Annual Licenses to cut timber on waste lands of the Crown, not reserved for public use, will be granted on payment of a fee of £5. The extent of

[Image of page 21]

land to be covered by the license is to be determined by the Commissioner of Crown Lands.

Note. --Naval and Military officers purchasing land in the northern province, i. e. at Auckland or New Plymouth, are allowed a remission of the purchase-money, according to the following scale:--

Field officers of 25 years' service and upwards, in all


" " 20 " " " " " "


" " 15 " " " " " "


Captains of 20 years' service and upwards


" " 15 " " " " " "


Subalterns of 20 " and upwards, " "


" " 7 " " " " "



The cost of clearing entirely depends upon the nature of the land and its situation; in some parts of New Zealand the land may be said to be ready for the plough, and of course the mere breaking up is trifling, but the greater portion is covered either with fern, flax, or timber. The cost of thoroughly clearing fern or flax land, varies from 20s. up to £2. per acre, while timber, or as it is called bush land, may require from £3. to £5. per acre, and even £10.; but it is then more immediately and abundantly productive, and frequently the timber cut down goes towards reducing the expense. Mr. Hursthouse has some very useful remarks on this subject at pp 80 to 90. The labouring man, however, would expend but little money on this operation; for, after the first few acres, he would find the strength of his own arms the most profitable way of reclaiming the wilderness, reserving his capital to stock his little farm.

A cottage of rushes or raupo, built by the natives (which can be made very comfortable), costs £6 to £10; if of timber, £20 to £40; and at Auckland, if of scoria or brick, £30 to £50. 24

The productiveness of the soil in New Zealand is a subject not easy to he fully treated within the limits of such a paper as this. It of course varies according to circumstances of locality, &c. and much appears to be owing to the benign influence of the climate upon vegetation. Taking wheat as the standard, 24 bushels seem to be the very lowest average given by any of the settlements; the average fertility of wheat land in Great Britain is estimated at 21 bushels, the same us this, but under much superior husbandly to what has yet been followed in New Zealand. And in Canada, celebrated as a wheat growing country, the average yield is stated as from 20 to 25 bushels per acre. Well authenticated accounts are given of such extraordinary returns in New Zealand as 60 bushels to the acre where manure had never been used; some 35 acres of grass and clover carrying 300 sheep for a twelvemonth in excellent condition; flax and even fern land when properly worked are stated to yield as much as 40 or 45 bushels per acre, and this for three or four crops in succession. It seems certain that if a better system of agriculture were adopted, avoiding exhaustion of the land, that the produce of the soil in New Zealand would far exceed that of the most highly cultivated farms in this country.

[Image of page 22]


The rate of wages may be said to average about the same in all the settlements. For domestic servants (much wanted) in Auckland or Wellington, as much as from 20l. to 35l. per annum are given to men, and from 15l. to 30l. per annum to women. Agricultural labourers get from 30l. to 50l. per annum, or from 2s. 6d. to 4s. per day, according to skill; and mechanics, from 5s. to 7s. 6d. per day, of eight hours. 25 The Natives generally work by contract for day labour--their wages are about. 1s. 6d.; but European labourers are always preferred. Provisions have hitherto been nearly the same, or perhaps rather cheaper than in England; but, as the labouring man has generally a little land in cultivation, he can raise for his own consumption vegetables, poultry, eggs, pigs, &c.; and is comparatively independent of prices, except in selling his surplus produce and then the higher prices are the better for him.

A considerable source of profit is open to the labouring man in New Zealand in the facility that exists for keeping a few cows, sheep, goats, pigs, &c. --the wild land affords abundant pasturage for them at no expense, and, except tending them, which can bo done by the elder children, they require little or no care.


The first question usually put by persons inquiring about New Zealand is, what Book can be most recommended? It is not easy to answer this question, if it include the Settlements generally; for, although there are many excellent Works, and perhaps there is no Colony on which so much has been written as New Zealand, they are nearly all more or less devoted to one or other of the Six Settlements. The following list, however, may be some guide:--

The following are by persons interested in the Auckland District, and refer more particularly to the Northern Province.

Brown's New Zealand. Smith, Elder, & Co, 1845. 8s.
Dr. Martin's Letters. Smith, Elder, & Co. 1845. 8s.
Brodie's Letters. Smith, Elder, & Co. 1845. 6s. 6d.

The most recent account of Auckland will be found in M. Martin's general account of New Zealand, mentioned hereafter.

On the Southern Settlements, viz. Wellington, Nelson, &c. only.

The Emigrant's Guide to Near Zealand. Orr & Co. 1848. 6d.
Petre's New Zealand Company's Settlements. Smith, Elder, & Co. 1848. 3d.
Hursthouse's New Plymouth, 3rd Ed. Trelawny Saunders, Charing Cross. 1851. 2s.

It has an excellent description of New Zealand generally, and contains an article on the Canterbury Settlement, but is written more expressly on New Plymouth. It may also be obtained of the Author, Mr. Hursthouse, 14, Thavies Inn, London, who, I believe, will answer enquiries from labouring men respecting New Plymouth, gratuitously.

[Image of page 23]

Earp's Hand Book to New Zealand; W. 8. Orr, & Co. Third Edition. 1851, 2s. 6d.
Earp's Hand Book, and Hursthouse's New Plymouth, contain much excellent advice and information for Emigrants generally, and are very impartially written, trustworthy, little works.

Notes on New Zealand. Stuart and Murray, 1s.
A collection of Extracts from Settlers' Letters.

Taranaki; or, New Plymouth, the Garden of New Zealand. Price 3d. Saunders, Charing Cross.

Canterbury Papers. Parker, West Strand, Nos. 1 to 10. 1851, 6d. each. No. 11 containing 4 prints, 1s. 6d.
Circulated by the Canterbury Association, solely with reference to their Settlement.

Otago Settlement, Nos. 1 to 7. Johnstone & Hunter, Princes St. Edinb. Jas. Nisbet & Co., Berners St., London. 1848 to 1851 2d. each.
Circulated by the Otago Association, solely with reference to their own Settlement.

The following professedly treat of all the Settlements:

Montgomery Martin, British Colonies -- New Zealand. J. Tallis. 1851. 7s. 6d.
Fox's Six Settlements of New Zealand. Parker, West Strand. 1851. 3s --With a Map, 4s. 6d.
These two works partake more of a political character than the rest. --Mr. Martin advocating the proceedings of the Colonial Office, and reprobating those of the late New Zealand Company. Mr. Fox, recently an Officer of the Company, and long connected with the Southern Settlements, taking an entirely opposite view of the case.

Chambers' Manual--New Zealand. Chambers. Edinb. 1851. 1s.
I would strongly recommend the perusal of this little book to any person who may not be quite convinced of the advantages of New Zealand as a British Colony. The well-known character of the Messrs. Chambers and the caution and impartiality of their published opinions on the subject of Emigration more especially, ought to have some weight.

Sidney Smith's Whether to Go, and Whither. Orr & Co. 1849. 1s.

Hand Book by a late Magistrate. Parker. 1848. 7s.
A very full and useful work, and worthy the attention of persons going out with Capital. It appears, however, to have been written by a Gentleman more immediately connected with the Southern Settlements.

F. A. Weld on Sheep Farming in New Zealand. Parker, West Strand, 1851. 2d.
An excellent little Pamphlet, which should be purchased by all who intend turning their attention to this pursuit.

Colonisation Circular. 1862, Price. 3d.
Issued by the Colonial Land and Emigration Commissioners. --A little pamphlet containing much useful information respecting our Colonies generally.

All these works, as well as views of Wellington, Port Nicholson, Nelson, and Otago, costing about 2s 6d each, giving a very good idea of New Zealand scenery, are kept for sale by the publisher of this paper, and may be obtained by order of any bookseller.

There are various other works, generally too expensive and not of sufficiently recent date for the class of readers now contemplated.


On this point it is seldom easy to advise. There are, however, some peculiarities about each settlement which may perhaps decide those who may have been bred to, or have a predilection for, any particular pursuit. Thus,

[Image of page 24]

mechanics, storekeepers, shipwrights, sawyers, and others, whose intended occupation is more dependent upon trade, shipbuilding, &c, might choose Auckland or Wellington. Miners, masons, brickmakers, and the like, might do better at Auckland; and shepherds, stock-keepers, and persons accustomed to sheep and cattle, are perhaps more required at Wellington, Nelson, and the other southern ports; while ploughmen and agricultural labourers generally, are sure of employment in any of the settlements. In most cases, if a friend or connection be already located in one of the settlements, the advantage of having his experience and advice will be sufficient to decide the choice. These remarks are simply intended to give a very general idea, and to return the best answer in my power at present, on a point of great interest to the parties inquiring. A steady, industrious man, willing to turn his hand to anything, cannot fail to do well in any of the settlements.


The duration of the voyage to New Zealand is usually from 100 to 120 days; and though the spring and summer are generally preferred for leaving this country, it can scarcely be said that one season of the year is better than another for starting. The cost of passage is from 15 guineas to £22, in the second and third class accommodation, which is about the same as that to Australia. This sum takes the emigrant to within 10 or 15 miles of what will be his farm, instead of there being a long and expensive journey of some 2000 miles up the country to perform after leaving the ship as in America. Those who have made both voyages generally much prefer for safety and comfort the New Zealand voyage; as in that across the Atlantic, especially in the spring months which are the most convenient for the start to America, the weather is almost always very severe. A succession of fine vessels, especially intended for passengers, leave London for the settlements in the North and South at intervals of about six weeks, of which particulars can be gained from my firm of Henry H. Willis and Co., No. 3, Crosby-square, Bishopsgate-street; and a fine Vessel is also dispatched at intervals for Port Lyttelton, Canterbury settlement, under the auspices of the Canterbury Association, Adelphi-terrace; besides occasional ships by other parties in London, notice of which is always given in the Times, the Australian, and New Zealand Gazette, the New Zealand Journal, and other papers, The rates of passage invariably include a sufficiency of provisions, though of course some scales of dietary are less than others; but having judged for himself in this particular, and taken his passage, the emigrant labouring man need give himself no further trouble on the point, unless he wish to provide a few extra comforts for his family beyond the dietary scale; then such things as a few tins of preserved milk, some jams, sago or arrow root for the children, a cheese, a jar or two of butter, &c, are the most likely to be useful. He should avoid taking any lumbering useless furniture or goods, but pack up in handy boxes about 3 feet by 18 inches, well secured, all useful small household things, such as cups, plates, a few kitchen utensils and the like, also as many useful books as possible, some of them to be accessible during the voyage. All the packages should be distinctly marked in paint with the name and destination of the passenger, the ship he is going by, and

[Image of page 25]

whether "wanted on the voyage," or not. Women should provide themselves, if they can, with materials for making up articles of apparel, and shoemakers, tailors, and others, with the articles required in their trades, that they may be able to employ usefully the spare time they will have on the voyage.

When the emigrant resides at a distance from Loudon, he should endeavour to get some friend to look over the vessel, and make enquiries for him before he takes his passage. It is wise to communicate with the agent of the vessel by which he is going, a few days before the advertised date of sailing, to know the proper day for his coming to London to embark; this, as ships do not always sail exactly on the day intended, will frequently save him some expense. When he has more luggage than he can bring with him, he should also request the agent or his friend in London to take charge of and ship it for him; the cost of shipping luggage in the docks is about 1s. per package.


This must, of course, very much depend upon the emigrant's means and the stock of clothing, &c. &c. he may already possess. The following is the smallest stock with which he can embark:--

Two Blankets

Six Towels

A Tin or Pewter Plate

Six Sheets

Three lbs. Soap

A Spoon

A Coverlet

Knife and Fork

A Drinking Mug




Six Shirts

Two complete Suits of exterior Clothing

Six Shifts

Two pair Shoes

Six pair Stockings

Two Flannel Petticoats

Two Gowns

Two pair Shoes

Six pair Stockings

This clothing, however, is by no means sufficient to secure comfort; and the following assortment is the least which ought to be taken; it can be procured for about £4.:--



2 Jackets.

1 Cap and Weather Hat

2 Dresses

6 Handkerchiefs

2 Waistcoats

6 Chemises

6 Caps

2 pair Trowsers

1 Hair Brush and Comb

2 Sleeping Jackets

16 Towels

1 Duck Frock

1 Flannel Petticoat

2 Sheets, 1 Counterpan, Blanket and Bed

12 Shirts

1 Razor and Strop,

I Cotton ditto

12 pair Stockings

Box and Glass.

1 pair Stays

8 Handkerchiefs

1 Knife and Fork,

6 pair Stockings

2 pair Shoes

6 Towels

Plate, Mug, Table Cloth, and Tea Spoon

1 Cloak

1 Knife, Fork, Mug, &c.

2 pair Braces

1 Bonnet

2 Sheets, Counterpane, Blanket, and Bed

1 Hair Brush and Comb

6 lbs. Soup, &c,

6 lbs. Soap; Needles and Thread

1 Chest

1 Shawl

2 pair Shoes

1 Chest

The following should be taken, if possible; and prices are placed against the articles, that it may be calculated what is required, after deducting such articles as the emigrant may already possess:--

[Image of page 26]


£. s. d.

£. s. d.

12 Coloured Shirts, at 1s 6d..

0 18 0

1 pair strong Shoes

0 7 0

2 Guernsey ditto, at 3s 3d..

0 6 6

1 pair light ditto

0 4 0

6 pair Worsted Stockings, at 1s

0 6 0

4 lbs yellow soap

0 2 0

6 pair Cotton ditto, at 6 1/2d.

0 3 3

3 lbs. Marine do.

0 1 6

1 pair strong Fustian Trowsers

0 5 6

Metal Wash-Basin

0 1 0

2 pairs strong Canvas do. at 2s. 6d.

0 5 0

Comb, Brush, Razor, &c

0 2 6

1 Fustian Jacket and Waistcoat

0 9 6

Knife, Fork, Plate, Mug, Spoons

0 2 0

1 Pea Jacket

0 11 0

3 Bags for Flour &c.

0 3 0

Cloth Coat, Waistcoat & Trowsers

2 5 0

Jars and Canisters for Tea
and Sugar, Water Can,
Hook Pot, Tea Pot,
Drinking Can, Baking Dish, &c.

0 7 0

Cloth Cap

0 1 6

3 pair Cotton Sheets, at 3s. 3d

0 9 9

1 pair Blankets

0 7 6

1 Quilt

0 2 6

6 Rough Towels at 4d

0 2 0


8 9 9

1 Table Cloth

0 4 9


£. s. d.

. £. s. d.

12 Calico Chemises

0 14 0

1 Cloak

0 8 0

4 Petticoats

0 8 9

2 Bonnets

0 3 6

2 Flannel ditto

0 5 6

6 Towels

0 3 0

4 Flannel Waistcoats

0 8 8

Tapes, Needles, &c.

0 2 0

18 pair Cotton Stockings

0 15 0

Clothes Bag

0 2 0

2 pair Shoes

0 4 4

Knife Fork, &c.

0 1 8

1 pair Boots

0 4 6

3 Cotton Dresses

0 12 0


£4 12 2

It is better to pay a little more for a durable article at a respectable shop than to be deceived by apparent cheapness; and although, as a general rule, the more abundant the stock of clothing, especially for females, the better, yet it is advisable rather to sacrifice quantity than quality. If possible, good bedding, blankets, clothing, &c. should be taken for use in the colony, as they are there expensive; it need be only moderately warm, as New Zealand is not a cold country. A very portable iron bedstead, costing, if two feet wide, 15s. 6d., or if three feet £1. 8s. 6d., made by Messrs. Perkes and Co., Emerson Street, Southwark Bridge, would be useful. A mattress and pillow is generally found by the ship, and given to the emigrant on arrival; but it is seldom of durable materials.

Mechanics would do well always to take a good assortment of the tools of their trade--American axes, handsaws, crosscut saws, wedges, chisels, and most other carpenters' tools; but they should be of the very best attainable quality, and must not be too bulky.

Agricultural labourers, having sufficient funds, may perhaps take a few axes, hoes, spades, shovels, mattocks, billhooks, forks, scythes, and garden tools, but as much as possible only the iron parts without the handles, and they must be good. Messrs. Fenn, 105, Newgate-street; Messrs. Richards and Co., 117 and 118, Bishopsgate-street Within, and other respectable houses, have had much experience in the kind of tools required. It is scarcely safe to take agricultural implements, except under the advice of some friend practically acquainted with the colony, as they may be totally unfit for the rough purposes of a new country; however, those who wish to do so will find excellent information on this head in Mr.

[Image of page 27]

Hursthouse's book, pp. 96, &c; or Mr. Earp's, pp. 140, 147, and 203; or Hand-book by a late Magistrate.

It is sometimes asked what goods are best to be taken out, but as a general rule it is not advisable to do so for the purposes of sale, as they may happen to be unsuited for the demand, and there are merchants regularly engaged in keeping the market well supplied; but the following short summary of the last scale of duties payable in New Zealand, may be of interest:--


Animals (living)
Baggage of Passengers
Books, printed, not Account Books
Bread and Biscuit
Coals, Coal Tar and Pitch
Coin and Bullion
Copper Sheathing
Cordage and Cables
Barley Meal, Oatmeal, Rye
Wheat, Flour
Harrows, Ploughs
Plants, Bulbs and Trees
Machines, thrashing, winnowing, and draining
Machinery for Mills


Agricultural Implements, not being Ploughs. Harrows; & Thrashing Machines (which are free)
Apparel (except certain Articles otherwise described)
Bark. Blacking
Brass Manufactures
Cabinet and Upholstery Wares
Carriages and Wheels
Clocks and Watches
Earthen and China Ware
Fishing Tackle
Musical Instruments
Saddlery and Harness, &c. &c.

Other articles at various duties, averaging from 10 to 20 per cent ad valorem.


In sums of £100 and upwards, can be received in Auckland, Wellington, or Canterbury by letters of credit obtained from the Union Hank of Australia, Old Broad-street, payable on presentation at their office in those ports. On Auckland and Wellington the charge is 2 per cent.; on Lyttelton, Canterbury Settlement, 3 per cent. Mercantile bills or letters of credit can also be sometimes obtained at par or without charge; but the simplest, perhaps the safest plan, especially for small sums, is to ship sovereigns in charge of the captain of the ship under a bill of lading, and the sovereigns will be handed over to the party on arrival in the colony, the expense of of freight, insurance, &c. being for not less than £50, from 2 to 2 1/2 percent.

"The prudence and even the necessity, on the part of the emigrant, to husband his capital till his arrival, where he will most need it, must be so apparent to every one who regards the Colony as the field for his future exertions, and who wishes to do well in it, that it cannot fail to be appreciated. Money, in a colony, gives not only power, but consideration; and by landing with as much of it in his pocket, as a careful avoidance of previous unnecessary expenditure will enable him to do, the emigrant thereby at once gains a standing in society, which he would otherwise have to work up to."


To some minds, facts are best expressed by figures, and I have therefore compiled from various authentic sources the following statistical Tables, which, I think, will at least prove that the Colony of New Zealand is in a condition of decided and very satisfactory progress. The two smallest of the Settlements, which have had the least support from the Company, have suffered the greatest difficulties since they were founded, have had no share of the

[Image of page 28]

advantages (so called) of the Company's or Government Expenditure which have, in fact, been entirely self-supporting, are yet the Settlements which stand forth as champions of the claim New Zealand makes to be considered a splendid Agricultural and Pastoral Country. In the three years to 1849, on which the comparison is made (and the year 1850 shews an equally if not more favourable result) with no appreciable increase in population, New Plymouth had nearly doubled the extent of her cultivations, and Nelson increased more than five-fold her flocks.

The same might have been done in the other settlements, but there a great proportion of the European population is engaged in non-producing occupations, as evidently must be the case when there is a large amount of naval and military expenditure. Two or three regiments and vessels of war require for their consumption a quantity of agricultural produce which would otherwise figure among the Exports, while it is for their use also that a considerable amount of the goods which are put down as Imports, is necessarily taken. It must therefore be regarded as a very satisfactory proof of the capabilities and ultimate success of the Colony, that--notwithstanding the disadvantages under which it has laboured for so many years, when no land with titles was to be had, and when the Government were at war with the Natives-- it should be already returning exports to the extent of nearly one-half its imports. It certainly would not appear from the Return of Goods sent from this country, that English merchants entertain much fear of the impending bankruptcy of the Colony, prognosticated by a recent writer in an able Scottish Review. That the naval and military expenditure is large, and to be regretted, is true, but this may be expected yearly to decrease with the improved condition of the Natives, and the export of produce must, in more than a corresponding ratio, increase.

But the Return of Emigration from this country during the last three years, is more particularly referred to. From this it appears, that in that period as many as 6000 souls have been added to the European population, and lest it may be said that this has been merely a temporary influx, in great measure traceable to the formation of the Canterbury settlement, attention is invited to the little supplemental extract, shewing that the emigration by private ships, entirely unconnected with Government, Public Companies or Associations, the entire expense of emigrating being paid by the emigrants themselves, or by their friends in the Colony, had from

127 souls in 1849, increased to
328 " " 1850, or 158 per cent, upon the previous year, and to
793 " " 1851, or 141 per cent, increase on that year again.

The numbers in themselves are undoubtedly very trifling, compared with emigration to Australia, but the ratio of increase, I believe, exceeds that of any other Colony in the like period. As the parties thus emigrating have been induced to prefer New Zealand to our various other settlements, it may be safely said, almost solely from the representations of their friends already settled there, I think no stronger proof can be required of the advantages held out by the settlements in the British Colony of New Zealand to all classes of emigrants from the United Kingdom.

12, Woburn Square,
15th March, 1852.


[Image of page 29]

TABLE shewing the PROGRESS of the chief SETTLEMENTS in NEW ZEALAND since their formation their CONDITION according to the latest OFFICIAL RETURNS, and their COMPARATIVE INCREASE in POPULATION CULTIVATION, and STOCK, in the three years from 1846 to 1849.

TABLE shewing the PROGRESS of the chief SETTLEMENTS in NEW ZEALAND since their formation their CONDITION according to the latest OFFICIAL RETURNS, and their COMPARATIVE INCREASE in POPULATION CULTIVATION, and STOCK, in the three years from 1846 to 1849.

Compiled from Returns by Mr. Grimstone, Colonial Secretary, at Wellington, Mr. M. Martin, Blue Books, &c. See next page.

It is believed the Returns for Auckland and New Plymouth include Native Cultivations, those for the other Settlements do not include them.

[Image of page 30]

Considering the small increase in her population, New Plymouth appears to have made by far the greatest progress in cultivation; the possession of the Wairau District enables Nelson to figure for so large an increase in sheep; Auckland and Wellington have been much impeded in raising stock by Government Regulations forbidding the Settlers to rent land from the Natives for pasturage purposes. These obstacles, however, are now being removed. See preceding table.


1843 about 11,500
1846 " 14,000
1849 about 20,000
1852 " 28,000 to 30,000.

VALUE of NEW ZEALAND EXPORTS and IMPORTS to and from different parts of the WORLD in the YEARS 1846 to 1850.


VALUE of NEW ZEALAND EXPORTS and IMPORTS to and from different parts of the WORLD in the YEARS 1846 to 1850.



* The Imports and Exports in 1849 were accidentally increased by the cargo of a large vessel from Australia which put into Wellington for Repairs.



[Image of page 31]

RETURN of EMIGRATION to the SIX SETTLEMENTS of NEW ZEALAND, in the three years 1849. 1850, and 1851, shewing the number of SOULS sent out by the Government, the late New Zealand Company, the Canterbury and Otago Associations and by Private Ships.








By Gov

e Shi



e Shi



e Shi



e Shi



e Shi



e Shi



























































3273 26




Total to all the Settlements in three years................ 6004 Souls.

N. B. --This Return is compiled from information kindly furnished by Capt. Lean, R. N., Mr. Harington, the Secretary to the New Zealand Company, and from private sources; though of course, only approximative, it is in the main, I believe, tolerably correct.

Supplemental TABLE, shewing the amount of unassisted Emigration by Private Ships to the Settlements of New Zealand, in the years 1849, 1850, and 1851.


































[Image of page 32]

REVENUE and EXPENDITURE for the years 1847, 48, 49 and 50:

From Blue Books.

REVENUE and EXPENDITURE for the years 1847, 48, 49 and 50:

* Estimated amounts--believed to have actually realized much more.


Was in 1841........... £804.
. . " . " 1842..............1426.
. . " . " 1843..............8093.
. . " in 1847 ......£153,038.
. . " . " 1848..........155,653.
. . " . " 1849..........151,455.

RETURN, showing the Number and Tonnage of SHIPS, and Value of GOODS exported to NEW ZEALAND, in six years, ending. 1851 according to Custom House Reports:--

RETURN, showing the Number and Tonnage of SHIPS, and Value of GOODS exported to NEW ZEALAND, in six years, ending. 1851 according to Custom House Reports:--


5th May, 1852.

Since this revised impression was in type, Sir John Pakington, Her Majesty's Secretary of State, for the Colonies, has brought forward a Bill for conferring on the New Zealand Colonists the promised boon of self-government. The whole of his Speech in the House of Commons, reported in the Times of the 3rd May, is highly interesting, and fully confirms the conclusions I have ventured to draw from the preceding Statistics, as to the future rapid progress of the New Zealand Settlements.

1   Sidney Smith, p. 14.
2   Fox, p. 11.
3   Hursthouse, p. 72.
4   This on the supposition that a party of twenty could be collected, in one or more parishes, when the passage-money would be about £13. 10s, and outfit say £3. per head--possibly less.
5   R. M. Martin, p, 335.
6   Blue Book, p. 24, August 1850.
7   Shortland's New Zealand, Preface, p. 6.
8   The Report of the Auckland Agricultural Society for 1850, proves that the European settlers there are fully alive to the good qualities of their Maori labourers.
No less that four prizes were carried off by natives at the Annual Agricultural Show, the prizes for the best wheat and the best potatoes being among them.
9   Blue Book of August, 1851, p. 51.
10   Terry pp. 38, 39, 40.; Martin, pp. 274, 284.
11   Bp. Selwyn.
12   Martin, p. 274.
13   Fox, p. 39.
14   Bishop of New Zealand:
15   Governor Sir George Grey.
16   Hand Book by a late Magistrate. Earp's Hand Book, p. 34.
17   Fox, p. 33; Martin, p. 310.
18   Bishop of New Zealand.
19   Martin, pp. 310, 311.
20   Earp's Hand Book, p. 164.
21   Colonization Circular. --This privilege may be reckoned as equal to between 60 and 70 per cent, on the purchase-money.
22   New Zealand Company's Regulations of 1st of August, 1849.
23   See Otago Journal, No. 4.
24   Colonization Circular.
25   Colonisation Circular, Martin, Fox, Hursthouse.
26   Of this number, a considerable proportion, probably one-fourth, is supposed to have gone on to Wellington and the neighbouring ports.

Previous section | Next section