1854 - Drury, Byron. Revised Sailing Directions... for the Northern Part of the Colony of New Zealand - [Pages 58-95]

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  1854 - Drury, Byron. Revised Sailing Directions... for the Northern Part of the Colony of New Zealand - [Pages 58-95]
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[Pages 58-95]

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(Cook's Straits).

This extensive estuary, with its numerous arms, is situated between Queen Charlotte's Sound and Blind Bay. and is included between latitude 40° 52' S. and latitude 41° 15' S., and between longitude 173° 45'E. and longitude 174° 8' E.

The coast line is no less than 250 miles. The depth of water varies from 45 to 16 fathoms, until gradually decreasing in the main branch towards the head, where it receives two rivers, forming banks at the head of that arm; but with this exception, and one sunken rock near the entrance, there is no obstruction to navigation, and having this anomaly, that the nearer you approach the points the deeper the water.

With the exception of the head of the main branch, the general character of the country is mountainous, rising with almost perpendicular acclivity to the height of from 2000 to 3000 feet, and clothed with dense forest. The intervening bays receiving the mountain streams are equally impenetrable, as the sides of the ravines are steep and rugged. With the exception of the site of an old settlement in one of the arms, there are few acres in any one spot that could be brought under cultivation, and in proof of this, the natives seem never to have had any settlement but the one mentioned, and it is deserted, they told us, because the ground is cursed. However, the soil every where accords with the luxuriant mountain vegetation, being generally of the richest loam, and of considerable depth.

The geological feature of all the points and banks of the river is soft clay slate, with frequent veins of quartz an inch thick. The whole country abounds in it, blocks being found on the hills, and the beach is strewed with quartz pebbles.

The following is the order in which the bays and anchorages of this estuary follow, beginning at the East Head or Point Entry, --

After passing Guard's Bay, which has rocks above water stretching half way across to the East Head, but with 20 fathoms between the extreme rock and the head.

The first bay is Ketu, one mile within. At the head of this bay there is Snug Cove, having 10 fathoms, but across the entrance of it 30 fathoms. Kopaua, or Richmond's Bay, is immediately beyond, forming a bight of one and a half miles. Here again the anchorage is at the head in 14 fathoms, the hills rising 1800 feet.

There is another sheltered bay before reaching Takaka point, which is immediately opposite Chetwode Island, the channel being a mile in breadth, 40 fathoms deep. Here the main branch of the Pelorus bends to the eastward, while another considerable arm, the Tawhiti-nui reach, stretches nine miles S. W. contain-

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ing islands, and having a bay within a mile of Croixilles harbour.

Having rounded Takaka point, the course leading to the Hoiere changes from S. W. to S. S. E. for three miles, when a bare point, Tewero, is rounded, and the course again is S. W. for seven miles, then south seven miles to the upper anchorage, when the channel winds through banks in a westerly direction four miles, to the mouths of the Hoiere and Kaituna. Opposite Tawera, and two miles east of Kaka point, is the bay of Kauauroa, a good anchorage, round the south point of which we come to Whakamawahi, an extensive arm of the Pelorus, having three branches, the Hikuraki, which is separated from Guard's Bay, at its head, by a narrow neck only 100 feet broad, and about the same height. The middle Mamiaro having land remarkably bare for the Pelorus. The third Karepo runs south for five miles. On its east shore is the before mentioned deserted village of Kopai, having excellent anchorage, and the only part of these sounds having a tract of land adapted to cultivation--say 200 to 300 acres.

Passing this arm, the next reach, for seven miles, is Poupoure, having bays on either side. The Pokohino, on the east, the Tamuakaiwawi, the Piaukahe,, and the Opouri on the west. The west bays having the best anchorage. The channel of this reach has 27 fathoms, mud.

The next reach, Pinohikapu, is less indented. The head of this reach was the anchorage of H. M. Sloops Fantome and Pandora, which, with the exception of the Government Brig, the Tory, and H. M. S. Pelorus, I believe are the only vessels of any size that have yet navigated the estuary.

At this anchorage, ready communication can be had with the natives. Their cultivations are now visible, and small fishing stations seen on the banks, and it is about five miles below the villages. East of this anchorage is the long arm of Toreamonuoi Kipuru, extending twelve miles E. by N., having a depth of not more than fourteen fathoms, gradually decreasing towards the head. It is an average breadth of three quarters of a mile.

The Mahau Sound is three miles in length, divided from the last by a narrow ridge, Putahinu, and at its head there is a level plain, a mile long, and one and a half miles in breadth, extending to the Torea-mounu arm.

Ohingoroa Bay and Moi-Tapu have cultivated lands one mile S. S. W. of the anchorage. The Mahakipawa arm is very shoal, the head of it is about an hour's walk from Anakiwa bay in Queen Charlotte's Sound. Mahakipawa is rather a rather a large native settlement, and from whence we got most of our supplies. Two small vessels trade between it and Nelson; wheat and potatoes are their principal produce.

Near the east head of the Mahakipawa, the rivers Hoiere and Kaituna meet, forming banks, and leaving channels only navigable for small boats. To Parapara on the Hoiere from the above point (through a winding channel only navigable at or near high water) is a distance of three miles.

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Here I give Lieut. Jones' account of the Hoieri valley, as he accomplished the journey to Nelson with Dr. Jolliff, returning by Croixilles Harbour. And Mr. Blackney's journal supplies details of the Kaituna Pass.

"The track from the Pelorus to Nelson is a portion of that cut by Mr. Barnicott, a Government Surveyor, some few years since, with a view of establishing a shorter means of communication with the Wairau plains than the route at present employed. From about a mile above the native settlement of Parapara, a cross track leads into the Surveyor's road, which winds along the right bank of the Hoiere river about nine miles, until the juncture of the little river Rai, at which point the Hoiere is forded, and the track continues along its left bank as far as the foot of the Maunga Tapu, a distance of about eighteen miles in a direct line. Two small streams, the Herenga and Tui-tine, which also effect a junction with the Pelorus, are crossed after leaving the river Rai.

"The valley through which the Hoiere winds varies in width from one to three miles. The soil appears good, and well adapted for agricultural purposes. Portions of it are heavily timbered, and very fine spars could be procured with but little difficulty. The patches of wheat, potatoes, and maize in the hands of the natives, which we passed through, although not extensive, appeared in an exceedingly flourishing condition, the wheat particularly, the ears being remarkable large and heavy.

"The ascent of Maunga Tapu is steep and difficult, a series of smaller ridges, covered with dense forest, rendering the track intricate and very fatiguing. Its summit is 3500 feet above the level of the sea, and from it a beautiful view of the windings of the Hoiere may be obtained. Parallel ranges of lofty and densely wooded hills, succeeding each other as far as the eye can reach, the bare peaks of the 'Saddle Back' on the left, 4000 feet in height, and the 4 Sugar Loaf, also 4000 feet, on the right, being the most conspicuous objects.

"The descent of Maunga Tapu is equally tedious and difficult. After leaving the immediate neighbourhood of the summit, high fern succeeds the forest, the track winding round the intervening ridges, in many places so narrow as barely to afford a footing On reaching the foot of this range, the track winds along the banks of the Maitai river until it enters Nelson.

"To make this track at all practicable, would necessarily involve a very large outlay. Many substantial bridges would be required to span the streams, which, although at this season are easily forded, after heavy rains or thaws, are swollen to a considerable size; the banks in many places showing arise of from ten to fifteen feet. The impracticability of avoiding many of the very steep ascents would also render the road at all times difficult, and, excepting as a mule track, useless for any description of vehicle.

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"As the track remains at present, it is tedious enough for foot passengers, in many places already much overgrown, and through its whole extent the stumps remaining a foot above the ground, the larger trees having been allowed to fall across and remain as they were felled. The whole distance can be accomplished in two summer's days.

Journey from the head of the Pelorus through the Kaituna Pass to the Wairau Plains, by Mr. Blackney.

On February 19th, at noon, Lieut. Jones, Dr. Joliffe, and myself, left the ship to travel through the Kaituna Pass to the Wairau Plains.

We arrived at the village, Orakawhea, where we engaged our natives at 3s. 6d. per diem. This village has about forty natives, belonging to the Rangatani tribe. The river here (Kaituna) is not more than thirty yards broad at H. W., and the water always fresh. It is one mile within the mouth, and situated on the east bank, the land about it cultivated with wheat, maize, and potatoes. They do not appear to grow pumkins, melons, or onions, as in the northern island.

On the 20th, we crossed to the west bank, and commenced our journey towards Wairau, accompanied by several natives. In half an hour we crossed the Whakaihu, twenty feet broad, its bed pebbles. It rises in the hills, forming the western boundary of the valley. Three miles from Orakia, where we left the surveyors (Barnicott's track), taking the native track at the suggestion of our guides, who said it was the shortest; but we found it very difficult, having to crawl beneath low trees and among supple jacks, and occasionally stung by a nettle, that gave infinitely more pain than those at home.

At 10 a.m. we crossed to the east bank, and came to a small pond called Tekopua, in which the natives caught eels, by groping for them in holes which they made near the edges; each eel weighed two lbs. At 11.30, we again came on Barnicott's track, and at noon crossed the Rororariki and Kariki streams, and came upon an open fern land, which is judged to be 200 feet above the level of the sea. Within an hour we crossed the small streams of Awakari, Teawheki, and Motupuki, heading the Kaituna at Orameo. Here we found the water good and clear, running over a bed of pebbles, and about eight miles S. S. E. from where we started. Three quarters of an hour from this brought us to the Wairau Plains.

Our principal route had been through a level forest. Our guides never failed to point out the Totara tree, saying they were highly prized by the white man, They are scarce, the highest about eighty feet and twenty feet in girth.

From the head of the Kaituna to the head of the Areare (a branch of the Wairau), the distance is not more than a mile and a

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half. It is merely a swamp where the latter ends in the forest.

The small streams mentioned were easily crossed, the season being dry, but it is very difficult at other times.

We saws numbers of parrots and pigeons. The robin was so tame as to allow itself to be fed by hand. The natives killed all they could lay hold of for baits to catch eels.

The first view of the Wairau Plains was uninviting, the weather giving it a cheerless aspect, and the drought had been excessive.

About a quarter of an hour after leaving the forest, during which time our road was on the slope of hills varying from 200 to 400 feet high, bare, and lately burnt, we crossed a swamp near the head of the Areare, and ascended about 300 feet of a bare ridge, which, terminating the Kaituna valley is also a part of the northern boundary to the Wairau plains. Crossing this is a seam of quartz rock, meeting the level at an angle of 20°. Having descended the hill, our road was at the foot, and several swamps were crossed, only passable because the season was dry.

Having left our natives behind with the luggage, we were without guides, and, missing the road, we struck off to the right, towards what appeared to be a wharre. This wharre, on approaching it, revealed to us a settler's bouse, which, though built of wood, and thatched, had nevertheless a homely appearance. The owners, Michael Mahar and his wife, welcomed us.

Tuesday, February 21st, at 7 a.m., our natives and their companions arrived, having passed the night at the foot of the quartz hill which we ascended.

We then started for the native pah at Pungarauawiti, crossing the Wairau river a quarter of an hour afterwards. The greatest depth was about three feet, and the strength of the current where we waded two or three knots. The whole breadth was not more than 300 yards. There were dry patches. Yet this short distance made our feet sore, having walked it bare footed. It was difficult to keep a firm footing.

Since September last, very little rain has fallen in the Wairau, so that the river at this time was as low as it ever is likely to be.

And yet, in October, the eldest son of Mahar was lost here. He was on horseback with his brother; both arrived at the edge of the river, about 10 p.m., and the youngest, having found the proper spot, crossed in safety; the other told him he would soon follow, that he was taking off his spurs, and desired him to ride towards home. Supposing him to have stopped on the bank of the river, not venturing to cross until daylight, no anxiety was felt. In the morning his horse was found, and though many people were for three weeks constantly looking for the rider, yet nothing was found of him until a week before our arrival, although

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it was six months since he was lost. It is supposed that his horse slipped, and being spirited, threw him, and that he was swept down by the current into some deep hole.

In the winter, travellers are frequently detained by the rains, which cause the river to swell until it is more than a quarter of a mile broad, and makes it otherwise impassable by the strength of current.

At the village of Pungarauawiti, on the west bank of the Wairau, the natives were very hospitable, giving us eels, potatoes, damper, butter, and tea, and never hinting at payment.

The river here is 150 yards broads, and very deep; boats navigate fire miles above.

The pah, two miles from this village, bad been recently burnt by accident, the natives losing much wheat, rice, and sugar.

Having visited Boulder Bank, we returned to Pungarauawiti; but missing the road, we passed with great difficulty through a swamp On arriving at the village, we were again treated with great kindness,

We left Mahar's house on the 25th. We again tried a short cut by walking straight for the hills, and as a natural consequence, passed through a swamp up to our middles. We walked round the base of the hills, arriving at Orakiawhea at 3 p. m., where we found a boat from the Pandora.

The natives walk easily from Mahakipawa to Pungarauawiti in one day, by a road which leads near the Waikakaho, a branch of the Wairau.

During a still night, reports of distant guns were distinctly heard, which proved afterwards to be H. M. S. Fantome, firing at night quarters in Wellington, at a distance of thiry-eight miles.

There could have been no other guns in Cook's Straits. The natives, as well as ourselves, felt assured they were guns; and we have since found that the Fantome was firing at that exact time.

From the observations of the officers on this pass (for illness prevented me from prosecuting the journey), I cannnot believe that Pelorus offers a better means of shipment of the produce of the Wairau plains than Port Underwood. The swamps are barriers to road making, and oven if this were overcome, the difficulties of navigating the Pelorus to the anchorage are considerable.

The banks at the head of the Pelorus would prevent a vessel of burden approaching the Kaituna nearer than six miles; and during ordinary winds, it would take a sailing vessel three days to work out, with difficulty of reaching an anchorage of moderate depth. We had on one occasion to let go a bower anchor in thirty-seven fathoms, and it is necessary to anchor in every tide.

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To continue the description of the Pelorus-

At Chetwode island we left the Tawhitinui reach. It differs from other portions of the Pelorus by having ib it, besides Chetwode island, three islands--Tawhitinui, Awaiti, and Oaie. These latter all in that part of the reach where Croixilles harbour is separated by an easy half hour's walk over a hill of six hundred feet.

Kawai Sound forma the head of Tawhitinui. The four bays at its head are all of the same nature, backed by mountains from 2000 to 3000 feet high.

The channel west of Chetwode island is called the Apuan, and is half a mile broad, with twenty-seven fathoms. There is a double bay south of it which cannot be three miles from the French pass; but the range dividing it is very precipitous. As we proceed outwards along the west coast, we come to Waitata Bay, perfectly clear, with fourteen fathoms throughout. The points of entrance are Kaiaua, a yellow point, and Moitena, having a white rock off it resembling a boat under sail.

Waihmau Bay is considered a good anchorage by the natives, as the squalls are not so heavy as in those on either side; but the only danger in the Pelorus is at the mouth of this bay, the Kainoki rock having one foot on it at low water. From it, Danger Point, the north point of the bay, bears N. N. W. half a mile, and West Entry Point, N. E. by E. one and a quarter miles.

Port Ligar, named after the Surveyor-General, immediately within the West Entry Point, is a fine harbour, and equal to any in Cook's Straits. The outer portion, called Kopi. has fourteen to seventeen fathoms. The north part of this harbour is separated by a narrow creek of a quarter of a mile from Admiralty Bay (Cook's Straits).

The north entrance to Port Ligar is formed by a long yellow clay point tapering to tie water. From it the land trends N. by E. one and a quarter miles to a bluff point opposite the Kakaho island. From thence the coast trends westward to Admiralty Bay. There is a rock covered at half tide in the channel between Kakaho island and West Entry Point, with twenty-five fathoms round it, although not more than three cables from the west shore.

In coming through the Kakaho channel, bound for the Pelorus, keep the Guard Island rocks on the starboard bow until West Entry Point is open, then you are clear of it.

There are in the Pelorus at least thirty bays or anchorages, mostly land locked, and safe in any winds. The gusts in bad weather are very furious. In these anchorages water may always be found, and an abundance of fish may be caught off the points.

The tides in the stream run from two to three knots; the effect is scarcely felt in the anchorages. The prevailing winds blow down the reaches from seaward, but when it shifts to the S. E., it

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is accompanied by heavy rain and violent gust, lasting forty eight hours.

I may here remark, that on visiting Queen Charlotte's Sound in January, 1854, we found in Ship's Cove the following interesting relics of Cook. The root of a Karaka tree close to the beach, hollow beneath. On this root was cut deep and distinctly "look under."

The only portion disfigured being the last syllable of "under," which has made some travellers believe that the "look" is "Cook," and the "and" the beginning of "end-eavour." But I think the following extract from Cook's voyages explains the case:--

"The morning before we sailed, I wrote a memorandum, setting forth the time we last arrived, the day we sailed, the route I intended to take, and such other information as I thought necessary for Captain Furneaux, in case he should put into the Sound --and buried it in a hole under the foot of a tree in the garden which is in the bottom of the cove, in such a manner as might be found by him or any European who might put into the cove. I, however, had little reason to hope it would fall into the hands of the person for whom it was intended, thinking it hardly possible that the Adventure could be in any port in New Zealand, as we had not heard of her in all this time. Nevertheless, I was resolved not to leave the coast without looking for her where I thought it most likely for her to be."

A few yards behind it there is an old tree with

"T. Brown" "Endavour" the "e" being left out.

The natives did not seem to be aware of this relic, but they call the root "Cook's tree." And I sincerely hope that it may be preserved, and think the natives must have been attentive to it, or it could scarcely have escaped the fires eighty-two years.

I have pleasure in annexing a summary of the remarks of Dr Jolliffe, as drawn up by that officer, including the ornithology, botany, icthyology, &c. of the Estuary.


Hawks--two kinds.



Tui or Parson Bird.

New Zealand Crow--Kokako of the natives.

Parrot--large brown kind, or Kaka of the natives.

Paroquets--two kinds, one considerably smaller than the other but of similar plumage, called Kakariki by natives.

A small kind of Cuckoo, not larger than a sparrow, called Pipiwawaroa by the natives--a migratory bird,

Pigeon--called Kukupa by natives.

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A large white Heron--only seen twice, but are said to be common near Nelson.

Woodhen--Weka of the natives (Ocydromus Australis) a kind of rail as large as the common fowl.

Paradise Ducks--Putangi-tangi of the natives, a small kind of wild goose, with beautiful plumage.

Ducks of several kinds--Parera of the natives.


Cormorants--several kinds of. They live in communities, and build their nests in trees overhanging the water. The Phalacrocorax Punctatus, or Cristatus (spotted shag) is said to be common in Pelorus, but we did not meet with any--all kinds are called Kauwau by the natives.

Quail--formerly abundant, now becoming scarce.

Oysterpickers--two kinds, called Toria by natives.

Pukeko--numerous in swampy places.

New Zealand Robin--common in the bush, and remarkable for its tameness.

The Kiwi-Kiwi and Kakapo--formerly common, but not now to be found in the neighbourhood of Pelorus.

A small bird with yellow bead and neck-size of the Canary, and in flocks of a dozen.

Stilts--two kinds, called Toria by natives.

Flycatchers and Fantails.

Gulls, Petrels, and other sea fowls--common near the entrance of the Pelorus.

The above are the most common kinds met with. There were several others, especially small birds.

All the birds in the bush are exceedingly tame; the Weka is easily caught with a noose at the end of a stick, the bird being attracted to the spot by brushing the ground with a bough, or the noise made by breaking pieces of stick.

The Robins are so exceedingly tame and unsuspicious, that they pitch upon one's head or shoulders when sitting quietly.

The Pigeons are even more tame or stupid, for they sit quietly on the branches, and allow two or three in succession to be shot out of the same tree.

The Ducks are the only wary birds met with.


Black Birch--exceedingly common, forming the greater portion of the forest near the water's edge.

Totara--of very large size in the forests at the end of the Pelorus. Several are pointed out by the natives as being fine trees.

Kahikatea--red pine.

Manuka--Tea tree of larger size than we any where before met with in the North island.

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Nikau--palm (areca sapida) was found in abundance and of great size, being about 180 miles farther south than is mentioned in Dr. Hooker's Flora of New Zealand.

Rimu--drooping pine, numerous and large.

Rata--plentitul, and of large size.

Ti--Ti palm or Ti bush, common everywhere.

Supple-jacks--Karea of natives, numerous in all the forests.

Kawa-Kawa--were of lage size, and numerous.

Tawa--plentiful, bearing a large blue looking fruit with a resinous taste, eaten by pigeons.

Flax--Korari of natives, of different kinds, every where plentiful.

Tutu--the berries somewhat resemble those of the elder. The juice is wholesome and pleasant, but the fruits, stalks, and seeds are poisonous. Three of the men were poisoned by eating the berries of this tree, without first separating the fruitstalks and seeds. They were seized with convulsions, delirium, retching, and a severe burning pain in the throat and stomach, followed by a swollen tongue and a soreness of the throat. They recovered from the convulsions and delirium in a few hours without any medical assistance, and the after consequences were easily removed by a brisk purgative.

Tawai--a large tree, commonest of all the trees in the Pelorus forests.

Ferns--mosses, and the other tribes of Cryptogamic plants, were exceedingly numerous and of most luxuriant growth, the tree ferns were particularly large and beautiful. Upwards of ninety kinds of Ferns and Club Mosses were found, and all, excepting about six species, are common to both the North and Middle islands. Of Mosses, Jungermannii, Liverworts, and Lichens, more than 140 kinds were collected, the greater number of them being also found on the North island.

New Zealand grass (native grass) is found in the valleys and on the cleared spots on the neighbouring hills of the Pelorus, but was not met with in any quantity nearer than the Wairau Plains.


Rock Cod--Pakiri Kiri of natives, red and brown, or black, very numerous.

Snapper--Tamuti, not abundant.

Sea weeds and corallines are very scarce within the Pelorus, although plentiful in different parts of Cook's Straits.

Terakehi--not abundant.

Hapuka--plentiful near the entrance in deep water.

Barracouta--plentiful near the entrance.

Conger--eel, occasionally met with.

Ling--about four feet long, and resembling the European fish of the same name.

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Whiting (or resembling the European Whiting).


Flat fish--Patiki, plentiful in the rivers at the end of the Pelorus.

Eels, freshwater--common in the rivers and swamps, and of great size. Some were seen more than four feet long, and upwards of a foot in circumference at the largest part. The natives said that they frequently found them much larger even than this.

Herrings--a small kind, six to ten inches long.

Mullet--not numerous.

Sting-Ray--not very numerous.

Porpoises--occasionally seen a long distance up the estuary.

Sharks--small size, from four to six feet in length.

Crayfish--at the entrance.

Oysters--a few, and bad tasted.

Mussels--many kinds and numerous.




A Cephalopod Mullusc, called the Octopus or Poulpe, was very plentiful, and of great size. It has eight arms, that may be extended two or three feet in length, and each arm has upon it upwards of 110 suckers, the largest about the size of a sixpence, the smallest not larger than a twopenny silver piece. With this cupping glass apparatus, the creature can adhere to any surface with the greatest firmness; even smooth, slimy, Earfish held with the greatest ease, as we proved on several occasions by hauling up a fish with one of these creatures firmly fixed to it, and even after cutting off its arms, the detached portions remained firmly fixed to its prey. When wounded in the water, the creature throws out a large quantity of black fluid (sepia), and escapes in the darkness caused by its diffusion in the water

Thousands of Medusae, or Jelly Fish, were floating about in the water, showing beautiful golden and silver colours, as the sun's rays were reflected from their various surfaces and fringes. All of them had four brilliant rings in the centre of the umbrella shaped crown, placed at equal distances from one another.

Star fish of many varieties are numerous on the rocks at low water.

Lizards--small, brown, and green, were occasionally seen.

Insects were far from being numerous, excepting the common house fly, flesh fly, mosquitoes, and sand flies--these were all abundant enough.

The flesh fly deposited its larvae upon all animal substances, if left exposed for a short time, even the flags, cloth clothes, and blankets, did not escape.

Wild pigs were plentiful in the bush, and some of good magnitude. One brought on board weighed upwards of two hundred

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pounds, after the offal had been removed, and was exceedingly fat and well flavoured.

The tusks of some of the boars were eight inches in the curve, and exceedingly sharp at the points--very dangerous weapons and capable of inflicting most severe wounds. A native was brought on board with a wound five inches long, and two deep, across the outer part of the thigh, inflicted by the tusk of a wounded boar.

Only two or three minute species of land shells were found, although search was frequently made for them in all places.


For leading marks over the bar:-- Rock off South Head in one with a beacon on Te-motu. Te-motu is 1 1/2 miles within the heads, and 2 1/2 miles from the bar; it is about ten feet high, and the beacon to be composed of three (3) spars, about 50 feet high, and being partially boarded, would be seen long before approaching the bar.

The Wai-naere-keke River, or South Channel, requires a perch at each end of a bank immediately within the South Head. The bank is sand and shell, and is just uncovered at low water springs, and is nearly half a mile in length. A small buoy should also be placed on the spit abreast, by which a vessel can be led to safe anchorage.

North Channel or Main requires 2 buoys laid down in 3 fathoms water off the East and West extremes of a half-fathom bank, having dry patches at low water springs. Having passed these buoys, a beacon on Tane-whanga would give the direction till abreast of Leathart's Point. A good anchorage in 3 to 6 fathoms. The remaining part of the channels could be buoyed at pleasure.


The natural marks for crossing this bar are sufficiently good, (vide Sailing Directions), and the channel within visible at half-tide until reaching Punga-punga Point, off which is a spit which may be hereafter buoyed.


The natural marks, as given in Sailing Directions, are sufficient, and the navigation afterwards simple.

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Having passed the entrance of Manukau, the southern shores are barren, terminating in sand hills at the entrance of the Waikato, a distance of 24 miles; 30 fathoms grey and black sand 10 miles from the shore. The Waikato has a shifting bar, and has been altogether blocked up. The channel at present is straight, 1/2 a mile from the entrance, and having about 2 1/4 fathoms. Seven miles south of Waikato is the Kapiapia black rock, 20 feet high, 1 mile from the shore. Woody Head is the most conspicuous land on this part of the coast, Mount Karehoe, a conical peak, being 2000 feet high, and the first wooded hill south of the Waikato, This head is 22 miles south of Waikato, and shelters the entrance to Whaingaroa during south and south-west winds.

Gannet Island, 70 feet high, and white with guano, 1 1/2 cable N. E. and S. W., and 3/4 of a cable broad. It is in latitude 37° 57' S. and longitude 174° 36' 20" E,; is steep on the north side, and breaks in heavy weather off the south end; but 30 fathoms will be found a mile all round it. The nearest point is Tauna-tara, or Albatross Point, from which it bears N. W. 1/4 W., 11 miles. The Ewhatu Rocks, Aotea, and Kawhia lie north of Albatross Point, and are described in the directions for those harbours.

Albatross Point is 600 feet high, 20 miles due south of Woody Head, bare and cliffy to seaward, and having detached rocks within a cable. During S. W. winds and ebb-tide there is a great ses off this point; vessels bound to or from Kawhia should give it a berth.

The next projecting point is Tirua, 17 miles S. 3/4 E. from Albatross Point. From the northward it appears as a light yellow cliff, 400 feet high; 1 mile N. N. W. of the point is the Piriroki Reef, just above water.

There is a bay, Nukuharaki, in which boats can land in southerly weather.

Two miles within this point, Mount Whariorino, 2000 feet high, appears like a dome, and the hills it around are well wooded.

From Terua Point to Parinini (white bluff), 900 feet high, is S 3/4 E 29 miles, the coast line is straight, with alternate cliff and sand, backed by a range of moderate height.

The Mokau River is the only stream of any consequence, with little water on the bar at low water, but vessels of 20 tons have crossed it under favourable circumstances, and there is good anchorage within. It is ten miles north of Parinini.

Parinini shows remarkably white to seaward; between it and the next point, Pariokarura, is the bay of of Waikaramarama, studded with rocks extending 1 1/2 miles from the coast.

Pariokarura is 3 miles SW 1/2 S of the White Bluff, and now the coast line trends more westerly, with sand backed by red and white cliffs, The Urunui stream is in the bight, 7 miles from

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Pariokarura, and from thence the coast trends W by S, to the north point of Waitera 8 miles, and then SW to the Sugar Loaf at Taranaki 11 miles.

From Terua Point to Taranaki is SSE 50 miles, and a bight is formed 12 miles in depth.

The soundings approaching the coast are regular, having 40 fathoms 15 miles off, greyish-black sand, 30 fathoms at 8 miles, and 16 at three miles, as far as Albatross Point, whence to Taranaki they deepen from 20 to 24 fathoms, fine grayish sand.

The tides are not perceptible 15 miles off the coast, and are not strong except in the vicinity of the rivers and much influenced by the winds; there is a slight current always setting to the westward off the coast.


From the outer point of the Kaipara south head to the Te-muriwai stream is 26 miles of sand beach, without streams of water. Two miles from the beach a range of hills rise, running parallel to it: between the foot of the sand hills and the sea, is low sand mounds, amongst which are many small lakes. The Te-muriwai is an inconsiderable stream; near its banks, about one mile inland, there is a small Native Settlement; a short distance beyond this stream the beach ends, the coast south being of a bold rocky nature; from here to Waitakiri (on which are two small Native pahs) is 5 miles, there is a track over the coast hills which are all clear of trees, the country within hilly and wooded.

From Waitariri to the Wesleyan College at the Three Kings, the Maories say, is but one day's hard walking. Care is required in crossing the Waitakeri, as at its mouth are quick-sands; the valley through which it runs appears considerable.

From Waikateri to Paratutai (North Head of the Manukau) is 14 miles, the coast precipitous and rocky, broken by small sand beaches at the mouth of ravines, until abreast of Parera Island, from whence to Paratutai is beach (4 miles).

There is no track along this piece of coast, travelling it is both tedious and difficult; the coast hills are mostly covered with the Manuka and other small trees, accompanied by a luxuriant under growth, amongst which the Supple-Jack takes a prominent place. No view can be obtained of the interior; wild pigs are in abundance, and in the streams large eels are plentiful.

On the beach north of Te-muriwai, the Ti-wheroa, or large pipi is found; south to Manukau, iron sand is seen, but not very abundant.

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BY P. W. W. OKE, R.N.

From Auckland to Onehunga it is 6 miles, along a good road. A small vessel runs from the latter place twice a week to Waihuku the western tributary of Manukau harbour.

At Waihuku there is a good hotel, where every comfort may be had.

From the Waihuku to Waikato, a road may be taken over the sand hills to the coast; and then to Waikato entrance, or by arranging for a canoe to be at the head of the Awaroa, a small river flowing into the main stream; it is then but a short walk from Constable's Hotel; the former route it is 8 miles. For crossing the Waikato in a canoe, the charge is usually 2s., and the landing-place in the vicinity of the Rev. Mr. Maunsell's old Mission Station. The road then lies over the hills for 4 or 5 miles, until arriving at the coast near a point called Oruruaranghi.

From this point to the north head of Whaingaroa harbour, the road is alternately on the beach and over the hills, generally covered with fern, and sometimes striking inland for two or three miles.

The cliffs are of soft limestone, with a softer sandstone over-lying them; there are two small Native Villages on the road.

From Oruruaranghi to Whaingaroa, I should think, is about 30 miles, although the length of the coast is but 19 miles.

There is a large Native Settlement on the north shore of Whaingaroa River. The natives here ask an exorbitant charge for crossing in their canoes, but, with a little patience with them, less will be taken than was formerly asked. The landing-place is in the creek, close to the Wesleyan Mission Station, from whence to Aotea, the road is over hill and dale, through wooded and fern country; (in wet weather excessively dirty and swampy in places) to Aotea, where the mud flats are crossed to Mr. Smale's Mission Station, the whole distance said to be 18 miles, but only 11 nautical miles by the plan.

There is another route to the westward, round the mountain Karehoe, 2372 feet, very difficult and tiresome. The country passed through by this way is over the spurs and ravines of the mountain--good land, bush and fern alternately for 8 miles, until arriving at Waipapa Point; from which point the road is on the beach to Tore Paru, a Native Settlement.

Four miles from the last point, from Tore-paru, the road is over an undulating and partially cultivated country, until striking down to the beach at Taranaki point, two miles from the entrance to Aotea; making the whole distance by this route 17 miles. The sand hills are then to be crossed up to Mr. Graham's station, where a canoe may be procured for crossing.

From Aotea to Mr. Charlton's Hotel at Kawhia, the distance

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is four miles, through a good open country, fronted by sand hills to seaward, the greater part under cultivation. Mr. Charlton's Hotel is the resting-place for all travellers visiting this coast, and much can be said for the hospitality of his comfortable house.

From here the river is crossed in a canoe to the south head, from whence the road is over wooded hills for six miles to the coast, about three miles below Albatross Point, and then along a sandy beach for three miles, crossing rocky points and low coast hills. Another nine miles brings us to the Marokopa, a small river sometimes fordable at the entrance, but when not so, a canoe may be had by walking up the river for a short distance,

After crossing this stream, the road is by the coast for about two miles, when the hills must be taken to --a difficult and sometimes dangerous path up and down--two or three times, until coming to the spur of the Moe-Atoa, 1000 feet high, and wooded, the descent of which is down into a small bay, called Nukaharaki.

From the rise above the last named bay, the Whare-orino bill. 2000 feet high, will be seen to the southward, nor will this hill be again lost sight of until arriving at Taranaki. The road is along its foot, through a valley and swamp, for about four miles, and the coast is again reached. There are several small Native Settlements about the sides of the valley, the land alternately wood and fern.

After walking along the shelving rocks at the base of cliffs for about a mile, the rope ladder is reached; it assists to climb a cliff about 20 feet high. From this point the Waikana stream is three or four miles off, partly through bush, and partly along a sandy beach.

The Waikana River is fordable near the entrance when the tide is out. It appears to run from some distance inland between high ranges of hills through a beautiful valley. There are a few natives near the entrance, and some land under cultivation.

From Waikana the road is rough cliff and hilly country for three miles, until again reaching the sandy beach under Te Reinga Point. This beach, for three miles more, is only to be travelled at low water, as the waves wash the bases of the high ironstone cliffs; the point Tokarara at the end of it is difficult at any time of tide.

From Tokarara to Awakino, 6 1/2 miles is a good beach, but can only be walked along at half tide, the high cliffs here and there breaking into ravines form a refuge to the traveller.

The Awakino may sometimes be waded at about half a mile from the entrance, but at a mile up a canoe may be had, which is much the safest way of crossing, the river being very rapid. The Awakino is about three miles to the northward of the River Mokau, the road along a good sandy beach at all times of tide.

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By proceeding up the Mokau River for a short distance (less than two miles), a canoe may be procured, and after landing on the south shore near the bead, which is rocky, the distance is two miles along a sandy and rocky shore alternately, until reaching the Makakatino stream, wadeable at almost any time of tide, but a quick-sandy bottom renders it uncomfortable for travellers.

The land about here is hilly and wooded to the shore; after passing the stream, the road is still along the shore at low water or up to half-tide; the high water meeting and washing the base of clifts from 50 to 100 feet high.

We also passed some isolated pieces of cliff which have hitherto proved too hard for the waves to crumble away.

After passing Tekauwau, the road is over the cliff, and alternately cliff and sandy beach for the rest of the way to Tungaporutu, which is distant from the Makakatino five or six miles in a straight line, but more than that walking.

There are natives at Tungaporutu on the north side of the River. This is the largestt stream between the Waitera and Mokau, is unsafe for fording on account of quicksands and the rapid stream. It is also deep--a canoe can be had of the natives. The land about here is densely wooded.

On the south side of the river the high cliffs again rise, and the walking is along the sand at the base, passing some high detached pieces of cliff at equal distances from each other.

Two miles of this walking brings you to Waitamutu Point, which sometimes cannot be passed even at low water. The receding wave must be followed as closely as possible, and as the next one comes in the shore must be made as fast as legs can carry--the water all around the base of the cliff being deep. The least danger is to be washed into the pool, and the greatest to be dashed against the cliff. There is a road over the cliff, but difficult, and much longer.

A little further south is another cliffy point of the same kind, but less difficult. The land on the top of these cliffs is pretty level for some distance, and is covered with high fern and Tu Paki.

From Waitamuta (Runround Point), the road still lies along the beach, under high cliffs (passing Parenini, or White Bluff, on the way) the highest being 900 feet, the distance to Waika-rawa-rawa is 4 miles, at which place the road takes across a barren fern piece of land, cutting off Okariwa Point, which is impassable at all times, and arriving on the beach again, after 3 or 4 miles' walk, the whole distance to Mimi being 7 miles.

At a little distance from the coast, the hills rise to the height of from 800 to 1000 feet, and are covered with wood.

The Mimi stream is wadeable nearly always, and after passing it, the road is along the edge of high cliffs to Urunui stream 2 1/2 miles.

About here the hilly country falls back, leaving a fine piece of

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undulating and level country, covered with fern and tupaki. There are a few natives living at the last named place. The river has to be crossed in a canoe. From here the coast may be walked round to Waitera, distant 8 miles, along a hard sandy beach, crossing two small streams, the Onairo and Waiau, on the road.

The Waitera is crossed in a canoe, after which there is a good road to New Plymouth of 8 miles in length.

Iron sand is found in more or less quantities all along the coast.

Mount Egmont has been seen in clear weather the whole way down the coast, even from Manukau entrance, a distance of 120 nautical miles.


On September 11th 1851, a party was despatched from Monganui to triangulate round the North Coast, to meet the Pandora in the Hokianga River. It was conducted by Mr. Kerr, (master), and Mr, Oke, (2nd master), accompanied by a seaman, a marine, and two natives.

They walked over 277 miles of coast line in 26 days carrying a theodolite and other instruments.

Leaving Signal Hill (Monganui) they proceeded round Doubtless Bay. After 5 miles they came to the Taipa, a broad stream flowing into the Bay. It was crossed in canoes, the natives not asking for payment.

The Taipa runs through a fine valley, in which are many spherical boulders of transuted stone, some measuring from 16 to 18 yards in circumference. On the left bank of the Taipa, a short distance from the mouth is the native village and pah of Oruru, whose chief is Nopara.

Three miles beyond the Taipa a sandy beach, 8 miles long forms the head of the Bay, it is backed by sand hills, and a chain of lakes and swampy ground for 4 miles, until reaching the Awanui River. The Mapere Lake is 4 miles in circumference, one in breadth.

The Waiparara, 2 miles in length.

From the north end of the beach it is leas than 2 miles across to he open sea.


A bold peninsula with hills rising to 600 feet, forms the N. E. boundary of Doubtless Bay, terminated by Cape Kara-Kara, off

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which are several inlets, (Vide Sailing Directions). Proceeding towards Cape Kara-Kara. 1 mile from the head of the Bay is the native village of Watu-wiwi having about 40 inhabitants, and a decent schoolhouse, connected with Kaitaia Mission.

Two miles further is the property of Mr. Brodie, (Kawhoehoe) having a small bay sheltered by Knuckle Point. Here there is much land adapted to cultivation, and copper ore has been discovered.

There are also native settlements in Orurua, and Maitai Bays; but the adjacent points are steep, and and therefore the paths are inland.

Maitai Bay is resorted to by whalers, (Vide Sailing Directions). From Maitai to Karakara Point, 3 miles, thence round to Karakara Bay, the hills are steep and unproductive.

Kara-Kara Bay has a beach 4 miles in length, terminated by Puheki Hill 300 feet high. The N. E. end of the Bay is only l mile across to Maitai. Two miles east of the hill, the sandy coast continues to the mouth of the Awanui, near which is the Wai-parara lake about 1 1/2 miles in circuit.

The Ranga-ounou River is called the Awanui when it narrows 8 miles from the mouth. It was necessary to cross the River near the entrance, as 2 miles above, the extensive swamps and mangrove creeks, renders it impervious at high water. The Ranga-ounou is nearly 4 miles in breadth, and during freshes considerably more, but at the mouth and at the anchorage it is not probably more than from 1 1/2 to 1/2 a mile.

The Awanui rises in the range of mountains exending from Ahaipara to Hokianga, of which Maunga-tanawha is the most remarkable peak 2050 fee'.

It flows through an extensive plain of good ground, called the Victoria Plains, the property of Nopare, chief of Oruru. These plains are 10 miles long, from 3 to 6 in width, patches here and there cultivated by the natives.

The Mission Station of Kaitaia is seated on the bend of the Awanui, where the stream trends from the westward to the northward. It is about 30 miles by the River to the mouth; and 10 miles above Mr. Southie's Station. The whole country around is constantly inundated by freshets, notwithstanding there is much grass land under cultivation, as these overflows cause a rich deposit, they saw about 800 sheep, productive orchards, with a variety of fruit trees.

At Taipo (Mr. Southie's) small schooners load, this is 8 miles from the mouth of the Awanui proper. There has been as much as 2000 acres under cultivation here. The officers speak in grateful terms for the hospitable reception they met from the Rev. Mr. Mathews, the Rev. Mr. Pucky, and Mr. Southie.

From the mouth of the Ranga-ounou to the Hohora River, is a sandy beach of 7 miles, to point Repi-repi where the river was crossed in a canoe.

For the navigation of the Hohora River and Bay, (Vide Sailing Direction

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The river is 5 miles long, but only navigable near the mouth. At low water the upper portion is mud flats 3 miles in length by a mile in breadth. It runs parallel with the coast, with sand hills between it and the west coast, a distance of 4 miles, and the east coast is little more than 1 mile from it. A range of hills called by Cook, Mount Camel, from its appearance forming the separation.

Among the valleys of this mountain the natives have several cultivated spots, but they do not usually reside here. Hohora Bay offers excellent shelter for vessels in the prevailing westerly winds.

I have before mentioned it, as an admirable retreat for vessels bound westward, and meeting with a N. W. wind off the North Cape, wood, water, and fish can be procured here.

From Hohora to Parenga-renga a distance of 22 miles, is along on inhospitable and dreary coast. The first 10 miles alternate cliff, and open sandy bays, then a white sand beach extending to Parenga-renga. The walking easy at low water, but heavy when the tide is in.

The bar harbour of Parenga-renga is 6 miles south of the North Cape (Vide Sailing Directions). The bar has 15 feet at low water, and as the swell here is inconsiderable in the prevailing westerly winds, with a little outlay this might be made a valuable port for coaling steamers. There is plenty of room and water within for any number of vessels. There is a point on the north shore at which vessels can lay alongside, and moreover there is a seam of coal which as far as we can judge is very extensive, we traced it for 400 feet, 3 to 4 feet broad at the surface from a point without the harbour. We found it again protruding within the harbour at nearly miles distant, and being upon the same bearing is probably identical.

The specimens we brought resembling the Bovey coal, were not very good, but it had been taken from the surface, and being exposed to the action of the sea, it was scarcely a fair test.

There are a few native settlements, which compose the northernmost tribe, about 150 in number (Rarewa's) if we except a family residing at the North Cape. These natives were found particularly hospitable.

Between Parenga-renga and the North Cape, there are sandy bays, with rocky projections intervening, but at low water it is possible to walk along the beach. In one of these bays the Maukin, whaler, ran on shore in March 1852, during a N. E. gale.

There is fair anchorage within the North Cape, although always more or less swell.

The family before alluded to living at the North Cape, is known, as Tom Bowline's, an elderly man. There are from twenty to thirty persons who occasionally supply whalers, when as seldom happens they can anchor off the bay west of the Cape.

During the time E. Hongi scourged the North, these people

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escaped to the Three King's, and lived there some years, we have seen the remains of their whares there.

The ship Barclay brought them away March 10th 1848. In a certificate he gave to Tom Bowline he states he found them in a state of starvation.

The following is a copy of the document:--

"The ship Barclay, March 10th, 1848, touched at the Three Kings, where I found the people in a state of starvation, and very anxious to get on the north part of New Zealand, I thought it was my duty to take them there, considering the circumstances in which they were placed, so I took them on board, (twenty in all, ten of whom were children), and landed them on the N. W. part of New Zealand, with bread and flour enough to last them about two months. I think, with the assistance of some friends, they will be more likely to get a living here. Landed them on the 12th March.

"Master, Ship Barclay."

(On the back).

"Tom is the master man, he speaks English, and has a large family."

It is amusing to see in this simplicity but charitable intentions of Captain Mann, seeing that these people had returned to their own home. A resident in New Zealand will also detect the native characteristic of extortion.

A traveller will find an easy road from the bight within the North Cape, to Tom Bowline's, a walk of 4 miles, from thence over the mountainous and rugged ranges to Cape Maria. No distinct path will be found.

These barren regions are seldom visited by the natives, being considered the land of spirits, and from whence the soul takes its departure, but these superstitious notions are peculiarly advantageous to the breed of swine, which our travellers found here in great abundance, and might have taken any number. They describe these hills as being lightly covered with fern, the soil reddish clay, with masses of conglomerate protruding. The country is called Maori Whenua. It is not practicable to walk along the beach on the North Coast.

From North Cape to Cape Maria is 21 miles, the breadth of this range facing seaward to the north to the sand plains, is about 4 miles, they are generally steep, and but a small portion could ever be cultivated. The highest peak is less than a 1000 feet. Cape Maria and the coast line has been described (Vide Sailing Directions.)

The walk from Cape Maria to Ahaipara occupied 5 days, they said the country presents to the eye a land of ruins, the soft sandstone decaying, and leaving the harder portions standing in all kinds of fantastic shapes, reddened by oxide of iron. Although tedious walking, this 45 miles of beach afforded them a supply of

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Tamuid, which they caught in the surf, and the Toheroa by digging into the sand. They saw duck, curlew, oyster-peckers, and gulls in great abundance and several parts of the beach was strewed with whale's bones, it being evident they are not very frequently stranded here.

In a bay at the south extreme of this 45 miles of beach is the native settlement of Ahaipara, having 400 to 500 inhabitants, several horses, and much cultivated land, they speak of the sea having encroached considerably upon this coast within the memory of man. An Englishman named Walters pointed to a part now the tidal beach, where whares had been within the last 8 years, they fell in with a very venerable old native who remembered Cook in Doubtless Bay, his name is Pakeha.

The journey from hence towards Hokianga was round Reef Point, and along the base of sand hills until they reached Herekino, where H. M. Brig Osprey was lost, there are still remains of her, they found no natives, but having discovered a canoe, with out paddles, they managed with a piece of wood to get across, the river, being about 1/3 of a mile broad, but the entrance at low water is not more than 100 yards.

The Herekino rises at the foot of the range running to Ahaipara, and is navigable for canoes the whole distance, a mile from the mouth it forms two arms, of which the northernmost is the principal, but the settlement is on the southern, it is not however a populous district. On the south bank they saw some cattle, and on arriving at the native village of Herekino, 2 miles from the mouth, they found natives who killed a pig and treated them hospitably. They ascended the Herekino hill about 900 feet, and found the country of rich fern soil, from this hill they were repaid by seeing the Pandora proceeding to Hokianga.

To walk from Herekino to Wangape is 2 miles, the path is inland, and 5 miles from the mouth of Herekino to Wangape. Wangape rises in the same range, and forms 2 branches 2 miles from the entrance, having native villages on each branch. There is abundance of kauri on the river. (Vide Sailing Directions.)

From Wangape to Hokianga is 11 miles, the walk, excepting the first mile being along a sandy beach; on the sand hills they found several cornelians.


This was travelled by Messrs. H. Kerr and George Stanley. They left the Pandora February 13th, 1852, in Hokianga.

Starting from the pilot's bouse at the South Head, they walked along a rocky coast, until they reached Waima Maku streams (5 miles), which were waded at low water.

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Three miles inland is a valley of that name, with a native settlement. From hence to Koatu point, 23/4 miles, the coast still continues rocky, but the land within in many places appeared to have good superficial soil, although generally indifferent, as shown by the white clay and quantities of kauri gum.

Beyond Koatu point there are a few patches of cultivation, which, as well as the valley of Waima Maka, belongs to the natives of Pakanai in Hokianga.

From Koatu point to Maunganui bluff is 11 miles--a sandy beach backed by sand cliffs 100 feet high.

Four miles from Koatu, the Waipo disembogues. There is not more than two feet at the mouth, but it is navigable for canoes to some distance within, having a small village and some kumera plots on its banks. The land within is nearly barren, until within 3 miles of Maunganui bluff, where a valley of considerable width stretches to the eastward, bound by Maunganui bluff to the southward. This is called Waikara, and is cultivated.

They ascended Maunganui (2000 feet above the sea level), and their journal remarks that it is broken into two ranges by a valley at an elevation of upwards of 1000 feet, and falls inland, probably meeting the valley of Wairoa. The passage over the bluff is not difficult, although, with the exception of the valley, it is thickly wooded. It can be performed in about three hours.

"Whilst on the bluff (waiting for fine weather to observe) we were overtaken by a large party of horsemen and pedestrians, who proved to be our friends of Pakanai (Hokianga) proceeding to Kaipara to meet their chief, Rangitera, who was going round in the Pandora. They insisted on our taking a quantity of damper and potatoes, and bade us good-bye; but did not forget us, for having caught Some fish in the surf, about ten miles further, they left some, with potatoes, calling our attention to it by a board, written on with chalk, and addressed to one of our natives--thus proving that they had not forgotten the kindness received from the Pandora's, and that a mutual good feeling existed.

"From a bare peak on the outer extreme of Maunganui, the heads of Kaipara, and all the land about the Wairoa, may be seen --Toka Toka and Maungaaura being very conspicuous,

"From Maunganui to Kaipara heads, 48 miles, is a straight line of sand beach, backed by crumbling sandstone cliffs, of a general elevation of 250 to 300 feet, broken by numerous small streams. The land within does not rise to any considerable elevation above the coast, and has generally a barren appearance.

"Eighteen miles from Maunganui, the Wairoa runs parallel to the sea coast at a distance of five miles, increasing to seven or eight at the heads.

"Thirty-four miles from Maunganui, we turned in on a track to the Wairoa, and after a short walk, descended to the village of Wanohiu, situated at the head of a valley which runs to the Wairoa. It belongs to the people of Pakanai, whose slaves hare been living here as free men.

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"Here we again met our kind friends of the road, who treated us most hospitably.

"There is here a quantity of land under cultivation, in fact, nearly the whole that is available. After leaving this village, we soon arrived at the ship lying in the Wairoa."

In many places from Maunganui bluff to Kaipara heads, they saw quantities of kauri gum, large roots and branches of trees closely packed together, sometimes at the base, and others 100 or 200 feet up the sides of the cliff, -- many places the wood had almost become lignite. No iron sand was seen along this beach.

Fifteen miles from Maunganui, and thirty-three from Kaipara North Head, they fell in with the remains of the French Alcmene, and the whole beach was lined with fragments of her.

On this beach they also found the gigantic pipi shell, six to seven inches long, which made excellent food, --and snappers.

John Dory and Ray were caught in the surf.



On October 22nd. 185S, H. M. S. Pandora hove to off C. Runaway (Whangaparaua), and landed Messrs. Oke and Ellis in a small bay to the westward of that Cape, to commence a survey of the coast-line to Maketu. The Pandora afterwards anchored in the roads.

Early on Monday morning we began the ascent of Cane Runaway peak, 960 feet high, and quite steep on the east and west sides, running down like a sharp back towards the Cape, bare of wood, but of which there is a great quantify a little further inland.

The formation of the Cape is a fine slate and serpentine rock. From the summit I had a good view of Motu-hora, White Island, Mount Edgecumbe, and the snow peaks of high mountains south.

After descending to breakfast, we walked two miles by a rugged road, round to a whaling station in Whangaparaua bay, and as we could not cross the river in the east end of the large sandy bay, we remained here, pitched the tent, and visited the conical peak immediately over the bay, from whence we had a view of the fine valley through which the Whangaparaua runs.

The valley extends nearly to Hicks bay, along the back of the coast range of hills, extending between the two roadsteads, Whangaparaua and Hicks bay. These hills rise to the height of from 800 to 1200 feet.

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At 6 o'clock in the evening, the Pandora weighed and made sail, the whale boat of the station leaving her at the same time. The wind which had been blowing fresh all day from the westward, and sent a short sea into the bay, was now so light as to prevent her gathering way to tack, and the sea setting her towards the shore. As the sun set a gun was fired, which we thought was a signal of good bye to us. A second fired immediately afterwards told that she wanted assistance. A whale boat was launched, and a crew of volunteers on the way on board, when the third gun was fired. The second boat was now launched and manned. By this time she had anchored, and we watched with intense anxiety as long as daylight lasted, to see if she neared the shore. Fortunately the anchor held. We waited till nearly eleven o'clock for news of her having cleared the cape. Soon after midnight the boats returned, and she was all safe at sea. The boats' crews were much pleased with the reward given for their assistance.

A ten minutes' walk over a rocky point leads to the Whangaparaua river. It being low water we crossed knee deep, and got on a sandy beach trending {to the westward for two miles, when we ascended and crossed the low yellow point to another sandy bay, the land in the back ground rising in terraces, but further back, and visible from the coast, are high wooded hills.

The second sandy bay is miles long before coming to the slaty rock which here shelves out to seaward, and then occasionally appearing in detached rocks, extending round Orete point one mile to the native village of Orete.

Orete point is low, and has a curious hummock on the extreme, with much lower ground inside. It rises very gradually to the wooded hills in the back ground. The distance of the village from the whaling station is seven nautical miles.

Between Orete and the entrance of the Rau-Kokore stream, 2 miles distant, there are two small native villages and some cultivations. The road is along the beach, composed of angular pieces of slate, very difficult walking, so bad as to have worn our shoes through in several places.

The Rau-Kokore is not wadeable at the entrance. We had to walk up 1 1/2 miles along the bank, and crossed it in its broadest part. It flows down a broad valley, with high wooded hills on either side. In times of heavy rain the whole expanse of the valley must be covered with a rapidly running river, and consequently impassable to the traveller.

To the westward of the stream, a shingle reach extends for two miles, after which the road is a succession of ups and downs, high points to cross over, and sharp shingle beaches to coast along, Irregular rocks lie off the points, and in most of the small bays there is scarcely room for a boat to pull in and beach. This kind of coast walking extends from the west end of Papatia bay to Waikaua, distant six miles, with high wooded hills abutting in high cliffs to seaward.

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The geological feature is clay slate, in some places more crystaline than in others, and occasionally interspersed by fine veins of quartz.

We ascended some of the hills which appeared to be more clear of bush and trees than the others, and from them had a view of the coast and islands in the Bay of Plenty, also a sea of wooded hills in the interior.

At Waikana there is a whaling station, and a small cove which protects the boats here. The road became better as we went along to the native pah, Pahaua, one mile from Waikaua.

At Pahaua we saw a great many natives assembled to wait for the tide to ebb from the Te-kere-u stream, to enable them to cross on their way to the Kaha, and not wishing to be bothered by them we pushed on to the river, swam over, and sat down to dinner on the opposite side; but scarcely had we cooked our bacon, than the whole body of natives began crossing the stream, in Indian file, and coming to us, persisted in shaking hands one after the other, and we despaired of ever being able to get a mouthful of dinner. We could have well dispensed with their civility. When the greater part had passed, the children stood round, and looked as if they had never seen a Pakeha feed before.

We made our tent down in One-roa bay, about 4 miles from the Kaha, where we heard that Mr. Davis, of the Church Mission, had arrived.

An hour's walk along the shingle beach brought us to Whare-Kura abreast a small peninsula. From hence the road struck in over a flat piece of country to the Kaha, four miles from Te-Kereu.

A great quantity of the land from Waikana to Kaha must have been under cultivation formerly, where there is now only a few patches. The land along the shore is generally flat for from one to two miles in land, when high wooded hills rise to 700 or 800 feet.

There area few Englishmen living about here, whose business is to trade with the natives, principally for grain.

At Tekaha we met Mr. Davies of the Church Mission, Opotiki, who had walked here to settle a dispute relative to a native who had died twenty-two years previously. He had died in one place, and his bones secretly removed to another. This had only lately been found out, by the garrulity of an old woman. So after the lapse of upwards of twenty years, they had raked up an old affair to have a great talk about.

Mr. Davies had hopes of settling it amicably. There were nearly 100 natives assembled in the pah, and 300 more expected (the opposite party from Marae-nui).

The road to Motu-nui is inside the coast-line, and is good, laying principally through old cultivation. The road is then along a shingle beach to Omaio 3 miles, a native village on the east bank of a small stream, to which the tide has access.

Here again there is a large tract of old cultivation, only part of

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which is now used. From the top of the hill over Omaio we had a beautiful view of the village, stream, and small plain at the foot of high wooded hills.

From here we had a good path, near the coast, round to the large native village of Tokato (3 1/2 miles). We passed some native cultivation on the road.

Tokata is one of the largest native pahs on the coast, and has a beautiful church. This pah is one mile to the northward of Marae-nui river, is rather dilapidated. All the ground inside not occupied by houses, is sown with potatoes. which they are not allowed to eat themselves (the ground being tapued), but can present to their friends, or sell.

As we slept, or tried to sleep, near a ruined hut, we did not get much rest from the number of nocturnal visitors.

The Marae-nui river is not fordable at the entrance, --coasting craft sometimes get into it, and lay inside on the north shore close to the shingle bank. About a mile from the entrance it is broad, and fordable, running down between two high ranges of wooded hills. Our natives informed me that it came from a great distance inland, and that a road to Turanga lay along its banks.

From hence to Tunapahore, we had a most uninteresting walk of 6 1/2 miles, along a shingle beach, the wooded hills abutting here and there in high cliffs of which Parenui is the boldest.

At Tunapahore, Mr. Davies again overtook us, and here again there was was a great korero about what had gone on at the Kaha. Here we remained at Mr. Davies visiting lodge, and had some tea and a dinner of bacon, bread, and potatoes, the usual fare for an excursion of this kind.

Mr. Davies has occasionally to submit to the natives' custom of rubbing noses (enough to make a man blow his nose off). The pah at Tunapahore is a large double fenced pah, rather ruinous, and at one time held a great many natives.

We left Tunapahore after dinner, and crossed over the hills at the south end of the bay into another shingle beach bay, with a small river, Torere, in which there were two small vessels lately launched, and waiting for the next heavy freshes to get out.

The country about here begins to get more open, from the tops of the hills we had a much better view of the land in the background. Two and a half miles of another shingle beach brought us to sleeping quarters, and at sunset we encamped with no fresh water near but such as we could get out of the foot holes before us. Here we lay down for the night, having overcome the last shingle beach, and nearly worn the boots off our feet.

Mr. Davies arrived early, and we breakfasted at our night's quarters together. After which we had a tiresome walk over Opape point of four miles, on to the first of the long sandy beaches extending from here to the Katikati river. We walked eight miles along a sandy shore at low water, crossing one or two small streams, and crossed the sand hills, to the Opotiki river, about a mile from its entrance, where we found a canoe waiting for us.

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An hour's pull brought us (against the tide) to Mr. Davies's house, where we found, by the kindness of Mrs. Davies, every thing ready to make us comfortable, and we rested for the remainder of the day.

The Opotiki, as this river is generally called (vide Sailing Directions). After two days' hospitable treatment at the Mission Station, we started again for the coast, and walked along the sandy beach for four miles to Wai-o-tahi stream, only wadeable at near low water, and being in advance of our natives, we walked up the east bank for some distance in hopes of being able to cross. On stopping, we saw one of the boys attempting to cross near the entrance with the instruments and bread on his back, and in spite of my continued calling, he persisted, until the bread bag got full of water, and he going out with the tide, when he turned for the shore, and fortunately got in. We were obliged to remain and dry the bread; the instruments fortunately did not get wet; and it was nearly low water when we crossed over, rather more than knee deep.

A walk of 2 1/2 miles along the hard sandy beach brought us to the Ohiwa (vide Sailing Directions). We tried to get to the house of a European on the east side of the harbour, after finishing out work on the east head, but the tide had flowed too deep over the mud flats to enable us to get there. A few insolent natives, seeing we were at their mercy, offered to take us there in their canoe for eight shillings: but as we thought the same exorbitant imposition would be practised on us in the morning for crossing to the west shore, we went over at once, and they would not take a shilling less than what they formerly asked.

When over to the west side, we found ourselves in the same difficulty as before, for not a drop of water was to be found. So after walking about a mile along the shore, we stopped at an old bouse in a ruinous condition, with the well dry; so we dug it deeper, and procured water, stinking, but not so bad when boiled and the tea and sugar mixed, as not to be drinkable and refreshing.

The harbour of Ohiwa deserves to be completely surveyed, as being a good central position in the Bay of Plenty, and with the exception of Tauranga, the largest. The land on the south side is hilly, in some places wooded, and in others bare fern, with a good sprinkling of cultivations and native villages.

There are also two or three Europeans living here.

In the morning, after crossing the sand hills, we again found ourselves on a good beach, the end of which we reached at noon, and commenced the ascent of the hills towards Whakatane. From the time we got on to the beach at Opape point, we had a tree or bush in sight on the top of the hills over this river. We now lost sight of it entirely. However, an hour's walk over the hilly and fern country brought us to it, which turned out to be an old but fine Pohutukawa tree, at the side of an old pah, and from which we had a view of the plain extending to the foot of Mount Edgecombe.

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The plain is bounded on the east side by a ridge of hills, running in a northerly and southerly direction, and terminated by the point close to the entrance of Whakatane (vide Sailing Directions).

From the middle of the beach between the rivers, the mountain Putauaki, or Mount Edgecombe, 2575 feet high, rises magnificently in the back of the plain about twelve miles distant. The plain is covered with low bush, flax, and fern, and swampy in some places on the banks of the river.

We remained at Mr. Preece's mission station on Sunday. There are several native villages and much cultivation on the banks of the river Whakatane. The Natives are Protestants and Roman Catholics, the greater number being Protestants.

As we wished to go to the top of Mount Edgecombe, it was necessary to consult the chiefs. Two of them, living near, had no objection, on condition that we took no food with us. But they informed us of another living near the mountain whose permission they could in no way be certain of. We also found, on enquiry, that it would be too expensive an undertaking, so we gave up the project.

In the afternoon, with thanks to Mrs. Preece for her kindness, we left for the entrance to the river, 2 1/2 miles distant, and remained there for the night. There were six or eight small native craft lying in the river, and nearly as many more on the stocks. A few Europeans live in the village, near the entrance, chiefly shipwrights.

The hills over this village abut in steep, cliffy slopes of slaty rock, of which there are several large lumps scattered on the shore, as well as in the bed, and at the entrance of the river. It is quite wonderful how small vessels keep clear of them.

The natives here are very reasonable in their charge for crossing the river. They warned us not to put up our instrument on the sand hills, or we should be shot, as it was one of their burial places, and tapu. However, we managed to do all we wanted at the entrance, and then commenced a walk along the heavy steep beach between this river and the Matata, of fourteen miles, the island Motutohora always in sight, and appearing to be going in the same direction, i.e., I thought we should never get past it. We arrived at Matata in the evening, and crossed the river to the native pah, of which there are three here.

This river is more subject to heavy freshets than the Whakatane, and overflowing the sandy bank at the entrance, sets out to sea in a broad sheet of water. In fine weather the entrance is narrow; it is visited by small vessels, two of which we saw on the stocks building.

From Matata to the westward, a ridge of high white cliffs, partially covered with trees, girt the shore for 5 1/2 miles, and a quarter of a mile from high water mark--a good hard beach for walking at low water.

Crossing the Wai-taha-nui, a stream six miles from Matata,

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two miles more brings us to Otamarakau, one of the prettiest native villages I have seen in New Zealand, situated on the summit of a cliff, the houses and cultivations interspersed with the dark green Karaka, with the Wai-o-tahi stream, winding round the base of the cliff, and taking its way along the shore. From the hills we had a view of the surrounding country, principally undulating fern land, sloping down into the swamp of the Waihi, a small river, emptying itself just to the eastward of Maketu point, six miles distant.

From the Waihi it is two miles to the Rev. Mr. Chapman's, at Maketu, over the hills, which are cultivated nearly everywhere.

We were received very kindly by the Rev. Mr. Chapman, by whom we were entertained for fourteen days, until the arrival of H. M. S. Pandora.

During the nineteen days we were walking, and surveying 106 miles of coast, from C. Runaway, we had most delightful weather; the natives also behaved very well, never interfering with us, and seldom question what we were about. A short explanation from Sydney Taiwhanga, one of our natives (educated at the Bishop's College) satisfying the most scrupulous.


The native villages and cultivations are numerous, being seldom more than three or four miles apart. The most populous district is the Waiapu, the main stream of which rises near Hikurangi, about twenty miles in a straight line from the coast, over the whole of which extent there are numerous scattered villages and cultivations; the latter are confined principally to the steep valleys and sides of the hills, where they prefer rearing crops, as the soil is richer, and saves the labor of fencing, which is necessary on the level lands, to keep out the cattle, which they possess and are very proud of.

Mokena, the native assessor, (accredited by the authorities at Auckland), is much respected, and feared from his personal strength, and the authority he is enabled to exercise in his official capacity. As far as I could judge, any culprit would be quickly apprehended if he knew that his presence was required at Auckland.

The Government is much respected on this coast; this the traders say has only been brought about lately, and they attribute it to the natives possessing vessels which they fear being seized, but I rather imagine it is from the facility with which they can visit the seat of government, and there hear and see somewhat of its power.

The cultivation for export is almost entirely confined to wheat and maize; potatoes and onions are only grown in sufficient

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quantities to supply home consumption, and whalers, who visit the coast (2 or 3 a year) for supplies.

From Tokomaru Bay to Poverty, the population is thinner, which is partly occasioned by the greater accommodation to be found in Turanga, and partly also from the inferiority of the soil, and the hilly nature of the ground. After passing Tawhiti (to the southward), the hill on the south side of Waipero, there was a more sterile aspect in the land than to the northward; but those interested in these neighbourhoods, say it is to be attributed to the numerous land-slips, which are very prevalent; and the natives say that they are to be instrumental in changing the feature of the country from its present hilly nature into level land.

The whites on this coast are the receivers and exporters of the native produce, for the Maories find it more remunerative to sell it to these traders on the coast than sending it to Auckland in their own vessels, as those conveying it pay themselves well; they know also from experience that they cannot buy shirts, blankets, &c, &c., cheaper at Auckland than from the trader on the coast, and therefore, charter their vessels to the Pakeha.

The whites appear to be very dependent on the caprice of their Maori customers, finding it necessary to conciliate the chiefs by small presents, and easy bargains. There was an instance, a short time since, of an Englishman having offended a chief, who took revenge by tapuing him; thus preventing the Maories from having any intercourse whatever with him, so that until he found it convenient to leave, he was beholden to a fellow-countryman for his daily food.

The principal men in the various villages are the native teachers, in opposition to the hereditary chiefs, who have considerable influence even now, but in times of disturbance, the latter probably would soon gain their former position.

There is one marked exception to the above in the great chief, Kani-o-taki-rau, whose authority is undisputed around Tolaga; i. e. from Turanga to the East Cape, and is said to extend to the south part of Hawke's Bay. This great division is the Nga-ti-porou, extending from Cape Runaway to Hawke's Bay. He is a great friend to the whites on the coast, supporting them always when right; and they in return appear to respect him, and treat him on all opportunities with marked kindness. He has lately been ill, but is now recovering: his constitution is much shaken. He has no sons living, and but one daughter. There is a great aversion evinced by the natives to selling land to private individuals; and those resident amongst them say, an equal dislike to selling to the Government.

We found about 15 Europeans between Hicks' Bay and Poverty, and one whaling station at Te Mawhai.

The Awatere river, in Hicks' Bay, is supposed to rise in the Rau-kumera Hills. From it, towards the East Cape for five miles, the coast is rock on sand beaches. A short distance within hills of table-summit of 1000 feet rise abruptly from this

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level, on which are several villages and plantations. The Oratua is a considerable stream, west of the last projection before reaching the East Cape: at high water it is not fordable. From hence to the East Cape (Otiki) is mostly sand beach, (3 miles). On this beach the Waipapa disembogues-draining a large extent of country. A mile before reaching the East Cape we came to the village of Poratua.

The Otiki is an isolated hill 500 feet above the level of the sea; on its west is a narrow sandy flat which widens to the south into a swampy plain two-thirds of a mile each way. Its south boundary is the spur which juts from the range parallel with the coast, and east of Waipapa, terminating in Point Opuri. The beach is available for walking between Poratua and this point: there is also a track within Otiki, (rather swampy).

Opuri Point is half a mile beyond the line of beach, south of it; slopes gradually to the north, but on the south falls abruptly, it is of a soft, crumbling nature, easily undermined by the sea and springs, which cause large masses to slip. It now seems like a hill cut down from its summit.

Opuri Point to Wakori Bluff, two miles. The coast between is straight, about 30 feet elevation, faced by a sand beach; the level land is of about the same extent as north of Opuri; with good surface soil, --clay below: the village of Renga-renga is on this flat. Cultivation is carried on to the foot, and on the slopes of the hills. From Renga-renga there is a track leading over the range to the valley of the Waipapa. The valley is said to be well wooded--principally kahikatea. The ascent of Wakori Bluff is tedious, although of small elevation (500 feet): on its summit a view of Hikurangi is obtained. From it to Waikaka is three miles; the track is inland. The seacoast is cliff with sharp peaks; the land within is hilly, and broken by deep watercourses and small lakes; inland the peaks are upwards of 1000 feet, but no defined range.

Ti-arita, 320 feet, the south extreme of this land, is the northern boundary of the Waiapu Valley, a little beyond which is Waikaka village, with its pretty little native church, disfigured by grotesque carvings, not executed in the usual native style, but absurd caricatures of Europeans.

The Waipu is a rapid river, taking its rise in the Hikurangi range, receiving many tributaries, which drain upwards of 25 miles of a mountainous district: it is not fordable. In the winter and spring it is often impassable, -- March being the worst month. Where we crossed in a canoe, 1 1/2 mile within its mouth, its breadth was about 80 feet, but during the freshes it is half a mile, the bed being well marked, and consisting of pebbles and boulders: it disembogues north of Pahautia, a hill 420 feet above the sea, and the north extreme of a narrow ridge forming the seacoast as far as te Awainui. This hill is 1 1/4 mile south of Ti-arita. The coast north of the river is sand, which extends inland half a mile.

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On the hills north and south of the valley, a good view of the mountainous nature of the country is obtained; the highest point of which is Hikurangi, a double-peaked, mitre-shaped mountain, 5535 feet above the level of the sea, capped with snow: it is sixteen miles from the nearest point of the coast. There are also several high peaks between Hikurangi and the month of the Waiapu, of from 3000 to 4000 feet.

The native plantations and pahs are scattered over the whole extent of the Waiapu Valley, to the foot of Hikurangi. One of the principal villages is Rangitukia, situated on the fork formed by the junction of two tributaries on the left bank of the river, 1 1/2 miles within its mouth: near this is the best spot for crossing the river. A mile farther on, at the back of Pahautia, an Englishman lives. Another 1 1/2 miles is Ti village, on the hills south of the Waiapu. At this Englishman's house we experienced great hospitality, and received the pleasing intelligence that, scattered along our track to Turanga, we should find many Englishmen, and native villages in great numbers: which we found, to our great comfort, correct, the whites being separated by easy stages for ordinary travellers. From hence to Te Awanui is 2 3/4 miles. The track for a short distance is at the back of Pahautia, when it returns to the beach. The Awanui is an inconsiderable stream, separating the low coast hills of Pahautia from the higher range which rises over Wharariki Point to 1000 feet, called Maka-kawa: the extreme of this point is three-quarters of a mile from the Awanui: the beach is available round it.

From the nature of our work, we found it requisite to ascend Maka-kawa, instead of going round the point. It is cultivated more than half up its north face; and a track leads over its summit to a village, which is about one mile south of Wharariki, 400 feet above the sea, on a flat sloping inland, with marks to seaward of heavy land slips. Between this village and Wharariki stood a house, inhabited by an Englishman and family, with two English strangers accommodated for the night. In March, 1853, it was partially buried by a landslip, and carried to the sea, which was beating with great fury on the beach: one stranger was outside at the time, the other escaped by being under the lee of a box, placed on end for a cupboard: it made a hole in the roof, through which he escaped, incurring great risk of drowning in the surf, the owner, with wife and family, were buried in the ruins.

From Wharariki Point to Reporua is 3 1/4 miles, good beach: near midway is a stream and village, (Te Awatere); the land within much broken. At Reporua there is a stream, with a village on the hills rising south of it: the land extensively cultivated. The track here is half a mile from the coast, which is steep and impassable for 2 miles, after which it forms a small bay with sandy beach to Kaimoho Point. In the bay are two villages, one or both of which ate called Tuparoa. Kaimoho Point is North of Waipiro, or Open Bay; it is round, and 4 1/2 miles in extent.

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From Tuparoa to the north extreme of the Waipiro, (Matahu), the beach is the only available track, consisting of large stones and boulders, most tedious to travel. The land behind is of about 700 feet elevation, and 1000 feet 3 miles within. Whareponga is a native settlement on the point, one mile north of Matahu, at the mouth of a steep ravine.

From Matahu, round Waipiro Bay, the beach is good; distance 4 miles to Waikawa, a small village. There are two other settlements in the bay; one on the north, the other in near the centre, which is the most important.

Tawhiti separates Waipiro from Tokomaru Bay; it is 1670 feet above the sea, and 4 miles from north to south, in which direction the main ridge runs, with spurs jutting on either side, of little less elevation than itself, and falling precipitously to the water courses, 500 to 1000 feet, covered with small trees. The passage over this hill from Waikawa on the North to Tokomaru may be performed in about three hours: from the summit a fine view of the surrounding country is obtained.

From Tolaga Bay on the south, to the East Cape on the North, and to Hikurangi, the interior is ranges closely packed; the general elevation being about 1500 feet - the greatest about 2000 feet. There is but one remarkable hill, -- it is a cone rising 700 feet above the hills around: the total elevation above the sea 1790 feet.

There are four extensive Pahs in Tokomaru Bay. Nothing of the interior can be seen from the beach. The bay is 5 3/4 miles round: There is one considerable stream to be crossed in its S E. corner. On the south side of the bay the land is high and steep, terminating in Te-mawhai, on the south of which is a whaling station in a small cove, called St. Patrick's. In it we were told a landing could be effected at any time that it is possible for a boat to live outside, but we thought that prior experience would be required to escape being dashed on the rocks. From the whaling station at St. Patrick's Cove, the track is over a hill about 1000 feet, to the village, Tango-iro, then on the beach to Marahea, 3 miles from Te Mawai. The intermediate coast is nearly straight; the interior high and broken. There is another village, Tirohanga, within Motu Repa, which island is half a mile from the coast, -- 2 1/2 miles south of Te Mawai.

Tiro-hanga Point is impassable at high water, but a good track leads over it: height 400 feet. The coast now falls back, forming Waipare Bay, which is 3 1/2 miles round to Matahu, its southern point, off which is the island of Anaura. There is an extensive Pah; there are also a few houses in the bight of the bay. We were informed that ten minutes walk south from Matahu you come to fine level land, extending to U-awa, or Tolaga Bay. This appears very probable, from the appearance of the coast hills, and direction of the U-awa.

From Matahu, as said, there is a track inland to U-awa: we, from necessity, travelled the beach. Half a mile beyond Matahu the cliffs are impassable at high water, continuing so for half

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a mile, when there is a sandy beach for a mile: this brings you under the summit of Marau Point, (1030 feet high); it is rocky, steep, and impassable. A very good road leads across the land within the point; it is elevated about 200 feet, and half a mile wide: at its south termination is the village of Kaiaua.

When we came in sight of the cultivations bordering on this village we were assailed with cries of Pakeka, pakeka and were quickly surrounded by 30 Maories. After exchanging salutations with them, we requested a guide, to point out the best track up Marau summit, but as the chief was very importunate for money, and he not having rendered us any service, it was refused, and we were obliged to ascend by ourselves. It appears the money was intended as a toll for the use of the last half mile of road. The English say that, in some instances, where the payment of it has been refused, they have taken it from the bundle of the Pakeha, and others have been refused the use of it altogether. On our return from the hill, they offered us food, but made no farther demand for toll.

From Kaiaua it is 3 3/4 miles to the north point of U-awa or Tolaga. Midway is the point Turonga Koaiu; it is 612 feet above the sea; its east face is precipitous cliff, with about one-third of a mile of gently sloping land to its base: this is cultivated, and has a very pleasing appearance when coming to it from the northward. The point is steep to the southward: the road is over its summit, which had at one time a fortified pah.

There are several small villages and streams between Marau and U-awa. The land is of little elevation, --the hills mostly clay, and fern-clad. The sides of Tolaga Bay are 400 feet above the sea. On the south rises Titi-rangi, which is 890 feet.

In continuation of the northern ridge, near half a mile, is the island of Motueka. Off the point is Sporing's Island, three-quarters of a mile long, parallel to the coast, and connected with it at low water by land. Within this island, and at the back of the south cliffs of the bay, is the cove where Cook watered, in continuation of it is a small valley parallel to the coast. The natives point out a small well, as a reminiscence of Cook, and call it Te Wai-o-Tupaea: it is four inches across, one foot deep, cut in the rock, with a shallow hole to receive its overflowing: this appears to be for the convenience of drinking. On the rock below, by scraping off the moss, we found "GEM. I. MACKY," cut, and other initials. Further up the valley you come to the natural curiosity which gave Cook's officers much pleasure. It is a hole through the south cliffs of the bay. We found it to be exactly the dimensions stated by Cook, The U-awa runs into the sea at the centre of the bay; the direction of its main branch runs to the northward. Just within its mouth are two pahs; one on either bank: they are in good repair, but uninhabited. The valley through which it runs appears marshy, with flax, toe-toe grass, and several patches of trees: the hills to the west are wooded. The

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river is not fordable. Titirangi bill is 3 miles long in the direction of the coast. The track leads along its eastern slope, and passes over the hills which are at the head of the south branch of the U-awa, and which also connects Titirangi with the hills within, then by a steep and circuitous descent to the beach.

The seacoast of Titirangi is clifF, and impassable. The coast falls back a little between Titirangi and Gable-end Foreland, or Pari-nui-te-ra. The distance round is 7 miles good beach, excepting a small piece just past Puatai, which is disconnected stones, impassable at high water. Puatai is a considerable pah, 2 1/4 miles north of the foreland, and 7 1/2 miles from U-awa. The general feature of the country about here is high, steep hills, with cliffs and landslips at the beach. There is a track over Gable-end Foreland, which is 800 feet above the sea: 3 1/4 miles beyond is the village of Pakarae. The beach is good, with several streams, all fordable. The land about Pakarae is sandy, as is also the spot on which it stands. The valley of the stream, near its mouth, runs to the N. W., and the head must be near the head of that of Puatai: the hills between these two and the sea, are about 700 feet to 900 feet elevation. Pakarae is the last village inhabited north of Turanga-nui. The coast from here takes a more westerly direction than north of the Foreland. The distance to Turanga-nui is 14 1/2 miles.

One mile southward of Pakarae is a deserted whaling station, just within Whangara Island, which is connected with the shore at low water. The coast is sandy and rocky, alternately, to a bluff 450 feet above the sea, with shelving rocks at its base. There are several streams on this last coast; the land much broken and hilly. The north head of Poverty Bay, (260 feet) is 4 1/2 miles beyond the last bluff: the coast for two miles is steep, then a sandy beach for two miles more, after which the track to Turanganui is through the valley at the back of its north head.

From both Europeans and Natives on this coast we received great hospitality and kindness and in no instance did we meet with any obstacle to the prosecution of our work from the jealousy of the natives. It will be seen where the native villages are on the coast from the foregoing remarks. The whites are situated as follows:-- several between Hicks' Bay and East Cape; two at Opuri Point; one near Waikaka, north of Waiapu, another south of that river; two at Awanui; one at Reporua; at Matahu, N. point of Waipiro; and in the centre of Tokomaru Bay; several at the Whaling Station, St. Patrick's Cove; one at Anaura, Puatai, and Pakarae.


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Page 84--in third paragraph, second line, after "pah" read "which."

Page 84--in tenth paragraph, fifth line, for "before" read "about."

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