1861 - The Church Quarterly [Christchurch] - No. 2. JANUARY, 1862, p 1-20

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  1861 - The Church Quarterly [Christchurch] - No. 2. JANUARY, 1862, p 1-20
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No. 2.] JANUARY, 1862. [Vol. I.

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No. 2.] JANUARY, 1862. [Vol. I.



IN the fourth statute of the General Synod there is a clause to this effect: "That the term parishioner for the purpose of this statute shall mean every man of the age of twenty-one years and upwards, resident in the parish, and who shall have subscribed a declaration in the churchwardens' books, that he is a member of the United Church of England and Ireland."

Such parishioner is entitled to vote at the election of the representatives of the General and Diocesan Synod, at the election of the parish officers, at the election of the committee for the management of the Church Schools, and generally to take a part and give his vote at all parish meetings. The statute does not require that he should be a communicant, but that he should be of a certain age, resident in the parish, and have declared himself a member of the Church.

And this declaration is obviously necessary for the security of the Church; for those only who are in full communion with the Church are qualified to serve in any of the above mentioned offices of trust; yet, all who may vote at their election, have and may exercise a very important influence in promoting or obstructing the interest of the Church; besides, it is a thing unheard of, that a society (and the Church must be regarded in this light) should be in any respect under the direction of those who do not professedly belong to it; and though it is quite true that all who have been duly baptized into the Church whether here or elsewhere, are members of it, yet in a country like this

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where, for the most part, we meet as strangers to each other, the Church has surely a right to ask of those who claim to take a part in her affairs, that they should declare their membership. Such a declaration as this is not unusual in our parishes in England, though there the membership of individuals might be ascertained by a reference to the baptismal register, or be supposed to have been established by their holding certain church offices. Where, for instance, the management of a parochial school is vested in a committee, of which the churchwardens are ex-officio members, such church officers are in some cases not allowed to interfere in the affairs of the school, until they have signed a declaration of their membership with the United Church of England and Ireland.

But there is another clause in which it is stated as a part of the duties of churchwardens, that they should "keep a book and enter therein the names of all church members resident in the parish," not only, as it would seem, those who may have qualified themselves by having made the required declaration, to vote at the church elections, but all who call themselves members of the Church, not excepting those who might decline taking a part in church meetings and elections, or who by reason of their age or sex might be unable to do so.

And the object which is sought to be obtained by this is of the utmost importance. It is, that the clergyman and church officers of the several parishes may know who are really committed to their care; and who have, as such, claims upon their services.

According to the system which has long prevailed in England, and which has proved so beneficial there, the more inhabited parts of this colony have been divided into parishes or ecclesiastical districts, each, where it could be so arranged, with its own curate or parish minister, and churchwardens And though the curate and churchwardens are unquestionably bound to consider all who may be living within their parish, as in some measure under their care; yet, since in most parishes some are avowedly separated from the Church, and are provided with ministers and places of worship of their own, the services of the curate and churchwardens are more especially due to those who are still abiding in the communion of the Church, and it is very desirable that these should be known.

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In the case of communicants, the members of the Church mar be easily ascertained, for the very act of communicating is a pledge and token of membership; but there are many who are not communicants who yet occasionally attend our places of worship and avail themselves of our religious services. They bring their children to our clergy to be baptized by them--they are married by our clergy, according to the forms of our Church; if they are sick or in trouble, they look for the visits of our clergy, and they expect when they come to die to be committed by them to their graves, in those places which have been set apart for the burial of the members of the Church of England. On all these occasions they seem to desire to be treated as members of our Church; but, in other respects, it is not easy to say whether they account themselves, and wish to be accounted as really belonging to our communion. They have been brought up in our Church, and perhaps are not unwilling to continue in it, but it can scarcely be said that they have, by any distinct act of their own, signified their intention of so doing, and thus have claimed for themselves and families a fresh participation in that provision which the Church has made for their welfare.

For, let it be remembered, that the services of the clergy are not limited to the performance of certain Sunday duties, or occasional services, such as baptizing, marrying, or visiting the sick. It is their duty to be living among their people, in friendly intercourse with them, to he their teacher, guide, and adviser in things spiritual, to assist parents in the training of their children, to comfort the afflicted in their sorrows, to encourage the weak in their difficulties and trials; and, it may be at times, with all long suffering and meekness, to admonish those who err; not as assuming authority over them, other than that which God has himself assigned to the ministry of his Church, but as being bound in all things to seek their welfare, and to watch over them for good, as those who must give account. But such pastoral services can hardly he offered except to those who in some measure recognize their value, and who have shewn themselves desirous of receiving them.

And so likewise as regards the duty of churchwardens. They are bound by their office "to call the attention of the curate to

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anything which may need his services, and generally to promote the welfare of the Church in the parish," and as the dispensers of the alms af the Church they are to seek out and give relief to those who may stand in need of it: their duties, is evident, lie chiefly among those who are members of our communion, and they ought to have some means of proving who are they who claim to be members of it.

What seems then to be required is this: that in every parish those who desire to be regarded as members of the Church should of themselves apply to be enrolled as such in the churchwardens' book. In ancient times Christians travelling abroad, or removing from the place of their baptism, to other parts were accustomed to carry with them what were called commendatory letters, that is, letters from their spiritual pastors, declaring their membership; and on presenting these, they were received as brethren in the Churches to which they came; and letters in some respects resembling these are occasionally brought out now to the Bishop and clergy, and bearers of these, on expressing a wish to that effect, might be registered at once in the General Registry of the Diocese. But it is much to be desired, that all who wish to be recognized as members of our church, whether they are communicants or not, should, as soon as they have settled in any parish or district, make themselves known to the curate or churchwardens, and request to have their names entered as members in the church wardens' book. And this should be done, not only by the heads of families (who would of course enrol with their own names, the names of their children) but by those who might be resident in any parish, though not permanently settled there, especially by young men and women, who might be separated, for the time, from the guardianship of parents or relations; for such have especial claims, not only on the kindly interest of those who are holding office in the Church, but on all who desire to forward the work of Christ If this were generally done, that is to say, if the names of all, old and young, who belong to our communion were duly registered in the parish in which they might be residing, by their own act or request, a way would be opened for that which is certainly much wanted in our church, viz: a more direct and personal intercourse between the minister and the several members of his flock. But besides this, those belonging to the church in a parish would be able

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to realize more fully those words of scripture, "We being many, are one body in Christ and every one members one of another," and would think of each other, not only as of individuals who might be living together in the same locality, but as persons united together by no ordinary bonds and interests, and obliged by their membership "to have an especial care one for another." Such kindly feelings are supposed to be encouraged by various societies established among us which have for their highest objects some advantages pertaining to this world alone, how much more then might they be expected of those who have given in their names as brethren in Christ, and who, in the enjoyment of the same spiritual blessings so richly provided in his church, are desirous of walking by the same rule, and minding the same thing.


In a new country of which a very large proportion is used only for pastoral purposes, there can be but few districts, which answer to the ordinary description of a parish. Rut a system of parochial division is found to be necessary whenever the Church endeavours to supply a scattered pastoral population with regular ministerial service. Districts formed for this purpose, and termed 'Parochial' to distinguish them from the regularly constituted parishes, have the same object in view as the ordinary parish, --the systematic administration of God's word through the ordinances of the Church. But the peculiar circumstances of the work in such districts require a peculiar routine of life in the clergyman, very different to that which the ordinary parish demands. In endeavouring to describe these peculiarities it will perhaps be best to take first the case of those districts whose parochial organization the least resembles that of a settled parish. These are the exclusively pastoral districts. In the process of colonization they must lose this exclusive character, and the introduction of agricultural or other interests which draw people together will have the effect of subdividing parochial districts into parishes. Still, there are in this diocese large tracts of country which will in all probability remain for many years in

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pastoral occupation, such as the country between the Rakaia and Rangitata livers; a large proportion of that between the Rakaia and Waimakariri, and the Waimakariri and Hurunui; as well as the districts north and south of the town of Timaru. In speaking of these districts as likely to remain exclusively pastoral for a considerable time, it must be remembered that they extend far into the mountainous parts which lie directly bordering on the plains. As to the work involved in a district of this sort, the case of the country between the Rakaia and Waimakariri, in which a clergyman has been resident three years, will serve as an example. Its extent is about 800 square miles, which is taken up by sheep-farmers in blocks varying from 10,000 to 35,000 acres. They reside on their runs and employ a limited number of labourers. The actual number of houses in the district is about forty, besides a few huts occupied by single shepherds; the total resident population would not average more than 400: of this a large proportion consists of men working by contract--here one month and gone another, iho nature of their occupation necessarily places a wide interval between the houses of the sheep-farmers. There is at present no neighbourhood in the district sufficient to justify the erection of a Church no place in which it would be possible to maintain a Day School. Consequently, divine service is held in private houses, which are so situated as to give to adjoining settlers the opportunity of attendance. The present arrangement of Sunday services brings the clergyman round to all the principal houses once in five weeks: two and sometimes three services are held on the Sunday so as to include two or more neighbourhoods. As these Sunday services cannot be made to include many of the huts which lie in remote situations, two or three evenings during the week are devoted to visiting them for the purpose of divine service. The average attendance on Sundays at each service is about fourteen. What little can be done towards the education of the children is only possible during the occasional visit of the clergyman. He can scarcely ever see the same children oftener than once a fortnight; and, although he can then devote all his attention to two or three children, yet it is impossible to supply the want of regular school discipline. The education of their children is really in the hands

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of their parents, who are for the most part too busily engaged to attend to them. It will he seen from this account that the clergyman, with the most central possible residence, must be away from home a considerable portion of each week. Suppose him to start from home on Saturday morning, visit stations on his way to the place appointed for Sunday service, perform the Sunday services, spend Monday and Tuesday amongst the neighbouring stations, and return on Wednesday morning. He will thus have to ride at least eighty miles a-week, and whilst away from home will be entirely dependent on the hospitality of the various settlers. These remarks apply especially to those districts which have no centres for the formation of villages and townships. It is nearly certain that several such districts will be in existence for some years to come.

As regards the districts of another character partly pastoral, partly agricultural, as that between the Waimakariri and Ashley, there are even now some places in which a school and church could he established. A clergyman in charge of such a district might, be able to appoint lay readers to conduct the services in Church, whilst he was absent for occasional Sunday services amongst the neighbouring sheep-stations. It would be likely that such a parochial district would have two or three churches of small size in its various centres of population; there would also be opportunities for the establishment of lending libraries in a country of this sort, to meet the continual demand for books which is made by people who are almost without the amusements of social intercourse.

It should be added that, though the clergyman in charge of a pastoral district enjoys few of the benefits which spring from the ordinary organization of parish schools and societies, yet. his visits to his parishioners are necessarily of such a sort as may lead to an intimate acquaintance with almost all within the limits of his district.

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WE give the following late accounts of the Mission, as a continuation of the narrative contained in our last number. They are extracted from a letter lately received by the Diocesan Secretary from Mr. B. Dudley, of the Melanesian Mission staff. We learn that this gentleman was to be ordained on Sunday, December 22nd.

In my last letter to you I told you of the safe arrival of the Bishop and his party at Mota, Bank's Islands. I will now try to give you a short account of what has been going on since.

In consequence of the great rush to the Otago Gold Fields, two or three months ago, it was some time before we could find a suitable vessel to charter for the voyage to the islands to bring back Bishop Patteson and his party. At last, however, the Primate succeeded in engaging the "Sea Breeze," a fine new vessel of seventy tons, commanded and partly owned by James Tautari, a Maori of the Bay of Islands, who has for a long while been engaged in the trade between that place and Auckland. We delayed leaving New Zealand until the 24th of September, in hopes that the Cordelia which had been on a cruise to the Solomon Islands, and had called in upon Bishop Patteson on her way there, would bring us some tidings of him and his party. But she did not make her appearance, so we started. We arrived at Mota on the 7th of October, after a fine run of only twelve days: on going on shore we found the Bishop, Mr. Pritt, and Wadrokal and his wife; all were pretty well, but showed traces of having been recently ill. All had had more or less sharp attacks of fever, and Mr. Kerr had been so unwell that it had been thought advisable to send him back to New Zealand in the Cordelia. After a hard day's work with the boats, we got everything and everybody off to the vessel, and sailed across to the harbour, Port Patteson, in the evening. On the whole, the result of this last winter's stay among the islands has been very encouraging. Soon after their arrival some of the party set to work with the assistance of the Natives, to put up a large shed, some thirty-six feet long by twenty feet wide, open on one side, which was to serve as a school-house. Some of the lads from the neighbouring islands stayed with them during the greater part of the time, and other lads came to live with them from the other villages of the island, so that with the men and lads who came from the village itself in which they were living, there was a daily muster of from fifty to sixty at this central school. It was from this party that the most promising scholars were selected to bring to New Zealand. They had scarcely been on the island a month when the Cordelia arrived, and took Bishop Patteson away to the Solomon Islands, with the lads from thence; Captain Hume having kindly undertaken to return them to their homes, and to bring back any that the Bishop might select. Besides visiting the Southern Islands of the Solomon group, to which we had already paid many visits, the Cordelia went as far as St. Isabel, a large island to the north of Maleuta, some 120 miles in length. The Bishop obtained a great many words of the dialect spoken at the southern end of this island, and two

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young men seemed half inclined to come away with them, but could not quite make up their minds. We must hope to visit the island again as soon as we have a vessel of our own. We have not a single person from any island of the Solomon group this year; some of the brightest of our old scholars from St. Christoval cams on board, and all was settled about their coming; indeed the Cordelia had actually left their island with them safely on board; but, unfortunately running short of water a few days after, she was obliged to put back there, and then the feeling of sea-sickness and the persuasions of their friends proved too strong for them and they left again. It was rather a disappointment to lose them in this way. Hamamu, one of them, had been one of our most hopeful scholars the year before, and had he been with us this year would himself, humanly speaking, have progressed very rapidly. However, we do not despair of getting them again another year. The Bishop had a bad attack of fever and ague while on board the Cordelia, and at the same time Mr. Pritt, Mr. Kerr and Wadrokal, were suffering in Mota in the same manner. During the first two months of their stay (July and August) the rain was incessant, and everything continually kept damp and moist: this most probably was the cause of their illness. All of them suffered very much also from pain and swellings in the ears and deafness; the Bishop especially.

Utagilava, an old friend of whom I have told you before, is not with us this year. His conduct was not by any means so satisfactory this last winter as before. He was very irregular and careless in his attendance at school and prayers, and often seemed to have something on his mind which he would not speak about; at the last however he brightened up rather, and came on board the vessel when she arrived, apparently with the full intention of coming to New Zealand. When we got over to the harbour the old cloud came over him again, he sat for several hours apart on the vessel, apparently very unhappy and undecided, and then left us and did not again make his appearance. It was a great grief to us to lose him in such a manner, after all our hopes: perhaps it may please God that he may yet return. We have brought however in his place a young man from Port Patteson, who has behaved in such a manner as to make the Bishop very hopeful about him: Sarawia by name. He was one of the first two lads ever brought from Bank's Islands, and had once before been to New Zealand, but the year before last his behaviour seemed so unaccountable to us that we had almost ceased to hope that the teaching had made any impression on him; but, however, this last year he came to see the Bishop, and explained his whole conduct to him in a most satisfactory manner. Since then he has regularly assembled the lads of his village for school, and has of his own accord built a new house; the first one ever built with two stories at Vauna Lava. One of these stories he occupies himself with his wife: in the other he has school daily. He regularly took an oar in the boat during the voyage back, and the interest with which he entered into the whole work, and the pains which he took by signs and by scraps of the dialects, of which he knew a little, to induce lads to come with us were most gratifying to witness. These are the sort of arguments which he would use with them-- "Very good, you, me, go New Zealand: you see

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ship there very good; no fight; Bishop here, very good; plenty moons me stop with him; suppose you like to go to New Zealand; seven, eight moons we come back here. What for you afraid? You see, me stop with them; they no fight me; they give me clothes, plenty food, hatchets, plenty good things. Come along."

You will bo able to see from this upon what grounds lads are at the very first induced to come away with us. Of course it is not until we have brought away scholars for two or three successive years from a place, and have learnt somewhat of their language that we can at all explain clearly to them the real object of our taking them.

We have with us altogether, now, thirty scholars--twenty-seven men and lads, and three women.

Twenty of these are from the different islands of the Banks' group, and and are under the charge of Mr. Pritt and myself: the present plan being that Mr. Pritt and I spend our next winter there, while the Bishop and Mr. Kerr go to Mai, one of the New Hebrides, from which we have had many scholars. We have with us this year two lads from that island, and one from Tasiki, the nearest large island, who are under Mr. Kerr's charge: the Bishop taking almost the whole philological part, and the scripture instruction. Besides we have Wadrokal and Kupu, our two old Nengore teachers, --the former with his wife, the latter with his fiancee, to whom he will be married in the course of the summer; Kawombal and two Nengore men (friends of Wadrokal), make up the party. The other female is a young Mota girl (the first lady of her island who has ever visited New Zealand), the wife of a lad named Quaratu, one of our old scholars. She is in one of my classes, and certainly is exceedingly bright and anxious to learn, but much more like a boy than a girl at present.

Our first Mota class is a very pleasant one; it now numbers seven; but will soon, I hope, be increased. We find it difficult to supply them fast enough with books at present: now that they have learnt to read with tolerable ease nothing escapes them; if only a piece of manuscript with a few Mota sentences written by some of us, is found lying about, it is seized on at once as a great treasure, and read through again and again until almost known by heart. They are now beginning to learn to read English, and to translate it into their own language.

We have been here four weeks, and as yet have had no serious illness of any kind among them. The hooping cough is going about Auckland now, and we are keeping the boys closely shut up, as were that to get among them--with their weak lungs--the consequences might be fearful. The financial affairs of the Mission are, I believe on the whole, in a prosperous state: the liberal subscriptions from Canterbury and Otago have been of very great help this year. I believe no less than 2000l. was collected at Eton last St. Barnabas day for a new vessel. Miss Yonge has also given 900l. more for general missionary purposes, but the manner in which this will be expended is not yet decided on.

We are likely henceforth to have a very efficient helper in Sir George Grey, he takes the greatest interest in this work, especially in the philological part of it.

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ENGLISH Churchmen certainly leave behind them a great many advantages when they come to reside in a colony. The venerable cathedral, the old parish church with which so many hallowed memories are associated, the parochial system established for so many centuries, and with countless arms spreading blessings over the whole land and into every corner of it, the numerous and rich endowments for supplying the ministrations of religion, for education, for the relief of the sick, aged, and poor, all these and many other advantages are not to be replaced in a life-time. But these losses are not altogether without compensation. We come from a land where everything, or nearly everything, connected with Church privileges, was done for us, but it is a grave question whether this is the most healthy state for a Christian man to be placed in; to be thrown upon our own energies and our own resources puts our sincerity, our resolution, and our perseverance to a trial, which leads in some cases indeed and for a time to apathy and indifference, but on the whole it is a bracing and invigorating discipline. What is wanted is that we should look our position fairly in the face, and, not disdaining to be taught by Christians of other denominations who have been long accustomed to rely on their own energies, looking back above all to those early times when the whole Church of Christ was a struggling body, rich in faith though poor in wordly goods, unendowed but full of zeal, that we should rouse ourselves to appreciate and fulfil, with the help of God, the responsibilities which rest upon us.

One result of that over-tender training under which most of us have grown up in our native land, is that our laymen have almost entirely lost sight of their true position in the Church, and have almost ceased to recognize that any duties belong to them as members of a spiritual body. When a man is admitted to Holy Orders, he is very commonly said to enter the Church, as if he were not in it from his baptism in common with all others who "by one Spirit have all been baptized into one Body;" and this is only one sign of that very general practical forgetfulness that we are all "the body of Christ, and members in particular," and that, as such, the duties and responsibilities of that membership rest upon us all in common. It must therefore be regarded as an unquestionable advantage, and as a means of individual improvement in the highest spiritual sense, if the altered position of our Church in the colonies tends to draw out this corporate life in fuller vigour by affording greater scope for the healthy activity of every individual member. We say a greater scope, for happily in

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England the present century has seen much done through the introduction of Sunday schools, district visiting, Missionary and other societies, to revive a conscious spirit of church-membership, and a livelier zeal to serve Christ by fulfilling works of love "for His Body's sake, which is the Church." But in a colony the stern hut salutary lesson which has to be learnt is that everything which is required to be done must be done by ourselves. If we want a Minister and a Church in a new district, we must rely on our own efforts to build the one and support the other; we can look for very little help from other quarters, for every other district has its own work to do, and there are no wealthy central societies, to which we may appeal for aid; if fresh necessities arise, fresh efforts and greater sacrifices must he made, and the sooner we learn this lesson, the better it will he for us; we shall not only see the religious institutions of the old country gradually growing up around us, but we shall certainly set a far higher value on our privileges when we have worked hard and denied ourselves much to obtain them, than we did when we offered to God of that which cost us nothing. We must put the shoulder to the wheel, there is nothing else for it; hut then the labour is a blessed one and will bring its own reward.

The co-operation of the laity has been introduced with the greatest possible advantage into the governing bodies of our colonial churches, the General and Diocesan Synods, but this co-operation must be carried further into every part of the work of the Church, until the dormant life is awakened in every part, and the whole body is instinct with new energy. There is work for the laymen in the unformed district, and work of a different kind in the formed parish. How is the Sunday spent in outlying districts, seldom or never visited by a clergyman? Or, to ask another question, what is the amount of knowledge possessed by the younger inhabitants of such districts on the great fundamental truths of our religion? Let those who can best answer these questions from their own knowledge consider whether they cannot themselves do much to remedy the evils they must needs deplore. Can they not take counsel together, and appoint one from among their number who, with the sanction and under the instruction of the Bishop, may conduct a service every Sunday at some central house or building, and who, with the help of others, may collect for religious instruction as many as possible of the children? Or, if many or even a few are unwilling to join in making the first move, cannot one earnest man be found who, counting the cost, whatever it may be, is determined to break through the apathy and coldness around him, and to make an effort even single handed to stem the current of ungodliness and vice? If he is consistent, he will soon gain at least the respect of his neighbours, and if he

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perseveres, he will find that the good which he will effect, if not all that he could wish, will be far more than enough to reward his efforts. What good seed has been sown in this way by some, who may not live perhaps to see "the full corn in the ear," will only be known at that Great Day, when every hidden thing shall be laid bare before men and angels, and every man according to his works "shall have praise of God." By and bye the school chapel will rise, and a new stage of life will begin; the occasional visit of a clergyman, or of the Bishop, and the ministration of the Word and Sacraments, will increase the means of grace, but will not diminish the work of the earnest layman; he will not be satisfied till he has stirred up his neighbours to contribute for the maintenance of a resident minister, and for the erection of a more suitable building for the worship of God. But when in course of time the parish is duly formed, is the layman's work then at an end? Surely not. There are the Sunday school, the choir, the vestry, the school committee, each and all of them means of usefulness and of doing God service, which, according to his ability and fitness, he will thankfully welcome. Our space forbids us to do more than touch upon these points at present; we may perhaps treat of them separately in future numbers; we only wish to say at present what we imagine most serious-minded and reflecting persons will agree in, that these ought all to be regarded as sacred offices, and to be undertaken with reverence as holy ministrations in and for that spiritual body of which Christ is the head. It is much to be regretted, we think, in this point of view, that the General Synod in laying down the duties of churchwardens and vestries, appeared to confine them almost entirely to matters of accounts and such like, as though they were concerned only with the external framework of the visible Church, though even these necessary offices, if performed with a devoted and humble spirit as unto God and not unto man, will doubtless reap an exceeding rich reward; but if for instance they had only been charged in addition with the duty of bringing under the notice of the Curate cases of sickness or destitution occurring in their several neighbourhoods, they would have been taught more fully to recognize their position and duties as members of that body, of which one principal characteristic is that "whether one member suffer, all the members suffer with it; or one member be honoured, all the members rejoice with it," and "that the members should have the same care one for another." But this is a defect which may be remedied, if it be thought fit, in the approaching session of the General Synod.

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It was stated in our last number that an effort was being made to raise funds for the establishment of a boarding school at Kaiapoi; and that it was thought desirable, if possible, to secure the services of a competent Native Teacher from Auckland to assist in the school and in the visitation of the natives of the Diocese. We are glad to be able to announce that it is probable that both these objects will be attained.

It will be well to state in the first place that the services of a most suitable native teacher have been secured. He is a person who has been for nine years under instruction with Archdeacon Maunsell, and two years with Archdeacon Kissling at St. Stephens, Auckland. Both he and his wife are considered as specially adapted for the post which they will hold at Kaiapoi. It is hoped that there will be no difficulty in raising a stipend for the support of these valuable assistants to the School and Mission generally. At present the amount raised by collection in the diocese is not sufficient even for the payment of the small stipend of the Missionary, and, in consequence of this short-coming, one-third of that stipend during the last year was supplied by one person. We feel however assured that during the next year vigorous exertions will be made to increase the contributions, and that there will be abundant funds to carry on this charitable work amongst us. In the meantime a guarantee has been made that the stipend for the Native Teacher should be forthcoming.

Before we proceed to state further what has been the success of the efforts made to raise funds for the establishment of the boarding school at Kaiapoi, it will be desirable to give a few explanations with respect to the school in addition to those which have been already given. The numbers and ignorance of the native children--the need there is to separate them, if possible, for a time from the temptations of a Maori village--have been already mentioned as showing the necessity of a boarding school. Another most useful object is that it will serve as a training school for Native Teachers for all parts of the province. With respect to the teaching, it is proposed, besides religious instruction, to teach through the medium of the English language--arithmetic, geography, history, reading, &c. The spare time will be engaged in industrial operations. The School is intended to be a mixed one, both sexes being admitted; none (except a few married couples) to exceed twelve years on admission.

The expenses at first will be large--school buildings, accommodation for twenty or thirty pupils, and a house for the Native Teacher, are immediately required. Furniture for the diningroom and dormitories will be required; also farming implements, such as a plough, spades, cart, &c. These objects cannot be carried out at a less expense than about £500.

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We are happy to be able to state that so far the efforts to raise the necessary funds have been successful.

The Natives themselves have already subscribed about £35; and further subscriptions have been received or promised to the amount of £35 more. In October last, the Bishop made an application to the Governor, Sir George Grey, for assistance, and by the last mail the following gratifying letter was received in answer to that application.

Native Secretary's Office,
Auckland, December 7th, 1861.

MY LORD,--I am desired to inform your lordship that the letter addressed by you to Governor Sir George Grey on the 23rd of October, on the subject of a grant for the Maori School in addition to the sum of 200l. granted in 1860, has been under the consideration of his Excellency's Government; and that they have felt much pleasure in advising his Excellency to place a further sum of 200l. at your lordship's disposal for the purposes mentioned in your letter.

Instruction will be sent accordingly to the sub-treasurer, and I am to convey to you the thanks of his Excellency and of the Government, for the service you have rendered towards the establishment of this school, and to say how glad they will be to hear that the efforts your lordship is now making for placing it on an efficient footing have been successful.

I have the honor to be, my Lord, your Lordship's obedient servant,

Acting Native Secretary.
His Lordship
The Bishop of Christchurch.

Besides the application to the Governor, an application was also made by the Standing Commission of the Diocese to the Provincial Council of Canterbury for assistance. The matter was referred by the Council to the School Committee on Education, and the Committee, after taking evidence on the subject, recommended in their report "That the Maori Schools should be left to be treated by the board (proposed by the Committee) on exactly the same terms as any other school within the province." The Education Bill has been withdrawn, but we trust that the claims of the Maoris thus recognized will not be forgotton, and that the desired assistance will be given. The Standing Commission will then he enabled to establish the school on an efficient footing, which we trust will be both a temporal and spiritual blessing to our Maori brethren.


OUR present number contains an intimation that the Standing Commission are promoting the establishment of an Orphan Asylum. Space will scarcely permit us to give in full detail all the reasons which have induced the Commission to undertake this work; but members of the Church will be interested in knowing that the idea was first suggested by Mr. Alabaster. During the long illness which unfortunately has secluded him from more

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active duty he has elaborated a plan for mitigating the saddest form of destitution which colonial life presents--that, namely, of orphans whose nearest domestic ties have been broken by death, while generally speaking, they are cut off from the aid of more distant relatives by emigration.

The result of long and careful deliberation bestowed on the whole subject by the Commission was the resolution, of which public notification is now given, to provide for such cases of orphanage as from time to time may occur at present, these are just numerous enough to convince all who know the history of progress in this settlement that before very long their number and urgency will be greatly increased. Beginning on the most moderate scale, the Commission, propose to provide, according to the means with which they may be entrusted, for all such cases of orphanage as may occur within the Diocese of Christchurch; and, it need hardly be said without regard to sect or "denomination." One member of the Church has already given rent free accommodation for six months, so that there need be no delay in commencing the work. Should the Commission at the end of that time be enabled to continue, or, possibly, required to extend their operations, it will then be necessary either to lease suitable buildings, or to erect them on some site obtained with a view to a permanent establishment.


STRANGE as it may seem, the task of those who undertake a subsistence for the clergy has been rendered more difficult by the reputed wealth of the Church. This is a consequence, and by no means an advantageous one, of the scheme originated by the Canterbury Association for the establishment of a branch of the Church of England in this settlement. Because liberal provision for ecclesiastical endowments was made by the Association, and because they were able to carry on their operations for a few years, it is argued that the estate acquired for Church purposes must be so valuable as to render the need of private contribution not very pressing.

We cannot suppose there are many churchmen who cling to this view from a desire to escape their own share of the burden. But there are some who allow such a notion to rest vaguely on their minds, because they are too indolent to seek for correct information on the subject. Subjoined to this article is a short statement of the receipts and expenditure which will be unavoidable, if faith is to be kept in the engagements made with the clergy during the current year. It there appears that the gross sum required for the maintenance of the clergy is about£3000, of this£800 is

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derived from the Church Property Trust. So that of the gross sum required for clerical stipends, only one fourth is derived from the fixed endowments of the Church. It should be also remarked that the expenditure of the present year exceeds that of last by £300, the income of the Church Property Trust remaining the same.

Looking back on the last eleven years, and looking at the impetus now being communicated to the process of colonization in this island,, is there any prospect before us but that of rapid increase in the number of clergy required and of the amount to be raised for their subsistence? If the Church of England is to occupy the field at all it will be by sending out a number of clergy towards whose maintenance the highest rental obtainable from the Trust estates will be an inconsiderable fraction. It is well that this should be realized both by clergy and laity. For it is impossible not to see that our fixed endowments are so small, and our present and prospective liabilities so heavy, that we must consider ourselves as virtually living under the voluntary system. What can we do more than express an earnest hope that the clergy may be willingly paid for their works' sake; and that the laity esteeming them very highly in love on the same account will do their utmost to avert a dearth of spiritual ministration from which in the end they and their children will be the chief sufferers.

(NOTE.--The sum required for the minimum payment of the present staff of Parochial Clergy (thirteen in number) for the year ending March 31st, 1862 amounts to 3000l.; of this sum 1780l. has been guaranteed by the various parishes, 800l. is expected to be received from the Church Property Trust, 420l. is required to be raised by offertories, surplice fees &c. We may state that for the first three quarters of 1861 the sum of 250l. has been raised by offertories, surplice fees, viz., by offertories, 220l., surplice fees 30l. This sum falls short of what is required by 65l., and unless increased exertions are made, the deficiency will be serious at the close of the current year. The small incomes of the clergy will be materially diminished during the first quarter of 1862. We may also state that there are considerable arrears in the local contributions of some parishes, so that in several instances the stipends of the clergy have not yet been paid up to the end of the quarter ending Sept. 30th, 1861. We call attention to these facts, trusting that the knowledge of them will help to remedy the evil.)

Church Intelligence.


The General Synod will meet at Nelson on Wednesday, the 5th day of February, 1862. The following are the names of the clerical and lay representatives of the Diocese of Christchurch:-- The Venerable the Archdeacon of Akaroa; the Reverends J. Wilson, M.A., J. Raven, M.A., and J. A. Fenton, M.A.; and Messrs. J. W. Hamilton (since resigned), F. Banks, (since resigned), T. W. Maude, J. E. FitzGerald, J. Carr Young, and Henry Clapcott.

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The Reverend G. Cholmondeley lots been appointed to the ministerial charge of this district, the rule of the Synod having been complied with, that in such instances a guarantee for local contributions of not less than 200l. should be given. The Reverend C. Oldham will succeed Mr. Cholmondeley as assistant Curate of Christchurch.


The foundation stone of this Church was laid by the Lord Bishop of Christchurch, on the 20th of June, 1859. The building was consecrated and opened for Divine Service on the 10th of April, 1860. It is principally owing to the liberal subscriptions received from the inhabitants of Lyttelton, assisted by a Government Grant, that this Church, which is capable of holding a congregation of four hundred persons, has been erected. The following is a statement of the amounts received up to the present date, and of the total cost of the building.

£ s. d.

£ s. d.

Subscriptions, &c., received to date

1422 11 3


Donation from Sir Walter James

331 0 0

Do. from the Society for Promoting, Christian Knowledge

25 0 0

Do. from the Diocesan Fund

25 0 0

Government grant

800 0 0

Sums borrowed (to be returned)

550 0 0

3153 11 3

Total cost of the building

3144 18 7

Cash in the Union Bank

8 12 8

3153 11 3


We are glad to learn that an attempt has been made with marked success to interest the children of the Lyttelton Church Sunday Schools in the Melanesian Mission, by encouraging them to subscribe and collect for the "Southern Cross Yacht Fund." Out of about 60l. collected in Lyttelton for this Fund, 20l. was the result of the exertions of the children with collecting cards, and of their own weekly contributions through their teachers. It is intended next year (D. V.) to take up the Kaiapoi Maori Mission in the same way. We give publicity to these facts in the hope that other schools may be stirred up to similar efforts.


For Melanesian Mission--on the Epiphany, or first Sunday after the Epiphany.

Maori Mission--on Whitsunday, and on the last Sunday in October.

Clergy Maintenance Fund--on the first Sunday in every month.

On faster Day the Church collections are to be regarded as an Easter offering, and handed over to the Curate at the time of collection without being accounted for to the Diocesan Treasurer.


In answer to Bishop Patteson's appeal for aid, a considerable amount has already been raised in this diocese towards the purchase of a mission vessel for Melanesia. About 60l. has been collected in Lyttelton, 35l. in Christchurch and its neighbourhood, and 14l. in Riccarton and Upper Heathcote. It is expected that there will be a considerable addition to the amount already received. A sum of 72l. was forwarded to Auckland some months ago, and the Diocesan Secretary has received the following acknowledgment from the Primate, dated November 1st. "In the absence of Bishop Patteson, I wish to acknowledge most gratefully the sum of 72l.

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received from the Diocese of Christchurch, for the purchase of a new Mission vessel. Our kind friends will be glad to hear that the subscription is advancing rapidly in England, and that we have now felt ourselves justified in sending positive instructions for building a schooner of 100 tons register, or about 150 builder's measurement: the Southern Cross having been found rather too small for the purpose of conveying the wives and families of married Missionaries or Teachers. You will oblige me by communicating my thanks to all friends and contributors to the Mission Fund."


The attention of the clergy and churchwardens is called to the following resolution of Synod--"That it is desirable that lists for donations and subscriptions be opened in the different parishes, and that the Curates and Churchwardens be requested to use means for carrying out this resolution."

The expenses of the Mission and School during 1862, cannot be less than 2501. or 300l., besides the preliminary expenses necessary for the establishment of the Industrial Schools. If funds be further provided, the usefulness of the Mission may be considerably extended.


Steps have been lately taken by the Standing Commission for making the advantages of the Society available in this Diocese. The sum due to the Society has been remitted to England with a large order of books, &c. It is proposed on their arrival to form depots at Christchurch, Lyttelton, Rangiora, and other places, where arrangements can be made for so doing.

By the rules of the Society all who subscribe annually 1l. 1s. are members of the society, and their subscriptions may be applied to carrying on the operations of the society in the Diocese to which they belong.

A sub-committee of the Standing Commission has been appointed to make all necessary arrangements in connection with the society--consisting of the Bishop, Messrs. F. Banks, F. Thompson, and the Diocesan Secretary. Persons wishing to become subscribers are requested to send in their names to the Diocesan Secretary.


The Chapel School at this place has lately been fitted-up with desks and forms for the use of the congregation and school children. A schoolmaster's house has also been erected close to the Chapel school, in which Mr. Vanstone (the newly-appointed master) resides. The buildings have been erected and the necessary fittings for the Chapel provided by means of the contributions of the inhabitants and donations from friends on the Plains.


The Ngatiporau appear to be some of the most advanced natives in New Zealand. They have collected no less than 550l. towards a Bishopric Fund. In six different settlements they have neat wooden churches which cost from 300l. to 400l. each; and in many places they have collected sufficient to form an endowment for a native deacon. They grow wheat, potatoes, and kumeras, for their ministers--enough to keep them supplied with food all the year round. They grow these in fields set apart, which they call "the minister's fields." All take part in the cultivation. They set apart also certain cultivations for the schools. We are indebted to a letter from the Reverend C. Volkner, addressed to the Reverend J. Stack, for the above interesting information.


We are happy to be able to state that the Provincial Council has voted the sum of£250 in aid of the establishment of the Native Industrial School at Kaiapoi, and also the sum of £250 in aid of the establishment of the "Christchurch Orphan Asylum," so that the Standing Commission will proceed at once to establish these institutions.

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* Divine Service read by Lay Headers. Baptism and Holy Communion administered by the Bishop and the Curate of Dunedin.
* For occasional services see Note on Churches and Church Services in first number.

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