1866 - Clark, A. A Sketch of the Colony of New Zealand - [General] p 5-21

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  1866 - Clark, A. A Sketch of the Colony of New Zealand - [General] p 5-21
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THE earliest tidings that we have handed down to us of the discovery of this country by the white man, tell us, that to Tasman, a Dutch explorer, the honour of having first sighted New Zealand, in the year 1642, primarily belongs; and that a like honour is also due to our own celebrated navigator, Captain Cook, for having more fully discovered it in 1769, and spreading abroad such a favourable and truthful report of the new country. There are few particulars on record of Tasman's visit. The only evidence which history affords us of his having been there is known from the fact of his calling the newly discovered land after his own country, by the name of "New Zealand," and a Cape lying on the most northern point of the Islands, by the name of "Cape Maria Van Diemen," after his own daughter. We have, however, numerous proofs of Captain

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Cook's visits. His name is still quite familiar with the natives, and wherever spoken of, is always treated with the greatest respect. He seems to have worked altogether favourably with the natives. We do not meet with any instance in which a difference of agreement, or any form of hostility, was exercised by the Maories towards Cook. The object for which Captain Cook's visits were made to New Zealand was for recruiting his vessels. He thrice visited the country on such a purpose, and at every interview became more and more ingratiated into the favour of the natives. He never took any advantage of their helplessness and ignorance, but treated the Maories with the greatest kindness and the most tender regard; and hence we do not wonder why Cook's name throughout the Islands should not but be remembered by them with the dearest affection. Large numbers yet tell us about Peni Kuke's (their name for Captain Cook) arrival in the land; and while they do so, we easily perceive the joyous feelings that seem uppermost in their mind, and which constantly pervades them in mentioning his name. The natives speak of him coming in a sort of a thing which their ancestors at first thought was a large bird flying on the sea--the sails of his vessel having been taken for the wings of the bird. His urbanity and genial disposition were fully exemplified among the natives, and won for him, from the ignorant and savage dweller of these islands, free ingress and regress to their country and their huts, as well as every freedom to become acquainted to some extent with their customs, and with the resources of the country. The natives say that he introduced the pig, also the potatoe and many other various European seeds and vegetables, and likewise instructed them in the use of iron instruments.

The native reports regarding the early settlement in New Zealand by the Maories is wholly traditionary, and it is somewhat strange that although the versions to be met with are rather varied, still, in their chief features, they are wonderfully agreed. The name of the place from whence they came; the direction where it lies; the reasons which made them migrate; the localities where they first landed; the canoes in which they came; the timber of which they were built; the builder's name; the canoes by which they were navigated; and a report of the address given them when they left their native land, at least 500

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years ago, are all pretty uniform and consistent. Hawaiki is the name of the country from whence they say their ancestors came; and they describe it as lying to the N. E. of New Zealand; and as having been expelled from their native land by wars and dissentions, that they determined to seek a new home, and built canoes for the purpose.

The following is the valedictory address which their traditions preserves, and which was delivered by the Hawaikian patriarch to them immediately preceding their exodus:-- "Now do you, my children, depart in peace, and when you reach the land you are going to, do not follow after the deeds of Tu, the god of war; for if you do, you will perish as if swept away by the winds. Follow rather quiet and peaceful occupations, as you will then die quietly a natural death. Go, then, and live in peace with all men, and leave war and strife behind you. Depart, and dwell in peace. War and its evils are drawing you from your fatherland; live, then, in peace where you are going to; conduct yourselves like men; let there be no quarrelling amongst you, but build up a great and powerful people."

The native traditions still further agree in respect to the different times and places they landed in the Islands; and mention is therein made of the founders of the Maori race having first reached and embarked at a promontory which is connected to the main land by a narrow strip of land about twenty miles to the north of Auckland, called then, and still known, by the name of Wanga Paroa. The names of three of the canoes which brought them to these shores are not only preserved by tradition, but well remembered by the natives. These are the "Tainui," the "Arawa," and the "Mata Atua." All the three canoes seemed to have landed about the same place, but we are told that they did not settle down there. The first arrivals sailed down the Frith of Thames towards Auckland, and on landing, proceeded to drag their canoes across the isthmus which separates the harbours of the Waitemata and Manukau; on accomplishing which, they launched their barque in the waters of the Manukau, and sailed southwards, and settled down at a place called Kawhia, where at the present time a remnant of the tribe is to be found. The crew of the "Arawa" settled at Maketu, in the Province of Auckland, and spread themselves inland;

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and those of the "Mata Atua" took up their residence near the Bay of Plenty, in the North Island. What became of others who went to these islands besides these we have just mentioned, very little is known. It is likely that they would spread themselves in various other places, forming themselves into distinct tribes, and taking separate settlements. Whether these traditions are worthy of credence or not, it is not our duty to say. It is not easy, however, for us to deny their veracity, as there are large numbers of the Maori race who claim kindred to one or other of these canoes, whose history, in the most minute particulars, have been so carefully preserved through more than twenty generations.

For a period extending to more than fifty years after the discovery of the country by Captain Cook, New Zealand continued to be the scene of unceasing savage warfare, and during that time it was in the exclusive occupation of the aboriginal native. The remarkable touching and affectionate address of the Hawaikian patriarch was soon forgot by the natives. Petty animosities could not fail but to arise up amongst such a savage and untutored race, and as anything of a conflictive nature springing up amongst them would not likely be amicably arranged, recourse to war would doubtless be resorted, till at last, the very thing which expelled them from their native land became common among them in their adopted country, and carnage and spoliation, which naturally are the chief features in a savage mind, predominated most powerfully among every tribe.

The favourable and flattering opinion which Captain Cook reported abroad of the capabilities of the country for Europeans, of its genial climate and fertile soil, attracted large numbers from New South Wales and other countries, who came and settled down among the Maories. Convicts from Sydney, believing that a change of circumstances and of scenery might be beneficial, to their health and pocket, repeatedly and in various ways made their escape, and here, in this much loved isle, breathed the air of freedom and independence. It was a land well fitted for them, adapted as they were for the severe toil and hardships which they were likely to encounter and endure. Runaway sailors here found a home, and a mixed community of petty merchants, sawyers, and produce collectors,

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soon made their residence here also. Trade and intercourse with Australia rapidly increased; the vessels from that country returning home generally called at New Zealand for spars and water; and as whales were observed to frequent the coasts, the bays and harbours of the islands became the favourite fishing ground and recruiting quarters of the whalers of the South Seas. By these means, there was soon got a large population.


In 1814 the first Missionaries arrived in the Island. The hardships which they had to undergo, not only in making a subsistence among such a barbarous set, but in satisfying the ever-increasing demands of the natives, are almost beyond description. At times they had very little confidence and security, while at other periods they were actually expelled, deprived of their all, from the district in which they had settled. The perseverance, however, which marked their progress at the first, now shows that without such the country would not be in so prosperous a state as it is. They faithfully and zealously endeavourd to diffuse among the Maories the knowledge of our own holy religion, but their efforts were, for a long time, very unsuccessful. The missionaries then sent out were nearly all tradesmen, it being supposed their handicraft would fascinate the islanders, and gain them over to habits of industry; but the hypothesis was erroneus, for while they as mechanics were admired, the chiefs looked upon them as a labouring man, and said that he could do no more work than a Cookee (a menial servant) in his own country. The aspect of affairs in this respect is now happily changed. Matters of religion have taken a different turn. Christianity has within several years past amazingly progressed throughout the whole length and breadth of the colony-- the native, as well as the settler rejoicing in and aiding its progress. The Christian religion has everywhere prospered, not, however, without encountering severe struggles, and this is amply exemplified by the position in which New Zealand now occupies in this all-important matter. The colony is greatly indebted to the Church Missionary Society, not only for their active exertions in

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spreading abroad the beneficial influences of religion, and reclaiming the savage, in a manner, to a certain degree of civilisation, but for their introduction and cultivation of the vine, the water melon, peaches, apples, and other vegetables, as well as of cattle and horses, goats, sheep, owls, ducks, and geese--all of which are now numerous in every part of the country.

When the Church Missionary body sent their mission to New Zealand, one of their rules allowed the missionaries to purchase land from the natives, for the use and benefit of their families; and as some of the missionaries availed themselves of this permission, it eventually became to the parent society a source of painful interest. Very few connected with this body made excessive purchases, and some, indeed, did not buy a single acre. This placed the Church Missionary body in a false position with the Wesleyan and Roman Catholic Societies, for the latter wisely prohibited their servants to purchase land from the people they were sent to convert. Although the influence and well-doing of the whole Missionary Societies were by this, to some extent, injured, the prejudice which was rampant in the minds of the colonists against the members of the New Zealand Missionary body was afterwards seen to be rather unjust; and whatever difference of opinion may have been entertained by the settlers of the extent of the missionary influence among the natives, all are now agreed that the missionaries have rendered important services to both races, and but for their labours, a British Colony would not at this moment have been established in the country.

Adventurers from the neighbouring colonies flocked to New Zealand, and bought land from the natives, who encouraged them to locate themselves near to the native villages, because the Maori believed that to what place the emigrant went, thither would his goods follow, and to obtain these was his anxious desire. The colonists, of course, paid the natives in some way or other for the land they bought, but whether it was right or not to drive a hard bargain with the savage at this time, would be injudicious here to say. The land then was comparatively worthless, and if only a nominal sum or a paltry gift was given for it, doubtless such would be a sufficient price. To keep peaceable and favourable with the Maories, who

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were more powerful and numerous than the settlers, the latter must, at this time, have conceded frequently to, and tried to satisfy also, the ever-varying demands made upon them. The native had always an envious eye to any curious instrument which the settler might possess, and especially instruments suitable for warfare. To gain these he exerted himself in every possible way, either by exchange of other articles, or by stealth, or blood.

The country then was in a fearful state of barbarism; there was nothing but wars and rumours of wars, even among the various tribes, and against the peace of the settlers. In truth, great caution was exercised by the colonists of the savage character of the aboriginal natives, and had been since the appaling massacre of the crew of the "Boyd," which, as it was the cause of giving the British an idea of the native disposition, we will mention it as it is told:--

"This ill-fated ship sailed from Port Jackson for England in 1809, with the intention of calling at New Zealand for a cargo of spars. She had seventy persons on board, exclusive of some New Zealanders, who were passengers to their own country, and amongst whom was the son of one of the chiefs of Wangaroa; he was called Tarra, but during his intercourse with the English, he had laid aside his native title and taken the name of George, by which he was then invariably known. When the Boyd got to sea, George was ordered by the captain to work in common with the other sailors; but upon refusing to do so on account of ill health, and his being the son of a chief, he was twice flogged with much severity, and deprived of his usual allowance of food. For these outrages he concealed all appearance of resentment, and when the ship made the coast of New Zealand, he pointed out his native harbour as the safest and best place to procure the cargo, and persuaded the captain to anchor there. George now detailed his misfortune and degradation to his tribe; revenge was determined upon, and in a most summary manner inflicted. The captain and a considerable part of the crew having been allured on shore, were, in an unguarded moment, murdered, and their bodies afterwards devoured. Those that remained on board, deceived by the treachery of the New Zealanders, met a similar fate, with the exception of a woman and two children, whose lives were

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spared, and they were the only persons who survived to tell the tragical story of their companions."

The natives were understood to be in a similar lawless and blood-thirsty condition, at least when it suited their own purposes, when a Company, termed the "New Zealand Company," was formed in the city of London in 1839, the directors of whom included several of our statesmen and merchant princes of the British Metropolis. The main object of the Company was to urge the Government to constitute New Zealand into a British colony, as well as to send emigrants there. To assist them in their undertaking, they attempted to obtain the sanction of the Government, but were unsuccessful. Heedless of their failure in this respect, the Company determined to colonize the island, and by the introduction of British emigrants, to form the colony into a British possession; and with this view, sent out Colonel Wakefield, in the ship "Tory," to purchase land and make suitable settlements for the settlers they intended to send out. Their agent bought immense tracts of land, including the Harbour of Port Nicholson, and here he formed the settlement of Wellington, the chief town of which has recently become the capital of the colony. This Company acted in a most irregular and improper manner, and this is easily seen from the fact of their having sent so early after their agent several hundreds of intended settlers, that he had no time to spare in selecting a site for them; but notwithstanding the most imprudent manner in which they managed their affairs, they brought into the country a splendid body of emigrants, and their works otherwise wonderfully succeeded.


To secure the safety of their subjects, and to prevent collisions between natives and Europeans, the Home Government resolved forthwith to establish New Zealand as a Crown colony. Captain Hobson, who had formerly visited the islands as commander of one of Her Majesy's ships, was chosen as eligible to conduct the undertaking, and was duly commissioned to enter into a treaty with the natives for a formal cession of the sovereignty to the

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crown, and to promise them protection if they would acknowledge the Queen as their sovereign. The duties entrusted to Captain Hobson were by no means easy to perform. Hitherto every man had done what he thought was right in his own eyes, and it therefore could be no popular duty for the Crown's representative to curb and restrain where all restraint had been unknown; where every man had been a law unto himself; and, above all, to put a stop to all private dealings with the natives for the purchase of their lands.

Shortly after his arrival, the Governor issued a proclamation respecting the sale of native lands; the state of titles to such land; the confirmation of same by Her Majesty; and as to a commission which was to be appointed to inquire into and report on all claims to these lands.

The "Waitangi Treaty" was subsequently after this arranged with the natives, but not without difficulty on the part of the Governor, who had to explain to an assemblage of chiefs the object of his mission, and that by virtue of the opposed treaty, the sovereignty, and not the land, would pass to her Majesty, or, using their own illustration, that "the shadow would go to the Queen, and not the substance of it." This meeting was long, and it was a stormy one. Some were favourable to the cession of the sovereignty and others were not. "Send the men away," said one of the opposing chiefs to Captain Hobson. "Don't sign the paper. If you do, you will be reduced to the condition of slaves, and be obliged to break stones for the roads, and your lands will be taken from you." The opposition party it is said, would have gained their point, had it not been for the timely interference of one of the most influential of the northern chiefs, who, after an eloquent oration, turned to Hobson and said, "You must be our father; you must not allow us to become slaves; you must preserve our customs, and never permit our lands to be wrested from us." This put an end to the discussion. Large numbers of the most influential chiefs of the north became parties to the treaty. Many other chiefs afterwards gave in their adherence, although, to the last, some pertinaciously refused, believing that, if they agreed to it, their lands would be taken from them. At this time the country was subject to New South

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Wales, but on the 16th of November, 1840, the Islands of New Zealand were, by a charter, under the great seal of the United Kingdom, erected into a separate and independent colony.


After so much had been done, Governor Hobson now determined to select a suitable site for the seat of Government, and with this view, he visited various places throughout the island, and finally concluded in planting the capital of the colony at Auckland, on the shores of the noble Harbour of the Waitemata. In his report to the Imperial Government he stated that, "With my present knowledge of New Zealand, having for some time resided at the Bay of Islands, having visited Cook's Straits and Banks' Peninsula, and after seeing the Company's settlement formed at Port Nicholson, I do not hesitate to state my opinion, that the neighbourhood of Auckland combines advantages for a very extensive and prosperous settlement not to be found in any other part of this colony." The selection of Auckland as the capital, though, however, made for the best interests of the country, and chiefly for the better government of the native population, drew upon the Governor the bitter enmity of the New Zealand Company and their settlers, they having expected that their settlement would have been selected. Their own private aggrandisement seemed to make them altogether overlook the permanent interests of their adopted land. This Company advised their agent to purchase all the likely places that would appear to offer the greatest facilities as a general trading depot and port of export and import for all parts of New Zealand. This Company is not now in existence. Had it been, their selection of Wellington as a settlement would, at the present time, have amply rewarded, perhaps, their labours. The capital of the colony has since been removed to this town by the present Governor (Sir George Grey), at the request of the late Weld Ministry, who urged its removal to this portion of the colony, as being situated in a more central position than Auckland, and in this respect better fitted for the administration of Government.

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In Governor Hobson's time, Auckland was, and even at the present time, although not centrally situated, is, better adapted for the seat of Government. The great bulk of the Maories then, and do still, reside in the Province of Auckland; and while in fixing a suitable capital it was proper that the natives' as well as the settlers' interests should be looked after, and that the claimants of land alleged to have been legitimately purchased from the natives before the proclamation of the Queen's authority should be examined and settled where the natives were. Besides, the district of Auckland, in addition to its excellent harbour, as well as a second port within a few miles on the western coast, and other extensive natural facilities of internal communication with its town, suburban, and country lands, in a compact and convenient area, excels Wellington, even with its spacious harbour and beautiful scenery. Besides, this latter place, in consequence of the broken and hilly character of the neighbourhood, has but little available land within a radius of several miles from the port, and is also frequently subject to earthquakes. Considering such, it is to be wondered at why the capital was removed.

The wisdom of the choice which Governor Hobson made has, by all impartial testimony, been in his favour, and it may at a future period yet have the opportunity of still more showing its advantages for commerce. The Aucklanders have recently protested against the removal of the seat of Government, and a number of the leading citizens, including His Honour the Superintendent, have formed themselves into a society called the "Northern Association," for the purpose of urging a separation from the Southern Provinces, but it is very doubtful whether the Imperial Government shall encourage this movement, and appoint a Lieutenant-Governor for the North Island.

The first Governor worked very assiduously for the general weal of both races, under very adverse circumstances--amidst the angry opposition of an irritated community, the enmity of disappointed settlers in the south, and an English Joint-Stock Association, which strenuously endeavoured to force his recall. He did not live long to endure the sneers of an ungrateful community, generally composed of his own countrymen. His career extended not beyond two or three years, but, brief as it

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was, the first Governor and founder of the colony will always deserve a prominent place in the history of New Zealand. During his residence among the natives he always enjoyed their esteem and gained their confidence. Deferring to the death of Governor Hobson, one of the greatest chiefs, in an address to Her Majesty, said,-- "Mother Victoria, my subject is a Governor for us, and for the strangers of this island. Let him be a good man. Look out for a good man, a man of judgment. Let not a trouble come here. Let not a boy come here or one puffed up. Let him be a good man, as the Governor who has just died."

Soon after the death of Governor Hobson, unfortunate differences arose between the New Zealand Company and the Colonial Office, and violent quarrels between the Company's agents in the southern settlements and the Government officials in the north, the result of which led to a native rising. This Company's claims to land amounted to some millions of acres, and on one occasion, while their surveying agents began to cut the boundary line, and to take possession of certain land in the vicinity of Wellington and Wairau Valley, several natives, who had not been present at the sale, disputed the purchase and ordered off the surveyors, and regarded the settlers as unauthorised intruders. This led to a conflict between the natives and the local magistrate, and parties belonging to the Company (who had gone to these natives to assert their rights and demand their land), in which about 20 Europeans were killed, nearly the whole of the white party. The Government authorities felt disinclined to punish the natives or check in the least their turbulent spirit, in respect that they considered the occurrence was caused solely by the agents of the Company attempting to take possession of a district with regard to which the natives also denied that they had sold it. By the noninterference of the Government, the disaffected natives imagined themselves to be the most powerful, and afterwards broke out in open rebellion. The war in the north, led by Honi Heke and other great Maori warriors, was occasioned by the success which attended the natives in the conflict at Wairau Valley. The success that attended them there gave them an impetus to proceed with the struggle. Our troops were several times

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repulsed by the Maories. A ruinous state of affairs ensued with the poor settlers. Their lives and property were insecure; yea, they were driven from the lands on which they had worked for many a long and weary day, and had also spent their little all. Some left the country in a destitute condition, glad to escape with their lives; others joined the troops and volunteers, and fought bravely against the rebels. All sorts of trade, agricultural pursuits, and emigration ceased, and the cultivated fields became the nurseries of noxious weeds.

A sad and eventful period of several years of misgovernment and confusion followed, during which time the coloured tribes, who fully understood the inadequacy of the European military force, and flushed with the victory they had already achieved, did all they could to interrupt the quietude of the settlers, and kept them continually in awe. In 1845, "brighter days began to dawn." A petition from the remnant of the long-suffering pioneer settlers was laid before Parliament, and virtually sustained. The partiality of the Colonial Government to the Maori, to the destruction of the colonists, was renounced, and Governor Fitzroy, who succeeded Hobson, and who had always an ardent desire to benefit the native people, was suddenly recalled, and was superseded by Sir George Grey, who, by an increased force of troops which had been sent from the home country to support the Queen's authority, brought about an arrangement with the rebels, and revived trade and agriculture, and the progress of the settlement which, for a considerable time, had been entirely suspended. Under the careful government of Governor Grey, the colonists as well as natives enjoyed several years of tranquility and entire peace. Emigrants, placing confidence in the able guidance of affairs, flocked to New Zealand, and during this Governor's time, various new settlements were planted, amongst which were the Scotch settlement of Otago, and the settlement of Canterbury.

The colony, which had battled its way through such a sea of disasters, commenced a career of quick and solid progress. In 1853, Grey returned home, where, besides receiving the gratitude of Her Majesty's Parliament, he was promoted to the Governorship of the Cape. Lieutenant-Colonel Wynyard, commander of the troops, then

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was installed Governor for the time being, and while in office, brought into operation the New Constitution. This gallant officer was succeeded by Lieutenant-Colonel Gore Browne in 1855, whose administration was disturbed by the outbreak at Taranaki. This insurrection was forced on by several disaffected tribes who had thrown off their allegiance to our Queen, and had proclaimed an old Waikato chief, Te Potatu, as their king. The Government, believing that they would be laughed out of their folly by the Missionaries, who had a peculiar sway over them, suffered them to reverence and enjoy their king. As time passed on, and nothing being done by the Government to put a stop to their proceedings or any regard paid to them, they began to suspect that the Governor's silence was through fear, and, emboldened by this idea, published abroad that, for the future, "native owners of land should not be permitted to sell any portion thereof to the Crown." Arriving at such a determination, it was necessary that, for the safety of the country, something should be done; for if this act of theirs had been enforced, it could not fail to bring the rebels again into an awkward collision with the Crown. It was enforced, and hence a conflict ensued; for when Governor Browne was taking possession of land in the Province of Taranaki, which had been purchased by the Crown from native owners, he was resisted by the rebels and repulsed. The king movement now turned out to be a rather serious concern. Governor Browne, while being forewarned, ought to have been forearmed, and not allowed the rebels to have so ingloriously driven him back. There was nothing more dangerous than to give them the opportunity of a victory. It encouraged them with tenfold vigour to renew the attack and protract the conflict. Troops were sent for; the provincial militia were called out, and a volunteer corps was formed. The Ngatiawa rebels were strengthened by forces from the Waikato and Taranaki, and war between the two races again commenced. The rebels, after numerous engagements, were discomfitted and driven back to the bush, not, however, without causing grevious destruction of settlers' property.

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At the conclusion of this last conflict, Governor Browne's term of office being nearly expired, and as the Imperial Government thought that the policy previously pursued by Sir George Grey, the present Governor, would prove beneficial to the interests of all parties, he, in 1861, was again elected as Governor of New Zealand, after an absence of five years. His timely arrival soon produced an amount of confidence sufficient to cause a belief that the odious and notorious "law for fighting" would soon be rendered nugatory. The natives who had recently supported the king movement, came forward and professed their intention of abandoning it. The Colonial Legislature effected a change in the law respecting the sale and title of native lands; and from the influence which Governor Grey had over the natives, it was believed that the rebellion would cease, and that those tribes who had assisted in it would resume their allegiance to the Sovereign, and again unite with the Colonist in the various habits of industry and in the extension of civilization over the land in which they were planted. Contrary to all expectations, the season of peace proved to be of short duration. In the beginning of 1863, the war torch was again relit, understood now, though not then known, to have been occasioned by the effects of a fanatical religion which several tribes had recently embraced, and known as the "Huahua religion" or "Pai Marirism;" the tenets of which were adoration of self, and destruction of all Whites, especially clergymen. The followers of this sect were Cannibals. They savagely murdered two officers and six men belonging to the troops at New Plymouth,--the murderers of whom were members of the Taranaki tribe --the most braggart and embruted of all the tribes in New Zealand. There is no mistake in saying that this murder was not only premeditated but intended to occasion a rupture with the Government. Immediate preparations for defence were soon made. Troops from Auckland and other quarters were ordered to the front, and when the rebellion spread itself throughout the Waikato and neighbouring tribes, and when signs of disaffection were seen among the Maories around Auckland, martial law was forthwith proclaimed. The Govern-

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ment, the Colonists, and the Troops at once acted promptly and vigorously. Agents were despatched also by Government to Australia to enlist volunteers, where it was fully believed that large numbers of the Digger class would avail themselves of the advantages offered, which were to be at the conclusion of the war, fifty acres of country land and one acre allotment in a township, besides the daily pay, on the condition also that they would, on receiving the land, live thereon, and be ready for action as occasion required, or get a substitute to do so. A large body of volunteers, from various places of the colony, as well as from Australia, were soon got; but before any of this class arrived, all the regular troops were sent to the front, and all the male Colonists, from sixteen years old up to sixty, turned out to a man in defence of their homes, their kindred, and their country.

The male Colonists were, we understand, drawn up in the militia according to three orders. The first-class consisted of young men, unmarried, from sixteen years old and upwards; these were sent out to the front to aid the regular troops. The second-class consisted of married men below the age of fourty, who, if required at the front, were obliged to go, but who were particularly directed to watch the outlying districts; and the third-class, looked upon as old men--though they were indeed healthy and hearty-- nightly guarded the various entrances and streets of the city. Besides these, the City volunteers who were in existence when the war commenced, did their duty nobly alongside of the regular army, sometimes under fire of the enemy,-- all taken together are worthy of more than the country's praise, though I do not think they have ever got that.

The worst feature in this warfare, and which roused the deepest indignation against the Maori, was on account of their having brutally murdered in cold blood the defenceless and hard-working farmers in the outlandish settlements as they found them. Although every effort was made to scatter the forces as widely as possible, reports of such revolting murders were frequently made known, and instances given where bodies had been devoured after being murdered.

It is an admitted fact on all sides, that this petty warfare which has unfortunately existed in New Zealand, has proved an unmitigating evil and annoyance to all who

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were unhappy enough to he engaged in it. From its desultory character and the many tactics pursued by the wily Maori, who almost always has taken good care to leave a loop-hole by means of which to affect his escape, it has become generally acknowledged that, whilst on larger fields and more extended operations, the heroic deeds performed would be justly honoured, on the New Zealand battlefield they have sunk into inglorious skirmishes and inoperative displays of military movements. Superadded to the one pre-eminent difficulty of keeping the rebel forces in check, and coping with them in their natural fastnesses, as well as protecting the many scattered Settlements in the Northern Islands from attack, on every side roads have had to be formed and redoubts erected, forests penetrated and the enemy dislodged from almost impregnable fortifications, as well as flying columns established to keep up communication without station,--all this having to be done in every sort of weather, under the boiling midsummer sun, as well as in the depths of a pluvial New Zealand winter, which only requires once to be experienced, whilst under canvas ever to be remembered. All the male residents in Auckland know to their bitter experience these great hardships and privations; and to them, to the regular troops and volunteers, as well as many others in the colony and here at home, how gratifying would a cessation of hostilities be.

Reports of peace have frequently been published since the commencement of the present Rebellion, but up to the time we write, no satisfactory settlement has yet been arranged with the natives. From the determined spirit in which this insurrection has been prosecuted, and the position taken up by the Government to defend the laws as well as the inhabitants of the Colony, it is hoped that the future to them, to the Colonist, and to the country, may be pleasant and prosperous.

Such is but a brief outline of the history of this enterprising Colony from its discovery to the present day. With all its misgovernments, native troubles, and hindrances it has wonderfully progressed; and looking to its present condition and its valuable resources, we have abundant reason to believe that it will yet become the "Britain of the South."

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