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THE object of the following pages is to afford some authentic and reliable information respecting the present condition of the town and province of Auckland, in New Zealand, for that very large class of persons in this country who have been led to consider that their prospects in life might be greatly improved by emigrating to some of our British colonies. In every portion of the United Kingdom there are to be found honest, hard-working men whose position would be improved by emigration. Close under the shadow of the great Cathedral of the metropolis, there is a City ward, in which, one of its representatives in the Common Council lately said, there were resident more than 20,000 working men and their families, many of whom lived in houses built back to back, badly constructed, with narrow passages and low staircases, dark, close, foetid, unhealthy, totally unfit for human habitation; --houses, in narrow courts and alleys, upon which the sun never shone, into which the wholesome breezes never entered, and which were the constant abodes of fever, and consumption, and scrofulous diseases. At our antipodes, almost directly beneath the Thames of London, there flows another Thames, where such haunts of misery and wretchedness are wholly unknown, where the climate is salubrious and invigorating, where lands of unsurpassed richness wait only the application of labour to yield up their abundant harvests, and where sources of healthy and remunerative employment abound on every hand. For the pent-up working classes of London, and of other crowded cities and centres of industry in the United Kingdom, we wish to provide such information as will enable them to exchange their squalid homes and lives of hopeless toil for healthier dwellings, and prospects of ease and competence in another country.
A BRITISH COLONY.
There are few things upon which more varied notions exist than upon the prominent features of British colonial life. The varied character of our colonies, some in the tropical regions, others in the temperate zone, some in the east, and some in the west, altogether unsettle the mind of any person anxious to realise to himself, life in a British colony:-- men of every colour and of every clime are to be met with in these settlements, and all the varied industrial pursuits of life may be witnessed in full operation in different portions of our extensive colonial empire. It is, however, with respect to Englishmen and Englishwomen that we feel the deepest interest, and we anxiously inquire, what is the state and condition of that society which they construct for themselves in distant lands? and in what form, and to what extent, do the institutions and traditions of the old country reproduce themselves in these newly settled colonies?
In New Zealand, more, perhaps, than any other of our possessions, are to be found the exact copies of those institutions and those privileges which, as Englishmen, we have learned to prize at home. A general assembly, which holds its annual session at Auckland, corresponds to the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It is assembled and prorogued by the Governor, who is appointed by and represents Her Majesty. The Legislative Council answers to the House of Lords; and the House of Representatives is the House of Commons; the members of which, 40 in number, are elected by the inhabitants every five years. Every man who pays a rent of 5l. a year for his house in the country,
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and of 10l. a year in the town, and having a freehold worth 50l. a year, is enabled to vote, and is eligible to be a member of the House of Representatives. The ministers who advise the Governor, as the ministers at home advise the Queen, only hold office so long as they can command the confidence of the majority of the members of the representatives of the people; the people therefore have a voice in their government, and the great principle of constituent and responsible government is fully recognised and acted upon as at home. The Judges who administer the law are appointed by the Queen, and she too provides all the military and naval forces necessary for the external defence of the colony. The Englishman who settles in New Zealand is not only as free, but he is as safe as though he were protected by a channel fleet, and the white cliffs of his country, from the aggression of foreign enemies. The whole power of the British Empire is pledged to the protection of each of its colonies, and the meteor flag of England is as efficient for protection from insult and aggression at the antipodes as over the palaces of Her Majesty. New Zealand is divided, for the purpose of local government, into eight provinces, of which Auckland stands at the head, and is the seat of the legislature; then follow New Plymouth, Wellington, Hawkes Bay, Nelson, Marlborough, Canterbury, and Otago. Each has its provincial council, presided over by a superintendent, elected by the inhabitants of the province every four years. To these bodies is entrusted legislation upon all local matters, the sale of lands, the construction of roads, and questions such as those which in England are dealt with by the municipal councils of our large towns. But in order to provide against any improper use of the powers confided to these councils, no measures which they may pass can become law until it has received the assent of the Governor, and of the ministers who advise him.
There is no state church in the colony, but the Church of England has an establishment of five bishops, with archdeacons, and a numerous body of working clergy; they are not supported by any church-rates or tithes, as in this country, their funds are derived from certain endowments of the New Zealand Company, from voluntary gifts and subscriptions in the colony, and from the missionary societies in England. The Wesleyans, the Free Kirk of Scotland, and various dissenting communities, are also established in each of the provinces. Schools and colleges, supported to a great extent out of the public funds, are established; the English language, and the English coin and currency, combine to reproduce in this important colony all those features of social and domestic interest which are so justly prized in the mother country. But with all these political and social institutions to recommend a British colony, it must not be forgotten that there are difficulties, --some people may call them "hardships"--to be endured, before the emigrant becomes completely accustomed to the new state of things which surrounds him. A voyage of half round the globe is not to be undertaken without consideration, or if so, at the risk, nay, the absolute certainty of disappointment. No prudent man would, we presume, leave his country to adopt another without having gravely considered the importance of the step which he is about to take, and to the man destitute of prudence and forethought we have nothing to say; he will not be guided by any advice that we may offer, or trouble himself with any of the facts which we may submit for his consideration, The work of all colonists is to some extent "up-hill" work, but in the case of Auckland the hill to be climbed is less steep and rugged than many others, and while making the ascent, there is this reflection to sustain the traveller, that the work is free, that it is of his own choosing, and that the fruits of the labour will be all his own.
WHO SHOULD AND WHO SHOULD NOT EMIGRATE.
We are anxious, at the very outset of our remarks, to point attention to the classes of persons who are fitted for settlers in a new colony. The misery endured by persons leaving this country to settle in other lands, destitute of the physical powers, and the mental or social qualities necessary to enable them
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to succeed in their adopted home, will far exceed that to what they have become accustomed in their native land. The evil will not rest with themselves, and their wives and families; but the stories of the hardships which they have endured, will, in many instances, deter other persons, in every respect qualified for the duties in which the incompetent have failed, from adopting a course in which success might have been achieved.
The advice given by Mrs. Trail in her admirable letters from the backwoods of Canada is so applicable to the intending settlers in Auckland, that we cannot do better than quote it. She says, in her advice to husbands and fathers:-- "Before the master of the household fully decides upon taking so important a step as leaving his native land, let him first converse with himself, and ask the important question, have I sufficient energy of character to enable me to conform to the changes that may await me in my new mode of life? Let him first consider the capabilities of his partner, her health and general temper; for a sickly, peevish, discontented person will make but a poor settler's wife, in a country where cheerfulness of mind and activity of body are very essential to the prosperity of the household." The indolent or the intemperate man has no more chance of success in Auckland than at home, and the active and hard-working inhabitants, who are there earning their bread honestly by the sweat of their brow, or by the exertion of mental power, will have no sympathy with such an one--the drones of society will receive no quarter from the industrious and intelligent workers. A man of delicate health, deficient in energy, without knowledge of the elementary principles of agriculture, or of the rudiments of any useful occupation, may, if he obtains possession of his free allotment of land in the province, be, it is true, "lord of all he surveys," but he will be miserable, and as landed proprietor, when he dies, will, in all probability, leave to his family an estate as much encumbered with rank vegetation and foul weeds as some of the land at home is encumbered with mortgages and settlements. The persons who are best fitted to become prosperous settlers in the colony are, among others, the farmer who has had experience in cultivating some small holding at home, and who will be able to bring to bear upon the land given to him in Auckland that practical knowledge which he has already obtained, and who, in addition to experience, has the advantage of possessing a small amount of capital. The agricultural labourer, who has no money at his command, has still his labour to dispose of, for which he can obtain a rate of wages greatly in excess of any that he has ever received at home. He will be able to devote a portion of his spare time to the management of land which will be offered to him upon the most liberal of terms; and in many colonies, the most wealthy and prosperous among the settlers are those who went out with nothing but their own power of labour to rely upon. There is not an artisan connected with the building trades who may not do much better in Auckland than here; he will be sure of constant employment, at higher rates of wages, and with fewer hours' work, than prevail in England. Tailors and shoemakers are in request, and those at present in the colony are well paid and constantly occupied; the strong, vigorous, and healthy navvy, accustomed to earth work, will find abundant sources of employment open to him:-- indeed there is no branch of industry connected with the production of natural wealth, and no occupation for producing the necessaries, and to a certain extent the luxuries of life, which is not actively employed. It is scarcely necessary to say, that in a state of society which does not at present boast of any extensive cotton, silk, or woollen manufactures, persons whose sole occupation has been confined to the working of the "mule," or the "spinning-jenny" of a cotton factory, may find that they will have too much time on their hands, and too little pay to be comfortable at Auckland; --as there are no Regent-streets, or St. Paul's Churchyards, with elegantly fitted drapers' establishments, we need hardly say that there is not much want at Auckland of young gentlemen whose only accomplishment is that of waiting upon lady customers, and showing the last new thing in ribbon or laces; --as banking establishments are at present not very numerous, it is unnecessary to hint that the junior hands of Messrs. Coutts, or Glyn's, will not obtain much of their genteel occupation in Auckland.
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The Rev. Richard Taylor, in his interesting work on New Zealand and its inhabitant, gives a hint to young unmarried men, which we hope will not be lost upon them:--
"To single men intending to emigrate, I would say, marry before you go out; a good wife is a great treasure and stay to a young man. Many have been ruined, because they have not had a bosom friend to sustain them in times of trial, besides the social comfort thus derived; for none can tell how dreary a young settler's home is without a wife, and how many temptations she saves him from. Therefore, to every single man, I again say, marry, for wives are not to be had abroad; property is of little consideration, compared with tha5 of a partner."
SOMETHING ABOUT NEW ZEALAND.
If we have succeeded in conveying some information respecting the classes of persons who ought alone to emigrate to a new country, we proceed to state some of the grounds upon which we consider Auckland suitable for emigrants. Let us, however, in the first instance, tell on what part of the world this "Land of Promise" is situated. New Zealand, of which Auckland forms the most important province, consists of two large islands, situated in the Southern Ocean, and which are very nearly the antipodes of this country, that is, they lie exactly under the feet of persons living in England. If it were possible to sink a shaft of about 8,000 miles in depth in London, the miner at the bottom of this deep shaft would find himself in New Zealand. There is, however, a much more agreeable, and far less difficult mode of reaching these fine colonies, and that is by a voyage of some two months' duration, in any of the splendid and well appointed vessels which sail between London or Liverpool, and Auckland, These two large islands are called the North and the Middle Islands, and a smaller one at the south, is known as Stewart's, or New Leinster. There are also several small scattered islands lying contiguous to the coast. The extreme length from north to south is rather more then 1,100 miles, and it varies in breadth from 300 miles to a narrow isthmus of one mile in breadth. The two larger islands are separated by Cook's Straits, so named alter the great Captain Cook, and the smaller island is divided from the Southern one by Fourneaux Straits. The north island contains about 31,174,000 acres of land, the middle one 40,126,000 acres, and the smaller, Stewart's Island, 1,000,000 of acres. To afford an idea, by familiar comparison, of their extent, it may be said that the North Island is about a thirty-second part less than England, exclusive of Scotland and Wales, that the Middle is about a ninth less; and that the whole group contains 78,300,480 acres, or about 50,000 acres less than the whole of Great Britain and Ireland, with all the adjacent islands; consequently, we have in New Zealand an extensive country, capable, in respect to size, of accommodating 25,000,000 persons at the least. Its natural capabilities are by no means of inferior proportion. Tracts of barren hills, irreclaimable bogs, naked sandflats, and considerable expanses of water-surface, there certainly are; but after allowing for these, it is no exaggeration to assert that two-thirds or about 52,000,000 acres are fitted for settlement, and might yield abundant sustenance to an immense population, whether by pasturage or vintage and grain. Now Zealand lies about 1,200 miles to the east of the great Australian continent. It has a coast line of about 3,000 miles, and there is scarcely any country in the world, for its extent, which possesses so many excellent harbours. These are capable of affording protection to many thousands of ships of all sizes, and its geographical position is such as must, at no distant time, make it the grand entrepot of the commerce of the Southen seas. But; as it has been truly observed in one of the able papers published in Chambers' Journal--
"To the British emigrant, however, one consideration is paramount above all views of profit. It is nothing to him that a region abounds in harbours, ports, and bays; that it has a fertile soil, is rich in minerals, abounds, with
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timber, and promises wealth to the industrious settler, unless its climate be genial to the European constitution. A mine of gold or an estate near Cape Coast Castle, would not induce him to make his habitation there; the gold washings of Borneo will not allure him to live amid its marshes; but in New Zealand, soil and climate equally invite his enterprise."
THE PROVINCE AND TOWN OF AUCKLAND.
We have previously stated that New Zealand, as a colony, is divided into a number of provinces, or what might be called "counties," to adopt a name familiar and intelligible to Englishmen. Auckland stands at the head of these provinces, it is the seat of the legislature, and it is the one which, in regard to its climate and natural production, corresponds more closely with an English county than any other in the island. The land included within this province is equal to about one-half of the whole extent of England. It is about 400 miles in length, nearly 200 in breadth, and it has a coast line of about 900 miles in extent. Upon this extensive district there are at present located nearly two-thirds of the remaining natives of the country, about 40,000 in number, and 20,000 British settlers. There are extensive pine forests, which do not exist in any other part of New Zealand; and on its coast there are more than thirty harbours, four of which are of first-class dimensions, and eight will admit vessels of 400 tons burden.
The town of Auckland is built on the northern side of an isthmus, or narrow neck of land, --into which the island is contracted at this point, --and it is bounded on the north by the shores of the Waitemata harbour. The site of the town, as laid on the official plan, has a frontage on the water of about a mile and a half, and extends inland for about a mile. At present, the greater number of the houses have been built near the water, in the bays, and on the headlands, with which the town is indented. The bays are backed by small valleys, which run inland to the distance of half a mile, terminating in narrow gullies, and are separated from each other by spurs, which run into the harbour, and terminate in low headlands. The lower parts of the town being thus separated, the roads which connect them with each other are somewhat steep and inconvenient. Seen from the harbour, the town makes a considerable appearance, and suggests the idea of expansiveness. St. Paul's church, with its neat spire, occupying a prominent position on the centre headland, is an ornamental feature. The barracks, the Scotch Church, the Colonial Hospital, the Wesleyan Institution, the Roman Catholic Church, and the windmill on the hill, with Mount Eden in the background, are the most important objects. Approaching the shore, Official Bay, commanded by St. Paul's church, and with its detached cottage-like houses, built on a sheltered slope, each snugly nestled in the luxuriant shrubbery of its surrounding garden, looks pretty and picturesque. Commercial Bay, seen from the water, presents the appearance of a large town, having a mass of houses closely packed together. Mechanic's Bay is, as yet, but little built upon; a large rope walk, a ship-builder's yard, a native hostelry, and a few small shops are the only buildings. This bay is the principal place of encampment for the natives visiting Auckland in their canoes; here they land their native produce, in fine weather bivouacing in the open air, and in bad weather seeking shelter in the neighbouring hostelry. Freeman's Bay, to the westward of Commercial Bay, is occupied chiefly by saw pits, brick kilns, and boat-builders' yards. The principal streets are: Princes-street, Shotland-crescent, Queen-street, and Wakefield-street. The first is a broad, straight, spacious, well-made street on a gentle slope; St. Paul's church, the Treasury, and the Masonic Hotel are its principal buildings. Shotland-crescent, which connects Princes-street with Queen-street, is built on an ascent; it is less broad than Princes-street, but much longer; on one side it is almost entirely built upon; shops and stores are to be found of every description and of various forms and style. No attempt at uniformity has been made; every one has built according to his means, fancy, or the size and shape of his ground. An animated picture of this
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part of Auckland, has been drawn by one who was for many years resident in the place; he says:--
"Auckland Wharf is a long row of piles and planks, stretching out into the harbour. Its appearance forcibly reminds one of Blackfriars steam-boat pier, without the coal barges; Margate jetty, without the children; and Ryde pier, without the cleanliness. Early in the morning is the best time to walk upon this wharf. The glorious sun, just bursting over the distant mountain of Rangitoto, and gilding the tranquil harbour with its peaceful shipping; the Maori schooners and small craft hauling-up alongside; the dusky crew chattering uncouthly as they unload the little vessel; the cargo boats upon the beach; the little city picturesquely rising from the waters; the church spire lifting its head like a beacon; the green slopes so different from dusky Australia, and, perhaps, the sound of the distant bell from the Catholic church, calling the devout to early matins. All these tell of a young and thriving city, and, to a reflective mind, seems to say, 'Go ahead, little Auckland, there's a glorious future for you! Imperial Rome was once a village of mud huts; mighty London was, in barbaric ages, a collection of wooden shanties. Be true to yourself, little Auckland, and it must follow as the day to night that you shall be a queen in the south, and a mistress among cities.' As the day advances, so does the business of the wharf increase. The blue-shirted workmen wield the heavy hammers, and drive the huge nails into the unfinished woodwork. The horrid-looking pile-driving machine is in full work, and the monkey falls smashing upon the clumsy looking piles; the miniature 'Great Western is in full operation, and the toll taker at the terminus looks after the fees; the boatmen ply to the various ships in the harbour; and the blue-cheeked and bare-legged native, proud of a bran new blanket, struts about with the air of an opera lounger in a dress coat.'"
The town of Auckland, which is not only the capital of the province of the same name, but also the seat of legislation for the whole colony, has but just attained its twentieth year. It was founded by Captain Hobson, in 1840, On its east and west sides, the sea forms two fine harbours, called Waitemata, on the east, and Manakau, on the west. The rivers Thames and Piako flow into the Waitemata, and furnish navigation for about fifty miles up the country, while two other rivers, the Waikato and the Waipa are navigable for canoes for nearly one hundred miles through rich and productive land. The waters of the harbours approach each other at the nearest point at about three miles distance, so that a canal of this length, would enable large vessels to pass right across this part of the northern island. The harbour of Waitemata is at present the most used; but the western one is becoming every year more extensively occupied, and especially with vessels trading to New Plymouth and the south. Auckland is the head quarters of the military stationed in the colony; it is the see of the Bishop, and the spot from which missionary enterprise is directed; the Governor has his official residence and holds his court in this busy and thriving city. The town can boast of a Mechanics' Institute, and a Concert-room. It has an annual cattle show, and a Horticultural Society. The Auckland Choral Society has just given a performance of Mendelssohn's "Elijah" with great success; there is a Young Men's Christian Association, established in the town; a total Abstinence Society; a Cricket Club, a Yacht Club; and at the Hippodrome there was at the time of the last mail starting an attractive performance of dogs and monkeys going on. Two illuminated clocks have just been set up in the town by enterprising men of business; and there is flying upon the waters of Auckland a steam vessel built and constructed entirely in the province. There are mail vans, and passenger vans into the interior, and a writer in the New Zealander asks with exultation whether Wellington or any other of the Provinces can show anything like this:-- "Two vans running daily between Auckland and Waiuku, --Twenty-four miles for half-a-crown."--The columns of the Auckland newspaper abounding with advertisements and trade announcements, afford indisputable evidence of the activity and enterprise which find employment in this busy and thriving town.
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POPULATION AND LIVE STOCK.
At the last census which was taken, the number of European inhabitants in New Zealand was 45,540, of whom 25,356 were males, and 20,184 females. Of this number there were in Auckland 17,988, including the military and their families; and of these 10,593 were males, and 7,395 females. A large portion of this excess of males over females was owing, however, to the military. The additions made to the population by persons emigrating to Auckland during the last four years has been 6,822, but many of these persons have left the colony to go to the gold fields of Victoria, in Australia. There were born in the province during the last years for which the returns have been made up, 486 children; and 163 persons of all ages died, and there were 218 persons married during the same time. It will serve to afford an idea of the social and intellectual position of the province, if we state that during the last four years there were 298,149 letters, and 407,318 newspapers, making a total of 705,467 letters and newspapers received and despatched from Auckland, being an average of more than 400 for each inhabitant of the province. At the last stock-taking there were in Auckland 2,894 horses, 23 mules and asses, 24,555 oxen, 36,749 sheep, 4,142 goats, and 11,612 pigs.
THE SUBURBS AND VILLAGES.
The country within a short distance of the capital is fast becoming settled and occupied. There are a group of what are called "pensioner villages," which some time since were laid out by the Government for a number of married pensioners selected from the able-bodied volunteers of the mother country, each of whom received, on condition of rendering some small military service in the colony, a free gift of a cottage and some land adjoining. Many of these men have acquired considerable property, and their small farms, which cluster around the villages, supply the larger town with quantities of grain, poultry, butter, vegetables, fruit, and dairy produce. Immediately adjoining the boundary of Auckland to the south-east is the Papakura district, extending along the eastern shores of Manakau Harbour for a distance of ten or twelve miles. This district is bounded on the west by the waters of the Manakau, which deeply indent it in various directions with its numerous creeks. The centre of the district comprises a plain or flat valley running inland in an easterly direction from the Papakura for many miles, until it reaches the Wairoa River. About one-half of this plain is densely timbered, the remaining portion being agreeably diversified with clumps and belts, which give it a park-like appearance. These "belts and clumps" consist of a rich variety of wood--the graceful tree-fern and the deep-green glittering leafed karaka, clustering in unusual profusion around the tall stems of the statelier forest trees. Surrounded by these ornamental woods, melodious with the songs of birds, are here and there clear open spots of ground of various sizes, sheltered from every wind, --choice sites for homestead, park, or garden.
The largest and some of the finest portions of the province lying along the east and west coast, and in the central district, are at present almost entirely in the possession of the maories. On the west coast there is a fine harbour, which is extensively used by the natives, who carry on a large trade with Auckland in articles of simple produce, such as pork, potatoes, wheat, maize, and flax, and they take back in their canoes groceries and general merchandise in exchange for these goods. The central district is a tract of some 100 miles long, by about 40 broad; it has abundance of water carriage, and is so prolific in its soil as to be called "The Garden of New Zealand." A charming lake called Tampo, sixty miles in circumference, is in this district, and there are hot springs and chalybeate waters in the neighbourhood of the lake similar to those of Bath and Cheltenham in this country. The east district embraces a district of 150 miles by 30 in breadth, and was the part of the island first seen by Captain Cook. The character of the country is sufficiently indicated in the name of the great "Bay of Plenty," which forms
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a large portion of its coast. The three large southern districts are occupied by about 20,000 natives, the most powerful of the tribes being called the Waikato. In these parts there are to be found in many cases the germ of some European settlements founded by immigrants who have married the native women, and who have been the means of introducing the habits and virtues, and, in too many cases, we are bound to say, the vices of Europeans.
THE REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE.
There are no questions which an intending emigrant will more anxiously ask than those which bear upon the fiscal or tax-paying properties of the colony to which he may think of going. In this respect he will be able to make a very favourable comparison between Auckland and England. For the last year the whole estimated revenue of the province was £76,000. Of this sum there were raised:-- Customs, £23,000; land, £6,000; provincial revenue and repayment of assisted passages, £7,000; debentures on harbour endowments, £26,000; debentures on Auckland endowments, £15,000. The expenditure was as follows:-- Superintendent, £800; Provincial Council, £1,260; Superintendent's office. £1,460; Waste Lands' office, £2,290; Roads' office, £1,420; harbour establishments, &c., £2,522 6s.; police, £4,850 14s 10d.; Hospital, £2,064 12s.: Lunatic Asylum. £1,100; Provincial (solicitor, £350; Registry of Deeds, £1,170: prisons, £2,230; Sheep and Cattle Department, £520; Education Board, £925; ferries, relief of sick and destitute, £1,000; immigration, £5,000; and the following items for Public Works, --Surveys, £5,000; Great North Road, £4,000; Great South Road, £3,000; streets and branch roads, in aid of assessments, £3,000; load repairs, £2,000; city waterworks, £3,000; city main sewer, £3,000; harbour works £13,000: Hospital and Lunatic Asylum (additions to), £1,000; roads, £2,300; lodge in Government grounds, £180. There are no heavy burdens on the New Zealand tax-payer in the shape of an army and a navy, and a crushing national debt, and there are sources of territorial revenue from the sale of land which we do not possess at home. As will be seen from the details given above, the expenditure is caused to a great extent by the construction of roads and useful public works. The address of the Superintendent to the Council last year contains the following passage upon this subject:
"The proportion of the revenue from customs payable to the provincial treasury for the year 1859 may be estimated at £21,000, the amount of the ordinary revenue at £7,000, and the receipts from land sales at £6,000. The sum of £10,000, voted in the last session as a loan for the prosecution of the harbour works, and the sum of £7,500, voted as a loan to thereby water supply, and for the city main sewer, may be regarded as available for appropriation for the service of the coming year. After providing for the charge of the establishments, and setting apart £4,500 for the interest on the provincial debentures, a sum of £27,000 will be applicable to public works and to the encouragement of immigration."
THE TRADE AND COMMERCE.
The inhabitants of Auckland, in addition to the produce which they raised at home, purchased goods to the value of £270,987 in one year, and they sent away, as surplus produce, articles of the value of £125,634. They purchased, principally from England, apparel and drapery to the value of £62,248; arms and ammunition to the extent of £597; they paid £6,944 for candles; for flax and hemp made up into bags and cordage they paid £4,250; their bill for glass and crockery was £1,566; on agricultural implements and seeds they expended £7,144; the iron and hardware imported was of the value of £13,006; the leather and saddlery £3,928; machinery £3,804; the oilman's bills for the year amounted to £10,215; for ale and beer, teas and coffee, rice, sugar, and sundry other articles of provisions, they paid £55,322; soap cost them £3,674; they
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consumed foreign spirits to the amount of £18,993; their stationery bill was £4,729; the live stock imported for placing in the pasture lands of the provinces was of the value of £11,227; the tobacco consumed was £8,361; and the wine equal to 15991 gallons was valued at £8,122.
The articles of native produce which were sent from Auckland, to England, foreign countries, and to the Australian colonies, included drugs and dyes, flax and hemp, fruits, wheat, oats, barley, bran, maize, horns, hay, hops, leather, skins, live stock, copper ore, oils, beef and mutton, pork, potatoes, pumpkins, turnips, tallow, timber, wool, and numerous other articles. The ports of the provinces in which external and provincial trade was carried on were Auckland, Russell, Hokianga, Mongonui, Kawhia, Kaipara, and Wangarei.
THE SOIL AND CLIMATE.
From the accounts of the articles of native produce exported, or sent away from the province, the reader will have no difficulty in forming a pretty correct idea of the nature of the soil and climate of Auckland. Many parts of the country are thickly wooded, and the New Zealand pine forests furnished the magnificent wooden masts of the Great Eastern, which were 120 feet in length, and formed of single sticks of pine trees. The quantity of timber, hewn and sawn, which was sent out of Auckland in one year was 3,418,483 feet, and it was sold for nearly £20,000. There are numerous tracts of pasture land which yield large quantities of wool, every year rapidly increasing. The quantity of land under cultivation and fenced in is very nearly 100,000 acres. At the close of 1856, the exact quantity was 83,819 acres; of this extent, there were 2,255 acres laid down for wheat, 131 for barley, 1,548 for oats, 305 for maize, 2,016 for potatoes, 55,648 with sown grass, 916 were gardens and orchards, and the remainder various crops. The desire to possess land is every year increasing. On the 30th April last, the quantity of land already surveyed and opened for sale or selection was 27,760 acres; on the 31st May, 31,551 acres; on the 30th June, 34,273 acres; on the 31st July, 35,302 acres; on the 31st August, 31,041 acres. On the 23rd of August 8,024 acres were gazetted for sale or selection on the 3rd of October. On the 19th October, 7,989 acres in addition were gazetted for sale or selection on the 21st day of November. Of the improvement in the system of farming adopted in the province we read in the New Zealander: "There has been much additional interest in the improved cultivation of the soil evinced of late; and perhaps there arc few parts of the world where there is more room for what may be termed 'practical theorisation' or careful experimenting than in this our province of Auckland. Hitherto, with some exceptions, our farming-proper, like our stock-breeding and sheep-farming, has been carried on in a hand-to-mouth manner, --almost, destitute of system or of any attention to the science of agriculture. Hardly any one has thought it worth while to analyse our soils--to test the component parts of which the various descriptions are formed, --or to discover what fresh combinations and rotations of crops or kinds and quantities of manures must bo resorted to to make cultivation a matter of certain and not merely exceptional profit. Within the last year or two, however, there has been a marked change for the better, as is shown in the finer quality and better condition in which both our cereal products and our live stock are brought to market; and so far from its being any longer thought absurd and childish to talk of "good farming" in a young country like New Zealand, the prevalent opinion now appears to be that no farming will pay so well as that conducted on the most approved principles at home--varied, of course, as may be found necessary when allowing for the difference of climate and seasons."
With respect to the climate of New Zealand in general, and of Auckland in particular, there can be no doubt that it is of the most salubrious and healthy character, and admirably adapted to the constitutions of Englishmen and Englishwomen. Such, indeed, is the high opinion formed by competent judges upon this point that Auckland has been recommended as a depot for the invalided officers and military forces of India. We have before us the opinions
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of several medical officers upon this subject; among them are the following:-- A medical officer, who has served both in India and New Zealand for many years, speaking of the superiority of New Zealand as a convalescent station for India and China, says-- "I have seen several sufferers from tropical disease at Auckland, and almost all experienced the beneficial results from their residence. The mildness of the climate around Auckland renders it the best place for tropical invalids to arrive and remain at for the first year or so after leaving India." Another medical officer says-- "During my long service in New Zealand I have seen numbers of Indian officers, with their families, with shattered and broken-down constitutions, who, from the first moment of landing, have, in all cases, without exception, rapidly improved in health. The establishment of a sanatorium in New Zealand I should look on as a blessing and a boon to the invalids of the Indian army."
Compared with an English summer that of Auckland is but little warmer though it is much longer. But the nights in New Zealand are always cool and refreshing, and rest is never lost from the warmth and closeness of the night. It is also much warmer, both in the spring and autumn; and the winter weather of England, from the middle of November to the middle of March, with its piercing easterly winds, cold, fog, and snow, is altogether unknown. Snow, indeed, is never seen here; ice, very thin and very rarely; and hail is neither common nor destructive. The winter, however, is very wet, but not colder than an English April or October. There is a greater prevalence of high winds, too, than is personally agreeable; but with less wind the climate would not bo more healthy. There is most wind in the spring and autumn; rather less in summer, and least of all in winter. Some very complete and valuable meteorological tables, compiled by Dr. Thompson during his residence in New Zealand, contains some valuable information respecting the climate. We learn from these tables that the mean annual temperature of the North Island, in which Auckland is situated, is 57 deg. Fahrenheit. The months of January and February, which correspond to the July and August in this country, are the warmest months. The June and July of the New Zealanders are the coldest months of the year. The mean annual temperature of. Auckland is about the same as Rome, Montpellier, and Milan. London is seven degrees colder than Auckland. In New Zealand the nights are twelve degrees colder than the days; the mean daily range of temperature is somewhat less than twenty degrees. No single locality in Europe has a temperature during the whole year exactly like that of New Zealand. At Auckland and the North Island, for instance, they have the summer heat of Paris, Brussels, and Amsterdam, with the winter cold of Rome. The mean temperature of places in New Zealand is lower than that of corresponding European latitudes, ---thus, while Auckland is 59.5 Fahrenheit, Malta is 67 deg., and Gibraltar, 64 deg.; Rome is rather over 60 deg.; at Montpellier it is 57 deg.; and at Milan, 55 deg. The temperature is higher in New Zealand than in corresponding latitudes in America. Quebec and Halifax shiver under a temperature of 41 and 44 degs.; and New York with 53 degs.; while Auckland enjoys the genial temperature above stated.
Hitherto we have spoken only of the agricultural and pastoral resources of the province; there are, in addition to these, other sources of wealth which cannot fail, if developed, to be of immense importance to the country. In the first place, there is gold to be obtained at Coromandel, about 45 miles distant from the town of Auckland. It is near the Bay of Plenty, and in the district occupied mostly by the natives. There are already two or three locations in one spot, where all the natural facilities exist for large quartz-mining establishments that a miner or capitalist could desire; such as good fuel, water, and abundance of ore. An official report states:--
"A steam-engine of 12 horse-power would crush and amalgamate 25 or 30 tons of the quartz per day," writes a correspondent." Such an engine, with
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amalgamators and other necessary apparatus for a quartz-mining establishment, would not cost more than £2,000. Further than this first outlay for machinery, there would be no expenses attending a mining establishment of this kind, except such as would be met by the daily returns of gold."
Respecting the quality of the gold,. Mr. C. A. Harris, who has analysed the samples and examined the district, says:--
"The gold is found at Coromandel, about forty miles from Auckland by water, upon land belonging to the natives of New Zealand, who are not inclined to dispose of the land to the Government, nor as yet have they been very active in looking for it themselves.
"The Mint value of the gold is £3 0s. 5d. per ounce, but it also contains silver to the value of about 3s. 6d. to 4s. per ounce.
"The water-worn quartz appears to be very rich indeed, say about one-third gold, or of the value of nearly 20s. per ounce. This specimen is to be left in the Sydney Museum."
Not less important, and perhaps even of greater value to the province, are the beds of coal which exist at Drury and other places. The quality of the Auckland coal is vouched for from one of the largest foundries at Sydney, where some of it was sent. The report states:--
"We have much pleasure in reporting to you on the sample of Auckland coal left with us last voyage. We have made several experiments with this coal, both for blacksmiths and as steam coal. For steam purposes, we are of opinion that it is the best coal we have seen in this colony, as it burns well and makes a clear fire, throwing out great heat, and nothing remains but a few white ashes--leaving the bars of the furnace entirely free from clinker, which in long voyages is a great advantage."
Two companies have recently been formed for working the mines at Drury. One of the objects of the second company is to bring the coal by tramway from Drury to the Tamaki, and so direct to the port of Auckland. The Drury coal is found to improve in quality the deeper it is worked.
Freestone, applicable for building purposes, also exists; and it is stated, by all the practical men who have seen it, to be some of the finest ever quarried. The facilities for quarrying, and bringing into Auckland, leave nothing to desire. The stone lies in blocks of about five feet square, by fourteen inches thick. Between each block is about two inches of sand; so that there is nothing to do but to put the crowbar in. It is so easily got at, that two or three men would engage to bring in twenty tons a week, for £1 per ton.
OTHER PRODUCTIONS OF AUCKLAND.
Among other articles available for manufacturing purposes, which the soil of Auckland produces, is the far-famed New Zealand flax, or Phormium Tenax, as it is called. Hitherto considerable difficulty has existed in the preparation of this fabric for the manufacturer, but the Government of New Zealand, anxious to direct the attention of inventors and vigorous men to the subject, has offered the following prizes:--
£2,000 to the person who shall, by some process of his own invention, first produce from the Phormium Tenax, or other fibrous plant indigenous to New Zealand, one hundred tons of merchandise.
£1,000 to any person, other than the person entitled to the first reward, who shall, by some process of his own invention, next produce from the Phormium Tenax, or other fibrous plant indigenous to New Zealand, one hundred tons of merchandise.
£1,000, viz., £200 to each of the first five persons, other than those entitled to the first and second rewards, who shall by any process, whether of his own invention or not, produce from the Phormium Tenax, or other fibrous plant indigenous to New Zealand, twenty-five tons of merchandise.
From the pine-trees, which grow so abundantly in the forests of Auckland, a gum is obtained, known as the Kaurie gum, of which £12,000 worth was exported last year. It is not only obtained from the trees, but it may be dug
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from the ground where the trees from which it flowed have long since ceased to exist. All our ordinary fruits grow in Auckland, and fig and orange trees thrive in the open air.
INDUCEMENT TO SETTLERS.
The advantages offered to settlers in Auckland considerably exceed those of any of the New Zealand provinces, or of the Australian colonies. A correspondent who has resided nearly twenty years in New Zealand, and who has travelled over the greater part of the country says:-- "The conclusion to which I have come, is that there is a combination of advantages connected with the provice of Auckland which cannot be found in any other two provinces of New Zealand. Whether you refer to its population, both European and Aboriginal, its being the seat of government, its commerce, its natural products, its agriculture, its superior harbours and beautiful, extensive, and varied tracts of level and undulating lands, as well as its valuable forests, romantic mountains, and abounding minerals, all point it out as that part which has taken, and will take, the most prominent, part in the history of New Zealand."
The large and extensive rivers and estuaries of the Hokianga, the Bay of Islands, Kaipara, Manukaw, Thames, and Waikato, all of which are in this province, have not their equals in New Zealand, some of them are upwards of 100 miles long, and others 10 and 20 miles broad; these, with their tributaries, and the other valuable harbours, such as Wanganui, Wangaroa, Whangarou, Coromandel, Mercury Bay, and Kawhia, and numerous other lesser harbours, give an extent of water communication not to be equalled in any other place in the world, within the same compass of territory. Auckland, as the centre of this singularly beautiful and well-watered province, from its own Local position and natural advantages, has been termed, by the Bishop of New Zealand, and men of classic recollections, "the Corinth of the southern hemisphere."
FREE GRANTS OF LAND.
It is in such a country as this, that the provincial government have decreed that, "as it is expedient that persons emigrating at their own cost from the United Kingdom, or elsewhere, other than the Australian colonies, should be permitted to occupy land free of cost, in proportion to their expenditure on immigration." In accordance with this law, any person over 18 years of age, subject to certain conditions, may receive a free gift of 40 acres of land, and any one above five years of age, and under 18, twenty acres of land for nothing; any person who has held a commission in the army may receive 400 acres, non-commissioned or warrant officers 80 acres, and any discharged private soldier, marine, and seaman, 60 acres; any qualified school teacher may also receive 80 acres, which he will acquire as his own freehold, at the mere cost of going to take possession of his estate. The conditions upon which this land is to be obtained are the following:--
HOW TO OBTAIN THE FREE GRANTS OF LAND.
Every step in the way of obtaining the "Land Order," which is, in fact, the title deed to the estate in New Zealand, has been made perfectly clear and plain by the agents of the province in London and elsewhere. The first point to be satisfied upon is, whether you are eligible as a settler in Auckland. Upon this point the colonial government entertain a very strong opinion, and the following circular was sent a short time since to the agents in England upon this subject:--
"The undersigned has the honour to report to His Honour the Superintendent that on examining the list of passengers per the "Tornado" (arrived yesterday), and comparing it with the statements of the passengers themselves, he finds that a very great number are entered as "Farmers," who have never had anything to do with Agriculture, and that a number of Clerks, Warehousemen, and other like persons, have obtained Land Orders. The under-
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signed would therefore suggest that the Emigration Agents he cautioned to be careful to ascertain that parties applying for Land Orders represent themselves to be what they really are, and not to grant Land Orders to persons of the classes referred to."
In another page we have stated generally what class of persons are ineligible as settlers in Auckland. As a general rule, any person accustomed to manual labour will be acceptable, and he will be the more useful, and the more likely to succeed who can turn his hand, when the occasion requires, to other occupations than those which are more peculiarly his own trade or calling. Those who are unable to bear the fatigue of rough or hard work may compensate for this deficiency by taking out funds with them, which will enable them to employ labour on the spot. In order to set at rest any doubt which the intending emigrant may feel as to his suitability, we would advise him to write to Messrs. Ridgway, of Leicester-square, London, or any other respectable agent, and he will enclose him a printed form, which he will be required to fill up, stating, in separate columns, the Christian and surname of the applicant, his residence, occupation, and age, and particulars respecting the ship in which they intend to take their passage. The statements in this paper will require to be authenticated by a minister or clergyman, or a magistrate, or some person to whom reference can be made if requisite, who will fill up and sign the following form:--
I hereby certify that ........... of ..........., aged ....., is known personally to me as an industrious man of good character, considered efficient in his calling of a ..........., and calculated, in my opinion, to succeed as a settler in the Province of AUCKLAND, to which place I am informed and believe it is his intention in good faith to emigrate, with the view of permanent settlement. I give this certificate with the knowledge that upon the credit attached to it will partly depend whether a FREE GRANT OF FORTY ACRES OF LAND will be made to this party.
Witness my hand at ..........., this .... of ........... 186...
These points having been settled, the passenger will receive an order for 40 acres of land in the Province, together with 40 acres more for each person above eighteen years, and 20 acres for each child above five, and under eighteen years of age, whom he may take with him to the colony. The only condition attached to the grant is, that the person applying shall have engaged to find his own way to the colony, and this he can do at an expense of about £17 for passage, on applying to some respectable ship-broker engaged in the New Zealand trade. Messrs. Ridgway state in their notices: "agricultural Labourers and Servants, Mechanics of various kinds, Domestic Servants (male and female), and Farmers, and others with capital (although small capital), are more especially eligible; but young men in the rank of gentlemen, who have not been brought up to any profession or business, or who are without sufficient capital to establish themselves in the Province, and to employ labour, are not generally desirable as emigrants, and will, under existing arrangements, not receive these grants." The regulations with respect to these Free Grants of Land are very simple. The land orders are not transferable; they exist in force for five years, from the time of the landing of the owner of it, and the selection of the land may be made at any time within five years provided that during that time the owner shall not have been absent from the Province more than 12 months, and in that case the order will be null and void. The order will also be valueless unless presented by the owner to the Commissioner, or his deputy in Auckland, within twelve months after his arrival; and in the case of death, the privilege of selection vested in the settler by the land order descends to his children or heirs at law. The lands from which selection may be made are the "country lands," their distance from the town of Auckland ranging from 40 to 150 miles. There is one important provision with respect to these lands, which is the following:--
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"Every allotment of country land shall have a frontage to a road, and the commissioner shall use all due diligence in causing to be selected the most available lines for roads, with reference to their practical utility as means of communication, and not as mere boundary lines of allotments; he shall also, as far as practicable, lay off the allotments in such manner as to give to each, in proportion to its extent, equal advantages, as nearly as may be, in respect to practicable roads and to wood and water."
No land, therefore, can be selected under the "Order" which has not been previously surveyed by the officers of the provincial government. There is difficulty sometimes where to select an estate. In this state of things the wisest and safest way, perhaps, is for a party to agree to send two or three of themselves, with the guide which it appears the provincial government would provide to accompany them, to inspect and report upon some block open for selection, and let the whole party bear the expense; and then, having made choice, let them go off together, and build their small dwellings, helping each other as colonial neighbours cordially should do. Land not included in the Free Grant system may be purchased in other parts of the country at prices ranging from 5s. to 10s. an acre. In the suburban districts and the town lots, the value of the land is, of course, considerably greater.
WHAT CAN BE DONE WITH THE LAND.
Let us suppose that the new comer has selected his site of land; and this we would advise him to do from actual inspection; and we would recommend him to chose, if possible, a wooded plot near water or land carriage with Auckland, or some other of the larger outlets of the province. Having made his choice, we will give him the following useful hints, taken from a trustworthy source; --
If a carpenter, or can handle tools, put together a frame of a cottage 24 by 12, studs and rafters 3 by 2: sashes and door you can buy ready made; and get at once on your land. You may be able to get a house of the same dimensions erected by natives, but generally speaking the man who can handle tools will find the other the best plan. I would by all means recommend new arrivals, if possible, settling in communities; they can thus help and cheer each other on.
Purchase or lay by, first, for twelve months provisions at once, then two good English or half-bred sows in pig, and if in your power two heifers in calf; avoid cows, even if in milk; few cows are sold unless for some defect; while with heifers, hand-fed, of which there are plenty, you will have little trouble and most likely have kindly beasts.
You will now have expended--
One year's rations
£15 0 0
2,000 feet timber, doors, sashes, and nails
17 0 0
Expenses of removal
5 0 0
2 sows, each 40s.
4 0 0
2 heifers, each 7l. 10s.
15 0 0
£56 0 0
Having housed yourself, let you first effort be to provide a good warm sty for your sows. They will get their own living, and what little refuse you have will, with a good bed, make them attached to home, and they will prove of more value to you the two first years than two cows.
Go over your section select the best piece of land, then lay your section down on paper, plan it out as simply as possible, and lay your selected spot 5 chains square, 2 1/2 acres, for your first year's operations; do not attempt more, less cannot be advantageously fenced; let this include your garden for the present; fence it pig-proof. I would suggest a ditch 3 feet wide, 2 deep, with a brush fence upon the bank; this, if well done, will be secure against pigs or cattle two or three years. Sow furze seed inside your brush fence, and with a little care and trimming you will soon have a substantially-fenced piece of land.
If your land is open and you can get it ploughed, do so in dry weather; if unable, or it is wood or heavy brush land, you must go to work with spade or hoe.
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Bear in mind your first crop is very precarious, and by all means, if to be got, do not attempt to sow or plant anything without a dressing of Peruvian guano, even if you spend your last pound for it; in a first season, on which so much depends, its value cannot be overrated.
If you have bush land, cut down and burn upon the land all you can; it is not so much the ashes as the ground is benefited by the action of fire.
Do not plant anything until your land is in suitable order, lay it as dry as possible, and get your potatoes in in August or September.
Above all, avoid attempting too much the first season; let whatever you do be done in the very best manner, so as to insure a crop; the mistake of many a new comer is to take too much in hand, and then fail from inexperience or some mishap. Do not lay out one shilling on labour in cultivation the first year (unless in ploughing). If you have any spare means, lay it out in stock. Do what you can with your own hands without outlay.
I will now suppose you settled on your land. A few months will supply you with abundance of vegetables, your sows will have pigged; when their time is nearly up get them home and shut them up till they have farrowed, for if allowed at this time to go to the bush, you will lose them altogether; boil them any wash and green stuff you have, and if you have a bag of sharps so much the better. You may in two days turn out sow and pigs; they will again provide for themselves, and the young pigs will keep fat, and if within reach of a market, some of them may soon be sold off; but it is preferable to retain them until 12 months' old, when on bush food they will weigh 100 lbs. nett, and be worth 25s. each. Each sow will with care produce nearly two litters in the year. You will thus perceive the great value of the pig to the new settler.
Remember that until after the first year or two your farm is not likely of itself, or without expending much labour, to produce you a living. It is no use deceiving yourself, or allowing anybody else to deceive you. The land will not give you a living for two or three years, and the selling anything off the farm during the first year is a thorough fallacy. If you have not, therefore, any capital to live upon at first, you must labour for others part of your time, as nearly all have done before you. And although my account may appear somewhat discouraging, think, is it no encouragement, after two or three years' labour, to find that you have your own little farm and 40 acres, which will actually give you a living, and an independent one too, without harassment and vexation; whereas at home, in all probability, you never would have possessed a single acre of land of your own, if you lived 100 years and laboured as hard as a nigger.
It may be desirable in the settler who has a somewhat larger capital, and more extensive farm, to turn his attention to the production of wool; and here we could give several examples to show the profit which may be realised from this source. The New Zealander, on this point, says:--
"There is a small farmer--tenant of one of the most enterprising sheep farmers--living within a few miles of Auckland. As he has to pay rent, he is naturally anxious to make the most he can from off his land, He has therefore turned his attention to sheep farming in paddocks, though he boasts but a small flock--say under 500. This year's shearing gave him 1,100 lbs. as the lowest nett yield per 100 sheep, and the money result, at 1s. per lb., £55 per 100 sheep. Hence this tenant-farmer naturally concludes that sheep farming on a small scale is not to be despised; and if his flock goes on increasing, as it has hitherto done, he has a fair prospect of growing up by degrees into the large sheep farmer and bona-fide capitalist. We use this last phrase advisedly, for we have a strong suspicion, based on something like reliable evidence, that it is not always those who talk most loudly of their capital who have the largest available balance to their credit at the bank.
"Another perverse man, who is not yet a capitalist and who has to be contented with a very diminutive run, has a very small flock. When we last heard of it the total number did not exceed 50. His profits from this very small lot, however, were not proportionately small. The ewes lambed in the
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last week of July, 1858, and the lambs were sold to the butcher for killing, in the commencement of November, at 25s each. From his wool, estimating the yield by the other small sheep-farmer's stock taking, he would receive some £25; so that from this very small flock, which would not require more than two moderate paddocks to keep them, this small farmer makes about £1 a head per annum, and has his original capital increased one-third."
VALUE OF A FREE GRANT OF LAND.
On the subject of these free grants of land, the following letter from one who availed himself of them will be read with interest. --
"Auckland, New Zealand, Oct. 24, 1859.
"Dear Sirs, --I arrived here in the Matoaka, on the 24th of September, after a pleasant passage of 106 days, calling at Wellington, which lost about 10 days.
"I lost no time in having my land orders endorsed, and found an allotment of land at the mouth of the Wangurei River, 50 miles north of this city, to be disposed of, applicable to land orders, and to be allotted on the following Monday, Oct. 3. There was just time to make the necessary inquiries, and, having got a satisfactory account of it, I put in my claim, and, after some slight competition, was put in possession of 339 acres of good tall fern land upon the eighth day after setting my foot in the country. It is, as I said before, 50 miles from this by sea, three trading schooners constantly running on the line, which put their passengers and goods on the beach within three miles of the land I have selected. There are roads marked out, but as yet only a cattle track to it. There is a frontage of over a mile to a river navigable for boats, and running into the sea about 10 miles north of the Wangurei River. On the other side it is bounded by a road to be made by the provincial authorities.
"The quality of the soil is good, as tall fern will not grow on inferior; there are 20 or 30 acres of wood, and perhaps 20 or 30 of natural grass. My two sons are now on the spot with oxen, plough, and other implements to break up and fence, the greater part of which I expect to get done by contract. The neighbourhood is well settled, and in a few years I hope to have it in good productive order.
"The system of preferring the purchaser by auction, where more than one claim the same land, is much complained of; but I see no other mode of fairly settling their claims. The lots brought from 4s. to 5s. per acre in advance, which is paid in cash, and the unsuccessful party has only to apply for some other parcel, as the Government warrant 40 acres for each of land, worth at least 10s.; mine was laid off in five lots. I overbid competitors, and got the whole in one compact farm. By the old system of lottery I could not have got every one, and would have only got two or three disjointed lots of 50 to 70 acres each, and, probably, obliged to take the balance in another locality.
"I give you these particulars at the suggestion of my old friend Mr. Lusk, the immigration officer, as it may satisfy parties proceeding on the same route. I have met with several who neglected taking land orders in England, and have been disappointed here, land being as yet refused them.
"A Mr. Ball, who came out in the same ship with me with a special settlement party of 150, got 10,000 acres set apart, for him at Mongouni, distant 150 miles by sea, with which he declares himself satisfied, and has sailed to enter into possession.
"I shall be glad if this letter serves to encourage others to come to this magnificent climate. Everything in nature is most beautiful. I am told about seven tons of peaches fell from the trees on my grounds last year for the wild pigs to consume, and that some of the trees are large, one in particular took five men to span it.
"Emigrants should arrive here between October and June, after the winter is over. All those in the Matoaka who were willing to work got employment at once at full rates--from 6s. to 10s. a day for men, and 5s. to 8s. and 10s, per week for female servants, and found.
"I am, dear Sirs, your obedient servant,
"Messrs. Ridgway and Sons, London."
A LIVELY PICTURE.
A settler, who had just arrived in Auckland, writes, --"A few weeks since I received a pressing invitation to spend a short time with some farmer friends here, and greatly enjoyed the trip, and heartily wished some of my English
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acquaintances were with me, for assuredly they would have been delighted with the beauty of the place; hill and dale vicing with each other to lend enchantment to the spot. My life is very different now, and contrasts wonderfully with my former habits. Arrayed in blue guernsey and heavy boots, I turned out the other day for a ride to what is called, in auctioneer's language, 'the delightful village of Howick,' for the purpose of fetching posts and rails to fence in the farm--not such posts and rails as you have in the old country, but tall sticks and all sorts of shapes. After this trip we all turned into the woods to cut firewood, and with my two friends made the place echo with the sound of our blades, a glorious sun now and then peeping through the tops of the tall tress, adding greatly to the beauty and variety of the foliage. Otahuhu is a lively spot; before you lies the sea, and a barrier of blue mountains only hides the great Pacific from view; on all sides are lovely valleys and mountains, all coming into cultivation under the energetical hands of the Saxons. The stores here are a good school for business habits. In walk some great Maories, to purchase soap, candles, tobacco, &c., and then they turn to the other side of the shop, to purchase calico, prints, &c.; or a settler arrives to invest a little cash in pork, beef, spades, forks, buckets, and what not. Since I left the shores of old England, I have learnt to lie on hard beds, and harder pillows, to work with a will and pleasure never before enjoyed. I will write you again from time to time, and endeavour to give a few sketches of life in this new land of the Saxon, --a country destined to become one of the most valuable in the Southern Seas."
RATE OF WAGES.
But the artizan who knows nothing about farming, or the agricultural labourer who has not capital sufficient to commence operations at once upon his land, what is he to do while the one obtains experience and knowledge, and the other saves up a little capital? For both of these classes there is abundant work in the colony. "The new comer," says a local authority, "has but to ascend any of the eminences surrounding the city, and to glance at the evidences of progress and improvement visible on every side--he has but to walk through our streets and mark the substantial edifices springing up in all directions, or stroll along the noble pier, now stretching out more than a thousand feet into our harbour, and note the number and size of our own coasting and interprovincial and colonial shipping, --and he will at once see that the young country which can support all this reproductive outlay, and furnish all this employment for labour, as well as capital, must be a good place for the industrious and economical immigrant. He may experience some delays and crosses in setting to work as he would wish; but these will be no worse than the obstacles he has had to contend against at home, and which induced him to leave that home; and if they are only contended against in the right spirit, he will soon find them vanishing before well-directed energy and a cheerful heart."
The current rates of wages at Auckland are:-- Bakers, from 20s. to 30s. per week, with board and lodging; bricklayers, 10s. to 12s. per day; blacksmiths, if able to shoe, &c., and do all sorts of country work, 8s. to 9s. per day; carpenters (house), joiners, wheelwrights, &c., from 8s. to 10s. per day; farm servants (single), from £26 to £40 per annum, with board and lodging; ditto (married couples), £50 per annum; glaziers and painters, 8s. to 10s. per day; female (domestic) servants, from £20 to, £30 per annum; labourers (in town), 5s. per day; ditto (in country), 4s. per day; masons, 10s. to 12s. per day; sawyers, 8s. to 10s. per 100 superficial feet; shoemakers earn on an average about 7s. 6d. per day; tinsmiths and plumbers, 9s. to 10s. per day. Working men in town work only eight hours per day. Clearing forest land is usually done by contract; cutting down all the undergrowth and all trees not exceeding three feet in diameter, is generally contracted for at from 37s. 6d. to 40s. per acre: heavily timbered land--cutting down all trees not exceeding four feet in diameter--40s. to 45s. per acre; or cutting all down, 50s. per acre. A man accustomed to such work can fall at least one acre per week. Fern land about
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8s. per acre. Good ploughmen and married couples fit to manage a dairy are in demand. Young lads belonging to families about to emigrate should learn to milk.
COST OF PROVISIONS.
The value of the rate of wages must, of course, depend to a great extent upon the cost of the principal necessaries of life, and the following statement upon this subject will enable the intelligent workman to form an estimate of the nature of the prospects which Auckland holds out to him.
Beef and pork, 6d. to 7d.; mutton, 7d. to 8d.; bacon, 8d. to 1s.; butter, fresh, 1s. 6d.; salt, 1s. 3d. per lb.; bread, 5d. the 21b. loaf; cheese, colonial, 1s. 3d.; English, 1s. 6d.; candles, moulds, 9d. to 10d; ditto Belmont, composite, 1s. 7d. to 1s. 8d.; coffee, ground, 1s. 4d. per lb.; firewood, 8s. to 10s. per ton of 40 cubic feet, on the beach; flour, first quality, 30s. per 100 lbs.; milk, fresh, 5d. to 6d. per quart; oatmeal, 4d. per lb.; lamp oil, 4s. 6d. to 7s. 6d. per gallon; potatoes, 5s. 6d. to 6s. per cwt.; rice, 2d. to 6d.; soap, 6d.; sugar 4d. to 7d.; tobacco, 3s. 6d. to 4s. 6d.; tea, 2s. 6d. to 3s. per lb.; wheat, 8s.
HOW TO GET TO AUCKLAND.
Upon this point there is no difficulty with respect to obtaining the fullest and most ample information from the authorised agents of the government of Auckland in this country. The advertisements in the pages of the Australian and New Zealand Gazette, as well as those in this work, afford abundant information respecting the vessels which sail between London and New Zealand, It is no part of our duty to recommend the ships of any particular owner, as is too often the case in guide-books for emigrants. The intending emigrant cannot do wrong if he selects any of the vessels belonging to well-established and respectable firms. The voyages made to Auckland average from 85 to 101 days. The best vessels on the lines are fitted up with every possible regard to the convenience and comfort of the passengers, and in the case of emigrant ships they are always thoroughly inspected by officers sent down from the emigration companies before they are allowed to start. The cost of the passage, including all provisions on the voyage, is generally for the chief cabin, two persons in the same cabin £40 each, one person occupying the whole cabin £60. The second cabin fare is, for enclosed cabin £25; separate cabin for married couples £18, steerage, with open berths for single men £16; children under 12 years of age pay one-half passage money, and for children under one year no charge is made. Some idea of the provisions supplied, and the mode of living on board these ships may be learned from the following plan, which with but little variation is adopted by all ships in the voyage to Auckland.
Nine o'clock, BREAKFAST. --Tea and coffee. Hot rolls or toast with butter and marmalade. One or two dishes of mutton or pork chops; or one or two joints of cold meat, and potatoe fritters.
Twelve o'clock, LUNCH. --Ham, tongue, cold beef or mutton, and sardines, with bread, butter, and cheese.
Four o'clock, DINNER (party consisting of twelve). --First course:-- Mock-turtle, or gravy, or pea-soup, with the addition of preserved salmon three days a week. Second course:-- Frequently fowls or ducks, with two joints of fresh meat and vegetables; or one joint and a pie, hash, or curry. Third course:-- Puddings, pies, or tarts, butter and cheese; and then a dessert of figs, nuts, almonds, and raisins.
Seven o'clock, TEA. --Tea and coffee. Hot cakes and toast, with ham, tongue, or cold sliced meat.
The regulations with respect to passengers are,
Chief Cabin Passengers provide their own bed places, bedding, and fittings for their private cabins; --but the owners of the ship provide everything requisite for the table, such as plate, linen, glass, attendants, &c.
Intermediate and Steerage Passengers have comfortable berths built for them in their respective compartments of the ship, and find their own bedding and any extra cabin fittings which they may require. They must
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also provide themselves with at least the following table utensils; knives and forks, one or two deep metal plates and dishes, spoons, a hook tea-pot, cups and saucers, or metal drinking vessels, and a water can. The provisions are daily prepared by the cooks of the ship; but Intermediate as well as Steerage Passengers make their own arrangements for messing.
Steerage Outfit. --Beds, or good new mattresses (the latter are preferable) should be of these dimensions:-- men's, 6 feet by 20 inches; women's, 5 feet by 18 inches; married couples', 6 feet by 36 inches. Two pillows, two blankets, four sheets, and one counterpane should be provided for every bed; and the following is the least amount of clothing which Steerage Passengers will find necessary:
FOR MEN. --6 shirts; 6 pairs socks or stockings (half worsted); 2 warm flannel or Guernsey shirts; 2 pair good stout shoes; 2 complete suits of outer clothing; 1 Scotch cap, and a southwester or good felt hat.
FOR WOMEN. --6 shifts; 6 pairs stockings (half worsted); 2 good flannel petticoats; 2 pairs strong shoes; 2 strong gowns, one to be warm; 1 good warm shawl, or a warm cloak made with a hood.
FOR CHILDREN. --7 shirts or shifts; four flannel waistcoats; 1 warm cloak, or outside coat; 6 pairs stockings; 2 pairs strong shoes; 2 suits of outer clothing.
A brush and comb, 4 towels, 4 lbs. marine soap, and a canvas clothes-bag, for each steerage adult. The outfit is subject to examination by the Government Officer at the port of embarkation, and no passenger is permitted to embark who has not made a sufficient provision for health and comfort.
Liquors. --Wines, beer, &c., of good quality, are provided at the following prices: Port and sherry, 4s.; ale and porter, 1s.; spirits, 3s.; brandy, 5s. per bottle; but, for the strict preservation of order in the ship, the quantity so supplied will be under the regulation of the commander. No private supply allowed to be taken into the cabins.
Passengers' Luggage. --Chief Cabin and Intermediate Passengers carry half a ton, and Steerage Passengers a quarter of a ton measurement of luggage in the hold, besides such effects as they can properly take in their private cabins free of charge. A ton by measurement would be contained in a case 4 feet long, 3 1/4 broad by 3 feet deep.
AUCKLAND A FIT PLACE FOR COLONISTS.
We close our remarks by some reasons assigned by "Uncle John," -- a high authority in Auckland--why the country to which we have directed attention is a good one.
Because during the shortest days, men can work from seven in the morning till five in the evening by the genial light of Heaven.
Because during twelve months in the year men can cultivate the soil, neither oppressed by the heat of summer nor prohibited by the frosts of winter.
Because during the twelve months the soil will yield its fruits for the food of man and beast--neither scorched by the sun, nor buried in the snow.
Because in New Zealand, according to the Governmental returns, the sickness and mortality among Britons is less by ten per cent, than in any other British military station in the world.
Because in New Zealand a man with small capital can easily obtain a good farm, a comfortable homestead, and be contented and independent for the remainder of his life.
Because the industrious man and woman can obtain a maintenance and save a surplus, without becoming the slaves of their masters.
Because both the climate and productions of the country are so adapted to the constitution of Anglo-Saxons, that their posterity are not likely to deteriorate physically and mentally, but to retain their characteristic powers in full vigour and lasting development.
LONDON: ADAMS AND GEE, PRINTERS, MIDDLE STREET, WEST SMITHFIELD, E.C.